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Solutions for Math 311 Assignment #11

(1) Let C denote the circle |z| = 1 oriented counterclockwise.

 (a) Show that C z n for n = 0, 1, 2, (b) Show that

exp z dz =

1

C exp z + z dz = 2πi

1

2πi

(n + 1)!

n=0

1

n!(n + 1)! .

Proof. (a) Since

n=0

m=0

z n

n!

z m

m!

e z =

for |z| < ,

z n exp z = z n

1

=

m=0

z nm

m!

for 0 < |z| < . Therefore,

C z n exp z dz =

1

m=0

m! C

1

z nm

m!

dz.

And since C z nm dz = 0 if n m

= 1 and 2πi if n m = 1,

C z n exp z dz =

1

2πi

(n + 1)! .

(b) Since

exp z + z = exp(z) exp

1

1

z =

n=0

z n

n!

exp

1

z

we obtain

C exp z + z dz =

1

n=0

n! C z n exp z dz =

1

1

n=0

2πi

n!(n + 1)!

1

2

(2) Let the degrees of the polynomials

 P(z) = a 0 + a 1 z + a 2 z 2 + + a n z n (a n = 0) and Q(z) = b 0 + b 1 z + b 2 z 2 + + b m z m (b m = 0)

be such that m n + 2. Show that if all the zeros of Q(z) are interior to a simple closed contour C, then

C

Q(z) P(z) dz = 0.

Proof. Since P (z)/Q(z) is analytic outside C,

P(z)

Q(z) dz = 2πi Res z= Q(z) = 2πi Res z=0

C

P(z)

z 2 Q(1/z)

1

P (1/z)

Note that

1

P (1/z)

=

z 2 Q(1/z)

1

a 0 + a 1 z 1 + a 2 z 2 +

+ a n z n

z 2 b 0 + b 1 z 1 + b 2 z 2 +

+ b m z m

 = z m−n−2 a 0 z n + a 1 z n−1 + a 2 z n−2 + b 0 z m + b 1 z m−1 + b 2 z m−2 + + a n + b m

is analytic at 0 since m n + 2 and a n , b m = 0. Therefore,

Res z=0

z 2 Q(1/z) = 0

1

P (1/z)

and hence

C

P(z) Q(z) dz = 0

(3) Write the principal part of each of the following functions at its isolated singular point and determine whether the point is a pole, a removable singular point, or an essential singular point:

(a)

(b)

(c)

z exp

sin z

z

1

;

1

z ;

(2 z) 3 .

3

 Solution. (a) The function z exp(1/z) has a singularity at 0 and

z exp z = z

1

n=0

z n

=

n!

= z + 1 +

n=1

n=0

z 1n

n!

1

= z + 1 +

(n + 1)!z n

n=2

1

(n!)z n1

So it has an essential singularity at 0 with the principal part

n=1

1

(n + 1)!z n

(b) The function sin z/z has a singularity at 0 and

sin z

= 1

z z

n=0

(1) n

(2n + 1)! z 2n+1 =

n=0

(1) n

(2n + 1)! z 2n

So it has a removable singularity at 0 with the principal part 0.

(c) The function 1/(2 z) 3 has a pole at 2 with the principal

part

1

(2 z) 3 .

(4) Show that the singular point of each of the following functions is a pole. Determine the order of the pole and the residue of the function at the pole. 1 cosh z

(a)

z

3

;

(b)

(c)

1 e 2z

z

e

4

2z

;

(z 1) 2 .

4

Solution. (a) At z = 0, the Laurent series of the function is

1

2 (e z + e z )

1 cosh z z 3

z 1 3 1

z 1 3 1

=

=

1

2

n=0

z n

n! +

n=0

(1) n z n n!

=

1 3 1

z

n=0

(2n)!

z

2n

=

n=1

z 2n3

(2n)!

1

= 2z

n=2

z 2n3

(2n)!

So it has a pole of order m = 1 with residue B = 1/2 at 0.

(b) At z = 0, the Laurent series of the function is

1 exp(2z)

z 4

=

4 1

1

z

n=0

(2z) n

n!

= 1 4

z

n=1

2

n z n

n!

=

n=1

2 n z n4

n!

2

2

4

= z 3 z 2 3z

n=4

2 n z n4

n!

So it has a pole of order m = 3 with residue B = 4/3 at 0.

(c) At z = 1, the Laurent series of the function is

exp(2z)

(z

1) 2

e 2 e 2(z1)

1) 2

n=0

e

2

e

2

n=0

n=2

2 n (z 1) n

n!

=

(z

= e 2

=

=

(z 1) 2

2 n (z 1) n2

n!

2e 2

2 n (z 1) n2

n!

1) 2 + z 1 + e 2

(z

So it has a pole of order m = 2 with residue B = 2e 2 at 1.

(5) Find the value of the integral

C

3z 3 + 2 1) 2 (z 2 + 9) dz

(z

taken counterclockwise around the circle (a) |z 2| = 2 (b) |z| = 4.

5

Solution. (a) In the disk |z 2| < 2, (3z 3 +2)/((z 1) 2 (z 2 +9)) has one singularity at 1. Therefore,

|z2|=2

3z 3 + 2

1) 2 (z 2 + 9) dz = 2πi Res z=1

(z

3z 3 + 2

(z

1) 2 (z 2 + 9)

=

2πi 3z 3 + 2 z 2 + 9

z=1

= 8πi

5

.

(b) In the disk |z| < 4, (3z 3 + 2)/((z 1) 2 (z 2 + 9)) has three singularities at 1, 3i and 3i. Therefore,

|z|=4

3z 3 + 2

9) dz = 2πi Res z=1

+ Res z=3i

3z 3 + 2

(z

1) 2 (z 2 +

(z

1) 2 (z 2 + 9)

3z 3 + 2

(z 1) 2 (z 2 + 9)

+

Res z=3i

3z 3 + 2 1) 2 (z 2 + 9)

(z

We have computed in part (a) that

Res z=1

4

(z 1) 2 (z 2 + 9) = 5

3z 3 + 2

For its residues at ±3i, we have

Res z=3i

3z 3 + 2

(z

1) 2 (z 2

+ 9) = Res z=3i

3z 3 + 2

(z 1) 2 (z + 3i)(z 3i)

=

3z 3 +

2

(z 1) 2 (z 3i)

z=3i = 11

10 + 47

60

and

Res z=3i

3z 3 + 2

(z

1) 2 (z 2 + 9) = Res z=3i

3z 3 + 2

(z 1) 2 (z + 3i)(z 3i)

=

3z 3 + 2

(z

1) 2 (z + 3i)

z=3i

= 11

10

47

60

Therefore,

|z|=4

3z 3 + 2

1) 2 (z 2 + 9) dz = 6πi.

(z

i

i

6

Alternatively, since all singularties of (3z 3 +2)/((z 1) 2 (z 2 +9)) lie in |z| ≤ 4,

|z|=4

3z 3 + 2

1) 2 (z 2 + 9) dz = 2πi Res z=

(z

3z 3 + 2

(z

1) 2 (z 2 + 9)

3z 3 + 2

2πi Res z=0 (z 2 )

=

(z 1 1) 2 (z 2 + 9) 3 + 2z 3

= 2πi Res z=0

= 6πi.

z(1 z) 2 (1 + 9z 2 )

(6) Let C N denote the boundary of the square whose edges lie along the lines

x = ± N + 1

2 π and y = ± N +

1

2 π

oriented counterclockwise, where N is a positive integer.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Show that

C N

dz z 2 sin z = 2πi

Show that

1

6 + 2

N

n=1

(1) n

n

2 π 2

Show that

N →∞ C N

lim

dz z 2 sin z = 0.

n=1

2 = π 2

1

n

6 .

.

Proof. The function 1/(z 2 sin z) is analytic in C\{

Z}. Hence it has singularities at 0, ±π, ±2π, the curve C N . Therefore,

, ±inside

:

n

C N

dz z 2 sin z = 2πi

N

n=N

Res z=

1

z 2 sin z

7

At z = 0,

1

z 2 sin z =

=

1

z

2

1

z 3

n=0

n=0

=

1 3 1

z

=

1

z

3

k=0

1)! z 2n+1 1

(1) n

(2n +

(2n + 1)! z 2n 1

(1) n

n=1

n=1

(2n + 1)! z 2n 1

(1) n+1

(2n + 1)! z 2n k = z 1

(1)

n+1

3

1 + z 3! 2

+

1 1

z 3 + 6z + Therefore,

=

1

1

Res z=0

= 0, 1/(z 2 sin z) has a simple pole and hence

z 2 sin z = 6

At z = with n

Res z=

1

z 2

z 2

z 2 sin z = Res z=nπ sin z = (sin z)

=

n 2 π 2 cos() = (1) n

1

n

2 π 2

z=

Therefore,

C N

dz

z 2 sin z =

=

1

2πi 6

1

n=N

N

n=1

+

2πi 6 + 2

1

(1)

n 2 π

n N

2 +

n=1

(1) n

n

2 π 2

(1) n

n 2 π 2

When z

±(N + 1/2)π. Note that | sin z| 2 = | sin(x + yi)| 2 = | sin x cos(yi) + cos x sin(yi)| 2

=

x + yi

C N , either x

=

±(N + 1/2)π or y

=

= | sin x cosh y + i cos x sinh y| 2

= (sin x) 2 (cosh y) 2 + (cos x) 2 (sinh y) 2

= (sin x) 2 (1 + (sinh y) 2 ) + (cos x) 2 (sinh y) 2

= (sin x) 2 + (sinh y) 2

8

When x = ±(N + 1/2)π,

| sin z| ≥ | sin x| = 1

When y = ±(N + 1/2)π,

| sin z| ≥ | sinh y| = sinh((N + 1/2)π)

Obviously, sinh((N + 1/2)π) > 1 for N 0. Therefore,

| sin(z)| ≥ 1

for z C N .

And since |z| ≥ (N + 1/2)π for z C N ,

1

z 2 sin z

1

(N

+ 1/2) 2 π 2

Therefore,

C N

dz z 2 sin z

+ 1/2) 2 π 2 C N

1

(N

|dz| =

8

(N + 1/2)π

and hence

It follows that

N →∞ C N

lim

dz z 2 sin z = 0

2πi 6 + 2

1

(1) n

n 2 π 2

n=1

= 0

That is,

Finally, since

n=1

(1) n+1

n 2

=

π 2

12 .

n=1

(1) n+1

n 2

=

=

=

k=1

k=1

n=1

1

(2k 1) 2

1

(2k 1) 2 +

k=1

k=1

1

(2k) 2

1

(2k) 2 2

1

n

2 1

2

n=1

1

n

2 = 1

2

n=1

1

n 2 ,

k=1

1

(2k) 2

we obtain

n=1

2 = π 2

1

n

6 .