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Equilibrium Qualitative Worksheet Answers

1.

a)
b)

Equal rates of forward and reverse reactions.


Constant composition.

2.

a)
b)

No net change constant composition


Change is always occurring to particles forward and reverse reactions.

3.

A closed system (sealed) containing brown nitrogen dioxide gas and colourless N 2O4
gas with constant colour intensity and other macroscopic properties. The forward
reaction, decomposition of N2O4, occurs at an equal rate as the combination of NO 2
to form N2O4.
4.
b)
c)
d)

5.

a)
Equilibrium sealed in glass closed system. Constant macroscopic
properties pressure. Evaporation of mercury at same rate as condensation
of gaseous mercury.
Steady state open system with no true reverse process. Persons from
outside join the line at the same rate as persons having drank leave for the
outside.
Open system fuel and air enter from outside at the same rate they are
consumed to form products. Products removed to outside of the reaction
chamber steady state.
Steady state water level is constant because water enters the lake from the
river at the same rate as it is removed to outside for domestic use and
through evaporation.

Raise the temperature rapidly via a flame or spark. This will increase the rate(s) of
reaction greatly and cause a net change. If, on cooling the system back to the
original temperature, the original composition is obtained, then the system is an
equilibrium.
6.
b)

a)
Equilibrium state is a particular ratio of products to reactants for a
system at equilibrium.
B always

7.

No. it will appear in both CO and CO2 as the forward and reverse reactions still occur
at equilibrium 14C will be interchanged between CO and CO2 continuously.

8.

Both flasks will contain the same materials H2O, CO, H2 and CO2 with the same ratio
of products to reactants (see Equilibrium Law later).

Equilibrium Qualitative Worksheet Answers

9.

a)
b)
c)
d)

10.

Cat
N2(g) + 3H2(g)
2NH3(g)
rate of production of ammonia (forward reaction) equals the rate of
decomposition of ammonia (reverse reaction).
(i) increases the formation of ammonia (more NH3)
(ii) increases the formation of ammonia.
(iii) decreases the formation of ammonia (less NH3)
increases both the forward and reverse rates equally so to maintain a
constant amount of NH3.

a)
b)
c)

increased
increased
increased

11.

a)
b)
c)
d)

reverse
no effect
reverse
forward

12.

a)
b)
c)

moves to the left less products


moves to the left less products
no effect

13.

Le Chatelier's Principle whenever a system in equilibrium is subjected to a change,


processes occur to partially counteract the imposed change.
a)
Adding H2 increase in [H2]. The system favours the forward reaction to
remove part of the added H2 increase in [CH3OH].
b)
Removing product CH3OH decreases [CH3OH]. The system favours the
forward reaction to replace some of the removed CH3OH. Less [CH3OH].
c)
Increasing the pressure of the system by reducing volume causes a greater
increase in reactant concentrations than the [CH3OH]. The system favours
the forward reaction to remove the greater increase in reactant concentrations
partially or
Increasing the pressure increases the density of gaseous molecules. The
system partially counteracts this by favouring the reaction which produces
fewer gaseous molecules forward reaction 3 molecules 1 molecule i.e.
greater [CH3OH].
d)
The system favours the exothermic reaction so to partially replace the lost
heat caused by cooling. This produces more CH3OH increased [CH3OH].

more H2 than originally

Equilibrium Qualitative Worksheet Answers

Questions 14 20

CO + Cl2

COCl2 + QkJ200C, 1 atm

favours products A
lower temperature both rates decrease B

14.

a)
b)

15.

System favours products


a)
A
b)
A
c)
B
d)
A

16.

System favours reactants


a)
A
b)
B

17.

Increase the volume of the system reduced concentrations system favours


reactants.
a)
B
b)
B

18.

Stress : greater increase in [products] or greater increase in reverse reaction by


collision theory system favours reactants A.

19.

Stress : greater increase in [reactants] system favours forward reaction B.

20.

Stress : increase in [Cl2] system favours products B.

21.

2SO2(g) + O2(g)

2SO3(g) + Q

a)

(i) system favours forward reaction more SO3 and less SO2 and O2. Both
rates go faster.
(ii) system favours reverse reaction less SO3 and more SO2 and O2. Both
rates are faster.

b)

(i) In (a), a high pressure and low temperature gives an equilibrium position
favouring SO3. The high pressure results in high plant and safety costs. The
low temperature would result in very low rates and long times to reach
equilibrium slow production. Thus if a catalyst and moderate temperature
is used, there are considerable cost and time savings as both lead to faster
rates and quick equilibrium. On top of this, the SO 3 can be readily removed
by liquefaction.
(ii) If one starts with reactants (normal case), the heat is released by the
system via the forward reaction as it proceeds to equilibrium. So at
equilibrium, it will be hot from its own released heat.

Equilibrium Qualitative Worksheet Answers

Equilibrium Qualitative Worksheet Answers

22.

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

right
left
right
no effect as Ar will not alter the rate of successful collisions (constant volume)
no effect both rates equally lowered
right (forward reaction is endothermic)

23.

Changing pressure by changing volume causes all concentrations to change and if


one side is affected more by concentration change, then the position changes.
However adding an inert gas and not changing volume does not change individual
concentrations of gases no effect or inert gas particles do increase the rates of
collision but do not change the rates of successful collision.

24.

Often the equilibrium position does change because of different numbers of moles of
reactants and products in the stoichiometric equation. Those systems with equal
numbers of moles of reactants and products in the balanced equation have both
[reactants] and [products] affected equally producing no net effect.

25.

Because there is only one substance present as a gas (CaO and CaCO 3 are
solids), then the only substance changing concentration is the gas CO2
pCO2
= 0.25 atm
T
= 800
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

CaCO3(s)
CaO(s) + CO2(g)
Reverse or to the left
Greater than 0.25 atm (actually 0.25 atm equilibrium law)
Decrease
Decrease
Increase

26.

b)

only

27.

a)

The equilibrium position would shift to the left causing precipitation of some
CaCO3. Le Chatelier's Principle says gas production would be favoured to
partially counteract the change or [CO2] would be reduced decreasing the rate
of the forward reaction.
Changing temperature. Usually hotter outside the cave so the endothermic
reaction, the reverse reaction is favoured.

b)

Equilibrium Qualitative Worksheet Answers

SCIENTIFIC PROCESS
28.

Blue. The equilibrium position moves to the left as [H2O(g)] is reduced.

29.

Kilns are not closed systems. The CO2(g) is released to the atmosphere or collected
to produce dry ice or CO 2(l). Thus the reverse reaction cannot happen no
equilibrium.

30.

Raising the temperature favours the endothermic reaction to remove heat for
KNO3(s)
K+(aq) + NO3(aq) the forward reaction is endothermic. Solution should
feel cold.

31.

Must favour the forward reaction use 100% ethanol. Such an excess of ethanol
produces a very high [CH3CH2OH] driving the equilibrium to the right.

32.

a)
b)
c)
d)

H2 sudden increase in the [H2]


(i) [CO] reduced as forward reaction favoured
(ii) [CH3OH] increased as forward reaction favoured
(iii) increased as forward reaction favoured and it releases heat
low temperature and high pressure
to reduce the time needed to achieve equilibrium

33.

Cr2O7(aq)2- + H2O(l)
2CrO2-4(aq) + 2H+(aq)
orange
yellow
a)
It turns orange as the reverse reaction is favoured.
b)
It turns yellow as the forward reaction is favoured when H+ is removed by the
base, NaOH.

34.

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

35.

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

NOCl(g)
NO(g) + Cl2(g)
H = + 38kJ
Decreasing [NOCl] with temperature increase suggests this but can only be
confirmed by using the Equilibrium Law.
If all concentrations were halved by halving the pressure, then the forward
reaction is favoured to produce more gaseous molecules. [Cl 2] would be less
than halved on reaching new equilibrium.
This doubles the pressure and concentration of each substance initially.
Reverse reaction favoured to re-establish a new equilibrium state favouring
reactant NOCl.
At equilibrium
Reactants favoured by temperature rise forward reaction is exothermic.
Greater than. Adding COCl2 increases [COCl2] system favours reverse
reaction to partially remove the increase.

Equilibrium Qualitative Worksheet Answers

36.

a)
b)
c)

d)

37.

a)
b)
c)

Equilibrium attained via the reverse reaction.


As temperature rises, the amount of NH 3 increases reverse reaction
favoured exothermic.
Rate of decomposition 2NH3 N2 + 3H2 increases with increasing
temperature. It has a high activation energy and with increasing temperature
more molecules will have kinetic energies in excess of the activation energy
higher rate of successful collision higher rate of reaction.
No change in moles of NH3 remaining at equilibrium but equilibrium would
take much more time to attain lower gradient to graph.
Equilibrium is attained because of the reverse reaction and a closed system.
The higher temperature of C results in quicker production of NO and
attainment of equilibrium (horizontal section). Hence larger slope for C (slope
= rate).
The forward reaction is exothermic. An increase in temperature of a system
in equilibrium causes the endothermic reaction to be favoured by Le
Chatelier's Principle. This is the reverse reaction leading to less NO.

Equilibrium Qualitative Worksheet Answers