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Thermodynamics Lecture Series
IdealIdeal RankineRankine CycleCycle ––TheThe
PracticalPractical CycleCycle
Applied Sciences Education Research
Group (ASERG)
Faculty of Applied Sciences
Universiti Teknologi MARA
email: drjjlanita@hotmail.com

http://www5.uitm.edu.my/faculties/fsg/drjj1.html

Steam Power Plant

Example:Example: AA steamsteam powerpower cycle.cycle.

Pump

Steam

Turbine

Combustion

Products

Heat

Exchanger

Mechanical Energy to Generator

Fuel

Air

Cooling Water

Working fluid:

Water

Purpose:
Produce work,
W out , ω out

ω net,out

SecondSecond LawLaw

High T Res., T H
Furnace
q in = q H
Steam Power Plant
q out = q L
Low T Res., T L
Water from river

An Energy-Flow diagram for a SPP

SecondSecond LawLaw DDreamream EngineEngine

What is the maximum performance of real engines if it can never achieve 100%??

Carnot Cycle

P, kPa

P - ν diagram for a Carnot (ideal) power plant

desired output
ω
q
net ,out
in
η=
=
1
required input
q
in
2
q
in
out
η
=   q
rev
q
in
rev
4
3
q
out
ν, m 3 /kg

SecondSecond LawLaw WWillill aa ProcessProcess HappenHappen

Carnot Principles

• For heat engines in contact with the same hot and cold reservoir

P1: η 1 = η 2 = η 3 (Equality)

P2: η real < η rev

(Inequality)

η

real

≤η

rev

Consequence

q

L

=

T

L

(K)

q

H

rev

T

H

(K)

;

η

rev

=

1

−   q  

T

L

(K)

L

= 1

q

H

rev

T

H

(K)

Processes satisfying Carnot Principles obeys the Second Law of Thermodynamics

SecondSecond LawLaw WWillill aa ProcessProcess HappenHappen

Clausius Inequality :

• Sum of Q/T in a cyclic process must be zero for reversible processes and negative for real processes

δQ
kJ
δq
kJ
≤ 0,
≤ 0,
T
K
T
kg • K
δQ
= 0,
reversible
δQ
T
< 0,
real
T
δQ
> 0,
impossible
T

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Isolated systems

FIGURE 6-6 The entropy change of an isolated system is the sum of the entropy changes of its components, and is never less than zero.

EntropyEntropy QQuantifyinguantifying DisorderDisorder

Increase of Entropy Principle – closed system The entropy of an isolated (closed and adiabatic) system undergoing any process, will always increase.

S

isolated

=

S

heat

+

S

gen

=∆ +∆ ≥0

S

sys

S

surr

For pure substance:

S

sys

=

m(s

2

s )

1

S gen

and

Then

S surr

=

(

Q

in

Q

out

)

surr

T surr

=

m ( s

2

s

1

)

+

(

Q

net in

,

T

)

surr

Surrounding

System

EntropyEntropy QQuantifyinguantifying DisorderDisorder

Entropy Balance – for any general system

For any system undergoing any process,

Energy must be conserved (E in – E out = E sys )

Mass must be conserved (m in – m out = m sys )

Entropy will always be generated except for reversible processes

Entropy balance is (S in – S out + SS gengen = S sys )

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Entropy Transfer

FIGURE 6-61 Mechanisms of entropy transfer for a general system.

6-18

EntropyEntropy QQuantifyinguantifying DisorderDisorder

Q

in

S

in

Then:

Q

out

+

S

out

+

S

gen

S

gen

=

m ϑ

− 

ϑ 

W

W

m

S

, kW

in

out

=

out

in

S

S

S

0

 

So ,

gen

S

out

=

=

gen

=

out

sys

− 

Q

S

S

S

= 

heat

+

mass

heat

+

mass

out

in

Q

m s

m s

+ 

in

− 

T

out

exit

T

in

inlet

S

in

EntropyEntropy QQuantifyinguantifying DisorderDisorder

Q

Q

 • • • + W in − W out = m( ϑ exit −ϑ inlet ), kW • • • where m inlet = m exit = m • •

0

− +

0

W

out

=

(

m h

4

h ), kW

3

Turbine:

ke mass = 0, pe mass = 0

in

out

0

 • • Q out − Q in + • − • kW T out T in • m 4 s 4 m 3 s 3 , kW K = −

0

0

+ m

(

s

4

s

3

)

,

K

In,3
Out

S

Entropy

Balance

=

gen

S

gen

EntropyEntropy QQuantifyinguantifying DisorderDisorder

Mixing Chamber:

 • • •  •   •  Q out + W in − W out = ∑  m   ϑ    exit − ∑  m   ϑ    inlet , kW • • • • • • − Q + W − W = m h − m h − m 1 h , kW 1 • out • in out 3 3 2 2 Q out − Q in + • m s − • m s − • m kW 3 3 3 2 2 1 s , 1 T out • T in • K 1 m inlet = m exit

Q

in

Q in

S

gen

=

2

where

VaporVapor CycleCycle

Steam Power Plant

External combustion Fuel (q H ) from nuclear reactors, natural gas, charcoal Working fluid is H 2 O Cheap, easily available & high enthalpy of vaporization

h fg

Cycle is closed thermodynamic cycle Alternates between liquid and gas phase CanCan CarnotCarnot cyclecycle bebe usedused forfor representingrepresenting realreal SPP??SPP?? Aim: To decrease ratio of T L /T H

VaporVapor CycleCycle CCarnotarnot CycleCycle

Efficiency of a Carnot Cycle SPP

η

rev

η

rev

= −

1

T

L

15

273

+

= −

1

T

H

374

+

273

= 0.55

= −

1

T

L

15

273

+

= −

1

T

H

500

+

273

= 0.627

VaporVapor CycleCycle –Carnot–Carnot CCycleycle

Impracticalities of Carnot Cycle

T, °C
q in = q H
T crit
T H
T L
Isothermal expansion: T H
limited to only T crit for H 2 O.
High moisture at turbine exit
Not economical to design
pump to work in 2-phase (end
of Isothermal compression)
No assurance can get same x
for every cycle (end of
Isothermal compression)
q out = q L
s, kJ/kg ° K
s 1 = s 2
s 3 = s 4

VaporVapor CycleCycle AAlternatelternate CarnotCarnot CycleCycle

Impracticalities of Alternate Carnot Cycle

T, °C
q in = q H
T H
T
crit
Still Problematic
Isothermal expansion but at
variable pressure
Pump to very high pressure
Can the boiler sustain the high P?
T
L
q out = q L
s, kJ/kg ° K
s 1 = s 2
s 3 = s 4

VaporVapor CycleCycle IIdealdeal RankineRankine CycleCycle

Overcoming Impracticalities of Carnot Cycle

SuperheatSuperheat the H 2 O at a constant pressure (isobaric expansion) Can easily achieve desired T H higher than T crit . reduces moisture content at turbine exit Remove all excess heat at condenser Phase is sat. liquid at condenser exit, hence need only a pump to increase pressure Quality is zero for every cycle at condenser exit (pump inlet)

VaporVapor CycleCycle IIdealdeal RankineRankine CCycleycle

High T Res., T H
Furnace

Working fluid:

Water

q in = q H
Boiler
Condenser
q out = q L
Pump
Turbine
ω

ω in

out

Low T Res., T L
Water from river

q in - q out = ω out - ω in

q in - q out = ω net,out

A Schematic diagram for a Steam Power Plant

VaporVapor CycleCycle IIdealdeal RankineRankine CCycleycle

T- s diagram for an Ideal Rankine Cycle

T, °C

3
T
H
turbine
boiler
P
T
H
crit
q in = q H
P
L
T
ω
out
sat@P2
2
T L = T sat@P4
1
4
q out = q L
ω
in
s, kJ/kg ° K
pump
s
condenser
s
1 = s 2
3 = s 4

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

FIGURE 9-2 The simple ideal Rankine cycle.

VaporVapor CycleCycle IIdealdeal RankineRankine CCycleycle

Energy Analysis

q in = q H
Boiler

In,2

Out,3

Assume ke =0, pe =0 for the moving mass, kJ/kg

q in – q out + ω in ω out = θ out θ in , kJ/kg

q in – 0 + 0– 0 = h exit – h inlet , kJ/kg

q in = h 3 – h 2 , kJ/kg

Q

in

=

m(h

3

h

2

)

Q in = m(h 3 – h 2) , kJ

, kW

VaporVapor CycleCycle IIdealdeal RankineRankine CCycleycle

Energy Analysis

Assume ke =0, pe =0 for the moving mass, kJ/kg

q in – q out + ω in ω out = θ out θ in , kJ/kg

0 – q out + 0– 0 = h exit – h inlet

- q out = h 1 – h 4 ,

Out,1

In,4

Condenser

q out = q L

So, q out = h 4 – h 1 , kJ/kg

Q out = m(h 4 – h 1) , kJ

Q

out

=

m(h

4

h

1

) , kW

VaporVapor CycleCycle IIdealdeal RankineRankine CCycleycle

Energy Analysis

q in – q out + ω in ω out = θ out θ in , kJ/kg

0 – 0 + 0 ω out = h exit – h inlet , kJ/kg

Turbine
In,3
ω
out
Out,4

- ω out = h 4 – h 3 , kJ/kg

So, ω out = h 3 – h 4 , kJ/kg

W out = m(h 3 h 4) , kJ

W

out

=

m(h

3

h

4

)

, kW

Assume ke =0, pe =0 for the moving mass, kJ/kg

VaporVapor CycleCycle IIdealdeal RankineRankine CCycleycle

Energy Analysis
Out,2
q in – q out + ω in – ω out = θ out – θ in , kJ/kg
ω
in
0 – 0 +
ω in – 0 = h exit – h inlet , kJ/kg
In,1
ω in = h 2 – h 1 , kJ/kg
So, W in = m(h 2 – h 1) , kJ
2
2
2
For
= ∫
Pd ν
+
νdP = 0 + ν dP
reversible
ω pump ,in
pumps
1
1
1
=ν P − P = h − h
(
)
ω pump ,in
2
1
2
1
where
ν ≅ν =ν
W
=
m(h
h
) , kW
2
1
f @ P
in
1
2
1
Pump

VaporVapor CycleCycle IIdealdeal RankineRankine CCycleycle

Energy Analysis Efficiency

η =

η =

 ω net ,out = q in − q out = h 3 − h 2 − ( h 4 − h 1 ) q in q in h 3 − h 2 ω net ,out = ω out − ω in = h 3 − h 4 − ( h 2 − h 1 ) q in q in h 3 − h 2 h 3 − h 4 − h 2 + h 1 η == h 3 − h 2

VaporVapor CycleCycle IIdealdeal RankineRankine CCycleycle

T- s diagram for an Ideal Rankine Cycle

T, °C

Note that P 1 = P 4

s 1 = s f@P1

h 1 = h f@P1

3
T
s 3 = s @P3,T3
H
turbine
boiler
P
T
H
h 3 = h @P3,T3
crit
q in = q H
P
L
ω
T
s 4 = [s f +xs fg ] @P4 = s 3
out
sat@P2
2
s
s
3
f @ P 4
x =
s
fg @ P
T L = T sat@P4
4
1
4
h 4 = [h f +xh fg ] @P4
q out = q L
ω
in
s, kJ/kg ° K
pump
s 1 = s 2
condenser
s 3 = s 4
h 2 = h 1 +ν 2 (P 2 – P 1 ); where
ν ≅ν =ν
2
1
f @ P
1

VaporVapor CycleCycle IIdealdeal RankineRankine CCycleycle

Energy Analysis

Increasing Efficiency

Must increase ω net,out = q in q out Increase area under process cycle Decrease condenser pressure; P 1 =P 4

P min > P sat@Tcooling+10 deg C

Superheat T 3 limited to metullargical strength of boiler Increase boiler pressure; P 2 =P 3 Will decrease quality (an increase in moisture). Minimum x is 89.6%.

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Lowering Condenser Pressure

FIGURE 9-6 The effect of lowering the condenser pressure on the ideal Rankine cycle.

9-4

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FIGURE 9-7 The effect of superheating the steam to higher temperatures on the ideal Rankine cycle.

Superheating Steam

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Increasing Boiler Pressure

FIGURE 9-8 The effect of increasing the boiler pressure on the ideal Rankine cycle.

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FIGURE 9-10 T-s diagrams of the three cycles discussed in Example 9–3.

VaporVapor CycleCycle RReheateheat RankineRankine CycleCycle

High T Reservoir, T H

ω

High
Low
P
P
turbi
turbi
ne
ne
q in = q H
3
Boiler
ω
out,1
2
4
q
reheat
in
ω
out,2
5
1
Condenser
6
Pump
q out = q L
Low T Reservoir, T L

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

FIGURE 9-11 The ideal reheat Rankine cycle.

VaporVapor CycleCycle RReheateheat RankineRankine CycleCycle

Reheating increases η and reduces moisture in turbine

T, °C
q reheat = h 5 -h 4
3
5
T
H
P 4 = P 5
T
q primary = h 3 -h 2
P
3
ω
crit
out
T
sat@P3
P 6 = P 1
T
ω out, II
sat@P4
4
2
T L = T sat@P1
1
6
ω
q out = h 6 -h 1
in
s, kJ/kg ° K

s 1 = s 2

s 3 = s 4 s 5 = s 6

VaporVapor CycleCycle RReheateheat RankineRankine CycleCycle

Energy Analysis

q in = q primary + q reheat = h 3 - h 2 + h 5 - h 4

q out = h 6 -h 1

ω net,out = ω out,1 + ω out,2 - ω in = h 3 - h 4 + h 5 - h 6 h 2 + h 1

η =

η =

ω net ,out

ω

q in

,

net out

q in

=

(

)

 q in − q out = h 3 − h 2 + h 5 − h 4 − h 6 − h 1 q in h 3 − h 2 + h 5 − h 4 ω out 1 + ω out 2 − ω in = h 3 − h 4 + h 5 − h 6 − h 2 + h 1 q in h 3 − h 2 + h 5 − h 4

=

VaporVapor CycleCycle RReheateheat RankineRankine CycleCycle

Energy Analysis

where

s 6 = [s f +xs fg ] @P6 . Use x = 0.896 and s 5 = s

h 6 = [h f +xh fg ] @P6

6

Knowing s 5 and T 5 , P 5 needs to be estimated (usually approximately a quarter of P 3 to ensure x is around 89%. On the property table, choose P 5 so that the entropy is lower than s 5 above. Then can find h 5 = h @P5,T5 .

VaporVapor CycleCycle RReheateheat RankineRankine CycleCycle

Energy Analysis

where

s 1 = s f@P1

h 1 = h f@P1

s 3 = s @P3,T3 = s 4 .

h 2 = h 1 +ν 2 (P 2 – P 1 ); where

h 3 = h @P3,T3

ν ≅ν =ν

2

1

f @ P

1

P 5 = P 4 .

From P 4 and s 4 , lookup for h 4 in the table. If not found, then do interpolation.

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Supercritical Rankine Cycle

FIGURE 9-9 A supercritical Rankine cycle.

9-7