Sei sulla pagina 1di 7

1

Development of Biogas Processing for Small Scale Cattle Farm


in Indonesia
Dr. Teguh Wikan Widodo and Dr. Agung Hendriadi
Indonesian Center for Agricultural Engineering Research and Development (ICAERD)
Tromol Pos 2 Serpong, Tangerang, Banten 15310 Indonesia
E-mail: teguh_wikan_widodo@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
Small scale cattle farm in Indonesia in average has 2 5 heads that spread on wide area. Such
conditions made difficult to handle the waste wisely by integration to the farming system in
order to minimize negative effects on environment. Generally, farmer manage the waste in
simple way, such as by composting or spread directly into farming field. To improve animal
husbandry sector, Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) introduced several policies on development
of animal husbandry, i.e., cooperation, nucleus plasma scheme, special regional development
for animal husbandry, integrated region, crop-livestock-system (CLS) and agropolitan. In
relation to policies implementation, it is possible that development regions could be used as
target of zero waste concept application on agricultural farming practices by sustainable and
environmental friendly ways. Therefore, in 2005 ICAERD has been developing a digester for
small scale cattle farm. Digester was disigned for 18 m3 capacity of cattle dung from about 10
12 heads. Based on design calculation, digester could produce biogas 6 m3/ day that will be
used to generate stove and lighting. Moreover, effluent is applied to farm field or pond as
fertilizer. Further development of our research, it is planned for bottling of biogas and
generating the combustion engine as electric or mechanical power. However, it was identified
that biogas technology development had several constrains such as: lack of technical expertise,
misfunction of digester (leak, miscontruction,etc.), design was not user friendly, need
manually handling (when feeding/ taking out effluent from digester), and cost for construction
was expensive. Thus, it is needed a strategy and strong comitment from every component, e.g.
society, government and stake holders, for supporting development of biogas technology.
Keywords : waste management, cattle farm, cow dung, biogas digester system, renewable
energy, sustainable, agricultural development.

Introduction
Energy consumption in Indonesia has been expanding at relatively high rate, with an
average of 10% during period of 1970-2002 [2]. Energy fossil sources mainly come from oil,
natural gas and coal. These fossil energy resources, if new reserves can not be found, the oil
reserves will be depleted in ten years, natural gas in 30 years and coal is more than 50 years.
Indonesia is blessed with abundant potential of renewable energy like geothermal, hydropower,
biomass, solar energy, and wind energy. However, the utilization of renewable energy in
Indonesia is still very low compare to its huge potential.

International Seminar on Biogas Technology for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development, 18-20 October 2005,
Beijing, China.

Energy in form of electricity has been an important element in achieving national


development goals. Availability of electricity in term of sufficient quantity and quality at
affordable prices will stimulate economic growth. However, according to the data [2], the
electrification ratio in 2002 is only around 52%. It is, therefore, increasing this electrification is
urgently needed. In relation with the depletion of energy fossil and environmental degradation,
developing new power plant based on renewable energy and technology improvement to
increase efficiency use of energy are the best way to fulfill the electrification requirement.
As effect of rising oil price, provision of basic energy need for rural household especially
for cooking and lighting become a critical energy issue. It is roughly estimated that rural
household requires about 115 MJ/HH/d of energy for cooking which is equivalent to about
49,9 BOE/cap/y. About 80% of this energy needs is fulfilled using fuel wood or agricultural
wastes and if accounted in terms of national energy consumption the total share is still
significant [1].
Biogas energy is one of some renewable energy sources, it could be found from sewage,
liquid manure of hens, cattle, pigs, organic waste from market, food industry, and so on. Biogas
production enables a sustainable agriculture with renewable and environmental friendly
process system. Generally, biogas contains methane gas (CH4) about 55 up to 80%. Methane
gas that is produced from manure is around 4800-6700 Kcal/ m3. As compare with pure
methane gas contain energy of 8900 Kcal/ m3. Biogas production systems have several benefits,
such as (a) eliminating greenhouse gas, (b) reduction of odor (c) betterment of fertilizer (d)
production of heat and power [ 6, 8, 12, 13].
Some constraints related to develop a renewable energy, including biogas, are its
availability, security of supplies, price, ease of handling and ease of use. In addition, external
factors like technological development, introduction of subsidies, environmental constraints
and legislation play the role in bringing its development [7 ]. In Indonesian agricultural, still
lack of a national professional institution which responsible in managing energy conservation
and its efficiency use. Considering the potential of biogas production and its utilization in
agriculture at rural area, Indonesian Centre for Agricultural Engineering Research and
Development (ICAERD), AARD, MOA desire to participate in implementing researches on
that renewable energy. The objectives of the project are (1) to develop small scale biogas
production unit and utilize it for sustainable agriculture in rural area, (2) to develop an
information center of biogas energy (3) to promote zero waste concept on agricultural farming
practices by sustainable and environmentally friendly ways.
Role of Agricultural Mechanization
By research and develoment of biogas technology, ICAERD could play a role in
efforts to help the government in solving the problem of oil crisis in Indonesia recently. Oil
price is very high, therefore government consider to reduce oil subsidy. Technology biogas is
became possible to be used as energy alternatif because of its competitivenss with conventional
energy. Moreover, biogas also potential to be developed in centers of animal husbandry
development that the waste is not optimally utilize yet and generating environmental
problems[10].
Although Indonesia is one of oil and gas producer country, however, depletion of oil
reserve and decretion of environmental quality, it caused Indonesia utilize renewable energy as
alternative resources that its availability are huge. Biogas is one energy resource that could

International Seminar on Biogas Technology for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development, 18-20 October 2005,
Beijing, China.

fulfil the need of energy and organic fertilizer for a sustainable agriculture and healthy
environment.
Biogas production needs a digester. Digester could reduce methane gas (CH4) emission by
decomposition of organic matter from agriculture and animal husbandry sectors. Using
digester, cow dung is fermented and resulted methane gas (CH4). Methane gas is one of
glasshouse gas that could affect to global warming. Local efforts for reduction of methane gas
would be have a positive efect to global climate change. Indirectly, it also indicate a
participation of international program, namely Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of
Kyoto Protocol.
Biogas Technology Development in ICAERD
In 2005, ICAERD has been developing a fixed dome type digester for 10 heads of cow
with cow dung of 20kg/day/head, retention time 45 day and digester capacity is 18 m3.
Estimated biogas production is 6 m3/ day (with average biogas production of 30 liters gas/ kg
cow dung). Schematic flows of biogas processing are shown in Figure 1. Building of
construction was conducted in 3 steps, as follows: (1) water reservoir (2) design and
development of digester, gas holder and purification of methane gas, and (3) analysis of biogas
quality and analysis of environmental impacts. Figure 2 and Figure 3 are design drawing and
realization of construction building, respectively. Biogas is utilized for stove and lighting as
shown in Figure 4 and Figure 5 [11].
Further development, in 2006, biogas utilization are planned to several uses such as gas
bottling and generating combustion engine for electric generator and/or other utilization such
as generating chopper, mixer for animal feeding, etc.

S to v e

H eat

M a n tle L a m p

s ta ll

M e th a n e g a s
p u rif ic a tio n

C ow dung
c o lle c tin g p o n d
L iq u id
fe rtiliz e r

Gas

P o n d fo r e ff lu e n t

com post

D ig e s te r
Slurry

Figure 1. Schematic flow of Biogas Processing


Strategies for Biogas Technology Development

International Seminar on Biogas Technology for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development, 18-20 October 2005,
Beijing, China.

1. Integrated System and Assessment of Bioenergy


The economic, social , environmental, and ecological consequences in growing and using
biomass are important to understand and consider when addressing technological, market, and
policy issues associated with bioenergy systems. It is therefore, some economic issues
concerning the use and development of bio-energy as renewable energy sources are considered
as follows [5] :
a. Sustainable Development
In regard to agricultural development as the fundamental of the national economic
development for the developing countries such as Indonesia, biomass and bio-energy
technologies are one approach to moving our economy to a more sustainable basis because
they move us away from fossil fuels. One of the biggest impediments to sustainable
development is our economic system that places little value on the environment or on the
future.
b. Energy Security
For the countries which are categorized as an oil importing countries, as a domestic
energy source, bio energy can substantially reduce dependence on imported crude oil. But in te
long run, the oil exporting countries such as Indonesia, should considered the potential used
and development of using bio-fuel as the alternative source for energy. Biomass is more evenly
distributed over the earths surface than other finite energy sources and therefore provides
opportunities for local, regional, and national energy self-sufficiency.
c. Rural Economic Growth
Producing biomass and using agricultural residues for bio energy technologies will
stimulate rural development efforts in farming, forestry, and associated service industries by
creating new products, markets, and jobs. Technology innovation should be strongly directed
to utilized more local and renewable resources, that is beneficial for the welfare of the
people and finally the nation. Renewable energy resources should be dedicated for the
social and economic welfare of the rural people.
d.

Environmental Issues
Every nation in the world is now understand, that bio energy technologies are friendlier to
the environment than conventional energy technologies, which rely on fossil fuels. We also
deeply understood that fossil fuels contribute significantly to many of the environmental
problems we face to day greenhouse gases, air pollution, and water and soil contamination.
Development of science and technology provide us understanding and knowledge, that
bio-energy could help us break our conventional pattern of energy use to improve the quality of
our environment.
2. Development at Agribusiness Region
In India and China, biogas technology development has been running fastly. In 1998,
India had 12 million units biogas processing instalation for generating 17000 MW electricity.
While China had 9 million units processing instalation with estimation gas production of
62000 145000 million m3. Indonesia has potential of biogas energy 684.83 MW with
installed capacity of 0.06 MW or only 8.76 103 % was utilized [2, 9].
Biogas technology development (cow dung) in Indonesia has a good prospect because of
development of animal husbandry at several agribusiness regions [3,4], such as:

International Seminar on Biogas Technology for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development, 18-20 October 2005,
Beijing, China.

a.

Special region for animal husbandry


Cow milk region (Jest Java and East Java Province) and beef cattle (Nangroe Aceh
Darussalam, West Sumatra, South Sumatra); Java (Central Java, East Java and Yogyakarta);
and East Indonesia region (South Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Nusa Tenggara Barat and
Bali).
b. Integration region
Integration region of palm oil and cattle: Bengkulu Province.
c. Agropolitan
West Sumatra Province (Agam District) and South Sulawesi Province (Barru District),
each region has main commodity of animal husbandry.
Biogas technology development in Indonesia could be conducted by strategy ways
with consideration and analysis of Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat (SWOT), as
shown in Table 1.
3.

Tripartite Cooperation
Many sides that competences realize that the huge potency of biomass of agricultural
waste could be utilized as a solution on energy crises. Therefore, it is needed a synergic
cooperation among governmental body, researcher and businessman in renewable energy field.
This tripartite cooperation should answer (1) database to identify the real potency of biomass
and its distribution at all over Indonesia region, (2) expertise sharing for stabilizing an
applicable biomass processing technology, (3) governmental policy on development and
utilization of renewable energy, including an incentive reward for increasing invest on
renewable energy business (Figure 6)[5].

Conclusions
1.
Wastes of cattle farm enable environmental pollution (soil, water, air and biology). These
polutions have been implicated as a cause of decrease quality of life for neighboring
communities, with additional possible negative consequences on human health and welfare.
2. Development regions could be used as target of zero waste concept application on
agricultural farming practices by sustainable and environmental friendly ways. Development
of biogas technology should follow government policies and development strategies to apply
this concept.
3. It was identified that biogas technology development had several constrains such as: lack
of technical expertise, misfunction of digester (leak, miscontruction,etc.), design was not user
friendly, need manually handling (when feeding/ taking out effluent from digester), and cost
for construction was expensive. Therefore, for supporting development of biogas technology,
it is needed a strategy and strong comitment from every component, e.g. society, government
and stake holders.
Tablel 1. Strategy for development of biogas technology by SWOT analysis [9].

International Seminar on Biogas Technology for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development, 18-20 October 2005,
Beijing, China.

WEAKNESS
STRENGTH
INTERNAL FACTOR Potential for regional Construction cost is
development
expensive
Excellent genetic of
Lack of skilled labor
local cow
Other utilization of
Adequate number of
waste
manpower
Rising prosperity
of community, it
become a potential
market
Awareness for using
energy alternatives
that environmentally
friendly and
sustainable, also
Clean Development
Mechanism (CDM)
EXTERNAL FACTOR
WO STRATEGY
SO STRATEGY
OPPORTUNITY
o Free
from
Green labeling product
foot-and-mouth desease Biogas technology
for production process
and mad cow
introduction in the
using green energy and
o Government policy on
region for animal
organic farming to
animal husbandy
.
husbandry
increase the product price
development
development
o No subsidy of fossil fuel Make use of existed
o Rising of electricity tariff
institution
o Environmental issues
THREAT
o Bank interest of loan is
high
o Construction material is
expensive
o Illegal import of meat

ST STRATEGY

WT STRATEGY

Make use of group/


cooperation of
advanced breeder as a
center of model at the
region

Development program
by mutual cooperation
and rolling capital

References

International Seminar on Biogas Technology for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development, 18-20 October 2005,
Beijing, China.

1.

Agus Salim, D. 2000. Cadangan energi, kebutuhan energi, dan teknologi masa depan
(Energy reserve, energy demand, and future technology). One day workshop on
Environmentally friendly Technology for the Future , Jakarta, March 2000.
2.
Department of Energy and Mineral Resources. 2004. The International Workshop on
Biomass & Clean Fossil Fuel Power Plant Technology: Sustainable Energy
Development & CDM. Jakarta, January 13 14, 2004.
.
3.
Ditjen Pengembangan Peternakan, Ditjend Bina Produksi Peternakan, Departement
Pertanian. 2003.a. Pengembangan Kawasan Agribisnis Berbasis Peternakan.
4.
Ditjen Pengembangan Peternakan, Ditjend Bina Produksi Peternakan, Departement
Pertanian. 2003.b. Pedoman Umum Pengembangan Kawasan Agropolitan Berbasis
Peternakan.
5.
Handaka and Agung Hendriadi. 2005. Cooperation Concept for Research and
Development of Renewable Energy in Indonesia. Joint Workshop
ICAERD-IPB-Japan on Biomass Energy Resource for Sustainable Agricultural
Development and Environment Improvement. Jakarta March 1st, 2005.
6.
King, G. 1997. Livestock in the Future. Animal Science, University of Guelph.
Http://www.Aps.Uoguelph.ca/~gking/Ag_2350/future.htm.
7. Koopmans, A. 1998. Trend in Energy Use. Expert Consultation on Wood Energy,
Climate and Health. 7-9 October, 1998, Phuket, Thailand.
8.
Powers, W. and Van Horn, H.H. 1998. Dietary Manipulation to Alter Manure
Composition and Odor. In : Animal Production systems and the
Environment:
An International Conference on Odor, Water Quality, Nutrient Management and
Socioeconomic Issues. July 19-22, 1998, Des Moines, Iowa
9.
Teguh Wikan Widodo and Ana Nurhasanah. 2004. Study on Biogas Technology and
Its Development Potency in Indonesia. Proceeding of National Seminar on
Agricultural Mechanization. Bogor, Agustus 5th, 2004. [in Indonesian].
10.
Teguh Wikan Widodo and Osamu TOKUMOTO. 2005. Suggestion on Utilization of
Feces at Large Scale Cattle Farm and Improvement of Environment. Joint Workshop
ICAERD-IPB-Japan on Biomass Energy Resource for Sustainable Agricultural
Development and Environment Improvement. Jakarta March 1st, 2005. [in English].
11.
Teguh Wikan Widodo , A. Asari dan Elita R. 2005. Waste Management on Cattle
Farm to Increase Added-Value and Environmental Improvement. National Seminar on
Agricultural Technology Efforts for Increasing Market Competitiveness and
Agribusiness Infestation. Batam, September 5 6, 2005. [in Indonesian].
12.
United Nations. 1984. Updated Guidebook on Biogas Development - Energy
Resources Development Series 1984, No. 27, United Nations, New York, USA.
13.
Yadava, L.S. and P.R. Hesse .1981. The Development and Use of Biogas Technology
in Rural Areas of Asia (A Status Report 1981). Improving Soil Fertility through
Organic Recycling, FAO/ UNDP Regional Project RAS/75/004, Project Field
Document No. 10.

International Seminar on Biogas Technology for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development, 18-20 October 2005,
Beijing, China.