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Article on GBT

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Article on GBT

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- MIST MSC-CE Syllabus
- Chapter 1 RC II Columns design Notes
- First Term Examination-Theory 1
- Design of Wind Turbine Tower and Foundation Systems- Optimization
- A1 CRAS-2010 Extension of the Non-uniform Warping Theory to an Orthotropic Composite Beam
- CUMBIA Theory and User Guide
- Bending Beam Part 1 Abstract Intro Objective
- Colum n Strut
- rf-fe-ltb-manual-en.pdf
- Compre 3
- BS5950 Appendix
- Verification Manual - StabLab.pdf
- 9fcfd50b78a2169366
- Revised Paper For AEE -civil-mech-with Ans.pdf
- ASEN3112.Lect25
- Timoshenko beam
- DRAFT_Syllabus_MTech_Strctural_Engineering_21st august.doc
- 33015252_bun
- Lateral Stability of a Cantilever
- Ghobarah 2001 Engineering-Structures

Sei sulla pagina 1di 20

,(', 1994 Elsevier Science Limited

Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved

0263-8231/94/$7.00

ql

ELSEVIER

Coupled Stability Problems

R. Schardt

Technical Universityof Darmstadt, Institute of Statics, Alexanderstr. 7, D-64283

Darmstadt, Germany

A BS TRA C T

First-order generalized beam theory describes the behaviour of prismatic

structures by ordinary uncoupled d(ff'erential equations, using &~['ormation

functions .for bending, torsion and distortion. In second-order theoo,, the

differential equations are coupled by the effect of deviating Jorces. The

basic equations .for second-order generalized beam theoo, are outlined.

Solutions .for pin-ended supports are presented, demonstrating the coupling

effect by modes and by loads. In the d(fferent ranges of length, the individual modes are sufficient approximations .[or the critical load. The application to a thin-walled bar with C-section under eccentric normal force

demonstrates the quality of the single-mode compared to the exact solution.

NOTATION

b

B

C

D

e

f(s)

f ~ , f o , t9

k( )

K

I

Width of element

Transverse bending stiffness

Warping constant

Torsion constant

Eccentricity of longitudinal force

Displacement function

Displacement components of element

Indicating mode k

Plate modulus

Length of column

Critical length

161

162

111(s)

q(x)

(),.

S, S

I

V

W

.V, .V, Z

A

O'er

uO

R. Suhardt

Load function

Indicating node r or element r

Local coordinates in elements

Thickness of element

Warping function

Deformation resultant

Warping moment

Global coordinates

Ratio of interactions

Ratio of eccentricity

Unit deviation forces

Load factor

Critical stress

Euler stress

Ratio of single mode solutions

Thin-walled prismatic structures such as cold-rolled profiles often fail by

instability before the stresses have reached the yield point. The related

deformation depends upon the stress-distribution in the cross-section and

upon the length of the structure. In general, the deformation is a combination of local buckling, distortion and rigid-body displacements of the

cross-section. For monosymmetric sections, a sudden change from

symmetric to antisymmetric deformation is even possible at special

lengths. Two or more different individual deformation modes interact in

such a way that the overall buckling load is lower than the lowest individual buckling load. Numerical solution methods such as the finite element

method or the finite strip method can treat single cases, but cannot give

information about the general mechanical behaviour of the structures.

Generalized Beam Theory (GBT) describes the mechanical behaviour of

prismatic structures by ordinary differential equations using deformation

resultants kV(x) similar to the individual modes of buckling. GBT provides

these resultants by a special eigenvalue problem. The main property of the

resultants is the orthogonality between the modes for the work of the

warping stresses and the work of the distortion (transverse bending)

stresses. In the first-order theory, the ordinary differential equations

E kC-/" V'"' - G kD. I'V" +/'B./" V = kq

( 1)

Generalizedbeam theoo'

163

for each mode k are not coupled and can be solved independently. The

coefficients have the generalized meaning of the well-known section properties of the ordinary bending and torsion theory, such as the warping

constant

kc =

kU2(S)dA + -~

,4

~f2. ds

, s

kD = ~I ,I. k]'2(S) t3 ds

.

km~(s)

kB = .L ~

ds

in which

j(s) = displacement function

rn(s) = transverse bending moment

K = plate constant

For a C-shaped section, the deformation modes are shown in Section 5.

The theory for linear problems, which provides these resultants, is

developed in Ref. 1.

Second-order effects may arise from normal stresses in the longitudinal

or transverse direction of the structure or by shear stresses. In this paper,

interest will be focused on the effect of longitudinal stresses which, for

practical problems, is the most important effect.

2.1 The ~-values

distribution of the stresses ax(s) in the cross-section and the elastic curvature f"(s) of the elements of the section.

The second-order theory requires the satisfaction of equilibrium conditions

with respect to the deformations of the structure. The system of differential

equations of the GBT is found as the virtual work of stresses and applied

R. Schardl

164

terms is represented below for one strip t. ds of an element dx (Fig. 1).

The axial stress in the cross-section is expressed by the m stress resultants 'W and the warping functions :u

imiu(s)

cr,(s) = - _

(2)

i=: I

i.l = :'V ' . . L

/.

In the x-s plane

./~

0c' = / V ' . ( /

In the x - s plane

In the x - s plane

//"'. = / V " - ! /

The deviating forces q~l and qU caused by the stresses a, and the deformations i v " ( x ) according to Fig. 2, are

In the s-direction

d q~II = (or,. - :.'f't~+ dory- (/~)t ds =

liuT~tds

- ~ (imJvtt -~-iwt Jvt) i-C

::1

l iu.!ftds

( i w / v " + i w ' iv') iC

dqll : i:l

k l / = 1, expressed by Aj~ and ~)"

J7-~

/

165

~x

S.

adx

idql

fs

qlsl " k~s + q I I . kf z _

L J (iwJvr)'

-[-"~

i=1 ~

unified symbol for the integral is ,jk.

,j j +Jfkf)tds

= iC j

(3)

(warping moments), j indicates the elastic deformation and k indicates the

equilibrium condition in which the deviating forces are involved.

The values have to be evaluated for the warping moments 1 < i < m,

and the deformation modes 2 _<j _< n and 2 < k < n.

The system of differential equations with the second-order parts resulting from ~rx now becomes

E k c k V " - GkDkv '' + kBkv

~-~ijkl~.(iw.Jvt)lzkq

.jr ~

(4)

2<k<n

i= 1 .i=2

element r are expressed by ~r and fir [Fig. 3(a)]. The unit displacementfunctions f~(s) and f ( s ) are expressed by the constant values f~, fQ and O,

representing the approximate element deformation [Fig. 3(b)].

This leads to

([kl~ =

r=l

-brtr

iC

b2]

1

br

AriLlr -~ [JfQrkOr ~- JOrkfQr] J}

r = 1 ... n

(5)

166

R. S c h a r d t

~v

o)

bl

0 //'~\

4"

/>

:5

\\

Fig. 3. Unit deformation values of a cross-section element r for the evaluation of the integrals

;/~t~. (a) Warping function along one cross-section element; (b) displacements in the 1' : plane.

identifies the following i/~n-values:

i

--1

- - 71M

-1

")

--tiM!

m QM

l'rl~,

i-M

i=4

3

4

-1

[

i

-!

r~,

for i >_ 4 do not appear in the conventional theory. In general, they are of

less importance.

Assume the structure to have pin-ended supports and to be loaded by a

centric normal force which is constant along the x-axis. In this case, the

index i of the load is 1. The differential equation (4) is reduced to

tik~. iv,, = 0

167

(6)

i=2

The solution for k V(x), which satisfies the support conditions, is a sine

function:

kV(x) = kV,,, . sin rrx

/

(7)

Introducing this into eqn (6), we get the following matrix eigenvalue

problem:

iV,,,. ~ik~.

= 0

(8)

i=2

IWcr = A-IW0

It is presumed that, when the load reaches the critical value, the structure

is undeformed.

3 C O U P L I N G BY M O D E S

3.1 The individual modes

K-values with.j :fi k are neglected, then for each mode we have the following simple formula for the critical load:

~P(l)

'kWcr- i~-k~

(9)

kp(l) = E . k c

+ G . k D + B.

(10)

length:

the warping stiffness of the system decreases by I l l 2

the torsion stiffness is independent of the length

the distortion stiffness increases with / 2

16~

R. Scltardt

1~., where

found to be

/~.

d,

I+~.,

is minimal, is

4rE./'C

7rv aB

(I I)

The m i n i m u m critical warping m o m e n t '~ We,- at lc is

min i~W~.,- = i~aIh~ (2x/E.aC ' AB+G "/'D)

(12)

2x/E.kC.~B

+2v/E.~C./,B

2V~k/-/)

/'P(I)

1 (~) 2

2x/E.~C.kB

G/'D

1 ( ~ ) -~

(13)

+ 2x/E-~C./'B +

logarithmic scale, the kb(/)-function consists of two straight parts and a

transition curve in the range of the m i n i m u m value of kh (see Section 5).

Numerical solutions by individual modes for a C-section are also discussed in Section 5.

2,5

~I

kp(l )

'\/2~

2.0

1.5kp(l) 1,0

0,5

o

~GO

-i . . . . . . .

0

1,0

0,5

--

1,5

IB

It

Fig. 4. N o r m a l i z e d s o l u t i o n for q u a d r a l i c e q n I I 3).

2,O

169

If we allow two modes j and k for buckling interaction, we have the

eigenvalue problem

(JP - OJI,g. iWcr ) J v m - ikjt%" i W c r . k v m ~- 0

(14)

(15)

ijk . i W c r . j V m +

With the abbreviation iJW, which is the critical load i Wrwhen only JV is

allowed, we find

iJm __ i m c r

~Jkl%

- ikkN " iWcr

i, ) //00/

ijjl~ " iWcr

.

i k w -- tWcr

{ JVm

" ~ kVm

(16)

(Det = 0)

ijkt~, ikjt,;

2

( O W - ' W c r ) ( i k w - iWcr) - ijj~;, ikk-------~' i Wcr

= 0

(17)

We extract the lowest value of iJw and ikw as factors of the left side of eqn

(17) and introduce the dimensionless parameters

1

qkt~ "ikjt~

/3 --

(18)

~jj~. ikk~

and

ik W

w = ~j--~_ 1

(19)

and find

'

/3 (1 +w)[1 - ~/1 -

'mcr = q m . ~

4~

/3(1 --[-0.))2

= ''/"/JW

(20)

value of 7 is , w h e n / 3 = 1 and w = 1. The function 7(w,/3) is plotted in

Fig. 5.

R. Schardt

170

1.0

O~

= 0.95

I O,g

: 0.9

5'

0.7

: 0.8

: 0.6

0.6

:0.4

0.5

:0

0.2

0.4

0.6

1--.,,..

0.8

1.0

u,}

4 C O U P L I N G BY LOADS

4.1 T w o w a r p i n g m o m e n t s as l o a d

The load has the two components iW0 and/W0, and the buckling deformation is assumed to consist of only one mode ~V. Both load components

are increased by the load-factor nA. In the eigenvalue problem

[ j p _ il/~ . (ijjl% " iWo 4- ljl~ . /m0)] " il]Vm = 0

(21)

the coupled solution can be expressed by the solutions for individual loads

(eqn (9))

Jp

iWcr = ::-qJl~

JP

and

IWcr =

q -

(22)

~i%./Wo

i~/~. i W o

ilA. iWo

1

- - -iWcr

1 4-q

and

hA. lWo

1

- lWcr

1 4 - -1

q

(23)

171

6) is a straight line (Dunkerly line). This is a consequence of the fact that

both the single load solutions and the interacting load solution have the

same buckling deformation iV.

4.1.2 Two or more modes as deformation

The eigenvalue problem can be taken from eqn (8). In this case we have

mixed interaction between modes and loads. Therefore, it is not easy to

express the coupling effect explicitly, but according to the previous case we

can state that, if the deformation vectors Okv and 0kV for the single load

solution are affine, the interaction curve is also a straight line.

This effect is demonstrated in the numerical examples.

5 EXAMPLES

5.1 Cross-section properties of C-section

main nodes. The 6 natural degrees of freedom (warping ordinates of the

main nodes) are sufficient to describe the lateral buckling, lateraltorsional buckling and the buckling of the lips (simple distortion). To

include also the plate-buckling of the web (higher distortion modes) the

displacement of intermediate nodes is introduced as additional degrees

of freedom. The arrangement in Fig. 7 with 8 intermediate nodes allows

16 modes. The higher modes (k > 10) are of no importance to our

problem. The warping functions, the deformations and the transverse

"A. ~Wo

~W~

0.5

%X. iWo

0.5

iWer

172

R. Schardt

10

r

6

...........

L,'

10

Y

31

4, + e

11

4,~

12

---1I!]

13

and 5 are antisymmetric.

Table 1 contains the stiffness values for symmetric and antisymmetric

modes separately.

Table 2 contains the to-values (eqn 5); two for normal force ~W and two

for bending moment about y-axis 3W complete the section properties.

Symmetric and antisymmetric modes are totally uncoupled.

5.2 The single mode solution for centric normal force

To achieve a dimensionless solution, the buckling factor kb is introduced. In

our case it is the buckling stress oer related to the Euler stress oe of the web

e - - 12(]---- ~2)

O'cr = kb "O'e

(;)2

-~-

18980. 0.22

102 -- 7.592 kN/cm 2

(24)

(25)

Results from the single-mode solution, depending upon the length, are

shown in Fig. 11 on a double logarithmic scale.

It is obvious that some modes dominate special ranges of the length,

where they have the minimal value. Beginning with very short lengths

(about 8 cm), we have the local buckling of the web expressed by mode

j = 7. The minimum value of 5.27 for kb at a length of 8-2 cm shows how

much the usual assumption of kb = 4, which neglects the elastic restraint

by the flanges, is on the safe side. At medium lengths (minimum at 48 cm)

173

2;

174

R. Schardt

deformation k= 1

deformaUon k - 2

i___

deformation k - 4

deformation k - 3

,; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

delormatlon k - 5

deformation k - 6

2 ' -.....

deformation k=7

de|orrnallon k - 8

/

defonnillon k,-9

delormatlon k - l O

L J

bending momenl k-5

175

L J

L

P J

bending moment k=4

moment k ~

3

Fig. 10. Transverse bending moments for C-section (modes k = 1-10).

176

R. Schardt

TABLE 1

k

kC

kD

kB

5.000

0

0

27.082

0

0

20.742

0.09190

8.3716

0.00382

0.00245

1.6930

0.00505

0.00978

12-515

k

2

kc

kD

kB

87.626

0

0

623.173

0.06667

0

0.26099

0.00121

0.26362

0-00655

0.01232

12-142

10

0.00549

0.01315

31-823

the distortion modes j = 5 and j = 6 (symmetric and antisymmetric buckling of the lips) have the lowest critical values (kb = 4.7 for mode 5), while

column buckling begins at a length of about 90 cm. A change from

symmetric lip-buckling to antisymmetric lateral-torsional buckling occurs

at a length of about 90 cm.

The solid curve, which shows the solution for all modes in interaction,

demonstrates the good approximation by the single modes, especially at

the characeristic lengths.

The curves in the bottom diagram of Fig. 11 show the participation in

percent o f the different modes in the interactive buckling form.

5.3 Interaction of normal force and bending moment as load

normal force. Then we have i = 1 for the normal force and 1 = 3 for bending

about the y-axis. The interaction parameter r/(eqn (22)) becomes

31it~ 3W0

7 / - 1ij~. 1W0

The dominant deformation for lip-buckling is j = 5. Then r/is given by

=

-0.1052. e. N

= 0-4707- e

-0.2235.N

177

TABLE2

K-Values~rC-Section(Fig. 7)

x-Values likK(symm.)

k

/

3

5

7

9

-l.O000

-0.1376

-0.2283

0.1335

-0.1376

-0.2235

-0.0931

-0.0809

7

-0.2283

-0.0931

-0.2076

0-00061

9

0.1335

-0.0809

0.00061

-0.2750

K-Values likK(antisymm.)

k

j

2

4

6

8

-l.O00

-5.210

-0.2745

-0.3173

-5.210

-50.084

-1.812

-1.842

-0.2745

-1.812

-0.2235

-0.1135

-0.3173

-1.842

-0.1135

-0.3567

K-Values 3ikK(symm.)

k

j

3

5

7

9

0

0.0168

0.1116

0.0122

0.0168

-0.1052

0.0210

-0.0344

0.1116

0.0210

0.0798

-0.0470

0.0122

-0.0344

-0.0470

-0.0573

k

j

2

4

6

8

0

-1.000

-0.1548

-0-0541

-1.000

-13.734

-1.223

-0.7334

-0.1548

-1-223

-0.1275

-0.0177

-0.0541

-0.7334

-0.0177

-0.0533

178

R. Schardt

100

k -%

50

b- Oe

10

5

i

I

10[

100%

50

10C.

0%

'~,.

I Icm]

Fig. ! 1. Buckling coefficient k b tbr single mode solutions, coupled solutions and c o m p o nents of modes in coupled solulion.

We choose node 1 (see Fig. 7) for the critical stress. For 'q = I

(e = 2.125 cm) we find the critical stress for a single load at the characteristic length/c = 48 cm using eqn (25):

ICrcr = 5.623 x 7.592 = 42.69 k N / c m 2

3crc,. = 8.580 7-592

65.14 k N / c m 2

13crc,. =

42.69 + 65.14

= 53.9 k N / c m 2

2

The exact solution, using the modes 3.5, 7, 9, is

1~c~,. = 54-59 k N / c m 2

which confirms a nearly linear interaction, so that eqn (23) is a good

a p p r o x i m a t i o n . The results for some positive eccentricities are plotted in

Fig. 12.

Negative eccentricities lead to web buckling (mode 7). N o d e 5 is chosen

for the critical stress. The results for some negative eccentricities are

shown in Fig. 13. The buckling coefficient kb is nearly independent of the

eccentricity e. The c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the modes to the buckling d e f o r m a t i o n

in Fig. 13 are valid for e = - 0 . 5 .

179

100

k

Oct,1

50

b= T

20

10

5

10

20

50

100

200

100% - -

0%

t [cm]

Fig. 12. Buckling coefficient kb for positive eccentricities e (cm) (lip buckling).

kb=

100

oc~s 50

20

10

e---O.5

5

20

100 %

50

100

200

1000

0%

t lcm]

Fig. 13. Buckling coefficient kb for negative eccentricities e (cm) (web buckling).

I ~0

R. Schardz

especially for stability problems. It is the consequence of the orthogonality

of the modes, which is not only a mathematical but also a mechanical

attribute. The modes are 'natural' components of the buckling deformation.

REFERENCES

1. Schardt, R., Vera/l,~emeinerte Teclmische

Germany, 1989.

Bie,~etheoHe. Springer-Verlag,

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