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Name _____________________

Class ______________

Date _________

Activity P04: Position, Velocity and Acceleration Graphs


(Motion Sensor)
Concept

DataStudio

ScienceWorkshop (Mac)

ScienceWorkshop (Win)

Linear motion

P04 Motion Graphs.DS

P05 Position, Velocity, Acceleration

P05_POSI.SWS

Equipment Needed

Qty

Optional Equipment

Qty

Motion Sensor II (CI-6742)

String (SE-8050)

1m

Fan Cart (ME-9485)

2.2 m Track System (ME-9452)

What Do You Think?

Thepurposeofthisactivityistostudytherelationshipamongposition,velocity,andacceleration
inlinearmotion.Howdothedistancevs.time,velocityvs.time,andaccelerationvs.timegraphs
forafancartuniformlyaccelerating,fromrest,comparewithoneanother?
TaketimetoanswertheWhatDoYouThink?question(s)intheLabReportsection.
Background

Equationsformotion,givenaconstantacceleration(a),are:

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Physics Labs with Computers, Vol. 1


P04: Position, Velocity and Acceleration Graphs

Student Workbook
012-07000A

Position:

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Name _____________________

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Class ______________

1999 PASCO scientific

Date _________

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Physics Labs with Computers, Vol. 1


P04: Position, Velocity and Acceleration Graphs

Student Workbook
012-07000A

wherexoandvoaretheinitialpositionandinitialvelocity.Notethatifxoandvoarezero,the
equationisaparabola.
Velocity(1stderivativeofPosition):
st

Notethatthe1 derivativeofpositionistheslopeofthepositionvs.timegraph.Thisequationis
linear.Theslopeofthevelocityvs.timegraphistheconstantacceleration.Theaccelerationcan
alsobewritten:
Acceleration(2ndderivativeofPosition):

SAFETY REMINDERS

Keep hands clear of fan blades.

Do not let the cart run away from the user. Catch the cart before the cart
crashes into the bumper or travels off from the table.

Follow directions for using equipment.

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1999 PASCO scientific

P04

Name _____________________

Class ______________

Date _________

For You To Do

UseaMotionSensortomeasurethepositionofaFanCartasitmovesawayfromtheMotion
Sensor.UseDataStudioorScienceWorkshoptoplotandanalyzethecartsposition(x),velocity
(v),andacceleration(a).
Prediction: Sketch a prediction of the position, velocity, and acceleration vs. time graphs for the Fan
Carts motion.

PART I: Computer Setup

1.

ConnecttheScienceWorkshopinterfacetothe
computer,turnontheinterface,andturnonthe
computer.

2.

ConnecttheMotionSensorsphoneplugstoDigital
Channels1and2ontheinterface.Plugtheyellow
banded(pulse)plugintoDigitalChannel1andthe
secondplug(echo)intoDigitalChannel2.

3.

Openthedocumenttitledasshown:
DataStudio

ScienceWorkshop (Mac)

ScienceWorkshop (Win)

P04 Motion Graphs.DS

P05 Position, Velocity, Acceleration

P05_POSI.SWS

TheDataStudiodocumenthasaWorkbookdisplay.Readtheinstructionsinthe
Workbook.

TheScienceWorkshopdocumentopenswithaGraphdisplayofPosition(m),Velocity
(m/s),andAcceleration(m/s/s)versusTime(s).

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Physics Labs with Computers, Vol. 1


P04: Position, Velocity and Acceleration Graphs

Student Workbook
012-07000A

PART II: Sensor Calibration and Equipment Setup

YoudonotneedtocalibratetheMotionSensor.

1.

PlacetheMotionSensorandFanCartonaflathorizontalsurface.Makesurethatthereis
nothingtoobstructthesignalgoingfromthefrontoftheMotionSensortotheFanCart,or
thereturningechofromtheFanCartbacktotheMotionSensor.(IfyouhaveaPASCO
DynamicsTrackavailable,youmaywishtouseit.)Thefanshouldbepointedtowardsthe
MotionSensorasshownbelow.

2.

TieastringtotheFanCartsothatyoucanholdtheFanCartbeforereleasingitwithout
interferingwiththeMotionSensor.

PART III: Data Recording

1.

HoldthestringsothattheFanCartremainsstationaryabout40cminfrontoftheMotion
Sensor.Turnthefanonandselectthelowspeedsetting.

MakesurethattheFanCartispullingawayfromtheMotionSensor.

2.

Wheneverythingisready,startrecordingdata.Thenreleasethefancart.

3.

Stopdatarecordingbeforethecartreachestheendofthetrackandbeforethecarthas
traveledthelengthofthespaceavailable,generallylessthantwometersisbest.

Howwelldidyourpredictedgraphsmatchthemotionsensorgeneratedplots?
Analyzing the Data

ClicktheGraphtomakeitactive.Usethebuiltinanalysistoolstofittwoconsecutiveposition
vs.timedatapointstoamathematicalformula.
1.

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IntheGraphdisplay,clickonthezoombutton(
).Whileholdingdownonthemouse
button,movethecursortodrawarectanglearoundfourorfivepointsinthepositionvs.
timeplot.Thepointswillbehighlighted.ReleasethemousebuttonandtheGraphaxes

1999 PASCO scientific

P04

Name _____________________

Class ______________

Date _________

willrescaletozoominaboutthosepoints.Next,clickandholdthemousebuttonanddrag
themousetohighlighttwoconsecutivepositionvs.timedatapoints.
2.

Selectthecurvefit.

InDataStudio,clicktheFitmenubutton(

InScienceWorkshopclicktheStatisticsbuttontoopentheStatisticsareaontherightside

).SelectLinear.

oftheGraph.IntheStatisticsarea,clicktheStatisticsMenubutton(
Fit,LinearFitfromtheStatisticsMenu.
3.

Locatethecorrespondingvelocityvalueinthevelocityvs.timegraph.

InDataStudio,selectthevelocitywindow.ClicktheSmartToolbutton(
theSmartTooltothevelocitydatapoint.

InScienceWorkshop,clicktheSmartCursor(
velocitydatapoint.

4.

RecordtheslopeandthevelocityvalueintheLabReportSection.

).SelectCurve

)andmove

)andmovetheSmartCursortothe

Atwhatpointintimedidtheaveragevelocityoccur?Howdoesthistimecorrespondtothe
timesfromthetwopointsselectedinthepositionvs.timeplot?RecordyouranswersintheLab
Reportsection.

5.

Clickanywhereinthepositionvs.timeGraphwindowtodeselectthehighlightedpoints.
ClicktheAutoscalebuttontoautomaticallyrescaletheGraphaxestodisplayallofthe
data.Selectapolynomialfittothepositionvs.timeplot.Ifyourinitialdataiserratic,you
mayneedtozoominandselectaregionoftheplotthatissmooth.

RecordthecoefficientsofthefitandanswerthequestionsintheLabReportsection.

6.

Clickanywhereinthevelocityvs.timegraphwindowtodeselectthehighlightedpoints.
ClicktheAutoscalebuttontoautomaticallyrescaletheGraphaxestodisplayallofthe
data.Selectalinearfittothevelocityvs.timeplot.Ifyourinitialdataiserratic,youmay
needtozoominandselectaregionoftheplotthatissmooth.

RecordthecoefficientsofthefitandanswerthequestionsintheLabReportsection.

7.

Clickanywhereintheaccelerationvs.timeGraphwindow.Applyalinearfittothe
accelerationvs.timeplot.

RecordthecoefficientsofthefitandanswerthequestionsintheLabReportsection.
Whyistheaccelerationvs.timeplotsomuchnoisierthantheotherplots?Recordyour
answerintheLabReportsection.

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P04: Position, Velocity and Acceleration Graphs

Student Workbook
012-07000A

Record your results and answer the questions in the Lab Report section.

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1999 PASCO scientific

P04

Name _____________________

Class ______________

Date _________

Lab Report - Activity P04: Position, Velocity and Acceleration Graphs


What Do You Think?

Thepurposeofthisactivityistostudytherelationshipamongposition,velocity,andacceleration
inlinearmotion.Howdothedistancevs.time,velocityvs.time,andaccelerationvs.timegraphs
forafancartuniformlyaccelerating,fromrest,comparewithoneanother?

Prediction: Sketch a prediction of the position, velocity, and acceleration vs. time graphs for the Fan
Carts motion.

Data Table
Item

Result

Slope of Position vs. Time data


Velocity Value
Polynomial Equation of fit for Position vs. Time
Linear Equation of fit for Velocity vs. Time
Linear Equation of fit for Acceleration vs. Time
Questions

1.

Atwhatpointintimedidtheaveragevelocityoccur?Howdoesthistimecorrespondtothe
timesfromthetwopointsselectedinthepositionvs.timeplot?

2.

Whataretheappropriateunitsfortheslopesofthepositionandvelocityvs.timeplots?

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P04: Position, Velocity and Acceleration Graphs

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Student Workbook
012-07000A

P04

Name _____________________

Class ______________

Date _________

3a.

Howclosedoestheplotofpositionvs.timefitapolynomialcurve?(Hint:InDataStudio,
thecloserMeanSquaredErroristozero,thebetterthefitofdatatothecurve.In
ScienceWorkshop,thecloserchi^2istozero,thebetterthefitofdatatothecurve.)

3b.

Didyourpolynomialfitofthepositionvs.timegraphyieldaninitialposition?Ifyes,what
istheinitialposition?

3c.

Didyourpolynomialfitofthepositionvs.timegraphyieldaninitialspeed?Ifyes,whatis
theinitialspeed?

3d.

Didyourpolynomialfitofthepositionvs.timegraphyieldanacceleration?Ifyes,whatis
theacceleration?

4a.

Howclosedoestheplotofvelocityvs.timefitalinearregression?(Hint:InDataStudio,
thecloserristoone,thebetterthefitofdatatothecurve.InScienceWorkshop,thecloser
chi^2istozero,thebetterthefitofdatatothecurve.)

4b.

Didthelinearfitofvelocityvs.timeyieldaninitialposition?Ifyes,whatistheinitial
position?

4c. Didyourlinearfitofvelocityvs.timeyieldaninitialspeed?Ifyes,whatistheinitial
speed?
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P04: Position, Velocity and Acceleration Graphs

4d.

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Didyourlinearfitofvelocityvs.timeyieldanacceleration?Ifyes,whatisthe
acceleration?

1999 PASCO scientific

P04

Name _____________________

Class ______________

Date _________

5a.

Istheaccelerationintheaccelerationvs.timeGraphconstant?(Remember,anearly
horizontallineoffit(nearzeroslope)indicatesaconstantvalue.)

5b.

Didthelinearfitofaccelerationvs.timeyieldaninitialposition?Ifyes,whatistheinitial
position?

5c.

Didyourlinearfitofaccelerationvs.timeyieldaninitialspeed?Ifyes,whatistheinitial
speed?

5d.

Didyourlinearfitofvelocityvs.timeyieldanacceleration?Ifyes,whatisthe
acceleration?

6.

Whyistheaccelerationvs.timeplotsomuchnoisierthantheotherplots?

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P04: Position, Velocity and Acceleration Graphs

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Student Workbook
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