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4/1/2009

Example Theory of Small Reflections

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Example: The Theory of


Small Reflections
Use the theory of small reflections to determine a numeric value for
the input reflection coefficient in , at the design frequency 0 .

A 1 = 30 8

Z0

A 2 = 0 8

ZL

Z2

Z1

in

0 = 0.1

L = 0.15

1 = 0.05

Note that the transmission line sections have different lengths!

Solution
Applying the theory of small reflections, the approximate signal flow
graph of the structure becomes:

a1

a0

j A1

b0
Jim Stiles

a2
j A2

e j A

e j A

b1

j A1

j A2

=e

=e

2 3
j

2
j

=e

=e

3
j

j
4

b2
The Univ. of Kansas

Dept. of EECS

4/1/2009

Example Theory of Small Reflections

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Note there are three direct propagation paths:


Path 1

A 1 = 30 8

0 = 0.1

a1

a0

p1 = 0 = 0.1

ZL

Z2

Z1

in 1

A 2 = 0 8

e j A

e j A

e j A

b0

a2

e j A

b1

Path 2

b2

This path includes propagation down and back a transmission line


length A 1 !
A 1 = 30 8
A 2 = 0 8

ZL

Z2

Z1

in 2

1 = 0.05

p2 = e j A 1 e j A
= e j

= e j

0.05e j

0.05

= + j 0.05
Jim Stiles

a1

a0
3

e j A

a2
e j A

b0

e j A

The Univ. of Kansas

e j A

b1

b2

Dept. of EECS

4/1/2009

Example Theory of Small Reflections

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Path 3

This path includes propagation down and back transmission line lengths
of A 1 + A 2 !
A 1 = 30 8

A 2 = 0 8

ZL

Z2

Z1

in 3

L = 0.15

p3 = e j ( A + A ) L e j ( A + A
1

a1

a0

= e j 0.15 e j

e j A

e j A

= e j 2 0.15
= 0.15

b0

a2
2

e j A

e j A

b1

b2

Thus, using the theory of small reflections we can determine


approximately the input reflection coefficient:

b0
a0
= p1 + p2 + p3
= 0.1 + j 0.05 + 0.15
= 0.25 + j 0.05

in =

Jim Stiles

The Univ. of Kansas

Dept. of EECS