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Thermodynamics Lecture Series IdealIdeal RankineRankine CycleCycle ––TheThe PracticalPractical CycleCycle Applied
Thermodynamics Lecture Series
IdealIdeal RankineRankine CycleCycle ––TheThe
PracticalPractical CycleCycle
Applied Sciences Education Research
Group (ASERG)
Faculty of Applied Sciences
Universiti Teknologi MARA
email: drjjlanita@hotmail.com

http://www5.uitm.edu.my/faculties/fsg/drjj1.html

Steam Power Plant

Example:Example: AA steamsteam powerpower cycle.cycle.

Example: A A steam steam power power cycle. cycle. Pump Steam Turbine Combustion Products Heat Exchanger
Example: A A steam steam power power cycle. cycle. Pump Steam Turbine Combustion Products Heat Exchanger
Example: A A steam steam power power cycle. cycle. Pump Steam Turbine Combustion Products Heat Exchanger

Pump

Example: A A steam steam power power cycle. cycle. Pump Steam Turbine Combustion Products Heat Exchanger

Steam

Turbine

Combustion

Products

power cycle. cycle. Pump Steam Turbine Combustion Products Heat Exchanger Mechanical Energy to Generator Fuel Air

Heat

Exchanger

Mechanical Energy to Generator

Fuel

cycle. cycle. Pump Steam Turbine Combustion Products Heat Exchanger Mechanical Energy to Generator Fuel Air Cooling
cycle. cycle. Pump Steam Turbine Combustion Products Heat Exchanger Mechanical Energy to Generator Fuel Air Cooling

Air

cycle. cycle. Pump Steam Turbine Combustion Products Heat Exchanger Mechanical Energy to Generator Fuel Air Cooling

Cooling Water

cycle. cycle. Pump Steam Turbine Combustion Products Heat Exchanger Mechanical Energy to Generator Fuel Air Cooling
cycle. cycle. Pump Steam Turbine Combustion Products Heat Exchanger Mechanical Energy to Generator Fuel Air Cooling
Working fluid: Water Purpose: Produce work, W out , ω out ω net,out Second Second

Working fluid:

Water

Purpose: Produce work, W out , ω out
Purpose:
Produce work,
W out , ω out

ω net,out

SecondSecond LawLaw

High T Res., T H Furnace q in = q H Steam Power Plant q
High T Res., T H
Furnace
q in = q H
Steam Power Plant
q out = q L
Low T Res., T L
Water from river

An Energy-Flow diagram for a SPP

SecondSecond LawLaw DDreamream EngineEngine

Second Second Law Law – – D D ream ream Engine Engine What is the maximum

What is the maximum performance of real engines if it can never achieve 100%??

Carnot Cycle

P, kPa

P - ν diagram for a Carnot (ideal) power plant

desired output ω q net ,out in η= = 1 required input q in 2
desired output
ω
q
net ,out
in
η=
=
1
required input
q
in
2
q
in
out
η
=   q
rev
q
in
rev
4
3
q
out
ν, m 3 /kg
Second Second Law Law – – W W ill ill a a Process Process Happen

SecondSecond LawLaw WWillill aa ProcessProcess HappenHappen

Carnot Principles

• For heat engines in contact with the same hot and cold reservoir

engines in contact with the same hot and cold reservoir P1: η 1 = η 2

P1: η 1 = η 2 = η 3 (Equality)

P2: η real < η rev

(Inequality)

η

real

≤η

rev

Consequence

q

L

=

T

L

(K)

q

H

rev

T

H

(K)

;

η

rev

=

1

−   q  

T

L

(K)

L

= 1

q

H

rev

T

H

(K)

    T L (K) L   = 1 − q H rev

Processes satisfying Carnot Principles obeys the Second Law of Thermodynamics

T L (K) L   = 1 − q H rev T H (K) Processes
Second Second Law Law – – W W ill ill a a Process Process Happen

SecondSecond LawLaw WWillill aa ProcessProcess HappenHappen

Clausius Inequality :

• Sum of Q/T in a cyclic process must be zero for reversible processes and negative for real processes

for reversible processes and negative for real processes δQ kJ δq kJ ∫ ≤ 0, ∫
δQ kJ δq kJ ∫ ≤ 0, ∫ ≤ 0, T K T kg •
δQ
kJ
δq
kJ
≤ 0,
≤ 0,
T
K
T
kg • K
δQ
= 0,
reversible
δQ
T
< 0,
real
T
δQ
> 0,
impossible
T
≤ 0, T K T kg • K δQ ∫ = 0, reversible δQ T ∫

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Isolated systems

FIGURE 6-6 The entropy change of an isolated system is the sum of the entropy changes of its components, and is never less than zero.

change of an isolated system is the sum of the entropy changes of its components, and

EntropyEntropy QQuantifyinguantifying DisorderDisorder

– – Q Q uantifying uantifying Disorder Disorder Increase of Entropy Principle – closed system The

Increase of Entropy Principle – closed system The entropy of an isolated (closed and adiabatic) system undergoing any process, will always increase.

S

isolated

=

S

heat

+

S

gen

=∆ +∆ ≥0

S

sys

S

surr

For pure substance:

S

sys

=

m(s

2

s )

1

S gen

and

Then

S surr

=

(

Q

in

Q

out

)

surr

T surr

=

m ( s

2

s

1

)

+

(

Q

net in

,

T

)

surr

Surrounding

System
System
System
System
System
System
System
System

System

System
Entropy Entropy – – Q Q uantifying uantifying Disorder Disorder Entropy Balance – for any

EntropyEntropy QQuantifyinguantifying DisorderDisorder

Entropy Balance – for any general system

For any system undergoing any process,

Energy must be conserved (E in – E out = E sys )

Mass must be conserved (m in – m out = m sys )

Entropy will always be generated except for reversible processes

Entropy balance is (S in – S out + SS gengen = S sys )

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Entropy Transfer

FIGURE 6-61 Mechanisms of entropy transfer for a general system.

6-18

for re production or display. Entropy Transfer FIGURE 6-61 Mechanisms of entropy transfer for a general
Entropy Entropy – – Q Q uantifying uantifying Disorder Disorder Entropy Balance –Steady-flow device •

EntropyEntropy QQuantifyinguantifying DisorderDisorder

Entropy Balance –Steady-flow device

Q

in

S

in

Then:

Q

out

+

S

out

+

S

gen

S

gen

=

m ϑ

− 

ϑ 

W

W

m

S

, kW

in

out

=

out

in

S

S

S

0

 

So ,

gen

S

out

=

=

gen

=

out

sys

− 

Q

S

S

S

= 

heat

+

mass

heat

+

mass

out

in

Q

m s

m s

+ 

in

− 

T

out

exit

T

in

inlet

S

in

Entropy Entropy – – Q Q uantifying uantifying Disorder Disorder Entropy Balance –Steady-flow device •

EntropyEntropy QQuantifyinguantifying DisorderDisorder

Entropy Balance –Steady-flow device

Q

Q

 

+

W

in

W

out

=

m(

ϑ

exit

−ϑ

inlet

), kW

 

 

where

m

inlet

= m

exit

= m

 

0

− +

0

W

out

=

(

m h

4

h ), kW

3

Turbine:

Assume adiabatic,

ke mass = 0, pe mass = 0

in

out

0

Q

out

Q

in

+

kW

T

out

T

in

m

4

s

4

m

3

s

3

,

kW

K

=

0

0

+ m

(

s

4

s

3

)

,

K

In,3 Out
In,3
Out

S

Entropy

Balance

=

gen

S

gen

Entropy Entropy – – Q Q uantifying uantifying Disorder Disorder Entropy Balance –Steady-flow device Mixing

EntropyEntropy QQuantifyinguantifying DisorderDisorder

Entropy Balance –Steady-flow device

Mixing Chamber:

 

Q

out

+

W

in

W

out

=

m

ϑ

exit

m

ϑ 

inlet

, kW

Q

+

W

 

W

=

m

h

m

 

h

m

1

h , kW

1

out

in

out

3

3

2

2

 

Q

out

Q

in

+

m

s

m

s

m

   

kW

 

3

 
   

3

 

3

2

2

1

s ,

1

   
 

T

out

 

T

in

 

K

1
1
   
 

m

inlet

=

m

exit

 
 
K 1       m inlet = m exit     • Q in −
K 1       m inlet = m exit     • Q in −

Q

in

Q in

S

gen

=

2
2

where

VaporVapor CycleCycle

Steam Power Plant

Vapor Vapor Cycle Cycle Steam Power Plant External combustion Fuel (q H ) from nuclear reactors,

External combustion Fuel (q H ) from nuclear reactors, natural gas, charcoal Working fluid is H 2 O Cheap, easily available & high enthalpy of vaporization

h fg

Cycle is closed thermodynamic cycle Alternates between liquid and gas phase CanCan CarnotCarnot cyclecycle bebe usedused forfor representingrepresenting realreal SPP??SPP?? Aim: To decrease ratio of T L /T H

Vapor Vapor Cycle Cycle – – C C arnot arnot Cycle Cycle Efficiency of a

VaporVapor CycleCycle CCarnotarnot CycleCycle

Efficiency of a Carnot Cycle SPP

η

rev

η

rev

= −

1

T

L

15

273

+

= −

1

T

H

374

+

273

= 0.55

= −

1

T

L

15

273

+

= −

1

T

H

500

+

273

= 0.627

Vapor Vapor Cycle Cycle –Carnot –Carnot C Cycle ycle Impracticalities of Carnot Cycle T, °C

VaporVapor CycleCycle –Carnot–Carnot CCycleycle

Impracticalities of Carnot Cycle

T, °C q in = q H T crit T H T L Isothermal expansion:
T, °C
q in = q H
T crit
T H
T L
Isothermal expansion: T H
limited to only T crit for H 2 O.
High moisture at turbine exit
Not economical to design
pump to work in 2-phase (end
of Isothermal compression)
No assurance can get same x
for every cycle (end of
Isothermal compression)
q out = q L
s, kJ/kg ° K
s 1 = s 2
s 3 = s 4
Vapor Vapor Cycle Cycle – – A A lternate lternate Carnot Carnot Cycle Cycle Impracticalities

VaporVapor CycleCycle AAlternatelternate CarnotCarnot CycleCycle

Impracticalities of Alternate Carnot Cycle

T, °C q in = q H T H T crit Still Problematic Isothermal expansion
T, °C
q in = q H
T H
T
crit
Still Problematic
Isothermal expansion but at
variable pressure
Pump to very high pressure
Can the boiler sustain the high P?
T
L
q out = q L
s, kJ/kg ° K
s 1 = s 2
s 3 = s 4
Vapor Vapor Cycle Cycle – – I I deal deal Rankine Rankine Cycle Cycle Overcoming

VaporVapor CycleCycle IIdealdeal RankineRankine CycleCycle

Overcoming Impracticalities of Carnot Cycle

SuperheatSuperheat the H 2 O at a constant pressure (isobaric expansion) Can easily achieve desired T H higher than T crit . reduces moisture content at turbine exit Remove all excess heat at condenser Phase is sat. liquid at condenser exit, hence need only a pump to increase pressure Quality is zero for every cycle at condenser exit (pump inlet)

Vapor Vapor Cycle Cycle – – I I deal deal Rankine Rankine C C ycle

VaporVapor CycleCycle IIdealdeal RankineRankine CCycleycle

High T Res., T H Furnace
High T Res., T H
Furnace
Rankine Rankine C C ycle ycle High T Res., T H Furnace Working fluid: Water q
Rankine Rankine C C ycle ycle High T Res., T H Furnace Working fluid: Water q

Working fluid:

Water

q in = q H Boiler Condenser q out = q L Pump
q in = q H
Boiler
Condenser
q out = q L
Pump
Turbine ω
Turbine
ω

ω in

out

Low T Res., T L Water from river
Low T Res., T L
Water from river

q in - q out = ω out - ω in

q in - q out = ω net,out

A Schematic diagram for a Steam Power Plant

Vapor Vapor Cycle Cycle – – I I deal deal Rankine Rankine C C ycle

VaporVapor CycleCycle IIdealdeal RankineRankine CCycleycle

T- s diagram for an Ideal Rankine Cycle

T, °C

3 T H turbine boiler P T H crit q in = q H P
3
T
H
turbine
boiler
P
T
H
crit
q in = q H
P
L
T
ω
out
sat@P2
2
T L = T sat@P4
1
4
q out = q L
ω
in
s, kJ/kg ° K
pump
s
condenser
s
1 = s 2
3 = s 4

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

FIGURE 9-2 The simple ideal Rankine cycle.

Companies, Inc. Pe rmission required for re production or display. FIGURE 9-2 The simple ideal Rankine

VaporVapor CycleCycle IIdealdeal RankineRankine CCycleycle

– – I I deal deal Rankine Rankine C C ycle ycle Energy Analysis q in

Energy Analysis

q in = q H Boiler
q in = q H
Boiler

In,2

Out,3

C C ycle ycle Energy Analysis q in = q H Boiler In,2 Out,3 Assume ∆

Assume ke =0, pe =0 for the moving mass, kJ/kg

q in – q out + ω in ω out = θ out θ in , kJ/kg

q in – 0 + 0– 0 = h exit – h inlet , kJ/kg

q in = h 3 – h 2 , kJ/kg

Q

in

=

m(h

3

h

2

)

Q in = m(h 3 – h 2) , kJ

, kW

VaporVapor CycleCycle IIdealdeal RankineRankine CCycleycle

– – I I deal deal Rankine Rankine C C ycle ycle E n e r

Energy Analysis

Assume ke =0, pe =0 for the moving mass, kJ/kg

q in – q out + ω in ω out = θ out θ in , kJ/kg

0 – q out + 0– 0 = h exit – h inlet

- q out = h 1 – h 4 ,

Out,1

= h exit – h inlet - q out = h 1 – h 4 ,

In,4

exit – h inlet - q out = h 1 – h 4 , Out,1 In,4
Condenser
Condenser
Condenser
Condenser

Condenser

Condenser
Condenser
Condenser
h inlet - q out = h 1 – h 4 , Out,1 In,4 Condenser q

q out = q L

So, q out = h 4 – h 1 , kJ/kg

Q out = m(h 4 – h 1) , kJ

Q

out

=

m(h

4

h

1

) , kW

VaporVapor CycleCycle IIdealdeal RankineRankine CCycleycle

– – I I deal deal Rankine Rankine C C ycle ycle Energy Analysis q in

Energy Analysis

q in – q out + ω in ω out = θ out θ in , kJ/kg

0 – 0 + 0 ω out = h exit – h inlet , kJ/kg

Turbine In,3 ω out Out,4
Turbine
In,3
ω
out
Out,4

- ω out = h 4 – h 3 , kJ/kg

So, ω out = h 3 – h 4 , kJ/kg

W out = m(h 3 h 4) , kJ

W

out

=

m(h

3

h

4

)

, kW

Assume ke =0, pe =0 for the moving mass, kJ/kg

VaporVapor CycleCycle IIdealdeal RankineRankine CCycleycle

– – I I deal deal Rankine Rankine C C ycle ycle Energy Analysis Out,2 q
Energy Analysis Out,2 q in – q out + ω in – ω out =
Energy Analysis
Out,2
q in – q out + ω in – ω out = θ out – θ in , kJ/kg
ω
in
0 – 0 +
ω in – 0 = h exit – h inlet , kJ/kg
In,1
ω in = h 2 – h 1 , kJ/kg
So, W in = m(h 2 – h 1) , kJ
2
2
2
For
= ∫
Pd ν
+
νdP = 0 + ν dP
reversible
ω pump ,in
pumps
1
1
1
=ν P − P = h − h
(
)
ω pump ,in
2
1
2
1
where
ν ≅ν =ν
W
=
m(h
h
) , kW
2
1
f @ P
in
1
2
1
Pump

VaporVapor CycleCycle IIdealdeal RankineRankine CCycleycle

Energy Analysis Efficiency

Rankine Rankine C C ycle ycle Energy Analysis Efficiency η = η = ω net ,

η =

η =

ω

net ,out

 

=

q

in

q

out

=

h

3

h

2

(

h

4

h

1

)

 

q

in

 

q

in

   

h

3

h

2

 

ω

net ,out

 

=

ω

out

− ω

in

=

h

3

h

4

(

h

2

h

1

)

 

q

in

q

in

 

h

3

h

2

     

h

3

h

4

h

2

+

h

1

 

η ==

 

h

3

h

2

Vapor Vapor Cycle Cycle – – I I deal deal Rankine Rankine C C ycle

VaporVapor CycleCycle IIdealdeal RankineRankine CCycleycle

T- s diagram for an Ideal Rankine Cycle

T, °C

Note that P 1 = P 4

s 1 = s f@P1

h 1 = h f@P1

3 T s 3 = s @P3,T3 H turbine boiler P T H h 3
3
T
s 3 = s @P3,T3
H
turbine
boiler
P
T
H
h 3 = h @P3,T3
crit
q in = q H
P
L
ω
T
s 4 = [s f +xs fg ] @P4 = s 3
out
sat@P2
2
s
s
3
f @ P 4
x =
s
fg @ P
T L = T sat@P4
4
1
4
h 4 = [h f +xh fg ] @P4
q out = q L
ω
in
s, kJ/kg ° K
pump
s 1 = s 2
condenser
s 3 = s 4
h 2 = h 1 +ν 2 (P 2 – P 1 ); where
ν ≅ν =ν
2
1
f @ P
1

VaporVapor CycleCycle IIdealdeal RankineRankine CCycleycle

– – I I deal deal Rankine Rankine C C ycle ycle Energy Analysis Increasing Efficiency

Energy Analysis

Increasing Efficiency

Must increase ω net,out = q in q out Increase area under process cycle Decrease condenser pressure; P 1 =P 4

P min > P sat@Tcooling+10 deg C

Superheat T 3 limited to metullargical strength of boiler Increase boiler pressure; P 2 =P 3 Will decrease quality (an increase in moisture). Minimum x is 89.6%.

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Lowering Condenser Pressure

FIGURE 9-6 The effect of lowering the condenser pressure on the ideal Rankine cycle.

9-4

Lowering Condenser Pressure FIGURE 9-6 The effect of lowering the condenser pressure on the ideal Rankine

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

FIGURE 9-7 The effect of superheating the steam to higher temperatures on the ideal Rankine cycle.

Superheating Steam

9-7 The effect of superheating the steam to higher temperatures on the ideal Rankine cycle. Superheating

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Increasing Boiler Pressure

FIGURE 9-8 The effect of increasing the boiler pressure on the ideal Rankine cycle.

Increasing Boiler Pressure FIGURE 9-8 The effect of increasing the boiler pressure on the ideal Rankine

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

FIGURE 9-10 T-s diagrams of the three cycles discussed in Example 9–3.

required for re production or display. FIGURE 9-10 T-s diagrams of the three cycles discussed in
Vapor Vapor Cycle Cycle – – R R eheat eheat Rankine Rankine Cycle Cycle High

VaporVapor CycleCycle RReheateheat RankineRankine CycleCycle

High T Reservoir, T H
High T Reservoir, T H

ω

High Low P P turbi turbi ne ne q in = q H 3 Boiler
High
Low
P
P
turbi
turbi
ne
ne
q in = q H
3
Boiler
ω
out,1
2
4
q
reheat
in
ω
out,2
5
1
Condenser
6
Pump
q out = q L Low T Reservoir, T L
q out = q L
Low T Reservoir, T L

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

FIGURE 9-11 The ideal reheat Rankine cycle.

Companies, Inc. Pe rmission required for re production or display. FIGURE 9-11 The ideal reheat Rankine
Vapor Vapor Cycle Cycle – – R R eheat eheat Rankine Rankine Cycle Cycle Reheating

VaporVapor CycleCycle RReheateheat RankineRankine CycleCycle

Reheating increases η and reduces moisture in turbine

T, °C q reheat = h 5 -h 4 3 5 T H P 4
T, °C
q reheat = h 5 -h 4
3
5
T
H
P 4 = P 5
T
q primary = h 3 -h 2
P
3
ω
crit
out
T
sat@P3
P 6 = P 1
T
ω out, II
sat@P4
4
2
T L = T sat@P1
1
6
ω
q out = h 6 -h 1
in
s, kJ/kg ° K

s 1 = s 2

s 3 = s 4 s 5 = s 6

Vapor Vapor Cycle Cycle – – R R eheat eheat Rankine Rankine Cycle Cycle Energy

VaporVapor CycleCycle RReheateheat RankineRankine CycleCycle

Energy Analysis

q in = q primary + q reheat = h 3 - h 2 + h 5 - h 4

q out = h 6 -h 1

ω net,out = ω out,1 + ω out,2 - ω in = h 3 - h 4 + h 5 - h 6 h 2 + h 1

η =

η =

ω net ,out

ω

q in

,

net out

q in

=

(

)

 

q

in

q

out

=

h

3

h

2

+

h

5

h

4

h

6

h

1

 

q

in

h

3

h

2

+

h

5

h

4

ω

out

1

+

ω

out

2

ω

in

=

h

3

h

4

+

h

5

h

6

h

2

+

h

1

 

q

in

h

3

h

2

+

h

5

h

4

=

Vapor Vapor Cycle Cycle – – R R eheat eheat Rankine Rankine Cycle Cycle Energy

VaporVapor CycleCycle RReheateheat RankineRankine CycleCycle

Energy Analysis

where

s 6 = [s f +xs fg ] @P6 . Use x = 0.896 and s 5 = s

h 6 = [h f +xh fg ] @P6

6

Knowing s 5 and T 5 , P 5 needs to be estimated (usually approximately a quarter of P 3 to ensure x is around 89%. On the property table, choose P 5 so that the entropy is lower than s 5 above. Then can find h 5 = h @P5,T5 .

Vapor Vapor Cycle Cycle – – R R eheat eheat Rankine Rankine Cycle Cycle Energy

VaporVapor CycleCycle RReheateheat RankineRankine CycleCycle

Energy Analysis

where

s 1 = s f@P1

h 1 = h f@P1

s 3 = s @P3,T3 = s 4 .

h 2 = h 1 +ν 2 (P 2 – P 1 ); where

h 3 = h @P3,T3

ν ≅ν =ν

2

1

f @ P

1

P 5 = P 4 .

From P 4 and s 4 , lookup for h 4 in the table. If not found, then do interpolation.

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Supercritical Rankine Cycle

FIGURE 9-9 A supercritical Rankine cycle.

9-7

required for re production or display. Supercritical Rankine Cycle FIGURE 9-9 A supercritical Rankine cycle. 9-7