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UNITI

1.Listtheapplicationoffuelcell?
FuelCellTodaycategorisestheuseoffuelcellsintothreebroadareas:portablepower
generation,stationarypowergeneration,andpowerfortransportation.Wealsoincludea
categoryforfuelandinfrastructure,relatingtotheproduction,distribution,storageand
dispensingoffuelsforfuelcells,asthisiscrucialtoimplementingfuelcelltechnology
2.Mentionsomeorganicmaterialusedinbiomassplant?

wasteresidueswillalwaysexistintermsofscrapwood,millresidualsandforest
resources;and.

properlymanagedforestswillalwayshavemoretrees,andwewillalwayshavecrops
andtheresidualbiologicalmatterfromthosecrops.

3.Listoutthevariableenergyresources.
Basedonusabilityofenergy
Primaryresources
Intermediateresources
Secondaryresources
Basedontraditionaluse
Conventionalenergy
Nonconventionalenergy
Basedonlongtermavailability
Nonrenewable
Renewable
Basedoncommercialapplication
Commercialenergysource
Noncommercialenergysource
Basedonorigin
FossilfuelsEnergy
NuclearEnergy
HydroEnergy
SolarEnergy
WindEnergy
BiomassEnergy
GeothermalEnergy
TidalEnergy

OceanthermalEnergy
OceanwaveEnergy
4.giveanytwoenvironmentaspectsofelectricalenergyconversion.
OxidesofSulphur(S02)
MostofthesulphurpresentinthefossilfuelisoxidizedtoSO2inthecombustionchamber
before beingemittedbythe chimney. Inatmosphereit gets further oxidized toH2SO4and
metallicsulphateswhicharethemajorsourceofconcernasthesecancauseacidrain,impaired
visibility,damagetobuildingsandvegetation.Sulphateconcentrationsof910,ug/m3ofair
aggravateasthma,lungandheartdisease.Itmayalsobenotedthatalthoughsulphurdoesnot
accumulateinair,itdoessoinsoil.
Sulphuremissioncanbecontrolledby:
Useoffuelwithlessthan1%sulphur;generallynotafeasiblesolution.

Use of chemical reaction to remove sulphur in the form of sulphuric acid, from
combustionproductsbylimestonescrubbersorfluidizedbedcombustion.

Removingsulphurfromthecoalbygasificationorfloatationprocesses.
Ithasbeennoticedthatthebyproductsulphurcouldoffsetthecostofsulphurrecoveryplant.
OxidesofNitrogen(NOx)
OftheseNO2,nitrogenoxides,isamajorconcernasapollutant.Itissolubleinwaterandsohas
adverseaffectonhumanhealthasitentersthelungsoninhalingandcombiningwithmoisture
converts tonitrous and nitric acids,which damage thelungs.Atlevels of25100parts per
millionNO,cancauseacutebronchitisandpneumonia.
EmissionofNOxcanbecontrolledbyfittingadvancedtechnologyburnerswhichcanassure
morecompletecombustion,therebyreducingtheseoxidesfrombeingemitted.Thesecanalsobe
removedfromthecombustionproductsbyabsorptionprocessbycertainsolventsgoingontothe
stock.
5.mentionaboutNOCT&STCofasolarcell?

StandardTestConditionsarethelaboratoryconditionsunderwhichallPVmodulesaretested.
ItcanbesaidthatSTCisabenchmarkforcomparingdifferenttypesofPVmodules,evenifthey
arenotfromthesameprovider.STCmeans:

Anirradianceof1000wattspersquaremeter,whichsimulatespeaksunshineona
surfacedirectlyfacingthesuninadaywithoutclouds.

Asurfacetemperatureof25C

Alightspectrumthatcloselysimulatessunlight:AM1.5G

However,theseareidealizedconditionswhichdon'treflecttherealsiteconditionsunderwhicha
PVmodulewilloperate.TheconditionsatNominalOperatingCellTemperatureaimto
simulaterealitymoreclosely:

Theirradianceis800wattspersquaremeter,whichtakesintoaccountthefactthatPV
modulesdon'talwaysfacethesun.Italsoconsidersatmosphericorgeographicconditions
whatmightdiminishsunshine.

Solarpanelsheatupconsiderablyduringoperation,sothetemperatureconsideredis45
(+/3)C.

ThelightspectrumisthesameasforSTC.

Awindspeedof1m/sisconsidered,withairat20C

6.writeaboutfuelcellandmentionitssignificance..
Itisanelectrochemicaldevicethatconvertschemicalenergyoffuelinoffuel
intoelectricitywithoutinvolvingacombustioncycle
Itisquietinoperation
Lesspollutant
Conversionefficiencyismoreduetodirectsinglestageenergy
conversion
Fuelcellplantcanbeinstallednearthepointofuse,thus
transmissionanddistributionlossesareavoided.
Fuelcellplantarecompactandrequirelessspace
Nochargingisrequired
7.Statetheimpactofwindpowerpenetrationinpowergrid.
Theimpactsofwindpowerintheelectricitysystemdependtoalargeextentonthe:

Levelofwindpowerpenetration;

Gridsize;and

Generationmixofelectricityinthesystem.

Windenergypenetrationatlowtomoderatelevelsisamatterofcost,asdemonstratedby
variousnationalandregionalintegrationstudies.Andtheintegrationcostsrelatedtotheimpacts
listedabovearefairlymodest.
Forlowpenetrationlevelsofwindpowerinasystem,systemoperationwillhardlybeaffected.
Currently(in2008)windpowersupplieslessthan4percentoftheoverallEUelectricity
demand,buttherearelargeregionalandnationaldifferencesinpenetration.
Theestablishedcontrolmethodsandsystemreservesavailablefordealingwithvariabledemand
andsupplyaremorethanadequatefordealingwiththeadditionalvariabilityatwindenergy
penetrationlevelsofuptoaround20percent,dependingonthenatureofaspecificsystem.For
higherpenetrationlevels,somechangestosystemsandtheirmethodofoperationmaybe
requiredtoaccommodatethefurtherintegrationofwindenergy.
8.Limitationsofsolarenergy
Whilesolarpanelsdonotgeneratepoweratnight,concentratedsolarpowerisonesolutionto
thereliabilityproblem.Theseplantsfocusthesun'sheatontoacentraltowerfilledwithmolten
salt,andusetheheatofthatsalttocreatesteamandgenerateelectricity.Thetemperatures
generatedarehighenoughthataconcentratedsolarplantcanproduceusablesteamwellintothe
night,andinsomecasesmaybeabletooperate24hoursadaysolelyonsolarenergy.
9.Nametheenergysourcesavailable.
Theenergysourcesavailablecanbedividedintothreecategories.They
are
Primaryenergysources
Secondaryfuels
Supplementarysources
10.WhatismeantbyprimaryandsecondaryEnergysource?Giveexample.
Primaryenergysource:Primaryenergysourcecanbedefinedas
sourcewhichprovidesanetsupplyofenergy.Theenergythatareeitherfoundor
storedinnature.
E.g.coal,oil,naturalgasandbiomass.
Secondaryenergysource:Theformofenergywhichisfinallysupplied
to,aconsumerforutilizationisknownassecondaryorusableenergy.
E.g.Electricalenergy,thermalenergy(intheformofsteamorhotwater),
chemicalenergy(intheformofhydrogenorfossilfuels),etc.,

UNITII
1.Whatisindirectvectorcontrolofsquirrelcageinductiongeneratorandwindturbine?
Squirrelcageinductiongeneratorwithfullpowerconverter
ThesystembeinganalyzedcanbeseeninFig.
1.Itisimportanttopointoutthattherearemore
elements,e.g.atransformerandawindfarmgrid,whicharenotincludedinthepresentpaper.

Fig.1.
Generalsystemscheme.
Thesquirrelcageinductiongenerator(SCIG)isattachedtothewindturbinebymeansofa
gearbox.TheSCIGstatorwindingsareconnectedtoabacktobackfullpowerconverter.

Thewindturbineisresponsiblefortransformingwindpowerintokineticenergy.WindTurbine
powercanbedeterminedbyusing,
equation(1)

Pwt=12cpAvw3.
Thegearboxprovidesspeedandtorqueconversionsfromarotatingpowersourcetoanother
device,usinggearratios.Intheanalyzedsystem,itisdescribedbymeansofaonemassmodel
whichcomplieswith:
equation(2)

d/dtgen=gt Jtot

t = tKgear
t=Kgeargen
2.whatistheneedofaactivecrowbarinDFIG
Whenthewindturbinesmustkeepconnectedduringfaults,thecrowbar
resistancevalueshouldbehighenoughtoguaranteelowerreactivepowerconsumption.
However,whenthefaultoccursclosetothewindfarm,theinfluenceofthecrowbarresistanceis
lower.Formorestrictgridcodes(suchasfromGermanyandSpain)wheretheinjectionof
reactivepowerismandatory,theoperationtimeofthecrowbarsystemmustbereducedtoenable
afastrestartoftheRSCcontrollingtheterminalvoltageatthewindfarmterminals
3.Definereferenceframetheory
Achangeofvariablesisoftenusedtoreducethecomplexityofthedifferentialequations
(voltageequations)thatdescribethebehaviorofelectricmachines.Allknownreal
transformationsareobtainedfromthegeneraltransformationbysimplyassigningthespeedof
therotationofthereferenceframe.
4.whatisthemeanofdfig
Thedoublyfedinductiongenerator(DFIG)systemisapopularsysteminwhichthepower
electronicinterfacecontrolstherotorcurrentstoachievethevariablespeednecessaryfor
maximumenergycaptureinvariablewinds.Becausethepowerelectronicsonlyprocesstherotor

power,typicallylessthan25%oftheoveralloutputpower,theDFIGofferstheadvantagesof
speedcontrolwithreducedcostandpowerlosses.ThisPLECSdemomodeldemonstratesagrid
connectedwindturbinesystemusingallofPLECS'physicalmodelingdomains.Thesystem
modelincludesamechanicalmodeloftheblades,hub,andshaft,abacktobackconverter
includingthermallosscalculations,amagneticmodelofthethreephasetransformer,andthe
transmissionlineandgrid.
5.Whatismeantbyaturbinessweptarea?
Areaperpendiculartothewinddirectionthatarotorwilldescribeduringone
completerotationortheareaofimaginarycircleformedduringtherotationofwind
turbineiscalledsweptarea.
6.Whatisawindturbine?
Awindturbineisasystemwhichtransformsthekineticenergyavailableinthewind
intomechanicalorelectricalenergythatcanbeharnessedforanyrequired
applications.Mechanicalenergyismostcommonlyusedforpumpingwater.Wind
electricturbinesgenerateelectricitythatcanbeutilizedlocallyortransportedtothe
desiredlocationthroughgrid.
7.WhatisYawing?
Alignmentofrotorsurfaceareafacingthewinddirectioniscalledyawing.Indetail,
rotationoftherotoraxisaboutaverticalaxis(forhorizontalaxiswindturbineonly)is
calledyawing.
8.Whatarethedisadvantagesofwindenergysystems?
Largeareasareneeded
Suitableforwindpowergeneration
Relativelyexpensivetomaintain
Largenumbersofwindgeneratorsarerequiredtoproduceusefulamountofheatorelectricity
9.Whatarethecharacteristicsofgoodwindpowersite?
Asiteshouldhaveahighannualwindspeed
Thereshouldnotbeanyobstructionsforaradiusof3Km
Anopenplainoranopenlinemaybeagoodlocation
Thetopofasmooth.
10.WhatarethemainEnvironmentalaspectsduetowindturbines?
Themainenvironmentalaspectsare:
Indirectenergyuseandemissions
Birdlife
Noise
Visualimpact
Telecommunicationinterference
Safety
Effectsonecosystem

UNITIII
1.Whyloopcompensationusedinbuckconverter?
Thephasemargininthecompensationfeedbackloopofbuckpowerconvertersisanindicatorof
bothloopstabilityandtheacceptabilityoftheconverterspulseresponse.Thecompensation
looptypicallyincorporatesresistorcapacitornetworksattachedtothecontrollerICsinternal
erroramplifierandmustbedesignedinlightofthesecondorder(resonant)LCfilteronthe
convertersoutput.
2.whatistheadvantageofbuckandboostconverter?

Automotiveapplications

Poweramplifierapplications

Adaptivecontrolapplications

Batterypowersystems

ConsumerElectronics

CommunicationApplications

h2.Advantages:

Givesthehighouputvoltage

Lowoperatingdutycycles

LowervoltageonMOSFET

Buckconvertershavehigherinputvoltagecomparedtotheoutputvoltage.
Boostconvertershavelowerinputvoltagecomparedtotheoutputvoltage.
Ifyouconsiderthem100%efficient,thenthecurrentisinverseproportinal.
3.whatismeantbymatrixconverter?
Amatrixconverterisdefinedasaconverterwithasinglestageofconversion.Itutilizes
bidirectionalcontrolledswitchtoachieveautomaticconversionofpowerfromACtoAC.It
providesanalternativetoPWMvoltagerectifier(doublesided).
Matrixconvertersarecharacterizedbysinusoidalwaveformsthatshowtheinputandoutput
switchingfrequencies.Thebidirectionalswitchesmakeitpossibletohaveacontrollablepower
factorinput.Inaddition,thelackofDClinksensuresithasacompactdesign.Thedownsideto

matrixconvertersisthattheylackbilateralswitchesthatarefullycontrolledandabletooperate
athighfrequencies.Itsvoltageratiothatisoutputtoinputvoltageislimited.
Therearethreemethodsofmatrixconvertercontrol

Spacevectormodulation

Pulsewidthmodulation

Venturianalysisoffunctiontransfer

4.mentionaboutSOCanditsMethod.
Knowingtheamountofenergyleftinabatterycomparedwiththeenergyithadwhenitwasfull
givestheuseranindicationofhowmuchlongerabatterywillcontinuetoperformbeforeit
needsrecharging.Itisameasureoftheshorttermcapabilityofthebattery.Usingtheanalogyof
afueltankinacar,StateofCharge(SOC)estimationisoftencalledthe"GasGauge"or"Fuel
Gauge"function.TheSOCisdefinedastheavailablecapacityexpressedasapercentageof
somereference,sometimesitsratedcapacitybutmorelikelyitscurrent(i.e.atthelatestcharge
dischargecycle)capacitybutthisambiguitycanleadtoconfusionanderrors.Itisnotusuallyan
absolutemeasureinCoulombs,kWhorAhoftheenergyleftinthebatterywhichwouldbeless
confusing.
5.Whatiscutinspeedandcutoutwindspeedsforturbine?
CUTINSPEED
Windspeedatwhichwindturbinestartsdeliveringshaftpower.
Cutinspeed:Whileoperating7m/s
Whilestopping5m/s
CUTOUTSPEED
Athighvelocitiesduringstorms,itisnecessarytocutoutthepower
conversionofwindturbinebyfurlingthewindturbineblades.Thespeedat
whichpowerconversioniscutoutiscalledcutoutwindspeedorfurlingwind
speed.
Cutoutspeed:Whileoperating20m/s
Whilestopping17m/s
Ratedspeed14m/s
6.Namethecharacteristicsinwhichthespeedofawindturbinerotor
depends.
Thespeedofawindturbinerotordependsprincipallyon

Windspeed
Pitchoftheturbineblades
Mechanicalandelectricalloadi.e.,shaftload,friction,breaking
forceetc.,
Orientationofyawwithreferencetothewind.
8.Mentiontheadvantagesofverticalaxiswindturbineoverhorizontalaxis
Theywillreacttowindfromanydirectionandthereforedonotneedyawing
equipmenttoturntherotorintothewind.
Theycanrequirelessstructuralsupportbecauseheavycomponentscanbe
locatedatgroundlevel.Thisconfigurationalsoeasesinstallationandmaintenance.
Sincethebladesdonotturnendoverend,therotorisnotsubjectedtocontinue
cyclicgravityloads.
9.Whatarebasicdesignsofwindturbines?
Verticalaxisoreggbeaterstyle
Horizontalaxis(propellerstyle)
10.Classifytheschemesavailableforelectricgeneration.
Theschemesareavailableforelectricgenerationisofthreecategories.
Constantspeedconstantfrequencysystems(CSCF)
Variablespeedconstantfrequencysystems(VSCF)
Variablespeedvariablefrequencysystems(VSVF)

UNITIV
1.whatismeantbypitchcontrol
Windturbinepitchcontrolsystemcanchangeincidenceofrotorbladesinawindpower
generationsystembasedonrealtimewindspeedforthepurposeofadjustingoutputpower,
achievinghigherutilizationefficiencyofwindpowerandprovidingprotectionforrotorblades.
Whenwindspeedisnothigherthantheratedspeed,thebladeincidencestayneartheangle0
(highestpowerpoint),whichissimilartothatofageneratorwithconstantpitch,generatingan
outputpowerthatchangesalongwithwindspeed.Whenwindspeedishigherthantherated
speed,thepitchcontrolmechanismchangesbladeincidencesothattheoutputpowerof
generatoriswithintheallowedrange.
2.definesolarinsolation.

SolarInsolationistheamountofelectromagneticenergy(solarradiation)incidentonthesurface
oftheearth.Basicallythatmeanshowmuchsunlightisshiningdownonus.Byknowingthe
insolationlevelsofaparticularregionwecandeterminethesizeofsolarcollectorthatis
requiredandhowmuchenergyitcanproduce.Anareawithpoorinsolationlevelswillneeda
largercollectorthananareawithhighlevels.
SolarinsolationlevelsaregenerallyexpressedinkWh/m2/dayandistheamountofsolarenergy
thatstrikesasquaremetreoftheearth'ssurfaceinasingleday.
3.Listoutthegridconnectionissue?
Gridconnectionrequirements:Intermittency
Activepower/FrequencyRegulation
Reactivepower/VoltageControl
Faultridethroughcapabilityandprotection
Powerquality(unbalance,harmonics,flicker)
Scheduling/Dispatch/Forecasting
wGridconnectivityorevacuationofenergy:
Remoteareas,augmentationofexistingpower
transmissionlinesornewlines
Interconnectionpoint
4.Definegridintegratedsolarsystem.
Itwasntthatlongagothatconsumershadonlytwochoiceswhenitcametocleanenergy:they
couldtiethemselvesdirectlytothegridortheycouldoptoutofthetraditionalutilityaltogether.
Today,thereisathirdoptionthatisfarmoreattractive:gridinteractivepower.Thosedeploying
highendandmissioncriticalsystemsshouldconsiderthepreparedness,controland
independencebenefitsthatcomewiththisrecentadvancementinrenewableenergy.
5.Whatisgridinteractiverenewableenergy?
TheavailabilityofgridinteractivePVsystemsmeansthatenergyconsumerscantietothegrid
whenitbenefitsthemanddisengagewhenitdoesnot.Unlikegridtiedsystemsthatarerequired
todisconnectifthegridgoesdown,gridinteractivesystemscancontinuegeneratingpowerfrom
theirPVmodules,batterybackupsystemsandotherenergysourcessuchaswindturbinesor
generators.
6.Whyhasntgridinteractivebeenmorewidelyadopted?

Whilegridinteractiveisnotthedominantchoiceofenergyconsumerstoday,thatislikelyto
changesoon.Gridinteractiveinvertersallowuserstogetthebestofbothoffgridandgridtied
systemswhileavoidingthereliabilitypitfallsofthoseallornothingmethods.Byproviding
clean,reliablebackuppowerintheeventofapoweroutage,gridinteractiveinvertersaddress
manyofthemostdifficultenergyquestions.Theseincludetheissuesofmorefrequentand
longerlastingoutages,pressuretoreducedependenceoncoalandnuclearpower,andthelackof
reliableutilitiesindevelopingpartsoftheworld.
7.writeaboutoptislipconcept.
Aninterestingvariationofthevariableslipinductiongeneratoravoidstheproblemof
introducingsliprings,brushes,externalresistors,andmaintenancealtogether.
Bymountingtheexternalresistorsontherotoritself,andmountingtheelectroniccontrol
systemontherotoraswell,youstillhavetheproblemofhowtocommunicatetheamountofslip
youneedtotherotor.Thiscommunicationcanbedoneveryelegantly,however,usingoptical
fibrecommunications,andsendingthesignalacrosstotherotorelectronicseachtimeitpassesa
stationaryopticalfibre.
8.listfewgridconnectionrequirementsofrenewablepowersystem.
Gridconnectionrequirements:
Activepower/FrequencyRegulation
Reactivepower/VoltageControl
Faultridethroughcapabilityandprotection
Powerquality(unbalance,harmonics,flicker)
Scheduling/Dispatch/Forecasting
9.Whathappenswhenthewindsbecometoomuchforthewindturbines?
Whenthewindspeedishighbeyondcutoutspeed,theturbinestopsproducing
powerandgoesintoaninertstatetoavoidcomponentsstressanddamages.
Normallythemachinesaremanufacturedwithsafetyincorporationtocatertomost
oftheconceivableemergencies.
10.WhatisCapacityfactor?
Capacityfactorisawaytomeasuretheproductivityofawindturbineoranyother
powerproductionfacility.Itcomparestheplantsactualproductionoveraperiodof
timewiththeamountofpowertheplantwouldhaveproducedifithadrunatthefull
capacityforthesameamountoftime.
CapacityFactor=Actualamountofpowerproducedovertime

Powerthatwouldhavebeenproducedifturbine
Operatedatmaximumoutput100%ofthetime
UNITV
1.listthedifferenttypesofhybridsystem
Thereareseveraltypesofhybridenergysystemssuchaswindsolarhybrid,solardiesel,wind
hydroandwinddiesel.
2.ExplaintheconceptoffixedspeedWECS.

3.drawtheconceptualdiagramofalimitedvariablespeeddriveWECS

4.definechargecontrollerusedforwindenergyconversionsystem
Achargecontrollerorregulatorisvitalforanywindturbineusedtochargeabatterybank.
WithPV
solarpanelsasolarchargecontrollerisoftenusedtopreventthebatteriesfrombeing
overcharged.Unfortunatelyasolarchargecontrollercannotbeusedwithawindturbine
generatorsincethewindturbinecontrollermustalsoensurethatthewindturbinetowhichitis
connectedisconstantlyunderloadtopreventitfromspinningoutofcontrol(overspeeding)and
beingdamagedinstrongwinds.
WindTurbineChargeController
Atypicalwindturbinechargecontrollerconstantlymonitorsthebatteryvoltage.Ifthat
voltageapproachesausersetmaximum(thebatterybankfloatvoltage)thenthecontrollerturns
onadumpload(akashunt)forexampleanimmersionheaterelement,electricheater,orcar
headlightbulbs,todissipateanyexcesspowertopreventitfromoverchargingthebatteries.
5.whatarethesignificanceofMPPT
MPPTorMaximumPowerPointTrackingisalgorithmthatincludedinchargecontrollers
usedforextractingmaximumavailablepowerfromPVmoduleundercertainconditions.The
voltageatwhichPVmodulecanproducemaximumpoweriscalledmaximumpowerpoint(or
peakpowervoltage).Maximumpowervarieswithsolarradiation,ambienttemperatureandsolar
celltemperature.

TypicalPVmoduleproducespowerwithmaximumpowervoltageofaround17Vwhen
measuredatacelltemperatureof25C,itcandroptoaround15Vonaveryhotdayanditcan
alsoriseto18Vonaverycoldday.

6.HowMPPTworks?
ThemajorprincipleofMPPTistoextractthemaximumavailablepowerfromPVmoduleby
makingthemoperateatthemostefficientvoltage(maximumpowerpoint).Thatistosay:
MPPTchecksoutputofPVmodule,comparesittobatteryvoltagethenfixeswhatisthebest
powerthatPVmodulecanproducetochargethebatteryandconvertsittothebestvoltageto
getmaximumcurrentintobattery.ItcanalsosupplypowertoaDCload,whichisconnected
directlytothebattery.
MPPTismosteffectiveundertheseconditions:
Coldweather,cloudyorhazydays:Normally,PVmoduleworksbetteratcoldtemperatures
andMPPTisutilizedtoextractmaximumpoweravailablefromthem.
Whenbatteryisdeeplydischarged:MPPTcanextractmorecurrentandchargethebatteryif
thestateofchargeinthebatteryislowers.

7.Thewinddoesnotblowallthetime.Howcanitreallycontributetoa
utilityssupply?
Utilitiesmustmaintainenoughpowerplantcapacitytomeetexpectedcustomer
electricitydemandatalltimes,plusanadditionalreservemargin.Allotherthings
beingequal,utilitiesgenerallypreferplantsthatcangenerateasneeded(thatis,
conventionalplants)toplantsthatcannot(suchaswindplants).
Recentstudiesconcludedthatwhenturbinesareaddedtoautilitysystem,they
increasetheoverallstatisticalprobabilitythatthesystemwillbeabletomeet
demandrequirements.Theynotedthatwhilewindisanintermittentresource,
conventionalgeneratingsystemsalsoexperienceperiodicshutdownsfor
maintenanceandrepair.
Theexactamountofcapacityvaluethatagivenwindprojectprovidesdependsona
numberoffactor,includingaveragewindspeedsatthesiteandthematchbetween
windpatternsandutilityload(demand)requirements.
8.Whyistheplantloadfactorofwindturbinessolowwhencomparedto
aconventionalpowergenerationplantlikethermal,nuclear?
Thewindturbinedonothavethewindsthroughouttheyearasdoesathermalplant
andhencecannotbeoperationalforthesamekindofperiodsaswoulda
conventionalpowerplant.Hencetheplantloadfactoriscomparativelylesserfora
windturbinetothatofathermalpowerplant.

9.WhatisPCM?
PowerCurveMeasurements(PCM)determinesthepowerperformance
characteristicsofwindturbineswhenconnectedtoeithertheelectricpowernetwork
orastandalonesystem,asperIEC61400121,performanceevaluationofspecific
turbinedoneatspecificlocations,estimatedannualenergyproduction(AEP)forthe
WindTurbine.
10.Inwhatotherwaysdoeswindenergybenefittheeconomy?
Windfarmscanrevitalizetheeconomyofruralcommunities,providingsteady
incomethroughleasetothelandowners.Farmerscanalsogrowcropsorraisecattle
nexttothetowers.Windfarmsmayextendoveralargegeographicalarea,buttheir
actual"footprintcoversonlyaverysmallportionoftheland,makingwind
developmentanidealwayforfarmerstoearnadditionalrevenue.