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S.S. Ray I

t

Reinforced Concrete

.

.

available

:

:.:

Blackwell

[Best

coEJ

Science

 

.

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

This book covers the analysis and design

of reinfcrCedconcreteelements in

foundations and superstructures in a

logical,step-by-step fashion. The theory of reinforcedconcrete and thederivation of

thecode formulae have been clearly

explained.

Thetext is backed upby numerous

illustrations,design charts and tables

referringfrequently to the relevant codesof

practice. A large number of worked

examples coveralmost all types of

reinforcedconcrete elements.

The step-by-step approach willensure

that:

all design requirements are logically adhered to

astandardised approach is established

in a design office

a simplified procedure for checking

and for quality assurance can be

implemented.

Is

I'

REINFORCED CONCRETE

Analysis and Design

S.S. RAY

BE (Cal), CEng, FICE, MBGS

b

Blackwell

Science

is document

1

contains

z pagJ

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A

catalogue from the British Library

ISBN 0-632-03724-5

record for this book is available

Library of Congress Cataloging in PublicationData

Ray,

S.S.

Reinforced concrete: analysis and

design/S.S. Ray.

p.

cm.

Includes bibliographical referencesand

index.

ISBN 0-632-03724-5

1. Reinforced concrete construction.

I. Title.

TA683.R334 1994

624.1'8341 —dc2O

94-13306

'V

CIP

Dedicatedto myfather Professor K. C. Ray

Page blank

in original

Contents

Preface

References

Chapter 1

Theory ofReinforced Concrete

1.0

1.1

Notation

Introduction

1.2 Characteristic strength of materials

1.3 Material factors

1.4 Material stress—strain

1.5 formulaeforreinforcedconcrete sections

relationship

Design

1.5.1 Singly reinforced rectangular section

1.5.2

The concept of balanced design and redistribution

of moments

1.5.3 Doubly reinforced rectangular
1.5.4

Singly reinforced flanged beams

section

1.6 Ultimatelimit state shear

1.7 Serviceability limit state

1.8 Serviceability limit state deflection

1.9 Ultimatelimit state torsion

1.10 Ultimatelimitstate columns

1.11 Ultimatelimit state corbels

1.12 Wood—Armer combination ofmomenttriads

1.13 Serviceability limitstate bending and directloads

crackwidth

Chapter 2

Design of

Reinforced Concrete Beams

2.0 Notation

2.1 Analysis

2.2 Loadcombinations

2.3 Step-by-step design procedure for beams

2.4 Worked examples

of beams

Example

Figures

Figure

for

2.1:

Example 2.2:

Example 2.3: Design

Simply supportedrectangular beam

Three span

continuousbeam

ofbeam with torsion

2

2.5

Chapter

2.1: Valuesof f3

Figure 2.2: Simplifieddetailing rules for beams

xiii

xv

1

1

2

3

3

4

6

6

7

8

9

11

17

18

18

19

31

32

34

41

41

43

47

50

65

65

73

85

99

99

100

viii

Contents

Chapter 3

Design ofReinforced ConcreteSlabs

3.0 Notation

3.1 Analysis of slabs

3.2 Load combinations

3.3 Step-by-step design procedure for slabs

3.4 Worked example

Example

3.1:

Design of a two-way slab panel

3.5 and Tablesfor Chapter 3

Figures

101

101

103

107

107

120

120

130

Figures

3.1 and 3.2: Elasticand elasto-plastic unit resistances

for one-wayelements,

Figures

two-way

Figures

3.3.

elements

and

support

shears

130—1

132—6

137—44

to 3.17: Moment and deflectioncoefficients for

yield-lines

for

3.18 to 3.33: Location of

two-way elements

Figure

3.34:

Simplified

detailing rules for slabs

Table

Table 3.2: Ultimate unit resistance

3.1: Graphicalsummary

of two-way elements

for two-way

elements (symmetrical yield-lines)

Table 3.3: Ultimate unit resistance

for two-way

elements (unsymmetrical yield-lines)

Table 3.4: Ultimate support shears for two-way

elements (symmetrical yield-lines)

Table 3.5: Ultimate support shears for two-way

elements (unsymmetrical yield-lines)

145

146

147

148

149

150

Chapter 4

Design ofReinforced ConcreteColumns

4.0 Notation

Analysis

4.1

4.2

of columns

Loadcombinations

4.3 Step-by-step designprocedure

4.3.1

Rectangular

columns

for columns

4.3.2 Circularcolumns

4.3.3 Rectangular and circularcolumns

4.4

Worked examples

Example 4.1: Design

Example

momentabout the

Example 4.3: Design

ofa biaxially loadedslender column

with predominant

4.2: Design of a column

major axis

of

a memberwith uniaxial moment

andtension

Example 4.4: Design

andtension

of a memberwith biaxial moment

151

151

152

154

155

155

161

164

164

164

169

176

183

Chapter 5

Design ofCorbelsandNibs

5.0 Notation

5.1 Load combinations

5.2 Step-by-step designprocedure

for corbels

5.3 Step-by-step

5.4 Worked examples

design procedure for nibs

193

193

193

194

197

200

Contents ix

Example 5.1: Design ofacorbel Example 5.2: Design ofaconcretenib

5.5

Figures

Figure

and Tablesfor Chapter 5 5.1: Chart for

determining zld

Table5.1: Allowance for effectsof

Table 5.2: Allowance for effects of

spalling at supports spalling at

supported members

Table5.3: Allowance for constructioninaccuracies

200

208

212

212

213

213

213

Chapter 6

Design ofPad Foundations

215

215

218

218

219

222

223

223

223

224

224

225

226

226

226

229

231

232

6.0 Notation

6.1 Analysis for bearingpressure on soil

6.1.1 Isolated single column pad

6.1.2 Single column pads connected byground beams

6.1.3 Isolated multiple column pad

6.1.4 Multiple column pads connected byground beams

6.2 Analysis for ultimate load

6.2.1 Isolated single column pad

6.2.2 Single column pads connectedby ground beams

6.2.3 Multiple column pads

6.3 Loadcombinations

6.4

6.5 Essentials of soil mechanics

Sign convention

6.5.1

Ultimate

bearingcapacity

6.5.2 Settlementof foundation

6.5.3 Sliding resistance

calculations

6.6 Bearingpressure

6.6.1

contact

6.6.2

6.6.3

6.6.4

6.6.5

6.7

6.8

6.6.6

Rectangular Pad uniaxial bending no loss of

Rectangular Pad

uniaxial bending

Rectangular

Pad biaxial

biaxial

Rectangular Pad

biaxial bending

for

pads

-

loss of contact

232

234

bending

bending

no lossofcontact 234

lossofcontact

no loss

of contact

235

238

239

250

250

264

277

283

289

289

290

291

Multiple column biaxial bending no lossofcontact 238

Circular pad

Step-by-step designprocedure

Worked examples

6.1: RC pad with

6.2:

with

RC pad

Mass

Example

Example

Example 6.3:

soils

Example 6.4: Mass concrete pad side bearing in

cohesionless soils

Figures for Chapter 6

Figure 6.1: ValuesofN, Nq and N

Figure 6.2:

Figure 6.3:

Figure

single column

multiple columns

concrete pad side bearing in cohesive

6.9

Calculation ofmean vertical stressesin soil

Planonbase showing differentzones

6.4: Pressures under rectangular base biaxial

bending

292

x

Contents

Chapter 7

Design ofPiledFoundations

7.0

7.1 Verticalload single pile capacity

7.2 Horizontal load singlepilecapacity

7.3

7.4

Notation

Pile

group

effects

Analysis of pile loadsand pilecaps

7.4.1

7.4.2

Rigidpile cap

Flexible

pilecap

Load combinations

7.5

7.6 Step-by-stepdesign procedure for piled foundations

7.7

7.8

example

Worked

Example

Figures

Figure 7.1: Determinationof pile efficiency

Figure 7.2: Bearingcapacity factorsfor deep foundations

7.1: Pile cap for aninternalcolumnof a building

for

Chapter

7

Chapter 8

Design of Walls

8.0 Notation

293

293

296

299

301

302

302

306

309

310

326

326

354

354

354

355

355

8.1 Analysis

of walls

357

8.1.1 Walls and properties

8.1.2 Modelling

of walls

forstructural

analysis

357

368

8.2 Step-by-stepdesign procedure for walls

370

8.3 Worked example

385

Example 8.1: Reinforcedconcretecell

385

Chapter 9

Design ofFlatSlabs

403

9.0 Notation

403

9.1 Definitions

403

9.2 Analysis

9.3 Design

9.4 Step-by-stepdesign procedure forflat slabs

9.5 Worked example

offlatslabs

offlat slabs

404

406

412

413

413

435

Example 9.1: Flat slabconstructionfor a sports hall

9

9.6 Tablesand Graphs for Chapter

Tables 9.1 to 9.6:

offlat slabs

Table 9.7:

Bending

momentcoefficients for design

438—43

Bending momentcoefficient for design of columns

in flatslab construction

444

Graphs 9.1 to 9.18: Correctionfactors for bending moments

inflat slabs

445—53

Graphs

9.19 to 9.26: Correctionfactors for bending moments

incolumns

454—7

Chapter 10

Design of Connections

10.0 Notation

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Contents: type

10.3 Anchorage

of connections

andbond

459

459

459

460

460

Contents

xi

461

463

464

10.3.3 Design of compressionlaps

10.3.4 Curtailmentand anchorageofbars 465

10.3.1 Basic rulesof

anchorage and laps

laps

10.3.2 Design oftension

10.4 Building ties

10.4.1

10.4.2

 

467

ties

467

468

Peripheral

Internalties

10.4.3 Horizontalcolumn and wall ties

469

10.4.4 Verticalties

 

470

10.5

Connections

470

Chapter 11

GeneralFigures,Tablesand Charts

487

Figure

11.1:

Coefficient of momentofinertiaofcrackedsections

488

Figure 11.2:

Valuesof vforf = 25N/mm2

489

11.3:

Figure

Figure 11.4:

Valuesofv,for

= 30N/mm2

490

Valuesof v for

= 35N/mm2

491

Figure

11.5:

Valuesof v for

= 40N/mm2and above

492

Table 11.1: Area ofsteel reinforcement for various

spacings

493

Table 11.2:

Sectional properties

494

Table 11.3: Basic span/effective depth ratios for rectangular and

flanged beams Chart 11.4: Modification factorfor compression reinforcement Chart 11.5: Modification factorfor tension reinforcement

Table 11.6: Nominal cover to

meet durability requirements Table 11.7: Nominal cover to all reinforcement

495

496

496

497

all reinforcement including

including

links to

links to

meet specified periods offire resistance

497

498—517

Tables 11.8 to 11.17: Design tablesfor rectangular columns

Tables 11.18 to 11.27: Design tablesfor circularcolumns 518—37

Index

538

Page blank

in original

Preface

I believe that the contentsofthis book will

design. There are many

design

completeness

to be

prove

extremely

valuable

to practising engineers, students and teachers in the field of reinforced

concrete

of reinforced concrete elements but, in my opinion, they lack

excellent booksavailable dealing with the

in certain ways. The design of a reinforced concrete

member requires many checks in a

step-by-stepapproach adopted

structuredmanner and the

in this book is intended to ensure that the

systematic

design process is complete

in all respects. It is my view that the member

because

itself, when fully designed,does not constitutea

complete design

it ignores the connections to other members and tothe foundationthat are

to provide true completeness of design for the structure. I have

the necessary global analysis. Also, most

aspects of soil

needed

attempted here to elucidate

books on reinforcedconcrete design

structure interaction problems and are hence incomplete.

The highly structured book

assurance becomes less arduous and the

office becomes fully standardisedif this approach is strictly

students, the book should

elementsof the theory of reinforcedconcrete are

structured

do not deal with the

step-by-step methodology

I have used makesthe

fully comprehensive

and

user-friendly. Accordingly, thetask of quality

product or output

of a design followed. For

prove

to be invaluable because the essential

discussed, followed by a

design of all elementsin a building, including

approach

to the

foundations and the connectionsof the reinforced concrete members to

eachotherto create a

should be very useful to students and practitioners alike. The book also

reinforced concrete elements and

learning the methods adopted in a design

the student should benefit from

presents practical advice on designing

completebuilding. The numerousworked examples

consultancy.

designprinciples at each stage by

using a profusion ofsketches.The book includes many more illustrations

necessary

My

intention has been to illustrate the

thanastandardtextbookonreinforcedconcretebecauseitwasfelt

The book includesa lot more new

the available books. For

design

aids than are

usually

to clear all ambiguities in the codesof practiceby the use of diagrams, an

approach which should appeal to both practising engineers and students.

found in

instance, the tables and charts includedin this

book for the design

published textbookson the

on the subject of reinforcedconcrete are also given.

of solid slabs and flat slabscannot be found in other

subject. Referencesto many publishedbooks

I would like to thank the British Standards Institution for their kind

xiv

Preface

permission to reproduce

some of the essential tables from the codes of

I also wish to thank the US Army Armament Research and

practice.

DevelopmentCentre, Picatinny Arsenal,

ConsultingEngineers,

extremely useful

NJ and Amman and Whitney,

New York for grantingpermission to reproduce the

of slabsin Chapter 3.

charts on the yield-line design

Finally

the

this undertaking couldnothavebeen successfully achievedwithout

active encouragement of my wife.

S.S. Ray

Great Bookham

Surrey

The

Taylor

Woodrow and its Group of Companies are in no way

productionofthisbookand they have not adopted thebookor anypart ofit

associatedwith the

correctnessor otherwiseofthe text is the

in this book are those of the author and the

opinions expressed

author's responsibility.

astheirin-house standard.

References

1. British Standards Institution (1985) Structural use of concrete. Parts 1, 2

and 3. BSI, London, BS811O.

2. BritishStandards Institution (1986)

3. British StandardsInstitution (1979) Code ofpracticefordesign ofcomposite

Foundations. BSI, London, BS8004.

bridges. Part 5. BSI, London, BS5400.

4. American Concrete Institute (1983) Building code requirements for rein- forced concrete. M83. ACI, Detroit, Michigan. USA, ACI 318.

5. Tomlinson, M.J. (1982) Foundation Design and Construction, 3rd edn. Pitman Publishing, London.

6. Bowles, J.E. (1982) Foundation Analysis and Design, 3rd edn. McGraw-

Hill International,Tokyo.

7. Tomlinson. M.J. (1987) Pile Design

8.

and Construction Practice, 3rd edn. E.

& F.N. Spon, London.

US Army ArmamentResearchand Development

Centre (1987) Structures

toresistthe effects of accidental explosions, Volume IV: Reinforced concrete

design. US Army ARDEC, N.J., USA, US Army Standard ARLCD,

SP84001.

9. Moody,

W.T. Moments and Reactions forRectangular Plates. US Depart-

ment of the Interior, EngineeringMonograph No. 27, Denver, Colorado,

USA.

10. Reynolds, C.E. & Steedman, J.C.

(1988) Reinforced Concrete Designer's

London.

Handbook, 10th edn. E. & F.N. Spon,

11. Wood, R.H. (1968) The reinforcementof slabs in accordancewith a pre- determinedfield of moments.Concrete, 2, No. 2, Feb. pp. 69—76.

12. Armer, G.S.T. (1968) Discussion of Reference

Aug. pp. 319—20.

16. Concrete, 2, No. 8,

Cheng-Tzu Thomas Hsu (1986) Reinforced concrete members subject to

combined biaxial bending and tension. ACIJournal, Jan./Feb. American

Concrete Institution, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

14. British Standards Institution (1972) Wind loads. CP3: Chapter V: Part 2.

13.

BSI, London.

xvi

References

General references

Allen, A.H.

Explained.

(1983) Reinforced

E. & F.N.

Spon,

Concrete Design to BS8IIO Simply

London.

Batchelor & Beeby (1983) Charts for the design of circular columns to

BS81IO. British Cement Association,Slough, UK.

British Standards Institution (1987) Design of concrete structures to

retain

aqueousliquids. BSI, London, BS8007.

Park,R. & Paulay, T.

& Sons, New York.

(1975) Reinforced Concrete Structures. John Wiley

Pucher, A. (1977) Influence Surfaces of Elastic Plates. Springer Verlag, Vienna, Austria.

Roark, R.J. & Young, W.C. (1975) Formulae for Stress and Strain, 5th edn. McGraw-Hill International,Tokyo.

Chapter 1

Theory of Reinforced Concrete

1.0

NOTATION

Deflectionof columndue to slenderness Net areaof concrete in a column cross-section

A.

b

b

C0

C

d

d'

E

E

f

fk

frn

f,

f

f

h

hf

h,

hmax

hmin

I

M

M'

M

M

N

p

p

q

Q

Area of steel in tension in a beam

Area of steel in

compression in a beam

Area of bent shear reinforcement

Area of steel in column Area of steel in vertical links

Width of reinforcedconcrete section

Width of web in a beam

Effective crack height at 'no slip' at steel

Internal compressive force in reinforcedconcrete section

Effective depth of tensile reinforcement

Effective

elasticity Modulusof elasticity of steel Service stress in concrete

depth of compressive

of concrete

reinforcement

Modulus of

Characteristic strength

Mean

strength

of material

of material from test results

Service stress in steel

Characteristic yieldstrength of steel

Thickness of

flange

height

strength

Characteristic cube

Overall depth of a concrete section

ofconcrete at 28 days

in a T-beam

Initialcrack

Maximum overall dimension of a rectangular concrete section

Minimum overall

Momentof inertia

Applied bending

in reinforcedconcrete member

dimension of a rectangular concrete section

moment

of concrete in web

Maximum momentof resistance of concrete section

Moment of resistance ofconcrete in flange

Moment of resistance

Ultimate axial load on column

Percentage

Percentage of total reinforcement in a column= 1OOA/bh

Shear flow (kN/m)

First momentof areaabove plane of interest

of tensile reinforcement in a beam = 1OOAIbd

2

Reinforced Concrete

1.1

rb Curvature ofa memberin bending

s Standard deviation

S Spacing

T Internal tensile force in steel reinforcement

of shear reinforcement

v Shear stress in concrete (N/mm2)

v,

v Shear stress in concrete due to torsion (N/mm2)

V Shear force in concretesection

Design

concreteshear stress (N/mm2)

Design concrete shear

Design shear capacity of

capacity

V

shear reinforcement

x Depth

of neutral axis from compression face

y

z

Distance from neutral axis

Depth of lever arm

13a

13b

of inclination

Angle of inclination

Empirical factor governing

Angle

to horizontalof shear reinforcement to horizontalof concrete strut in truss analogy deflectionof slender columns

analysis

moment

Ratio of redistributed momentover elastic

Factor governing moment of resistance of concreteT-section

Material factor Deflectionof beam Strain at yield of steel reinforcement

INTRODUCTION

Thecriteriawhich govern the design ofastructure fora particularpurpose

may be summarised as follows:

Fitness for purpose

Safety and reliability Durability

Good valuefor money External appearance

User comforts

Robustness.

Fitness for

purpose is generally

covered by the overall geometry of the

It should be

possible

to have unrestricted

purpose for which it is built.

structure and its components.

and unhindereduse

of the structure for the

following the Codes of Practice for

loading, materials,design, constructionand

Durability is taken care of by the choice of the right material for the

purpose and also bybearing in mind during the design process, the require-

ments

Safety and reliability are assured by

fire-resistance.

for proper maintenance.

Theory of ReinforcedConcrete

3

Good value formoney is perhaps themost important criterion.The designer

should take into account not

the cost of materials but also the

only

buildability. the time required

to build, the cost of

temporarystructures,

the costofmaintenanceover a period oftimeand in somecasesthe cost of

demolition/decommissioning.

External appearance of structures changes over a period of time. The

designer should be aware of the effects of

cracking, leaking, staining,

etc. of the materials in use. The designer should make

spalling, flaking,

appropriate allowances to avoid the degradation of appearance.

User comforts are influenced by the vibrationof the structure due to wind,

deflections under load also

road/rail traffic or

cause alarm to the users. The

vibratingmachinery. Large

designer

should pay adequate attention to

alleviation of these anticipated discomforts.

Robustness comes with the chosen structural form and is determined

the additionalinherent strength

by

of the structure as a whole to withstand

accidental loadings.Collapse

initiate

structure and avoid it

global collapse.

memberin the structure must not

The design must foresee the dominoeffect' in the

ofone

key

by careful planning.

1.2 CHARACTERISTICSTRENGTHOF MATERIALS

The characteristicstrength of a material is defined as the strength below

which 1 in 20 test results are likely to fall.

The value of the characteristic strength is defined statistically by the

fk = f

following

formula

1.64s

where

fk =

fm = mean strength

characteristic strength of material

of

material from test results

1.64 is a factor below fk

which defines the 1 in 20 test results falling

s is the standard deviation.

The characteristic strength ofconcrete,f, isthe cube strength of concrete

The characteristic strength of reinforcing steel, f is the strength at yield.

days.

at 28

1.3 MATERIAL FACTORS

To obtain the design strength

material factor 'ye, is applied.

of materials a further factor called the

The material factor takes into account the

tolerances associated with

the geometry, the variability of materials on

4

ReinforcedConcrete

site, the inconsistency in the manufactureand curing onsite and the effects

of

long-term degradation.

The valuesof Ym for

theultimate limit state are as follows:

reinforcement concrete in fiexure or axial load

concrete in shear

1.15

1.50

1.25

1.40

1.50

bond strength

bearing

For exceptional loads and for localised

in concrete

stress

damage, Ym may be taken equal to

1.3 for concrete and 1.0 for reinforcement.

1.4 MATERIAL STRESS—STRAIN RELATIONSHIP

1.4.1 Short-term design stress—straincurve for normal weight concrete

0.57S /8m

uJ

(.J_) u_J

U) u_i

0

I-_i

U)

U)

STRAIN

0.0035 SK 1/1 Short-term

design stress—

weight

strain curvefor normal

concrete.

The featuresof this design curve are as follows:

The initial elastic modulus of concrete may be defined as the initial tangent to the parabolic curve which is given by:

E = 5.5('kN/mm2

\Im1

The ultimate stress in concrete for design purposes is defined as:

= 0.67

N/mm2

The ultimate strain in concrete for design purposes

is takenas 0.0035.

Beyond that strain level the concrete loses its compressive stiffness.

Theory of ReinforcedConcrete

5

Note:

The strain in concrete when the

parabolic stress—strain relationship

reaches the ultimatestress level is given by:

= 2.4 x 10_4)

Concrete can withstand concrete is ignored in the

compressive stresses only. The tensile stress in

design.

1.4.2 Short-term design stress—straincurve for reinforcement

SK 1/2 Short-term design strain curvefor reinforcement.

stress—

/8m

The featuresof this design curve are as follows:

The elastic modulusof steel reinforcement

regardless

slope

of steel

grade of the curve up to

of

may be assumedas 200kN/mm2, which is the

yield.

The

yield

stress of steel reinforcement is

f/ym.

but for design purposes it

will be taken as

The stress

stress line.

after yield

remainsconstant and is representedby a constant

The stress—strain relationship is identical in tension and compression.

= 0.87

= 2.0 x i03

forf = 460N/mm2

6

ReinforcedConcrete

1.5 DESIGN FORMULAE FOR REINFORCEDCONCRETE SECTIONS

1.5.1 Singly reinforced rectangular section

O.9x

SECTION

STRESS

STRAIN

SK 1/3 Stress—strain

diagrams ofa

subject

reinforcedconcretesection to bending moment.

Plane section remains

Applied momenton the section= M; Ym = 1.5 for concrete, 1.15 forsteel.

plane.

C

= compressive force in section

= ()fbo.9x = O.4O2fbx

T

= force in steel reinforcement

where

= (LY)A. = O,87fA.

A =

areaof tensile steel in section

d = effective depth from outer compressive fibre to centroid of steel reinforcement.

By internal force equilibrium,

or

or

or

or

C= T

O.4O2fbx = O.87fA

x = 2.164k—

fb

/

z = d O.45x = d1

z /fA.

—=1—0.971-————

d

\fbd

(

z\(fbd

d/\0.97f

A=i1——ii

\

\fbd

M = O.87fAz = ()(i )fbdz

M

fbd2

= o.9o(1 -

=K=0.901--

\

-

dJ\d

Theory of ReinforcedConcrete

7

or

= [0.5 + (0.25 -

Maximum momentof resistantof concretesectionis obtainedfor redistri- butionnot exceeding 10%, whenx = d12.

or

z = d 0.45x

0.775d

Momentof resistance of concrete (maximum), M', is given by

M' = 0.402fbxz

=

=

0.402fb()(0.775d)

0.156fbd2

Where redistribution exceeds 10%,

x

(I3b

Similarly,

0.4)d

M' = 0.402fbxz

= 0.402fCUb(13b 0.4)d[d O.45(Pb 0.4)dj

= EO.4O2(I3h 0.4) 0. 1(I3b