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SPM 2003 [Section C, No. 3]
1 (a)
The principle of expansion of a liquid volume to temperature is applied in a liquid in
glass thermometer.
The thermometer is placed below the tongue or the armpit of a patient.
Heat from the body of the patient will be transferred to the thermometer.
After a while, thermal equilibrium will be attained and the temperature indicated by the
thermometer is the same as the body temperature of the patient.



Contains Alcohol
Does not freeze between -400C and -80C
Glass bulb is thin
High sensitivity of thermometer
Small diameter of capillary
To ensure alcohol can expand at a high rate even
though the heat supplied is small.
The wall is thick and
Reduce the heat dissipated to the surrounding
T is Chosen
Because it contained alcohol, thin glass bulb, small diameter of capillary tube and
the wall is thick and curvature.
From the ratio
100 0 = 20 - 8

= 12

300 = -12x
x = - 300 /12
= -250C
x = -25 + 273
= 248 K

The increase in volume of mercury with increasing temperature.

SPM 2004 [Section C , No. 11]

The melting point is a fixed temperature when a solid melts into liquid

Low density
High melting point

Easy to carry
Prevent it from melting when hot food is
stored into it.
Enable it to dissipate heat quickly
Ensure that heat is not loss easily

High of specific heat capacity

Lower thermal conductivity
R is chosen
Because it has low density, high melting point, high of specific heat capacity and
lower thermal conductivity.





When poured into a glass, heat from hot water at 90 0C is released to the
When the thermal equilibrium is achieved, the final temperature is 30 0C.
Quantity of water released by the hot water,
Q = mc
= 0.5 x 4 200 x (90-30)
= 1.26 x 105 J
In the cracked region, the are atoms missing, thus the strength of glass is reduced.
The separation between the atoms will increase as a result of expansion of the glass
when hot water is poured into its.

SPM 2006 [Section C, No. 11]

3 (a)(i)
The amount of heat required to change 1 kg of a liquid into vapour at a constant
(ii) When the fan is rotating, there is circulation of air.
Latent heat of vaporization is absorbed from our body when the sweat evaporates
aided by the circulation of air.
The body feels cool by the removal of heat.
Pt = ml
l = Pt / m
= 0.1 x 103 x 156 /0.05
= 312 000 J kg-1
Pt = mc
c = Pt / m
= 0.1 x 103 x 72 / 0.05 x 140
= 1028.57 J kg-1 0C-1

Large fan
Can cool down a larger area
More fan blades
Can be cooled down easily
High boiling point
Wont boil easily
High specific heat capacity
Can absorb large amount of heat
P is chosen
Because it have a large fan, more fan blades, high boiling point and high specific
heat capacity