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Integrated Design as a

foundation for Estidama:


Abu Dhabi
January, 2009

Reflect
Think of the best moments when
everything clicked - a time when you were
working with others on a project (or another
experience)
What key elements / aspects made this
successful?

Sustainable Step New England, Paul Lipke

Reflect
Now think of a project you are currently
involved with.
How many of these criteria are present?
Which ones can you achieve?
Which ones are not going to happen?
What can you add to the process to help?
What expectations may need to be shifted?

Sustainable Step New England, Paul Lipke

The Elements
(not necessarily an Agenda)
- Defining Green
- Systems and Synergy
- Cost / Benefits
- Roadmap for an integrative process
- Elements for Success
- Principle based thinking (its not the Points)

Our current lifestyle is unsustainable


life sustaining
natural resources

the problem
global ecosystem capacity exceeded

productive surfaces
(forest, agriculture,
sea etc.)
biodiversity
(natures control
system)
receptive capacity
(cyclic - breakdown
waste)

Ecosystem ability to
provide

Human needs
and demands

The Natural Step

1985

1995

2005

2050

time

a pathology of sustainability
But these solutions do not
provide a full solution
Ecosystem ability to
provide

bio recovery

Ecospecifer

The Natural Step

Human needs
and demands

reduce, re-use, recycle, dematerialise,


climate change neutral, water &
energy efficiency, deconsumerism,
closed loop material cycles,

a pathology of sustainability
wellness +

bio recovery
wellness -

treatment of symptoms
Recycle
Reuse
Reduce

a pathology of sustainability
wellness +

restorative sustainability

full recovery
bio recovery
wellness -

reductive sustainability

restorative sustainability: the whole


solution
net positive initiatives to support natural

systems e.g. reduce greenhouse, clean air,


water, create healthy soil, restore
ecosystems, heat islands, biodiversity,
improve health & equity, etc

bio recovery

The Natural Step

Ecospecifier

reduce, re-use, recycle, dematerialise,


climate neutral, water & energy
efficiency, de-consumerism, closed
loop material cycles,

A High Performance Liver?

An object seen
in isolation from the whole
is not the real thing
Masanobu Fukuoka

When we try to pick out anything by itself,


we find it hitched to everything
else in the Universe.
John Muir

Natural Systems as Our Model

From Permaculture Designers Manual, Bill Mollison

Greening of the Desert

Systems
Elements
Interconnections

Systems
Elements
Interconnections
Purpose (a conscious or purposeful role)

Green Design?
Design and Construction practices that
Significantly reduce or eliminate the negative
impact of building(s) on the environment
and occupants

OR
Design, Construction, and Operation practices
that
Support and improve the health of the systems
that sustain life

Integrative design process


Integrative design is a process of design in
which multiple disciplines and seemingly
unrelated aspects of design are integrated
in a manner that permits synergistic
benefits to be realized.

integrateddesignstrategy
Seek Synergy

Synergy=$avings

integrative design strategy


Back-casting Design Processes
to ensure non-impact, cyclical
and de-materialised outcomes
Solution:

Develop
Sustainable
project vision

Develop or support new


technologies
Apply innovative
technologies

Use Solar thermal cogeneration


Absorption chillers
with district cooling

Business as
Usual
Ecospecifier 2008

Problem:
Linear Take, Make &
Maintain process

Better Solutions:
Kendalls Cove
Developer budgeted for Electric hot water. No gas planned on site
Development Control Plan called for Energy Efficient hot water.
Early Council discussions indicated no approval until satisfactory
specification provided.

Challenge:
Deliver Solar or Gas Hot water without budget impact
Integrated Design Process Solution
IDP identified $300k savings (net $100k) by avoiding need for substation upgrade if gas introduced to whole site including cooking and
hot water.

Cost / Benefits

green rated building: benefits


US Green Building Council documented benefits :
Offices:
2-16% increase in productivity
Schools:
show 40% less respiratory problems &
20% better test results
28% better reading results
Retail:
7-14% increase in sales
e.g. Starbucks, Lowes, Home Depot

green rated building: benefits


Nakheel Market Research
Over 400 residents from Abu Dhabi, Dubai and Sharjah:
Half of buyers would now choose a property based on its
environmental friendliness.
"In the past, quality has been one of the most important
factors for potential customers. This is the first time
we've seen environmental concerns come through this
strongly.
Matt Joyce, Managing Director of Waterfront Nakheel

green rated building: benefits


most green buildings cost less than 4
percent more than conventional buildings,
with the greatest concentration of premiums
in the 0 percent to 1 percent range
Katz, G. 2008 Buildings and Communities: Costs and Benefits

green rated building: benefits


With the real estate industry being one of the largest contributors
to carbon emissions, if sustainability is neglected because of the
financial movements that are happening now, then we would be
seriously jeopardising future financial returns in the industry,
During downturns, issues such as sustainability become more
important, particularly as home buyers have the ability to be more
discerning in a weaker market. They are looking for greater quality.
Gurjit Singh, the chief property development officer
Sorouh Real Estate in Abu Dhabi
The National Newspaper

USGBC documented Green Building benefits:

sustainable project benefits


Offices:
Energy/
Greenhouse
savings

LEED
cer?ed
LEEDGold
&
Pla?num

Rent
Increasein Sales
premium, occupancy premium,
persq.8. rates
persq.8.

2530%*
Approx
50%

US$11.24

3.8%

US$171

*2530%forallLEEDbuildings,includingcerAed,silver,goldandplaAnumgrades.ForgoldandplaAnum,thesavingsapproach
50%.SourceofInformaAon:www.usgbc.org/News/USGBCInTheNewsDetails.aspx?ID=3648

Ecospecifier 2008

Stuff
$1.5 K
$2 K
- $3.5 K
$$$

-$2 K
$1 K

- $4 K
$1 K

Less than conventional


yet 60% more energy
savings

Tunneling through the Cost Barrier

Evidence from Emory University


(adapted from Nigel Howards Cost of Green presentation)

100% CDs

Budget

LEED Points

The Cliffs

707 Acres

707 Acres

850 units

1,350 units

210 Natural Open Space (29%)

356 Natural Open Space (53%)

1.2 UPA True Gross

1.9 UPA True Gross

1.9 UPA Gross

3.8 UPA Gross

The Cliffs

850 units

1,350 units

90,290 LF of roadway

73,260 LF of roadway

106 Average Frontage

54 Average Frontage

~$27m in roadway/ utility costs

~$21m in roadway/ utility costs

$31,750 per lot road/ utility cost

$15,500 per lot road/ utility cost

$400,000 - $800,000 price points

$180,000 $1m price points

Case Study Example:


Systems Impacts on Other Systems
How does your interior paint color selection affect HVAC system costs?
Connections:
Paint
Lighting
HVAC Sizing for cooling

Coefficients of Utilization PRU-9-A-04-2T8-SC-YMW-S-120


Floor
effective floor cavity reflectance = .20
Ceiling

80

70

Wall

70 50 30 10

70 50 30 10

50 30 10

RCR 0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

.72 .72 .72 .72


.66 .62 .60 .57
.60 .54 .50 .47
.54 .48 .43 .39
.49 .42 .37 .32
.45 .37 .32 .27
.41 .33 .28 .24
.38 .30 .24 .20
.35 .27 .21 .18
.33 .24 .19 .15
.30 .22 .17 .14

.62 .62 .62 .62


.56 .54 .52 .50
.51 .47 .43 .41
.46 .41 .37 .34
.42 .36 .32 .28
.39 .32 .28 .24
.35 .29 .24 .21
.33 .26 .21 .18
.30 .23 .19 .16
.28 .21 .17 .14
.26 .19 .15 .12

.43 .43 .43


.37 .36 .35
.33 .31 .29
.29 .26 .24
.25 .22 .20
.23 .20 .17
.20 .17 .15
.18 .15 .13
.16 .13 .11
.15 .12 .10
.13 .11 .09

# of light fixtures = footcandles x area


lumens x LLF x CU

(by 7 Group)

50

= 25% Reduction

First Costs
Financing / Legal
/ Insurance
22%
Construction
Cost
54%

A&E Fees
6%
Furnishings
8%
Land
10%

Life Cycle Costs


Construction
15%
Operating
18%
Maintenance
15%

Renovations
20%
Financing / Legal
/ Insurance
15%
Taxes
17%

Life Cycle - Productivity


Office Costs - $/sf

Roadmap for an integrative process

Whos the designer . . . ?


Manufacturers
Contractors
Mechanical Engineers
Lighting Designers
Electrical Engineers
Construction Managers
Facility Managers
Commissioning Agents
Clients
Architects

Interior Designers
Building/Project Users
Government agencies
Community members
Bankers
Landscape Architects
Civil Engineers
Planners
Environmentalists
Lawyers

Conventional team structures , however, particularly


when combined with a fixed fee, could result in
specialists being called in only when perceived as
necessary by the team leader - often 'at arms length'
and on a limited basis.
Sub-optimal results could thus occur when project
managers or architects did not recognise a problem
until too late, or when designs or specifications were
amended by non-specialists without recognising the
likely knock-on effects.
Myer, Andrew (2000), Environmental Design Review of the
Olympic Facilities, Green Games Watch.

Client

Architect

Builder

CONVENTIONAL BUILDING
TEAM
THE CHAMPION MODEL
(Linear Process / Industrial Age Thinking)

IDP Better Solutions:


Designing the Future

Design Team

Client /
Client Rep

Design Team

The Sustainability Screen


the sieve through which all decisions are passed

Decision Maker
Staff Reps.

Property Broker

Structural Eng.

Facilities Mngmt.

Client

Commissioning Agent

Structural Sub.
Civil Sub.

Planner

Mech Sub.

Habitat Spec.
M.E.P. Eng.

Millwork

Energy Modeler
Landscape Arch.
Waste Specialist

Finish Subs.
Electrical Sub.
And so on . . .

IDP Team Organization


Designing the Future

Source: Roadmap for the Integrated Design Process, BC Green Building Roundtable

IDP Team Involvement


Designing the Future

Source: Roadmap for the Integrated Design Process, BC Green Building Roundtable

Integrative Design Process

All Hands
Meetings

Materials
Water / Habitat
Energy
Indoor Envir Qlty
$: budget

M
W/H
E
IEQ
$

Prelim

DD

SD

CD

B&N

Constr & Maint

VE

Linear Design Process

Prelim

SD

DD

CD
VE

B&N B&N B&N Constr.


VE

VE

Integrative Design Process


Joint decision-making and problem-solving (not
just individual assignments that are later integrated
into a whole);

W/H

W/H

E
IEQ
Meeting Date: 12/15/04
Issues:

Meeting Date: 01/505


Issues:

Meeting Date: 01/26/05


Issues:

Attendees:

Attendees:

Attendees:

Resolved:

Resolved:

Resolved:

Issues remaining:

Issues remaining:

Issues remaining:

LCC:

LCC:

LCC:

Assignments:

Assignments:

Assignments:

Reflect
Write the Story of your current design
process
Some issues to address:
Levels of collaboration
Issues iteratively addressed
Meaningful outcomes
Personal satisfaction

Elements of Success

by Bill Reed and Barbra Batshalom


Adapted from Donella Meadows, Places to Intervene in a System

1. Encourage Cross Fertilization

Check egos at the door To design ecosystems we


need to deal with ego-systems (Franklin)
All team members should see themselves as codesigners cooperating for a shared vision.
Co-learners not experts

2. Establish a shared project vision.


Determine project purpose
Set specific must do goals and aspirational stretch
goals
Use a backcasting process to determine goals
Ask what are the forces and relationships that made the
place as it is today? What has degraded it and what
keeps it healthy? typically only a few key systems
Align human activities with living systems

3. Involve the whole team.

Involve all members of the design team


Including the client and,
In particular, the financial decision-maker from the
clients team.
Everyone brings different pieces of the puzzle to the
table.

4. Engage in a Discovery Process before conceptual


design begins.

Key issues need to be understood in order that the


design is informed by the way nature and the
community works
Understand form generators: Energy (incl. ventilation),
Water, Living Systems, and Materials

5. Seek Synergy.
Synergy - the sum of the parts is greater than the whole

whole systems thinking is essential


SYNERGY =$AVINGS
Think outside traditional consultant silos
Identify high performance individual system components
each may cost more
Overall costs can be lowered because the resultant
whole system can be designed smaller
Use Learning Wheel, dialogue and alignment

6. Tunnel through the cost barrier


Dont make half-hearted attempts at integrating

sustainable concepts.
Cost sustainability initiatives fully
Use whole-building as well as whole-site modeling
e.g. energy and water balance models to test scenarios
and optimize progressively- test early, test often
Use systems thinking to look at different options and
think of unorthodox solutions
Break past and outdated assumptions

7. Engage experts early


Engage and listen to people with key expertise who
know the value of:
synergy and sustainability
are educated, enthusiastic,
experienced and competent managers of risk
Competent consultants, used early can save
tremendous costs by identifying problems before it is too
late to deal with them.

8. Involve an experienced sustainability


facilitator

Involved from the outset


Managing the integrated design process
Consulted on all major decisions
Taking central role in identifying and achieving the
project vision, purpose, goals and stretch goals
Identify subject champions to hold core values

9. Manage risk rather than avoid it

Synergy often generates innovation and major whole project cost benefits worth the risk
Being overly-cautious often results in lack of innovation
- no synergy = no savings
Experienced project and construction managers
manage or externalize risk (e.g. indemnities,
insurance, sharing etc)
Result makes high performance green buildings a low
or no cost option

10. Design from the Top down and Bottom up


Test concurrently at a variety of scales
Large scale contextual frameworks and studies of block,
site or building scale responses interactively, iteratively
e.g. develop transportation networks, green
infrastructure mosaics, etc while more detailed (i.e.
(site plan studies, density yield tests) are undertaken
What is learned at each scale informs the other resulting
in pragmatic, impactful and more cost effective
solutions.

11. Occupancy, Facilities Management and


Performance Feedback
Essential as a learning tool
Occupancy, Facilities Management and Performance
Feedback must be considered
Feedback is necessary to gauge whether project goals
were initially achieved
Ongoing monitoring allows fine-tuning to achieve higher
levels of performance and maintain performance over
the projects lifetime.

IDP Comparison with Conventional Process


Designing the Future

Source: Roadmap for the Integrated Design Process, BC Green Building Roundtable

ISDP Better Solutions:


Designing the Future

you know you are participating in an integrative


design process when
you are asked for your input on a wide range of
issues including those outside of your immediate area
of expertise or purview.

a number of project team members are pushed out of


their comfort zone (they either find this exciting and
invigorating, or initially terrifying and disturbing!)

there is a shared understanding of project goals that


result from collaborative working session(s).
Source: GreenRoundtable, Boston, MA

ISDP Better Solutions:


Designing the Future

the expectations of your work are clearly defined and


sufficiently detailed the results have targeted,
quantified performance goals.

other peoples work depends on yours, since no ones


efforts are completely independent; rather, tasks are
interdependent - you cant just go off and hide in a
corner, then push through your deliverables.
Stakeholders need to co-solve problems.

you feel that group interactions inspire creativity working sessions are more fun.

Source: GreenRoundtable, Boston, MA

ISDP Better Solutions:


Designing the Future

you feel more respected and valued than in a

traditional project, and you feel obligated to respond in


kind you sense a higher level of morale and
alignment with the core values expressed by the group,
resulting in an expanded degree of pride in the
outcome.

there is a focus and emphasis on process itself,

including an early collaborative goal-setting session


attended by all team members (no later than schematic
design) to establish a shared understanding of project
targets and priorities.

Source: GreenRoundtable, Boston, MA

ISDP Better Solutions:


Designing the Future

the process is mapped clearly stakeholders actually


spend time planning how problems will be solved
together, with decisions made in a transparent way
this defined map is incorporated into main project
schedule.

innovative solutions that challenge rules-of-thumb


are encouraged (innovation doesnt mean high tech or
risky strategies).

decision makers (client) and an expanded array of


stakeholders are involved in a significant way.
Source: GreenRoundtable, Boston, MA

ISDP Better Solutions:


Designing the Future

the project embraces issues not usually considered in


the typical design process such as the health of the
watershed, the regional ecology, and the community
by engaging an ongoing process of discovery that
identifies what contributes to the health of the projects
context or place.

you feel a greater sense of ownership in the entirety


(or whole), rather than in individual aspects or
components.

there is dialogue and debate surrounding design


decisions, leading to a higher level of buy-in and
consensus among the team.

Source: GreenRoundtable, Boston, MA

2
S(EE) Rs
Synergy (drivers), Educated (in
Sustainability), Enthusiastic,
Expertise, Experience & Risk
Managers (not avoiders).

The S Factor -Synergy


Integrated design teams with a high S
Factor lead to buildings with outcomes
where 1+1=4

The sum of the parts is more


than the whole

The E Factors
Education and Enthusiasm
An equal, high level of ESD education creates
maximum synergy
Enthusiasm means the team members are likely to:
go the extra mile,
search for synthesis not just do analysis i.e.
be more creative
be more willing to innovative
be co-learners and exercise humility
care more about the future

The E Factors (Contd)


Experience & Expertise
The knowledge, expert performance and confidence
to successfully find synergies and explore
unconventional options
Staff continuity, availability and real project outcomes:
Do the proposed project team members really have
the experience?

The R Factor
Risk Managers
Design team must be innovative specifiers, competent
risk assessors and managers:
Progress in sustainability necessitates use of new
and innovative technologies
Innovative technology can be implemented with
appropriate risk management strategies
Significant cost benefit can often result from
innovative integrated technology solutions

The way forward: innovate


InnovaAveTechnology:akeytool
Technology is a key part of the solutions
for sustainable development Innovation
and technology are tools for achieving
higher resource efficiency in society

Bjrn Stigson
President
World Business Council for Sustainable Development,
Geneva, 26 November 2004

The way forward: manage risk


KeyquesAons:
Isitrealorperceivedrisk?
Inwhosopinion?
Aretheyexpert?
Istherewardworthit?
Canitbemanaged?
Canitbeexternalised?
ThirdPartyCerAcaAonofmanufacturer
claimsalsoreducesrisk

Practice Advisories examples


Quantifying whole-system synergy offsets
Include the scope and nature of the Integrative Process in project
briefs

Make allowance for additional meetings, modeling, coordination, documentation


Use Part A and Part B contracts for fee accuracy

Include cost of Discovery Phase modeling and research in fees


(Pre-concept Phase)

Energy, Water, Habitat, Materials are significant form-drivers


Make fee allowance for this work in the Design Application / Zoning Approval phase

Dedicate experienced staff and project management to collect and


compile certification documentation

Different Construction Delivery scenarios require different liability


disclaimers and limitations

Modify contracts to notify significance of critical issues

Design and Builders will need to deal differently with substitution and
deletion practices.

The Three Es
Everybody
Early
Every Issue

Principle based thinking

opening up
REFLECTING

THINKING
CREATING
Iterations

What do we believe?
Whole systems processes
Mindset
Team Alignment
Goals specific
Sust. Principles Nat Cap/TNS

DOING
Coordinated Action

CONNECTING
Learning Wheel:
All-Hands
Meetings

What do we know?
Digestion
Catalysts
Inhibitors
Opportunities & Solutions
Brainstorm
Cross-link

DECIDING

winnowing
down

Barriers & Measures to overcome


Solutions Filtering / Business Cases

Learning Wheel concept from Peter Senges Fifth Discipline Field Book
Process Graphic by Alex Zimmerman and Anita Burke

Suggested Process Outline Diagram


Discovery
Pre-Design / Concept Design

Schematic Design

Design Development

CoVO

Front End

Construction Documents / Delivery

CoVO

Back End

All Team Mindset / Goal-Setting Workshop

Concept by Bill Reed


Graphic by Doug Pearce

All Team Workshops / Charrettes


All Team Coordination Meetings
Key Sub-Systems Breakout Workshops
Analysis / Research of Strategy or Piece

CoVO - Continuous Value Optimization

The Proposal Phase

Possible Part A and Part B proposals


Part A Proposal: Initial Goal-Setting Workshop only
Part B Proposal: After the Goal-Setting Workshop
- Confirm the right team members based upon expertise/goals
- Define scope, program, and sustainability objectives
- Scope and fees from all team members based on integration road map

Discovery
Pre-Design/Concept SD

DD

CD

The Discovery Phase Research & Analysis: Stage 1


(Pre-Design) PREPARATION RESEARCH

Preliminary Research to Prepare for the Goal-Setting Workshop (Workshop #1)

- Site Selection / Identify base ecological conditions and life processes


- Avoids a fact-free meeting
Identify base conditions: climate, habitat, water, history, etc.
Functional and Core programming
Preliminary analysis of flows: four key sub-systems
Identify key stakeholders

Discovery
Pre-Design/Concept SD

DD

CD

Key Sub-Systems - entry level thinking to the Whole


Efficiency Activities (Building Related)
Water:
Water quality and conservation, hydrology, soils

Energy:
Energy efficiency and sources, microclimates, building use

Materials:
Local material sources and waste opportunities

Restoration Activities (Building and Site Related)


Habitat:
Human, earth, and biotic systems

Regenerative Relationship with Place

(Bldg, Site, and Community and Watershed Related)

The Whole System of Inter-relationships


Essence and Pattern Understanding
(To achieve a Regenerative relationship with place)

Precepts of System Design


1.The whole system should be optimized expand the
system boundaries of the project
All relationships identified for optimal results
Dont value-engineer individual components

2. All measurable benefits should be counted


Downstream savings merit the greatest emphasis

3.The right steps should be taken at the right time and


in the right order.
Multiplying benefits

Water
1. Water budget should be equal to or less than rainfall
amount on site
2. Use less
3. No water should leave the site
4. Clean all water to potable standards before it leaves
the site
5. If, and before, water leaves the site cascade its
use to support all life (habitat and human)
6. Recharge ground water table (where possible)

Water Balance
This schematic water balance was
prepared for a mixed use development of
approximately 150 homes, in the arid
west. The water balance illustration shows
the quantity offlow through a development
incorporating residential dwellings, a
school, civic and commercial buildings,
and landscape. Captured rainwater and
treated effluent meet the landscape water
demand. This reduces the potable water
required by the development by 6.14
acre-feet, about 2 million gallons, per
year. The water balance diagram shows
that no captured rainwater or recycled
effluent is being used for flushing urinals
and water closets in the commercial and
civic buildings. However, the commercial
and civic buildings are dual-plumbed to
make this possible in the future. 15.8
acre-feet per year (5.15 million gallons) is
returned to the aquifer through a* *land
application system.* * This offsets the
long-term demand on the aquifer, creating
a more sustainable water profile for the
development.

Habitat (human, earth, and biotic systems)

Respect and understand local ecological systems and


social systems (essence, relationships, patterns)

All human activities should partner with living systems


in mutually beneficial relationship.

Feedback is essential to continuously carry on this


relationship.

Materials
1. Use less
2. Use materials that are:
- abundant;
- natural;
- do not destroy human and earth systems in
their extraction, manufacture, and disposal.
- this generally means: locally sourced,
recyclable, non-toxic, low embodied energy

Energy
1. Create less demand insulation, use patterns,
reduced loads, etc
2. Use available site energies sources and sinks sun,
wind, earth-coupling, diurnal cycles
3. Increase efficiency of whats left equipment,
appliances, diversity factors, parasitic losses, part-load
performance, etc.

Designing the Integrative Process Critical Issues


- Co-Learning through Dialogue Reflection
Aligning Values / Purpose / Goals

- Team member composition


- Evaluate Critical and Form Shaping Issues
Water, Habitat, and Energy

- Design the Integration Process


Optimizing systems Core Team work

- Cost integration
- Feedback
Core Team

Discovery Phase Research & Analysis: Stage 2


(Pre-Design) EVALUATING STRATEGIES - FIRST CUT

Develop Part B proposal


Sub-System Analysis Example
Explore a wide range of opportunities & possible
strategies before collapsing into solutions
Simple Box Energy Modeling:

Expand analysis of four key sub-systems


Build cost bundling template
Analyze design concepts against performance
targets Begin Cx OPR (Narrative!)

- test configuration options


(simple shapes and # of floors)
- test window options
- test solar shading strategies
- test other envelope load reductions
- test initial internal load options

Re-visit project scope and fees

Discovery
Pre-Design/Concept SD

DD

CD

Discovery Phase - Workshop #2: Conceptual Design Charrette


(Pre-Design) CONCEPTUAL DESIGN EXPLORATION

Assess the refined analysis of four key sub-systems


Review integrative cost bundling studies in progress
Evaluate project program in light of above
Generate conceptual site design solutions & building design concepts
Confirm alignment with Core Purpose, Values & Aspirations, LEED targets
Review Commissioning OPR

Discovery
Leverage Points (Keystone)
add side-bars
Examples to be developed

Pre-Design/Concept SD

DD

CD

Conceptual Design Charrette


one among a system of charrettes and meetings

Cost Estimating Structure - Initial / Life Cycle Cost


Base Sch Design Est

Integ. Bundle #1 Est

Integ. Bundle #2 Est

$$

MEP/Comfort Systems
Interior/Bldg./Site Config.

$$

$$$

_______

_________

Total First Cost ($)

$$

$$$

Operating Costs

OC

OC

Maintenance Costs

MC

MC

Replacement Costs

RC

RC

_____________________________________________________

Productivity Benefit
_____________________________________________________

Total LCC ($ / unit / time)

PB
_________

NPV

Depreciation Benefits
Optional Environmental Burden (weighting factors/multipliers)

PB
___________

NPV

Discovery Phase Research & Analysis: Stage 3


(Pre-Design) TESTING CONCEPTUAL DESIGN IDEAS

Exploration within discipline groups


Test conceptual design solutions relative to the
principles and key sub-systems
Coalesce findings and bring analysis to a
reasonable conclusion before beginning SD

Sub-System Analysis Example

Rainwater Harvesting Analysis:


- determine monthly rainfall
- estimate roof area options
- calculate roof collection capacity
Price and integrate strategies and subsystems - estimate FTE occupants
- calculate monthly flushing demand
Re-confirm metrics / Develop Cx BOD
- determine impact on stormwater
conveyance system
Update Process Roadmap

Discovery
Pre-Design/Concept SD

DD

CD

Schematic Design

Present sketch concepts, supporting data and


discoveries

Research & Analysis: Stage 4


BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER AND
NOW DETERMINING WHAT IT
LOOKS LIKE

Evaluate flows and inter-relationships between


the subsystems while developing site and
building sketch solutions

Refine integrative cost bundling studies

Workshop #3 - BRINGING IT ALL


TOGETHER

Identify necessary integrative cost studies


Re-confirm alignment of design solutions with
objectives Adjust Cx BOD and Roadmap

Engage an informed SD process with sketch


solutions and studies from Workshop #3
Verify alignment of design solutions with
objectives
Refine process Roadmap adjust for new
ideas to be evaluated Adjust Cx BOD

Discovery
Pre-Design/Concept SD

DD

CD

Design Development

Workshop #4

Research & Analysis: Stage 5

Sign-off on analysis of four key


sub-systems

Finalize design decisions Finalize


cost bundling studies

Sign-off on design & integrated


solutions for all systems

Verify alignment of design solutions


with objectives

Refine cost analysis

Re-confirm alignment of design


solutions with objectives

Begin LEED documentation of


Design Credits

Discovery
Pre-Design/Concept SD

DD

CD

Construction Documents

Workshop #5

Documentation
CD Coordination Workshop

Finalize all systems design

Coordination of documentation strategies


for all systems

Finalize cost analysis

Re-confirm alignment of design solutions


with objectives

Document all systems in drawings


and specifications

Commissioning review comments


incorporated and back-checked

Finalize performance calculations


& LEED documentation of Design
Credits

Discovery
Pre-Design/Concept SD

DD

CD

Construction Administration & Operations

Bidding & Negotiation

Occupancy

Training of all Operations and


Maintenance staff

Monitor performance with feedback


loops

Post-Occupancy Evaluation

Pre-Bid and Post-Award Conference


clarifications

Construction

Pre-Installation review with all trades

Commissioning

Verification in field of all components

Finalize LEED documentation

Discovery
Pre-Design/Concept SD

DD

CD

Roadmap for the Integrated Design Process

IDP Draft Criteria


Criteria 1.
Pre-Design Phase - Early Studies and Analysis to inform the design
Intent
Develop an early understanding of the relationships between technical
sub-systems and natural systems in a building or planning project before
beginning schematic design.
Requirements
Demonstrate that a systemic understanding of key project systems was
utilized to inform basic design decisions. Provide a summary analysis
sample of one (1) of the following system issues, and indicate how this
analysis shaped and/or informed the building or project design:
- Energy Modeling
- Daylight Modeling
- Habitat and Water Quality and Conservation Studies

IDP Draft Criteria


Criteria 2.
Project Performance demonstrating successful design and delivery
of a well-integrated project
Intent
Employ an effective integrative design process to implement restoration
processes, demonstrating advanced building performance and natural
system viability and evolutionary capability.
Requirements
a. Provide proof of an integrative design process utilizing quantifiable
calculations, or a narrative describing the logic of implemented
restoration processes, demonstrating advanced building performance
and natural system viability.
b. The best proof will be documentation of actual project performance
and demonstrated restoration of an ecological system.

IDP Draft Criteria


Criteria 3.
Use an integrated cost bundling analysis to analyze the implication
of system and technology and element costs.

10 Key Sustainable Design Strategies


1. Design for climate- orient, shade, insulate, mass
2. The building is the system not a collection of systems
3. Integrate & Embed renewable energy & materials
4. Design for closed loop materials and resource flows
5. Use life-cycle Assessment (LCA) to quantify impacts
6. Engage biological systems
7. Plantscape buildings inside and out
8. Connected & Intelligent green developments
9. Innovation is your friend, manage risk;
10. Use third party certified eco-products

ecospecifier

2008

10 Sustainable Design Strategies


1. Design for Climate (DfC)
draw on indigenous design
low impact materials and
bioclimatic principles using
passive and renewable energy sources and
controls

external shading,
insulation,
orientation,
optimised areas of smart glazing
thermal mass, earth integration, phase change
materials etc;

10 Sustainable Design Strategies


Design for Climate (DfC)
Hot climates need external
shading FULL STOP
January Jebel Ali 0900hrs
External Temperature = 21oC
Internal A/C Temp
= 21oC
Inside Glass Temp
Reflective Tinted Blue Insulated
Glass Units (IGUs)
= 33oC

ecospecifier 2008

10 Sustainable Design Strategies


Design for Climate (DfC)
Hot climates need external
shading FULL STOP
April Jebel Ali 1200hrs
External Temperature = 35oC
Internal A/C Temp
= 21oC
Inside Glass Temp
Blue IGUs
Clear IGUs

ecospecifier 2008

= 35.4oC
= 37.2oC

10 Sustainable Design Strategies


Design for Climate (DfC)
Hot climates need external
shading
April Jebel Ali 1200hrs
External Temperature = 35oC

External Glass Temp


Blue IGUs

= 64.7oC

External Dark Brown Paving


= 50.2oC

ecospecifier

2008

10 Sustainable Design Strategies


Hot climates
need external
shading
Melbourne City
Council CH2operable natural
unfinished hardwood
battened louvres

ecospecifier 2008

10 Sustainable Design Strategies

Shaded western
aspect allows 100%
screening and views

ecospecifier 2008

10 Sustainable Design Strategies


Design for Climate (DfC)
Hot climates can use Mass to increase
comfort, save energy and reduce peak
load Abu Dhabi

for day/night variations greater than 10oC thermal mass can


provide major savings in A/C
Low cost thermal mass = phase change

10 Sustainable Design Strategies


2. The building is the system not a
collection of systems

wholesystemdesignisthekeyto

advancedresourceproducAvityo^en
reducingcapitalcostuctuaAonsto
zeroorless.
WholesystemdesignopAmizesan
enAresystemtocapturesynergies.
Dr.AndrewKean,10XE"FactorTen"andtheNonviolentOverthrowofBadEngineering,RockyMountainsInsAtute,www.rmi.org,
SnowmassColorado

10 Sustainable Design Strategies


3. Integrate & Embed
renewable energy &
materials
The building AS the collector
/generator
Building integrated Photovoltaics
(BIPV)
Building Integrated Wind
Building Integrated Solar Thermal

The building as a carbon sink


FSC Certified Timber products
Carbon sink concrete

10 Sustainable Design Strategies


4. Design for closed loop materials and
resource flows:
Use and re-use energy, water (rain, grey, black),
materials and waste (just another resource!) wisely
and where possible on-site or within immediate region,
Design in materials with high recycled content
Design and construct for disassembly: allowing
materials to be recovered and re-used in future;
Ensure products/appliances/equipment purchased are
designed for disassembly (DfD), are able to be
maintained and parts and maintenance facilities are
locally available

10 Sustainable Design Strategies


5. Use life-cycle Assessment (LCA) to quantify
carbon
life-cycle Assessment (LCA) is the only way to assess
the ecological and greenhouse impacts of products
and buildings
Also only way to analyse carbon payback when using
products for their durability
- is there a carbon payback benefit that offsets the
extra carbon generated to each the durability and
does it relate to short climate tipping point time
frames (ie 20-30 years);

10 Sustainable Design Strategies


5. Use life-cycle Assessment (LCA) to
quantify carbon
life-cycle Assessment (LCA) has been slow
and tedious
New BIM based LCADesign software now
makes whole of life, whole building
/development LCA EASY
enables rapid eco-profiling of products,
buildings, even cities, direct from compatible
3D+ CAD drawings

LCADesign : Products & Buildings

Interoperability:3DCADnowBIM
3Disnow 3+DornD
andthenewtermis
BuildingInformaAonModel=BIM

The project was designed and documented in 3D


using an integrated building model for architecture,
structure and building services
Monash University Caulfield Campus
Building H
Architects Wojciech Huczek
Photographer Andrius Lipsys
Copyright 2008 Equiset

Rapid,real,costeecAveecoproling
Toxic
Effluent

Energy
Use
1.0
0.8

LCA is now
automated

Water
Use

0.6
Toxic
Solid
Waste

Metal
ores

0.4
0.2
0.0

Solid
Waste

1995 Best Practice


1997 Affordable Green
1998 Eco Hi Tech

Mineral
Depletion

Toxic Air
Pollution

Fossil
Fuels
Greenhouse
Gases

Scarce
Resources

Takes days to weeks

LCA enables measurement


ConsideringGreenhouse:howtodoit
FuncAonalEquivalency?ImpactEquivalent?

YES/NO?

umbrellas Commonfunc?on:

DierentMaterials
DierentDurabili?es
Dierentimpacts

umbrella?
Aluminium
Louvres:
SamefuncAon

Ecospecifier 2008

Building umbrella

Timber
Louvres:
SamefuncAon

Ecospecifier 2008

LCA provides answers


GreenhouseemissionsofSunscreens
Sun Shade Material
Aluminium fixed louvres 150mm (extruded
elliptical) virgin aluminium, powder coated, with sub-frame,

Stainless Steel batten style 28mm slat


8.5kg/m2 (ref Superior Steel Screens) incl. frame

Colorbond steel batten style - 55mm slat 0.55mm


thick - 1200 frame spacing, 22 slats/m incl. frame 60o tilt, Approx
16kg/m2 or 22kg/m2

GGE

GGE

kg/m2 (approx)

(kgCO2e/
kg)

(kgCO2e/
m2 )

20.4

9.205

189

8.5

5.457

46

Mass

1.3
16-22

Lattice - Colorbond Steel 28mm slat 0.55mm


thick, 50-150mm spacing, 6.6-14.4kg/m2 (ref Superior Steel Screens)
incl. frame

14.4-6.6

Excludes
Cbond coating

1.3

Concrete precast,

118

.114

Reinforcing steel virgin steel reinforced 75mm

Concrete precast,

2.3
118

1.242
.114

Reinforcing steel recycled steel reinforced 75mm

2.3

.352

76

-2.8

Natural Hardwood Durability Grade 1, dressed air dried


or recycled 20x140mm louvres 10 blades/m 200 hardwood framerecoated say 11 times in 50 years

21-29
19-9
16
14
-200

LCA enables analysis


Durabilitynolongershould
havecarteblanchestatuswhen
itcomestolifecyclepaybackof
highercapitalcost.

Ecospecifier 2008

10 Sustainable Design Strategies


6. Use engineered biological systems
Introduce biological systems back into cities, use
engineered biological and bio-mimicking
systems rather than electro-mechanical
-chemical systems wherever possible;

10 Sustainable Design Strategies


7. Plantscape buildings inside and out

10 Sustainable Design Strategies


Tokyo
Green
Roof

In 2000 Tokyo Government mandated green roofs


public buildings over 250m2
private buildings over 1,000m2

10 Sustainable Design Strategies


8. Connected & Intelligent green
developments

Large green developments and buildings


need to be connected, intelligent,
sensing and automatically controlling
from infrastructure level up to ensure
system performance can be finessed
over time and maintained once efficient

10 Sustainable Design Strategies


9. Innovation is your friend

When you find and use market


transforming products- it transforms your
project too
Find and lock into unique products early
and the benefits flow early
Be prepared to work with single supplier
products to derive innovation benefit

10 Sustainable Design Strategies


10. Use third party certified eco-products
Makes your research easier, saves you time
and you can trust the information

State of Mind
Participants in ISDP

need to be prepared to
enter into a state of
willing suspension of
disbelief about costs
and outcomes..
Until the creative process
is complete and proper
analysis can be done
everything should be on
the table.

Integrated sustainable design


process

Source: The Whole Building Design Guide accessed @ http://www.wbdg.org/design/engage_process.php

To do different things
we need to do things differently
Before we can do things differently
we need to think about them differently (new
purpose)
Before we think differently
we need to be different