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Preaching Timothy and Titus

Ghana Bible College and Nashville School of Preaching 2007

Phil Sanders, Instructor
Course Description
This course presents a blend of two necessary areas of study. The first concerns the skill of
preaching. In the course the student will learn a number of basic skills in developing and preaching a
sermon. The second goal of this course is a knowledge of 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus. Each class will
contain some lecture time and some application time.
Some Skills to be considered:
1. how to do word studies and background studies
2. how to use a concordance and do topical studies
3. how to understand the context
4. how to outline Scripture passages
5. how to glean from Scripture
6. how to develop points and sub-points
7. the use of language and power words
8. how to develop introductions
9. how to use illustrations
10. how to give effective invitations
11. how to analyze the audience
Course Requirements
1. Student attendance and participation. Students are expected to attend class and to contribute to the
activities of the class. Students are expected to keep handouts and take notes during class.
2. Sermon subjects: Students should collect subjects for sermons: Doctrinal (20); Practical Christian
Living (20); Family (10)
3. Notebook. Since the construction sermons will be a large part of this class, students will be expected
to collect no fewer than twelve brief outlines from the books of 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus.
4. Class project. Students shall provide one full text sermon from Timothy or Titus, including
introduction, body, illustrations, conclusion and invitation. This sermon (3-4 pages) should
demonstrate organizational and communication skills as well as a knowledge of the passages used.
5. Memorization:

1 Tim. 1:12-16
2 Tim. 4:1-5
2 Tim. 4:6-8
Titus 2:11-14
Titus 3:3-7

Phil Sanders, instructor

Building Sermons
Sources of Ideas for Sermons
1. Read, read, read your Bible. Look for natural sermon outlines, lists, paragraphs. For instance, notice
the natural flow of 2 Tim. 2:22 in flee and pursue. This is the best and most important source. It
should be the primary source.
2. Read religious books, periodicals and bulletins for ideas.
3. Life situations: births, deaths, natural events, illnesses, school events, visits, evening news,
congregational events, the first experiences, last experiences.
4. News stories from the newspaper, radio, or new magazines.
5. Notes from devotions and quiet time.
6. Secular books tell you what people are reading and thinking about. Notice the top ten list. Do you
see trends? These books tell us current worldviews and issues.
7. Discussions with people inside and outside the church. Listen, listen, listen!
8. Questions asked by brothers and sisters. The congregation should feel free to be able to ask you to
speak on a subject.
9. Songs, poems, stories.
How Do I Decide What to Preach?
This is perhaps one of the most difficult tasks of preaching: deciding specifically what to preach
and when to preach it. Good preachers strive for balance in their preaching. They avoid preaching only
one kind of sermon; they avoid preaching in only one area for long periods; and they avoid prolonged
negativity. Mack Lyon advises preachers to rotate their sermons between the doctrinal, the practical, the
devotional, and the inspirational. The first deals with the teaching of the truth, the second with everyday
life, and the third with our daily walk with God. Many of Pauls epistles have just this kind of balance
within them. Jesus Sermon on the Mount contains doctrinal, practical and devotional elements.
Doctrinal Topic Sources: Theology books, debates, television broadcasts, lectureships, class
notes, religious periodicals, religious news items, questions, and people.
Practical Topic Sources: Family matters, relationships, heart problems, sin problems, financial
struggles, life events, national problems.
Devotional Topic Sources: Service projects, worship, private devotions, how-to books, life
experiences, evangelism experiences, service experiences.
Inspirational Topical Sources: stories, poems, songs that bring hope, inspire optimism, that
encourage people in how to make the most of life.
Important questions I ask in determining what I specifically should preach. They are:
1. What are the needs of those who are listening? What are their spiritual needs? Family needs?
Personal needs? Congregational needs? Truth needs?
2. What is Gods message to meet those needs?
3. What approach is the best way to address those needs?
Analyze and Plan Your Preaching
Planning your preaching can greatly enhance your work as a spokesman for God. Here are some
values to planned preaching:
Gives you direction and focus.
Provides a birds eye view of your preaching
Am I balanced?
What am I emphasizing?
Am I reaching my objectives?

Phil Sanders, instructor

Gives an opportunity for continuity of thought

Gives a structure yet allows flexibility
Gives each week a starting place in sermon preparation
Some plan their preaching for a year at a time, some for six months, and some for three months. It is
helpful in your planning to allow time for gaps: special church events, unusual life or national events,
guest speakers, etc.
Preparing the Sermon Once I Have Discovered a Specific Need
Two important questions:
1. What message of God fills this need?
2. What is the best approach to this problem or need?
These two questions help one to determine the text and purpose of my sermon. Once I have chosen a text
and stated my aim for the sermon, I should:
1. Research my chosen text thoroughly, paying close attention to its context, background,
important words or phrases, grammar, and main points.
2. Research parallel passages on the same subject which bring support, confirmation,
agreement, and illustration.
3. Build my primary structure, i.e., the main points supporting my aim for the sermon.
4. Collect meaningful and relevant supporting material, i.e., illustrations, clarifications,
contrasts, comparisons, quotations.
5. Construct an attention-getting introduction and an impacting conclusion.
6. Once written, rewrite and edit it. There is no such thing as good writing; only good rewriting.
Evaluating Your Individual Sermons
1. Is this sermon Gods message from the Bible? Is it Scriptural?
2. Is it achieving the purpose for which it was designed?
3. Is it manifesting the spirit of Christ? Does it show His love? His will? His compassion for
4. Is it plain and simple to understand?
5. Does it touch the head, the heart, and the will of a person?
6. Does it expect the listeners to respond or change?
7. How did the people respond to your message? To your attitude?
8. Would you preach this sermon again?

Main Steps In Sermon Preparation

1. Select the text and general subject, or idea, for the sermon
2. Put the subconscious mind to work.
3. Browse in your library and gather material. Concordances, commentaries, word studies,
historical backgrounds, Bible dictionaries.
4. Brood over the material.
5. Settle upon specific subject and theme and exact purpose.
6. Make a tentative outline.
7. Prepare a complete, detailed outline.
8. Fill in your outline with ideas and illustrations.
9. Prepare your introduction and conclusion.

Phil Sanders, instructor

10. Revise and reshape. There is no such thing as good writing, only good re-writing.
11. Get the sermon in your system. Know it.
12. Prepare yourself spiritually to speak Gods Word.

Four Parts of Every Sermon

1. Introduction:
a. 5-10% of the message
b. gain positive attention
c. orient the audience to your subject
2. Proposition: a specific statement to reveal or clarify the overall objective of your message
3. Body:
a. 80-90% of your message
b. It should inform, excite, persuade and activate listeners toward your objective
4. Conclusion:
a. 5-10% of your message
b. Bring entire message to a focus, a goal.
c. Amplify or reiterate important material.
d. Give final appeal for belief or action.
Your Outlines Should Include These Points:


Scripture foundation
Introduction (one line)
Main Points
Conclusion (call to action)
Show Yourself an Example
1 Tim. 4:12

Introduction: Have you ever been looked down upon?

Proposition: Paul encouraged young Timothy to show himself an example in order to silence people who
were criticizing him.

I. Show Yourself an Example of Christian Speech

II. Show Yourself an Example of Christian Conduct
III. Show Yourself an Example of Christian Love
IV. Show Yourself an Example of Christian Faith
V. Show Yourself an Example of Christian Purity
Conclusion: If you wish to lead others to Jesus, start today showing yourself an example

Phil Sanders, instructor

Introducing the Sermon

There are three types of preachers: those to whom you cannot listen; those to whom you can listen;
and those to whom you must listen. During the introduction the congregation is usually deciding the kind
of speaker addressing them.

I. The Meaning of the Introduction

1. Introduction states what is to be talked about and foreshadows what is to be discussed.
2. Introduction means to a sermon what a preface is to a book. You get people ready for what is to
3. Broadus: like a porch to a house, an introduction is an entrance into something better.

II. Significance of the Introduction

1. Beginning of a new experience for preacher and hearer.
2. From the first sentence for the next four minutes the battle for attention is waged.
3. Audiences are lost or gained by the introduction. Light your match on the first strike.
III. Purpose of the Introduction
1. Arouse interest in something or someone.
2. To secure a favorable attitude toward your sermon
a. Illustrations of bad introductions:


All you know and talk about is sports and politics.

Well its 9:30 a.m., and its time to turn it over to me.
b. Illustrations of good introductions:
Join me in prayer
Turn to Acts 2:1
To bring the preacher and the people together.
To pave the way for a clear understanding. Good introductions always have a direct bearing on
the rest of the sermon.
To raise in the minds of your listeners their need for what you must say.
Early in the sermon, listeners should realize the preacher is talking to them about them. He raises
a question, probes a problem, identifies a need, opens up a vital issue to which the passage

IV. Marks of a Good Introduction

1. Interesting (attention-getting)
2. Appropriate for the sermon.
3. Brevity. Davis: a preacher does not think he has to be brief, but the audience does. After you
get water, stop pumping.

4. Clarityeasy to follow.
5. Carefully prepared.
a. Know how you will begin.
b. Prepared after the body of the sermon is completed.
V. Things To Avoid in the Introduction
1. Apologies. Do not apologize either for the sermon or your preparation.
2. Do not make the introduction into part of the main body.
3. Scolding the audience.

Phil Sanders, instructor

4. Ten minutes of jokes. When the introduction merely entertains, humor makes the sermon seem
like a letdown. Too many jokes make them write you off as a comedian.

VI. Types of Introductions:

1. Types to be used:
a. Textual reading
b. Contextual background of the text



persons prominent in the scene
great truth of the passage
Object Lesson: At an informal evangelistic service recently a preacher entered the pulpit
holding a large newspaper. He proceeded to display it to the congregation page by page,
indicating, as he did so, the content of the major news stories, reading their headlines aloud.
As the paper was displayed it was revealed that he had scored through almost every item with
large heavy strokes of black crayon. He explained that he had bought that days newspaper,
published in that city, and experimented with the idea of crossing out every story which was
directly related to crime, failure or sin. He ended with less than ten percent of the news
columns intact, and these were of very nominal interest, being related to insignificant subjects
such as the weather, or to general feature articles. This attention-getting material was used to
introduce the text, All we like sheep have gone astray, we have turned every one to his own
way. . .. (Skinner, p. 173).
Striking quotation from any source (poetry).
Life-situation (problem approach)
Statement of proposition or a form of the objective.
Special occasion.
Startling statement, statistic or fact.
News item.
introductions should challenge, startle, open eyes, surprise in order to build an interest.

Helpful things:
How a minister steps into the pulpit tells the audience a lot about him. If he moves in an unhurried,
confident manner, his body language communicates that he has something to say and that the audience
would do well to listen. Before he speaks, the preacher should pause to capture attention. He and the
congregation ought to start together even though they might not finish together. He should look at the
people, not at his notes or even at his Bible. (Haddon Robinson, Biblical Preaching, p. 166.)
Before you get up to speak, relax and be composed. Running the tongue to the back of the mouth or
yawning with the mouth shut, which can be done while waiting to speak, reduces tension to the throat. A
deep breath before starting also puts a speaker at ease.

Phil Sanders, instructor

The Three Tasks of the Preacher

I. Looking Back
opening our eyes to the biblical, historical, cultural and literary backgrounds
behind and within the passage

1. Biblical Context

circle of immediate context

circle of the specific book
circle of the authors total writings
circle of related passages within the Bible

2. Historical Context

who is the author?

to whom is the book written? Is the message restricted to a person or group?
when was the book written?
what historical events surround the writing of this book?
what is the purpose of this writing?

3. Cultural Context

what customs or traditions are peculiar to this period of time?

what cultures play an impact on this book?
what statements are universal for all cultures?

4. Literary Context

what kind of literature is used in this passage? Poetry, prose, narrative, law, prophecy,
apocalyptic, or historical?
what kind of language is used in this passage? literal or figurative?
does the author repeat particular words or phrases?

II. Getting the Message

comprehending what the author said in the passage
and what he intended for his hearers to be, to believe, and to do

1. What is the authors primary aim or purpose in this book?

2. What is the authors primary intention in your chosen text?

what is the main point? What are his primary supporting points?
what does the author hope to accomplish with his writing?
with what attitude or tone of voice did the author write?
how does he expect his readers to understand what he has said?
how does he expect his readers to respond to what he has said?
3. What incidental truths are revealed in this passage? What does this passage say about:
God, Jesus Christ, the Holy Spirit, salvation, the truth, the Word of God, the
church, the faith, love, hope, obedience, temptation, sin, relationships, marriage,
family, parenting, soul-winning, fruit-bearing, good works.
4. The more you are as a Bible student are willing to read and re-read this passage, the more you
will know about what God says, desires, and wills for our lives.

Phil Sanders, instructor

III. Bringing It Home

responding to the passage
by applying the message to our hearts and lives


Does this passage command something I am not doing?

Does this passage suggest a change in my behavior?
Does this passage reflect a spirit or an attitude Im not manifesting?
Does this passage confirm a belief I already hold?
Does this passage suggest further study or a change in my beliefs?
Have I accepted this promise and trusted God to fulfill it?
Have I seen this promise fulfilled in my life?
How would it change matters if everyone obeyed this command, adapted this attitude, or changed
their behavior?
One has failed to bring a passage home
if he has applied the truths of that passage to everyone but himself.

Preparing and Using Illustrations

The word illustrate means to make clear, to illuminate, to throw light upon a subject.
Illustrations are essential because of the way the human mind functions. Abstract statements of truth,
detached from the practical experiences of real people in live human situations, have little power to
convince ordinary minds. Christs words were alive; they connected. Jesus drew His illustrations from
the home, the farm, the school, the society, and everyday life. Paul used philosophy, poetry, athletics, and
local customs and practices to his advantage. Almost everything related to lifes normal context can be
used to clarify and explain great spiritual truths.
An illustration is truth unveiled. It gives light or luster on the sermon idea in such a manner as to
aid in accomplishing the objective. Exposition and argument may serve as pillars of the sermon, but
illustrations are the windows that let the light in.
Purposes of Illustrations:
1. To make truth concrete, allowing the hearer to gain a mental picture of the truth.
2. To make the truth interesting. Illustrations help preachers make their sermons uplifting, fresh, and
3. To make the truth impressive. Illustrations make truths easier to remember.
4. To make the truth persuasive. A sermon is not a sermon if it does not move the listeners to do
something about the message it contains. Some persuasion cannot is not attainable by logic alone.
Emotion is more persuasive with some than argumentation.
5. To make the truth practical. They bring truth down to common life. Spurgeon said, Lord, give me
learning enough that I may preach plain enough.
Things to Remember:
1. Never tack an illustration onto a sermon.
2. Never use one that attracts attention to itself and away from the truth.
3. Use illustrations through which the hearer can see to the truth, as he sees through the window to the
world outside.

Phil Sanders, instructor

4. Use humor wisely. If humor comes naturally, it can be used with good effect. Often a whimsical turn
to a subject, a touch of humor, can drive home a truth better than a serious statement. One can hardly
conceive of more vivid and impressive ways of expressing the truth than the exaggerations Jesus used
to describe the man who meticulously strained his water to avoid swallowing a gnat but gulped down
a camel; and the man who was gravely concerned about the speck in anothers eye but unperturbed by
the log in his own eye. If humor has little or no relevance to what is said, it is an interruption, a
diversion, and an impertinence. Beware of any humor that is off-color, offensive, vindictive, or
fosters feelings of superiority.
5. Beware of overindulgence in figures of speech. Watch especially for mixed metaphors.
6. Avoid putting yourself at the center of too many illustrations.
7. Avoid passing references to long lists of names, authors and books.
8. Carefully study and prepare the anecdotes you use. Make a study of the parables of Jesus. Each is a
literary gem. Simple words and phrases, each to the point. Each parable illustrates one man truth and
does it with precision. Avoid the extraneous details; dont dawdle; dont get lost in details. Be
picturesque and simple.
9. Tell the story in ordinary language and in an ordinary manner. Avoid imitating an unnatural dialect.
10. Learn the techniques of story-telling; but tell the story to unfold the truth.
11. Augustine said: Make the truth plain! Make the truth pleasing! Make the truth moving!
12. Seek always for variety. Dont ride a hobby by using illustrations week after week from a favorite
field of interest.
13. Exercise restraint in the number of illustrations used. Giving one illustration after another, like
stringing beads, becomes monotonous and less effective the further one proceeds.
14. Be certain in your accuracy. Effectiveness reaches its high point with the ample use of names, dates,
places, and other facts which bring accuracy of detail to a story and thus aid its authenticity.
Marks of a Good Illustration:
Cogent or Suitable. Prepare the thought for the illustration and the illustration for the thought.
Conducive to your objective
Worthy in itself
The greatest thing a human soul ever does in this world is to see something and tell what he saw in a
plain way. Hundreds of people can talk for one who thinks, but thousands can think for one who can


Borrowing Illustrations:

1. Use illustration books and software with extreme caution.

Such illustrations can become

commonplace with many speakers. In some instances, they are far removed from the natural
experience of the speaker and can be awkward. Reliance on such books can stifle the imagination,
the power of observation, and creativity. These books can become the lazy mans device. Used
habitually they make for hasty, careless preparation. They can be shallow, superficial, and artificial
2. Use Quotations and Poetry Wisely. They should support and stimulate ones thinking not substitute
for it. Quote accurately.
3. Be ethical in your borrowing. Distinguish between legitimate use and plagiarism. Everyone borrows.
Borrowed ideas should be incorporated into ones own thinking, formulated in his own words and
categories. They are then his own. When someone asked Charles Lamb where he got the material for

Phil Sanders, instructor

one of his essays, he said he had milked three hundred cows for it, but the butter was his own. Give
credit when you quote, but do not read the whole footnote.
Jerry Jones: Know your illustration. Practice your illustration. Re-create the illustration in the moment
of delivery. Deliver an illustration in tones which capture the spirit of the original experience. Dont
shout when telling an illustration about a conversation.
Make the point. Illustrate it. Apply it.
Why Use Illustrations?
There is widespread dissatisfaction in our culture with preaching. Experts researched why many
Americans did not have a strong confidence in the pulpit. Clyde Reid surveyed religious professionals
and found these problems with preaching:1
1. Preachers tend to use complex, archaic language which the average person does not
2. Most sermons today are dull, boring, and uninteresting.
3. Most preaching today is irrelevant.
4. Preaching today is not courageous preaching.
5. Preaching does not communicate.
6. Preaching does not lead to change in persons.
7. Preaching has been overemphasized.
Reuel Howe in a survey of people in the pew catalogued these complaints:
1. Sermons often contain too many complex ideas.
2. Sermons have too much analysis and too little answer.
3. Sermons are too formal and too impersonal.
4. Sermons use too much theological jargon.
5. Sermons are too propositional (logical in form), not enough illustrations.
6. Too many sermons simply reach a dead end and give no guidance to commitment and action.2
What is obvious is that few seem satisfied, and there is often little direct link with real life. In
order to reconnect our sermons with our people we must understand their situation.
We are in the age of visual literacy. The average adult who spends fifty hours a year in a pew
will also spend two thousand hours at home watching television. By the end of high school the average
American school child will invest more hours in television (15,000 hours) than in class (12,000 hours).3
Some estimate that the average child will spend more time watching television before entering school
than he will listen to his father during his entire lifetime. These same children have watched 350,000
commercials by the time thay are graduated from high school. Add to these the influences of movies,
video arcades, highway advertisements, grocery packaging, and overhead projectors, videotape, and
analog computers. The conclusion is inescapable: Ours is par excellence the Age of Illustration, an age
when people are habituated to picture thinking.4

Bryan Chappell, Christ-Centered Preaching (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1994), 168.
Byron Val Johnson, A Media Selection Model, Ph.D. dissertation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale,
1982, p. 215.
David L. Larsen, The Anatomy of Preaching: Identifying the Issues in Preaching Today (Grand Rapids, Mich.:
Baker, 1989), 39.
Ian McPherson, The Art of Illustrating Sermons (Nashville: Abingdon, 1964), 39.

Phil Sanders, instructor


Even newspaper publishers know that only 4 or 5 percent of their audience will read beyond the
first paragraph of the average story, and they know that readership will triple or quadruple with any story
bearing a picture (the caption being the most read paragraph of the entire account.5 Audience interest and
information consumption increase with sensory involvement even in these media.
We must learn as evangelists and preachers to turn the ear into the eye. The Scriptures
themselves punctuate their words with images: armor of God, the race course, living stones, vines and
branches, prodigal sons, lamps and baskets, birds of the air, lilies of the field, walking in the light, and
many others.
Our generation is witnessing a revolution in thought about the way people understand themselves
and their world. We understand most fully what is real to us. It is only when a truth touches us
experientially or when we sense the impact it could have upon us that we can comprehend it fully. If you
cannot illustrate it, it will lose most of its impact on the people whom you hope to reach. Illustrations are
the means by which we communicate the realities weve discovered in Gods Word to our listeners. We
learn 10 percent of what we hear, 30 percent of what we see, and 60 percent of what we do. Illustrations
allow listeners to experience and to interact with the sermons we preach. We must involve listeners, or
they will not learn. Listeners who experience conceptseven vicariously through a sermonactually
learn more than those who must consider words and ideas in the abstract. Listeners simply understand
more deeply and more broadly when we exhibit biblical truths in identifiable experiences. The Scriptures
themselves teach us this.
Nothing is more tragic than the man who knows his subject well but, due to poor presentation of
it, cannot make his subject well-known.6 We do not want to speak above their heads and miss their
hearts. Mark said of Jesus, Without a parable spake he not unto them (Mark 4:34).

Conclusions and Invitations

1. It is important for the sermon to end. Dont cruise around looking for a landing place.
2. Its value to the listeners:
a. it shows them what relation the sermon has to life
b. it applies for them the truth
c. it calls them to act upon that truth
3. It is important for the preacher as he seeks his objective: to move the audience.
4. It is important psychologically: to end badly shows that what has been done has not been done
well. People usually remember the last points better than the others.
5. A good conclusion can redeem a bad sermon, but a bad conclusion can ruin a good sermon.
6. It is not diagnosis that is difficult; it is therapy that is hard. Symptoms are easier to discuss than
remedies. Unless we make genuine effort to bend our sermons to practical ends, they will always
bore. The sermon conclusion is the last and best chance to relate and connect to the practical
realities of life.
1. The conclusion of the sermon is that part by which the central thought of the main body is
practically applied (Fishe).
2. The part of the sermon in which the message is so compressed that the hearer would feel the force
of the sermon with one blow.
3. It should be the last thing prepared but the first in conception or objective.

Principles of Advertising Design (St Louis: Delcom Seminars, 1978), 12, 35.
Vernon Ray Jr., Without a Parable (Nashville: 21st Century Christian, 1983), x.

Phil Sanders, instructor


Qualities of a Good Conclusion:

1. It should complete the sermon, finish the message.
2. It should be well-prepared. Very seldom is a good conclusion done in the mind alone. Write it
out, think on it.
3. It should be appropriate for the sermon. Dont use an evangelistic conclusion on a giving
4. It should be marked by strength and intensity (urgency). Perhaps you need this sermon will not
move people. People should realize that it makes a difference whether they accept or reject this
5. It should be proportionate in length (no more than five minutes).
6. It should be direct and personal. Convince people that your message is related to them. Use
pronouns (you, your, yours, we, us). Apply it to each one: father, mother, son, daughter.
7. It should be persuasive but not coercive or manipulative. Invite, challenge. Let us meditate,
therefore, on these things may well destroy all the previous force and power of a sermon. Such a
statement is like addressing a letter in care of general delivery, without specific instruction as to
the individual who should receive it.
8. Close hopefully and expectantly.
9. Lean hard on authority.
10. The last sentence should be very clear.
11. Make sure the audience is clear on what they are to do.
Conclusions to Be Avoided:
1. Humorous or Boisterous
2. New idea. When you are through, cease fire.
3. Negative endings. Occasionally this may work, but it should not be the rule. Show your
confidence they will do right.
4. Cautions:
a. Avoid statements like In conclusion, Finally, or since my time is up.
b. Do not use the same conclusion every sermon.
Types of Conclusions:
1. Summary: this is a brief restatement of the main points of the sermon.
2. Practical Application. Go thou and do likewise.
3. Contrasting Truth: Rock or sand. Wheat or chaff.
4. Warning or Admonition: firm but in love.
5. Appropriate Poem or Hymn.
6. Illustration or Story.
a. Used with caution.
b. Brief and helpful.
c. appeals to emotion and imagination.
7. Prayer. A sermon on thanksgiving may be ended with a prayer of thanks.
8. Repeating the Scripture text.
9. An illustration of how the truths of the sermon actually worked in the life of a person.
10. Earnest Appeal or Exhortation:
a. Intellect: think on these things.
b. Emotions: dont give an ultimatum. Merely producing tears is not our objective.
c. Will: the objective should call for voluntary action.

Phil Sanders, instructor


Practical Suggestions:
1. Dont announce your conclusion, go into it.
2. Avoid tacked on conclusions.
3. End on a high note.
4. Make sure your objective is contained in the conclusion.

Persuasive Preaching
Preaching is by its very nature persuasive; it consciously attempts to influence the behavior of the listener
through the delivering of a message from God. Persuasion moves the will to the point where a desire is
created which becomes dominant to other desires.
Two types of persuasion:
1. Argumentative preaching (making logical arguments).
goal: to convince the intellect
involves interpreting Biblical evidence and reasoning from it to sound, practical conclusions
2. Motivational preaching. Its goal is to move to action by influencing the emotions
And according to Paul's custom, he went to them, and for three Sabbaths reasoned with them from the
Scriptures, explaining and giving evidence that the Christ had to suffer and rise again from the dead, and
saying, "This Jesus whom I am proclaiming to you is the Christ." And some of them were persuaded and
joined Paul and Silas, along with a great multitude of the God-fearing Greeks and a number of the
leading women. (Acts 17:2-4)
It was Pauls custom to use reasoning in his teaching.
To reason is to discuss, dispute; this came from the Scriptures
Paul explained or fully opened the Scriptures.
Paul gave evidence or proved , demonstrated Christs suffering and resurrection.
The effect was that the people were persuaded.
Presuppositions of Persuasive Preaching

1. Preaching is Gods chief instrument for saving men.

Acts 18:5 But when Silas and Timothy came down from Macedonia, Paul began devoting
himself completely to the word, solemnly testifying to the Jews that Jesus was the Christ.
Acts 6:2 And the twelve summoned the congregation of the disciples and said, "It is not desirable
for us to neglect the word of God in order to serve tables.
1 Cor. 1:21 For since in the wisdom of God the world through its wisdom did not come to know
God, God was well-pleased through the foolishness of the message preached to save those who
believe. (Cf. Rom. 1:16; James 1:21; 1 Peter 1:23-25)
Evangelism in the first century involved three streams:
a. Fellowship, loving (Mark 2:16; Acts 2:44)
b. serving (Mark 1:34; Acts 3:6)
c. preaching (Mark 1:14; Acts 5:42)
d. We have tended to emphasize the first two but diminish the third because of its
uncomfortable confrontation.
If the minister gives the gave or primacy to any other hand in the senate of his interests--counseling, visitation, group therapy, administrationhis preaching will inevitably decline in
power and relevance. (Christianity Today, p. 13, June 9, 1967)

Phil Sanders, instructor


2. Christian Preaching Must Be Persuasive

Persuasion comes from two root words, meaning by sweetness.

2 Cor. 5:11 Therefore knowing the fear of the Lord, we persuade men, but we are made
manifest to God; and I hope that we are made manifest also in your consciences.
Persuasion is essential to the convincing, convicting and converting the individual.
W. A. Bradfield said, Man convinced of the truth cannot be overly persuaded.
We preach to persuade men, and the secret of persuasion is the impact of the soul upon soul, in
which obscurity is overcome by clearness, and doubt by faith, and narrowness by breadth,
fantasies by fact, partiality by comprehension, and hesitation by decision.

3. The pulpit is the preachers greatest opportunity to change men

Jesus thought of himself as a preacher (Mk. 1:38; Lk. 4:18, 19).

Proclamation of the gospel brought the church into existence, and only gospel preaching can keep
life in the church.
For your task is to confront the rampant disillusionment of the day, and smash it with the Cross
of Christ and shame it with the splendor of the Resurrection. (James Stewart, Heralds of God, p.
Pulpit preaching on Sunday morning is when our largest crowds gather.

4. Belief that Something Can Happen in the act of Preaching

Things that show we do not expect any changes to take place when we preach: no preparation for
responses, no preparation for baptisms, song leader skips verses, brethren leave during the
invitation song, prayers like If there are those here..
Observations: Peter believed something was going to happen in Acts 2. Effective preachers
differ in manner and mold, but all believed greatly in preaching.
Our services need an air of expectancy. Every sermon should be preached believing someone is
there in the fullness of time.

Qualities of Persuasive Preaching

1. It must be Biblical.

Isa. 30:9,10 For this is a rebellious people, false sons, Sons who refuse to listen To the
instruction of the LORD; Who say to the seers, "You must not see visions"; And to the prophets,
"You must not prophesy to us what is right, Speak to us pleasant words, Prophesy illusions.
The Bible was written to build faith in Christ (John 20:31).
The Word of God
a. instructs the mind (2 Tim. 3:16)
b. produces faith (Rom. 10:17)
c. Recreates the heart (1 Pet. 1:23; 2 Pet. 1:4)
d. Convicts the heart (Acts 2:37)
e. Cleanses (John 15:2; Eph. 5:26)
f. Protects from error (Acts 20:29-32)
g. Gives Patience and Comfort (Rom. 15:4)
h. Assures (1 John 5:13)
i. Builds Up (Acts 20:32)
An analysis of Peters Sermon in Acts 2
a. Appealed to Scriptures as authoritative (13 verses contain quotations). Without appeals to the
Scripture, Peter would merely be making an appeal from experience.

Phil Sanders, instructor



centered on Christ
directed his message to those who were before him
appealed to common knowledge of current events they understood
brought conviction and concern
called for an immediate and specific response
We are commanded to be Biblical (2 Tim. 4:2). We are not to speculate or to argue. The sermon
is not open for discussion, because God has spoken. (Isa. 55:11)
Jesus in his personal ministry quoted, preached, taught, and obeyed Scripture (Lk. 3:21,22; 4:4, 8,
12, 16-27).
People cannot grow spiritually on a string of illustrations, a clever diagnosis of social ills, or on
relevant themes culled from altruistic newspaper and magazine articles. People need the meat of
the word (Heb. 5:10-12).
She measured out the butter with a very solemn air,
The milk and sugar also, and she took the greatest care
To count the eggs correctly, and add a little bit
Of baking powder, which you know beginners oft omit.
And she stirred it all together, and she baked it for an hour,
But she never quite forgave herself for leaving out the flour.

2. Christ-Centered

The stress in Acts (2:36; 3:14,15; 4:11,12; 8:5; 8:35; 9:5,6; 10:35).
The stress in 1 Corinthians (2:1,2; 3:11; 15:1-4).
The cross is vital to our preaching for it is here that Jesus Christ becomes either a stone of
stumbling or a rock of salvation.
Preaching Christ is necessary to produce conviction of sin.
Christ is mans judge who discloses the sinfulness of sin.
In Christ we see the significance of sin. Without a knowledge of sin, we cannot appreciate Jesus
Christ, but without a knowledge of Christ we cannot appreciate the sinfulness of our sin. A sure
word must be brought about sin and forgiveness.
Jesus Christ is Gods expression of love (John 3:16; Rom. 5:6-10).
Jesus Christ is Gods means of teaching us about His nature (John 1:18; 14:6-10).
The apostles appealed to motives centering in God and in Christ (Rom. 12:1; 15:30; 1 Cor. 1:10;
10:31; 2 Cor. 10:1; 1 Thess. 2:11,12).

3. Soul-Stirring

There should be an urgency in our preaching (2 Cor. 6:2).

Jer. 20:7-9 O LORD, Thou hast deceived me and I was deceived; Thou hast overcome me and
prevailed. I have become a laughingstock all day long; Everyone mocks me. For each time I
speak, I cry aloud; I proclaim violence and destruction, Because for me the word of the LORD
has resulted In reproach and derision all day long. But if I say, "I will not remember Him Or
speak anymore in His name," Then in my heart it becomes like a burning fire Shut up in my
bones; And I am weary of holding it in, And I cannot endure it.
There was an urgency and an immediacy yet with a strong note of warning to count the cost in the
preaching of Jesus. Follow me, believe in me, come after me, take up your cross and forsake all
you have for me.
Richard Baxter: I preached as never sure to preach again and as a dying man to dying men.
Preaching by its nature should disturb. Older evangelism disturbed its prospects and made them
ashamed of what they were, but now people can become members and hardly feel it: Business
associates, wives, relatives and strangers dont notice it and even God doesnt notice it.

Phil Sanders, instructor


Can you imagine a doctor who always tells you what is right but never tells you what is wrong?
Will this kind of preaching disturb a city?

4. Verdict-rendering
People on Pentecost were not merely impressed and asking for an outline and the tape. They
were cut to the heart. Preaching ought to prompt conviction and change.
Our purpose is to change souls not deliver chapel talks.
Judgment is coming! Preaching that does not convey this point lacks evangelistic relevance. The
gospel does not permit men the luxury of indecision. In the presence of the cross, we cannot be
neutral. To deliberately ignore Christ is to blaspheme God. Eternal destinies are at stake.

5. Simple and Clear

1 Cor. 1:20-31. The sinner will not be convicted if the truth of God is wrapped in an
overabundance of uncommon words and oratorical vagueness. It may impress some, but it will
not save souls.
2 Cor. 1:12,13 For our proud confidence is this, the testimony of our conscience, that in
holiness and godly sincerity, not in fleshly wisdom but in the grace of God, we have conducted
ourselves in the world, and especially toward you. For we write nothing else to you than what you
read and understand, and I hope you will understand until the end
We need the tongue of the people in the mouth of the scholar.
Some may be lost in hell trying to figure out what the preacher said.

6. Emotional

Nothing truly human lacks emotion. Something is wrong when emotion becomes legitimate in
everything except our faith.
Emotions involved as incentives to be saved:
a. fear of punishment (Lk. 13:3; 2 Cor. 5:11; Rom. 11:22) I would rather scare a person into
heaven than let him go to hell unafraid.
b. love of God (Rom. 5:6-10)
c. hope of reward
d. goodness of God (Rom. 2:4)
Eyes are dry because hearts are dry. We need more agonizing than organizing.

7. Individual-Oriented

we should speak as one dying man to another.

listeners need to feel as if thou art the man was directed to them.

8. Applicable

Application is personal (Acts 2:37; Matt. 5:3-7:29 uses you no less than 100 times.)
Application is in the present tense. Not God said but God says.
Application is dynamic. Exegesis is frozen in the passage, but application is dependent upon the
people addressed, the times and the circumstances.
Marks of good application:
a. appeals to shared values (if you accept Christ as Lord and the Bible as inspired as I do,
b. careful audience analysis
c. language of the day

Phil Sanders, instructor


d. practical. The individual should leave the building not so much impressed with what
happened during the hour as with what he is going to make happen because of the hour he

Creating Persuasive Preaching

1. Two necessary elements of persuasion
a. Our desire or passion must become dominant.

It occurs when attention is fixed on a certain desire until it becomes a motive, which is one
step beyond a desire. The preacher must present an object, goal or course in such a way that
the mind admires it (convince the intellect)
the heart desires it (move the feelings)
the will takes every step to acquire it (persuade the conscience to make this action
dominant as a motive in life.)
Obedience to God must be strongly tied to our preaching.
b. It must show a connection between the action into which he would lead the audience and the
fulfillment of the desires which are to become dominant in their lives. Unless this connection is
plain, the desire will gradually die, because of the lack of fulfillment.

2. Ways of wakening the desire

a. Appeal to senses

visual aids
b. Appeal to imagination
paint word pictures
Peter Marshall: Were You There?
c. Appeal to reason.
the emotions of an educated man are stirred by reason
however, usually pure reason will not move people
d. Use of contrasts:
fellowship and loneliness; assurance and fear; purpose and lack of meaning; peace and inner conflict;
strength and weakness; certainty and uncertainty; changeless and changing; forgiveness and guilt;
heaven and hell; eternal life and eternal punishment; life and death; at home and away
home; manliness and cowardice; normal and abnormal; reasonable and unreasonable.

3. Impelling Motives: self-preservation, property, power, reputation, affections, sentiments and tastes.
4. Persuasive Appeals.
The task of the preaching is to raise the questions in the minds of the listeners to which the gospel is
the answer.
a. Deliverance from Sin
b. Hunger for God
c. Resources for living (God, Christ, Holy Spirit, Word of God, Family of God, prayer)
d. Desire for the better (aspiration)
longing for spiritual happiness and oneness with God
longing for a better life, home, and community
e. Response of sacrifice by taking up a cross.
f. Answer to question of life after death.

Phil Sanders, instructor


g. Fear

Jude gives this advice: Jude 22,23 And have mercy on some, who are doubting; save others,
snatching them out of the fire; and on some have mercy with fear, hating even the garment
polluted by the flesh.
Saul trembled (Acts 9:6)
Jailer sought to take his life (Acts 16:29)
Jesus used the appeal of fear: (Matt. 10:28)
Matt. 5:29-30 Sermon on the mount
stories Lk. 16:19-31
Commands Lk. 13:3,5
Prophets Jonah 3:4
Paul in Rom. 11:22; Acts 24:25
h. Altruism (good will toward others) Num. 10:29-33
i. Duty. The divine urge to do a thing because it is right or to refrain from a thing because it is
wrong. (Matt. 23:23; Acts 10:6; James 3:10; John 3:18)
j. Love. This is the highest and best motive.
Every conceivable appeal is an appeal to one of three loves: self, God, or others.
Jesus drew men to himself by his love (John 9:25-38)
The apostles preached Christ and his cross to enkindle love toward God (2 Cor. 4:5; 5:14)
k. Reasonable (Isa. 1:18; Acts 17:2,17; 1 Sam. 12:7)
l. Curiosity. Note Jesus and Nathanael (John 1:47); Jesus and the Samaritan woman (4:10); and
Jesus and Zacchaeus (Lk. 19:5).

The Challenges of Preaching

1 Cor. 15:1-5
Now I make known to you, brethren, the gospel which I preached to you,
which also you received,
in which also you stand,
by which also you are saved,
if you hold fast the word which I preached to you,
unless you believed in vain.
For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received,
that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures,
and that He was buried,
and that He was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures,
and that He appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve.
The Problems of Every Person
1. Sin problem
2. Weakness problem
3. Grave problem
4. Ignorance problem

Phil Sanders, instructor

Four Great Needs of Everyone You Meet

1. Need for Faith
2. Need for Hope
3. Need for Love
4. Need for Truth


I solemnly charge you in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus,

who is to judge the living and the dead, and by His appearing and His kingdom:
preach the word;
be ready in season and out of season;
reprove, rebuke, exhort, with great patience and instruction.
For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine;
but wanting to have their ears tickled,
they will accumulate for themselves teachers in accordance to their own desires;
and will turn away their ears from the truth, and will turn aside to myths.
But you, be sober in all things,
endure hardship,
do the work of an evangelist,
fulfill your ministry.
For I am already being poured out as a drink offering, and the time of my departure has come.
I have fought the good fight,
I have finished the course,
I have kept the faith;
in the future there is laid up for me the crown of righteousness,
which the Lord, the righteous Judge, will award to me on that day;
and not only to me,
but also to all who have loved His appearing.

You have seen their Faces;

Have you seen their Souls?
Therefore from now on we recognize no man according to the flesh; even though we have known
Christ according to the flesh, yet now we know Him thus no longer (2 Cor. 5:16).
Every person you encounter has a soul, which one day will stand before God to face its eternity.
Some will come before God with joy and hope; others will stand before God with terror and despair.
Many people blunder through life hardly thinking about their eternal destiny. Recent surveys have shown
that people live most of their lives concentrating on the here and now.
I have always appreciated anonymous road signs which say, Prepare to meet thy God, After death,
what then? or Jesus Lives, Will You? Some may think these too bold, but it sometimes takes bold
statements to wake people from their complacency. People alone in a car may begin thinking.
People we love need to know we are concerned for their souls. If ones soul is more important than
his health, his life, or his possessions, shouldnt we take the time to discuss it with our friend?

The words of a meaningful song come to mind:

When in the better land before the bar we stand,
How deeply grieved our souls may be;
If any lost one there, should cry in deep despair,
You never mentioned Him to me.
Whose soul have you seen lately?

Phil Sanders, instructor


10 Tips For Successful Public Speaking

Feeling some nervousness before giving a speech is natural and healthy. It shows you care about doing
well. But, too much nervousness can be detrimental. Here's how you can control your nervousness and
make effective, memorable presentations:
Know the room. Be familiar with the place in which you will speak. Arrive early, walk around the
speaking area and practice using the microphone and any visual aids.
Know the audience. Greet some of the audience as they arrive. It's easier to speak to a group of
friends than to a group of strangers.
Know your material. If you're not familiar with your material or are uncomfortable with it, your
nervousness will increase. Practice your speech and revise it if necessary.
Relax. Ease tension by doing exercises.
Visualize yourself giving your speech. Imagine yourself speaking, your voice loud, clear, and
assured. When you visualize yourself as successful, you will be successful.
Realize that people want you to succeed. Audiences want you to be interesting, stimulating,
informative, and entertaining. They don't want you to fail.
Don't apologize. If you mention your nervousness or apologize for any problems you think you have
with your speech, you may be calling the audience's attention to something they hadn't noticed.
Keep silent.
Concentrate on the message -- not the medium. Focus your attention away from your own
anxieties, and outwardly toward your message and your audience. Your nervousness will
Turn nervousness into positive energy. Harness your nervous energy and transform it into vitality
and enthusiasm.
Gain experience. Experience builds confidence, which is the key to effective speaking.

The Nobility of Preaching

Phil Sanders
God had only one son, and He was a preacher! Where would the church be without faithful
gospel preachers who sacrificed much to proclaim the gospel. I would not be a Christian today were it not
for a gospel preacher who reached my family in 1918 and another gospel preacher who reached me in
1961. Philemon owed himself to Paul (Philemon 19); perhaps we too owe ourselves to men who fathered
us in the gospel. Unfortunately, many people hold the work of the preaching in low esteem. Parents often
steer their children into other professions than full-time preaching. Many faithful Christians prefer their
daughters marry someone other than a preacher. Among some of our colleges, large number of our
students train to be youth ministers but have little desire to enter into full-time preaching.
Those who preach frequently hear they are to cut the sermon short because of some other event
at the worship services. Hearing a preacher is just not that important. One might wonder if anyone ever
tells prayer leaders, song leaders, or those who preside at the Lords Table to keep their parts short. Such
attitudes reflect a heart too busy to listen to God. Those who enter preaching do so, knowing they will
often be the subject of many discussions at the noon meal. Sometimes the discussion is positive, but
sometimes it is not. I wonder if in some of those discussions some talented, young mans heart is turned
from the pulpit.
The work of preaching the whole counsel of God lends itself to the necessity at times of saying
things people despise hearing. Jesus said the world hated Him, because I testify of it, that its deeds are
evil (John 7:7). Gospel preachers must decide in their hearts whether they are willing to speak the truth
at the cost of peoples admiration or speak things which tickle ears.

Phil Sanders, instructor


Three things have hurt gospel preaching. First, it has become fashionable for some of those who
want change to mock and bash preachers, especially older ones. People say one should not be preachy,
showing little understanding of how it may hurt a young persons attitude toward preachers. We should
use caution with our words, so that we may encourage the young to consider gospel preaching as a life
vocation. To hear some talk this would be the last consideration. Such thinking shows how the devil
wins through intimidation and mockery.
Second, with little hesitation some show they have little respect for the sacrifices of gospel
preachers in former years. They slander their work, charge them with never understanding grace, and pain
them as ignorant and unfeeling. It never occurs to some that these graceless, ignorant, brush-arbor
preachers baptized more people in a year than some of todays ministers baptize in a decade. If they lack
so much grace, why did people eagerly listen to them and respond? How could these mean-spirited
legalists have built so many churches? Their message of the cross was pure and true to the Book. Did
they know of grace? How can any man preach the cross and not know of the grace of God?
Third, some have adopted a style of preaching which reminds me of a potato chip. It looks good,
tastes good, but has little nutritional substance. Everyone enjoys the message, but no one is changed by
it. It tickles ears and sounds so good. When a gospel preacher comes along with a different style, he may
find rejection because he dares to challenge, to condemn, and to convict. listeners who would rather hear
only pleasant things.
What Makes Preaching Noble?
Preaching is noble because it is Gods work. God is the One who commissioned men to preach
the gospel (Matt. 28:19,20; Mark 16:15). Paul said,
How then shall they call upon Him in whom they have not believed? And how shall they believe
in Him whom they have not heard? And how shall they hear without a preacher? And how shall
they preach unless they are sent? Just as it is written, "How beautiful are the feet of those who
bring glad tidings of good things!" (Rom. 10:14,15)
Paul held in high esteem those who took the good news to others who needed it. He knew their value, the
blessing they brought those who listened. The ugliest part of them, their feet, was indeed beautiful for
having brought a life-saving message to people lost in sin.
Preaching is noble because its message is most important. The world is in desperate need of the
gospel of grace. When Paul entered Athens his spirit was provoked with him as he saw the city full of
idols (Acts 17:16). Paul was greatly distressed, irritated and grieving, because they didnt know the living
God. They needed what he had been commissioned to deliver, but they did not know it. He yearned to
tell them, to save them from ignorance.
Preaching is noble because its results are far-reaching. Mack Lyon said, Preaching is the one
single work or calling that deals with mans eternal destiny, mans soul. Though doctors are called to
heal bodies and teachers to educate minds, preachers touch mens eternal souls. Preaching affects both
this life and the life to come. The preaching of Gods Word comforts, converts, convicts and encourages.
It lifts, motivates, shapes and stretches. Through preaching a listening man becomes better, nobler, richer
and purer. When one is touched with the gospel, who knows how many others will be touched?
Preachers do not merely teach their immediate listeners; they reach beyond to those their listeners teach as
well. Who knows in the future what some bright young man will do with his life to serve the Lord?
Preaching is noble because its activity is essential to salvation. It is in obedience to the preached
truth that a man is born again (1 Pet. 1:22-25). God chose the foolishness of the message preached to
save those who believe (1 Cor. 1:21); He realized man by his own wisdom could never reach heaven
without His help. God chose preaching as the means to lead men to Himself and to salvation.
Preaching is noble because its motivation is honorable. Those who preach do so, for the most
part, out of love for God and people. While some may preach out of envy and strife (Phil. 1:15,16),
others do it from good will and out of love. Many preachers have a deep burden for the lost and great

Phil Sanders, instructor


compassion for the brethren. Paul admonished the Ephesians with tears for three years (Acts 20:31). He
made himself a slave to all that he might win the more to Jesus Christ (1 Cor. 9:19-23).
Preaching is noble because it takes character to do it. Effective gospel preaching requires a high
price from those who do it. They must be honest, courageous, compassionate and virtuous. As men of
integrity, preachers must faithfully deliver Gods message to people who dont always want to hear what
they have to say. The weeping Jeremiah often grew discouraged with impenitent Judah, but the fire in his
bones would not allow him to remain silent about sin (Jer. 20:7-10). Gospel preaching demands godly
men who will not compromise and will not discredit the Name they wear.

What Can We Do?

Preachers can do several things to boost their image, but they need the help of all who love the
Lords cause. Preachers need first and foremost to preach with visible love. People who love the Lord
will listen to godly men, if they know their preacher loves them. Good preaching starts with loving
ministry and care day to day. Hospital and home visits help preachers to get their messages across.
People will tolerate rebuke from men they respect, when they feel he has their best interest at heart. We
must preach the truth with love (Eph. 4:15), if we are ever to recover an esteem for the pulpit.
Preachers need to hear themselves. Some preachers have adopted a style which appears
unloving. Should they preach on hell, some conclude by his attitude he wishes they would go there.
Preachers would do well to listen to the sound of their voices. What does their tone of voice
communicate? One preacher I admire seems always to be angry. One woman remarked she was tired of
church, because she got a spanking every Sunday from the preacher. His attitude or tone of voice could
have spoken things to her he never meant. Most preachers love their congregations and mean well, but
some are not good at showing it. Many preachers would do well to evaluate themselves for more than
Preachers, further, need to rediscover joy. The gospel is glad tidings not sad tidings, and many
preachers wear depressing and discouraging faces. We cannot impart what we do not possess, and it
could be that our churches reflect a joyless gospel. Preacher, show the joy of your salvation (Psalm
51:10), the unspeakable joy of your inheritance (1 Pet. 1:6-8), the joy of the Holy Spirit (Rom. 14:17; Gal.
5:22), and your joy in the Lord (Phil. 4:4). Infectious smiles radiate who you are and Whose you are.
Many preachers need to learn to laugh again.
Finally, live lives free of reproach. Paul encouraged Timothy, Let no one look down on your
youthfulness, but rather in speech, conduct, love, faith and purity, show yourself an example of those
who believe (1 Tim. 4:12). He urged Titus, These things speak and exhort and reprove with all
authority. Let no one disregard you (Tit. 2:15). Preachers must speak with authority at times, but they
forget that their best ally is moral authority. Such authority comes from blameless lives, filled with love
and purity.
Every preacher faces a discouraging day now and then. He should remember what he does is
vital to the Lords work. God needs faithful men who will be able to teach others, men of courage who
will stand in the gap, watchmen who will warn of danger, and evangelists who will take the great news to
a lost and dying world. Preaching is noble because the gospel is a Divine message. How privileged it is
to be a clay jar and to carry such a precious and needed message! Preacher, you have such a privilege.

Phil Sanders, instructor


The Preacher and His Work

Books You Should Read:
Thomas Holland, Help and Healing for People Who Hurt, 1998.
Ira North, Balance, Gospel Advocate.
Cleon Lyles, Bigger Men for Better Churches, 1971.
Bill Flatt, Growing Through Grief, Gospel Advocate, 1987.
Bill Flatt, Personal Counseling.
MSOP Alumni, Rejoice and Weep, Wedding and Funeral Sermons.
E. W. McMillan, The Ministers Spiritual Life, Firm Foundation, 1959.
J. A. McNutt, Lets Go Visiting, n.d. (Available at GA)
Other Valuable Books:
Steve Clapp, Positioning Ministry for Success, 1986.
Kenneth W. Oosting, The Christians Guide to Effective Personal Management.
Kenn Filkins, A Comforting Word, College Press, 1994.
Candy Lightner & Nancy Hathaway, Giving Sorrow Words, Warner Books, 1990.
Norman Wright, Crisis Counseling, Regal, 1993.
Eugene Peterson, et. al., Weddings, Funerals and Special Events, Word, 1987.
James L. Christensen, The Complete Funeral Manual, Revell, 1967.
Resource for Weddings:
Resource for Funerals
Resource for Premarital Counseling
As with all resources, preachers must learn to eat the fish and throw the bones away.

Ministers and Their Spiritual Lives

Gospel preachers have a responsibility to live the life they preach and to maintain wholehearted
dedication to the Lord Jesus Christ. Those who challenge others to take up the cross of Christ daily ought
themselves to live devotedly to His cause. Romans 2:21-23 should speak to every person who determines
to preach the gospel.
You, therefore, who teach another, do you not teach yourself?
You who preach that one should not steal, do you steal?
You who say that one should not commit adultery, do you commit adultery?
You who abhor idols, do you rob temples?
You who boast in the Law, through your breaking the Law, do you dishonor God?
James warns, Let not many of you become teachers, my brethren, knowing that as such we shall incur a
stricter judgment (James 3:1).

Problems Preachers Face:

1. Financial difficulties. Preachers who do not know how to manage their financial affairs and who make
inadequate salaries, often find themselves in serious financial trouble. Unpaid bills, late payments,

Phil Sanders, instructor


and unscrupulous dealings can ruin the reputation of a preacher and the churches he serves. Preachers
would do well to learn money management skills and to seek accounting help in paying their taxes.
2. Laziness. Some preachers simply do not how to manage themselves or their time. Preachers may easily
fall into the traps of time wasting or of inactivity at those times when they should be busy. Those who
pay preachers expect their preachers to be worthy of their hire. Preachers, who fail to study,
continually use rerun sermons, and neglect visitation and evangelism, will be looking for employment
over and over.
3. Procrastination. Sometimes a preacher falls into the habit of thinking that he can do tomorrow what he
should do today. A preacher that habitually fails to do his work in a timely fashion does not
appreciate the urgency of the gospel. We must work the works of Him who sent Me, as long as it is
day; night is coming, when no man can work (John 9:4).
4. Burnout. Other preachers become workaholics. They feel they must be busy working all of the time.
Because they fail to take days off and balance their lives, they soon begin to despise what they are
called to do.
5. Persistent Guilt. The work of preaching requires many skills and many tasks. Very often preachers, no
matter what they are doing, feel as if they should be pursuing some other aspect of their ministry.
This anxiety leads to a feeling a failure regardless of what they accomplish.
6. Family problems. Preachers must learn to do their work efficiently without alienating their families.
Divorce and family breaks are tragic under any circumstances, but they are doubly so in the life of a
church leader. As the spiritual leader and head of his home preachers should keep their marriages
strong and rear their children with love and discipline.
7. Sexual temptations. Because they are men in responsible and visible roles and often come in contact
with women, preachers may face serious sexual challenges. Giving in to such
temptation could ruin a ministers career. Preachers must use extra caution never to place themselves
in compromising situations.
8. Criticism. Some criticisms are just, while others are unfair. In either case, a few loud critics can destroy
the effectiveness and reputation of a preacher. Preachers would do well to tape sermons, document
hours and visits, and keep records. While some criticisms are unfair, others merit attention. When
someone criticizes a preacher, there is usually a reason. Prompt response or apology can often avert
more serious problems. Critics are often the preachers most helpful teachersespecially when the
critics are other congregational leaders.
9. Confidentiality. Because ministers counsel others and a part of a congregations leadership, they will
have access to privileged information. Ministers who reveal secrets, gossip about others, and
embarrass others needlessly will soon lose the trust of the congregation and their usefulness.
Preachers must guard their credibility; without credibility a preacher is unable to be effective.
10. Loneliness. Preachers often find it hard to develop close, personal friendships in congregations.
Because he must be everyones preacher, he often feels unable to draw especially close to men in
their own age group. Continual study and professional role often lead to relational barriers for
preachers. Many preachers find their best friends in other preachers. Wise preachers find friends
among mens groups.
11. Frustration. Churches move notoriously slow, and brethren can often take their faith and their
responsibilities for granted. Sometimes preachers expect change and growth in congregations before
the congregation is ready. Attitudes and behavior patterns that took many years to form will not easily
be changed. It is foolish to think longstanding patterns can be changed with a sermon or two.
Preachers must learn patience with weak and struggling brethren.
12. Anger. Brethren can be cruel and selfish, and we must learn to love them anyway and not grow bitter.
Churches that treat their preachers like hired hands rather than brethren can poison their spirits.
Preachers must learn to confront those who abuse them and to forgive those who repent.

Phil Sanders, instructor


When Dark Days Come

I again saw under the sun that the race is not to the swift and the battle is not to the warriors, and
neither is bread to the wise nor wealth to the discerning nor favor to men of ability; for time and chance
overtake them all. Moreover, man does not know his time: like fish caught in a treacherous net and birds
trapped in a snare, so the sons of men are ensnared at an evil time when it suddenly falls on them
(Ecclesiastes 9:11-12).
It is not a question of if dark days come but when. Time and chance overtake us all. It usually happens
when we least expect it. Tragedy is usually an interruption that takes our breath away and leaves us
stumbling through the motions. Befuddled and distressed, we are never more aware of our need for God
and His love.
When tragedy strikes, turn through the pages of your Bible. Find those marked verses that give hope
and promise. Too often we read those passages and smile. Now read them and claim them as your own.
Believe them with all your heart. God never bears false witness; He is the God of truth.
When tragedy strikes, turn your heart to God not away from Him. He is not unaware of your pain and
confusion. You can be assured that not a bird falls outside the knowledge of God. He sees and knows
every detail. He hasnt abandoned you, but He can and does take the hurts of life and make good out of
them (Rom. 8:28).
When tragedy strikes, pray more earnestly. When the Lord Jesus faced His harshest night, He spent it
praying. He cried out for the will of God to be done. His prayer that fateful night has blessed humanity
for two thousand years.
When tragedy strikes, weep in your loss but rejoice anyway in the Lord and in the love of good
people. Remember that Pauls advice, Rejoice in the Lord always, and again I will say, rejoice came
from a prison cell. Paul did not know whether he would live or die (Phil. 1:21-23; 4:4). He could rejoice,
however, in the wonderful promises of God. Whether we live or die, we are the Lords (Rom. 14:7-9).

Some Suggestions for Building Your Spiritual Life:

1. Do not let the urgent keep you from the important. Read, study and meditate on Gods word daily.
Discipline yourself to spend 30 minutes to an hour per day in reading for your own spiritual well
being. Preachers too need spiritual food. Make your relationship with God a daily priority (1 Tim.
4:7-8). One can read through the entire New Testament in less than 13 hours. There are only 260
chapters in the New Testament; and by reading three chapters per day, one may read the New
Testament four times within a year.
2. Great preachers are always men of fervent and frequent prayer. If Jesus needed to pray each day to
keep close to God and to keep his task in focus, certainly we need to do the same. Study the prayer
life of Jesus Christ and imitate Him.
3. Never allow complaining, cynicism, or bitterness to ruin your spirit (Phil. 4:8; Heb. 12:14-15). Seek
out people who will keep you enthused and focused.
4. Read good and helpful books. In your reading, be careful not to eliminate devotional and characterbuilding books. Read faith-building periodicals that encourage and uplift.
5. Concentrate on building a virtue each year. Study love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, gentleness, selfcontrol, goodness, and godliness. Grow in virtue. (2 Cor. 13:5)
6. Get away two or three times a year to lectureships, retreats and seminars. Hear great men speak on vital
topics that will build faith, hope and love.
7. Take a day off and rest now and then. Do some things for the fun of doing them. Jesus told his
disciples, Come away by yourselves to a lonely place and rest a while. (For there were many

Phil Sanders, instructor


people coming and going, and they did not even have time to eat.) (Mark 6:31). The Lord values his
8. Take time for your family. Sing and pray with them. Play with them. Love them. It is sad for a man to
serve the Lord his entire life with such vigor that he has no time left for family. "For what does it
profit a man to gain the whole world, and forfeit his family? Set a family night once a week and keep
it a priority. Preachers must learn to say No, rather than neglect their families.
9. Exercise! Get physically fit and stay that way. A run-down preacher will often fail to do what he is
expected, because he does feel up to it. The stress level of preaching can sometimes be quite high;
exercise is an effective way to work through stress and keep the body fit.
10. Get involved in doing good for others. It is more blessed to give than to receive. Learn to give and
serve others with joy and love.
11. Continue to educate yourself as long as you live. Continue to study and grow in your thinking.
Develop new skills that will enhance your ministry.

Ministerial Ethics
Guard Your Credibility
Aristotle viewed credibility (ethos) as a combination of good character, good will, and high intelligence.
1. Watch your language; never say things that are off-color, cynical or abusive. Do not embarrass others
as a means of humor. Show great respect to your family.
2. Do not lie or tell a misleading half-truth.
3. Keep your promises, even when they cost you greatly. Dont make promises you cant keep.
4. Never reveal confidential information.
5. Pay your debts on time (Rom. 13:8).
6. Never use the good news of our salvation to abuse others. Do not rub salt in others wounds. Love does
not rejoice in unrighteousness.
7. Pursue continuing education through courses and challenging reading. Develop a good library for
researching of Biblical questions.
8. Learn proper grammar and use it. Be sure to edit whatever you write.
9. When you write, cite sources. Give credit wherever credit is due. Do not plagiarize.
10. People dont care how much you know, until they know how much you care. Develop an affection for
the people you serve. Get involved in their lives.

Setting Up Safeguards: Developing a personal ministry code of ethics

by Archibald D. Hart
To function with optimum effectiveness, preachers must set up strategies to safeguard themselves against
such personal pitfalls as wasting time, abusing authority, satisfying a hungry ego, giving in morally, or
even becoming a workaholic. Each preacher needs to develop a personal code of behavior or ministry
An Essential Ethic
Paul says it well in Ephesians 5:15 : "So be careful how you act; these are difficult days" (The Living
Bible ). We all face temptation regularly, and should not expect to determine our proper responses anew
each time we encounter a potential pitfall. We need some guidelines to help us uphold our ethics as we
work with people daily.

Phil Sanders, instructor


Preachers can benefit from taking into consideration three important principles as they develop this
professional code of behavior:
Accountability. We must all be accountable to someone. Those who fall almost invariably develop
attitudes of arrogance and isolation; they unwisely choose to go it alone. Accountability demands that
every leader have a regular meeting with a board or group of peersfor the sole purpose of honestly
sharing feelings, revealing temptations, and identifying problem areas in personal and spiritual
growth. Such practical accountability forces us to see how vulnerable we are and how easily we can
be deluded into thinking we are above temptation.
Responsibility. All preachers should maintain the highest standards of professional behavior. The truly
healthy leader is able to balance this quest for professional excellence with a broader sense of
responsibility that encompasses personal roles and relationships. The preacher must learn to balance
the demands of church leadership with the demands of family and personal life. A lack of this broader
sense of responsibility leads to an unbalanced life.
Integrity. Foremost is the issue of how we use our power as preachers. Do we share our power? Do we
use it with compassion? Is our use of our power ego motivated? Second to power is the issue of
honesty. True integrity requires not just uprightness with regard to finances, but also justice in the
application of authority, graciousness in what we take credit for, and compassion in how we gain and
use privileged information.
Ethics in Action
How do these principles translate into daily action? Here is a leader's safeguard checklist that can help
preachers do daily ethics evaluations. Test yourself at the end of each day and then make whatever
changes your answers suggest.
Have I been totally honest in all my dealings with people this today?
Have I acted appropriately toward members of the opposite sex?
Have I indulged any unsavory thoughts or sexual images, or fostered any uncharitable feelings
toward others?
Have I been totally above reproach in all my financial dealings?
Have I fulfilled all my obligations without compromise and with a willing spirit?
Have I worked too long or too hard without evaluating my true motives?
Have I spent sufficient time with my family today?
Have I taken care of my family's spiritual needs?
Have I attended to my own emotional and spiritual needs and integrated them into my daily walk
with God?
Have I harbored any unconfessed sin or unforgiven hurts?
Archibald D. Hart; Leadership Handbooks of Practical Theology, Volume 3, Leadership and
Administration ; Setting Up Safeguards ; pp 166-167. Used by permission of Baker Books, a division of
Baker Book House Company, copyright 1994.

Maintaining Moral Purity in Ministry

No matter how many times I hear it, it still shocks me: A minister announces his resignation because of
adultery. Often its with someone within his congregation, sometimes even someone actively involved in
ministry, such as a Sunday school teacher.

Phil Sanders, instructor


As Christian leaders, we need to be above reproach. Paul wrote, Don't be so naive and self-confident.
You're not exempt. You could fall flat on your face as easily as anyone else. Forget about self-confidence;
it's useless. Cultivate God-confidence. (1 Cor. 10:12, Msg)
Here are some standards for maintaining moral integrity with people other than your spouse:
Thou shalt not go to lunch alone with the opposite sex.
Thou shalt not have the opposite sex pick you up or drive you places when it is just the two of you.
Thou shalt not kiss any attender of the opposite sex or show affection that could be questioned.
Thou shalt not visit the opposite sex alone at home.
Thou shalt not counsel the opposite sex alone at the office, and thou shalt not counsel the opposite
sex more than once without that persons mate. Refer them.
Thou shalt not discuss detailed sexual problems with the opposite sex in counseling. Refer them.
Thou shalt not discuss your marriage problems with an attender of the opposite sex.
Thou shalt be careful in answering emails, instant messages, chatrooms, cards, or letters from the
opposite sex.
Thou shalt make your secretary your protective ally.
Thou shalt pray for the integrity of other staff members.
But among you there must not be even a hint of sexual immorality, or of any kind of impurity, or of
greed, because these are improper for Gods holy people. Eph. 5:3 (NIV)
Reasons To Maintain Moral Purity
The following is adapted from a list developed by a minister* who would review it whenever he felt
vulnerable to sexual temptation. He cited the following as reminders of the negative consequences a
wrong moral choice could produce.
Grieving the Lord who redeemed me.
Dragging His sacred name into the mud.
One day having to look Jesus, the Righteous Judge, in the face and give an account for my actions.
Following in the footsteps of those whose immorality forfeited or crippled their ministries.
Inflicting untold hurt on my best friend, my wife.
Losing my wife's respect and trust.
Hurting my beloved children.
Destroying my example and credibility with my children, and nullifying both present and future
efforts to teach them to obey God ("Why listen to a man who betrayed Mom and us?").
If my blindness should continue or my wife be unable to forgive, perhaps losing my wife and my
children forever.
Causing shame to my family ("Why isn't Daddy a preacher any more?").
Losing self-respect.
Creating a form of guilt awfully hard to shake. Even though God would forgive me, would I forgive
Forming memories and flashbacks that could plague future intimacy with my wife.
Wasting years of ministry training and experience for a long time, maybe permanently.
Forfeiting the effect of years of witnessing to other family members and reinforcing their distrust for
ministers. Perhaps contributing to the hardening of their hearts.
Undermining the faithful example and hard work of other Christians in our community.
Bringing great pleasure to Satan, the enemy of God and all that is good
Heaping judgment and endless difficulty on the person with whom I committed adultery.

Phil Sanders, instructor


Possibly bearing the physical consequences of such diseases as gonorrhea, syphilis, Chlamydia,
herpes, and AIDS; perhaps infecting my wife, or in the case of AIDS, even causing her death.
Possibly causing pregnancy, with the personal and financial implications, including a lifelong
reminder of my sin.
Bringing hurt to my fellow ministers.
Bringing hurt to my friends, especially those I've led to Christ and discipled.
Invoking shame and lifelong embarrassment upon myself.
* Randy Alcorn, "Strategies to Keep From Falling" Leadership, Winter 1988.

Using Your Time Wisely

Ephesians 5:16
A Gospel Preacher
A gospel preacher realizes that his life and purpose is to serve the living God and to tell the story of Jesus
again and again. As a Christian, a preacher belongs to the Lord who bought him with His precious blood.
A gospel preacher is a man who prays and studies Gods Word in the morning, ministers to the hurting
and lost during the day, studies with both the erring and the saints in the evening, and meditates on God in
the night. He speaks the truth in love and will not compromise his faith or his lifestyle. He weeps over the
lost and rejoices at conversion. He shares himself that he might touch the most intimate places in the
hearts and spirits of those who hear him.
His foundation is truth, his life is faith, his love is people, and his hope is heaven. There is a fire in bones,
which pushes him to speak when others remain silent. There is urgency in his message, passion in his
voice, and zeal in his heart. God is his passion, his source, his energy, his rock, his friend, and his life. He
never forgets Jesus Christ and him crucified. He realizes God has entrusted him with the power of God
unto salvation. A gospel preacher must reveal the unsurpassed love and grace of God, while he exposes
the ugliness and tragedy of sin. His work demands fearless conviction, undoubting faith, unchanging love,
and inspiring hope.
The work of preaching the gospel may be the hardest and most needed task on earth. Nothing else can
change the lives of sinners into saints or melt hardened hearts. Gospel preaching demands great prayer,
great wisdom, great commitment, and great love. Weak men need not apply. The Lord Jesus who bore the
cross in Golgotha asks faithful men to deny themselves and bear a cross daily for Him. Gospel preachers
take up their crosses to find a crown for themselves and for all that will listen to them.
What Churches Expect from Fulltime Preachers
Two sermons each Sunday and a devotional on Wednesdays
Classes Sunday morning and Wednesday evening plus a ladies class
Bulletin articles each week, webpage
Visitation to sick, hospitalized, grieving
Evangelistic Bible studies with lost and visits to restore the fallen
Newsline, radio, or newspaper articles
Office administration
The challenge of ministry is to use your time wisely and to bring balance to your lifestyle. Studying,
visiting, soul-winning, family, private devotions and recreations all have a place in the life of a preacher.

Other Tasks Preachers Are Sometimes Asked to Do

Phil Sanders, instructor


Weddings, funerals
Emergencies, deaths, fires, tornadoes, etc.
Counseling, advice seekers
Dealing with transients and salesmen
Speaking engagements, gospel meetings, seminars, retreats, lectureships, workshops
Church correspondence
Building maintenance and repair
Phil Sanders 10 Nashville School of Preaching
Civic and school involvement
Letters of recommendation and witness in court
Raise funds for church or a Christian work
Church camp and VBS
Writer, editor, printer
Answer any Bible question at any time
Time Problems Young Preachers Face:
1. Compulsion
Some fall into the trap of compulsive working, feeling they must be busy all the time. There is little
relation between the amount of time and effort they give and the effectiveness of their work. When a
compulsive worker wears down, his ministry really suffers. He works harder and gets less done. What he
does, he does poorly, because he is weary and inefficient. Work-aholics usually have poor relationships at
home and at church.
2. Procrastination
Some wait until the last minute, thinking they work better under pressure. Often last minute, throwtogether plans and sermons provide very poor performance.
3. Confusion
Many young preachers do not know what they are supposed to do. They often waste time trying to figure
out their ministry. With little supervision, no job description, working alone, many young ministers fail to
satisfy the brethren who hired them. Frequently, young ministers have fuzzy lines between
responsibilities to work, family and community. Wise elders and leaders will help young men to
understand exactly what they should be doing.
4. Boredom
Some preachers in smaller churches do not see the work that is before them and assume they do not have
enough challenge or work to do. Many get caught up in time-wasting activities that do not further the
gospel of Christ.
No preacher is a superman. Two-talent men are not expected to perform like five-talent man, yet both can
produce and please the Lord. Do your best with your God-given talents and skills. Do not browbeat
yourself that you are not equipped like someone else. Do what you do best. Each member of the body has
his own work of service.

How to Use Your Time Wisely

Father, this is your day. I am your servant.
Lead me. Use me. Glorify yourself through me this day.

Phil Sanders, instructor


1. Use the early morning or late hours for devotional or reading time. Discipline yourself to meditate on
Gods Word.
2. When you get tired or sleepy in the afternoons, wash your face, get out of your chair and walk around
the building, or do a physical task. Once you are awake, get to work at a harder pace. Exercise will
help keep your metabolism up.
3. Use travel time wisely. Listen to tapes of sermons or lectures. Pray or sing as you drive.
4. Plan and order your day the first thing in the morning. Outline and organize what you plan to do each
day and how you will use your time. Priorities matter.
What I must do
What I should do
What I want to do
5. When crises and emergencies arise, rearrange your schedule on the particular day to allow for the time
required. As quickly as possible, get back on schedule.
6. If you have a secretary, ask her to do repetitious tasks. Train personal workers who can help you in
your evangelistic efforts. The more you involve others, the more they will feel a part of the work of
the Lord.
7. Use form letters whenever possible.
8. Restrict your exposure to people who abuse your time, because they have nothing else to do. When you
fellowship, fellowship with a purpose.
9. Dont linger over unimportant details or decisions.
10. Use the phone whenever possible to make contacts, to find information, and to schedule visits and
11. If you must wait for any reason, take along a book or other reading material. Use small segments of
time to the best advantage.
12. Do two things at once, whenever possible.
13. Learn to handle interruptions (phone calls, questions, and guests). Learn how to pick up a thought or
an idea and continue after the interruption. Finish a thought before you visit.
14. Do take breaks between tasks, so that your mind will be fresher when you start again. If you are
weary, a ten-minute power nap can be quite helpful. (Since preachers often have late nights, a short
rest in the early afternoon can be refreshing. Eat foods that build energy.)
15. The busier we are the more we need to pray first for strength, wisdom, and a right heart. For 60 years
an older preacher gave the first hour of his day to God. He first read the Bible for 30 minutes (aloud).
Then he prayed for 30 minutes. By meeting with God first, he often solved his problems before he
encountered them.
Why You Will Never Be Able to "Find" Time
Time only needs "managing" because we don't seem to have enough time to do everything we want and
need to do. In particular, we never seem able to "find time" for those important but not urgent activities.
Stop looking. You'll never find time. It isn't lost. You're living it. You have to consciously decide to live it
in certain ways and not others. You have to make time by taking it away from one activity and giving it to
Some Things Take Time
It takes time to grow a soul. The planted seed does not bear fruit in a day. Souls mature when by exercise
of time, study and experience they come to discern between good and evil (Heb. 5:12-14). Soul winning
often takes many months of fellowship, teaching, and thinking. Cultivating souls for the Lord is not
wasted time.
It takes time to grow and ripen a good sermon. Many preachers plan their sermons a month to six months
in advance, so that they can collect materials for preparation. Do not spend more time scrounging for a
subject than preparing to preach. Some ideas and understanding develops only after much study and
meditation. Thinking through a passage of Scripture is never wasted time.
It takes time to make changes. Be patient with yourself and with others in major matters.

Phil Sanders, instructor


A Weekly Schedule
Morning: quiet time, mail, bulletin article, periodicals, letters and errands, sermon planning
Afternoon: visits to sick and shut-in; counseling, continued planning of lessons
Evening: follow-up of Sunday guests, newcomers (usually by phone)
Morning: quiet time, mail, bulletin, Bible study
Afternoon: visits to hospital, grieving, or newcomers; Bible study
Evening: Nashville School of Preaching classes
Morning: quiet time, mail, pre-school class, bulletin preparation, Bible study for Wednesday Bible class
Afternoon: hospital visits, office visits, class preparation, special reading
Evening: Wednesday night Bible class and devotional
Morning: quiet time, mail, Sunday AM sermon preparation
Afternoon: hospital visits, counseling, reading and study for Sunday AM class
Evening: family time, free time
Morning: quiet time, mail, Sunday PM sermon preparation
Afternoon: visits, finish all preparations for Sunday, often leave early
Day off when possible

Building Your Ministerial Library

Suggestions for Selecting Books:
1. Consider the topic of the book. Will it help me in my ministry? Will I learn something of God, the
Bible, the church, or the world in which we live?
2. Consider the author(s) and publisher. Have I found this author teaches the gospel truth? Can I trust the
information to be accurate, relevant, and scholarly? Will this book edify me? Who has endorsed this
3. Will I read and use this book? Buying a book you will not use is a waste of your resources.
4. Sometimes reading a book with which you disagree can help you understand why people reason the
way they do and where they have gone astray.
Suggested and Sample Books for Your Library
Note: This is a sample list of books and is incomplete. Inclusion or exclusion from this list does not
necessarily imply acceptance or rejection of a book. Bible students must learn to eat the fish, and throw
the bones away.

Phil Sanders, instructor


Naves Topical Bible
An Exhaustive Concordance
New Bible Dictionary
Holman Bible Dictionary
Eerdmans Bible Handbook
Manners and Customs of the Bible
Treasury of Scripture Knowledge
Essential IVP Reference Works
Richards, The Bible Readers Companion
Packer, Dictionary of Bible Themes

English Bibles
NASB (1995)
English Standard Version
Gods Word Translation
Tanakh (OT)
McCords FHV
Littrell, English Study Bible (NT)

OT Commentaries
Coffman Commentaries (OT)
Sweet Commentaries (5-6 vols.)
Bible Study Textbook Series (College)
DeHoffs Bible Commentaries
New International Commentary OT
Expositors Bible Commentary
Keil & Delitzch, OT Commentary (10 vols.)
Pulpit Commentary Series
College Press NIV series

NT Commentaries
Coffman Commentaries (NT)
Gospel Advocate Commentaries
Sweet Commentaries (19 vols.)
McGarveys Commentaries
New International Commentary NT
Bible Study Textbook Series (College)
Pulpit Commentary Series
Johnson, Peoples NT Commentary
Barclay, Daily Study Bible Series (liberal)
College Press NIV series
Expositors Bible Commentary

Language Helps
An English Collegiate Dictionary
Baxter, I Believe Because
An Unabridged English Dictionary
Any book from Apologetics Press
Turabian, Manual for Writers
McCord, From Heaven or From Men?
Strunk & White, Elements of Style
McGarvey, Evidences of Christianity
Vines Expository Dictionary of Bible Words
Stanley Sayers, For This Cause
Louw & Nida, Greek-English Lexicon
Habermas, The Historical Jesus
Harris, Theological Wordbook of the OT
McDowell, New Evidence that Demands a Verdict
Richards, Expository Dict. Of Bible Words
Archer, Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties
Dictionary of NT Theology
Geisler, When Critics Ask
Robertson, Word Pictures in the NT
Geisler, When Skeptics Ask

Phil Sanders, instructor


Holland, Steps into the Pulpit
Holland, Sermon Design and Delivery
Holland, Essential Elements of Expository
Holland, Preaching: Principles and Practice
North, Preaching: Man and Method
Robinson, Biblical Preaching
Stott, Between Two Worlds
Chapel, Christ-Centered Preaching
Little, 10,000 Illustrations from the Bible
Pentz, The Complete Book of Zingers

Evangelism and Church Growth

Yeakley, Why Churches Grow
Pepper, Church Growth Today
Gatewood, You Can Do Personal Work
Sanders, Evangelism Handbook
Ellas, Clear Choices for Churches
Ellas, Measuring Church Growth
Green, Evangelism in the Early Church
Hadaway, Church Growth Principles
Rainer, The Book of Church Growth
Towns, Practical Encyclopedia Of Evangelism and
Church Growth
Towns, Complete Book of Church Growth
Macchia, Becoming a Healthy Church

Restoration History
Search for the Ancient Order (5 vols.)
Campbell, The Christian Baptist
Shepherd, The Church, Falling Away, and
Crawford, The Restoration Plea

Church History
Schaff, History of the Christian Church (8)
Latourette, A History of Christianity (2 vols.)
Cambridge History of the Bible
Schaff, The Creeds of Christendom

Ferguson, The Church of Christ
Wharton, The Church of Christ
Cogdill, The NT Church
Campbell, The Christian System
Brewer, The Model Church
Brownlow, Why I Am a Member of the Church
of Christ

Early Church History

Lightfoot, The Apostolic Fathers
Eusebius, Ecclesiatical History
Ferguson, Early Christians Speak
Ferguson, Encyclopedia of Early Christianity
Ferguson, Backgrounds of Early Christianity
The Works of Josephus
Bercot, Dict. Of Early Chrisian Beliefs

Brents, Gospel Plan of Salvation
Milligan, Scheme of Redemption
Olbricht: Baptism: A Response of Faith
Campbell, Christian Baptism
Beasley-Murray, Baptism in the NT
Debate Books on the subject

Jividen, More Than a Feeling
Jividen, Worship in Song
Chambers, Showtime
Bales, Instrumental Music and NT Worship
Wallace, Instrumental Music Question
Ferguson, A Cappella Music

Debate Books on these subjects

Phil Sanders, instructor


Faulkner, Achieving Success without Losing Your
Wilmeth, The Christian Home
Any book by James Dobson
Yorkey, Growing a Healthy Family
Drescher, Seven Things Children Need
Curan, Traits of a Healthy Family
Meier, Child-Rearing

Harley, His Needs, Her Needs
Harley, Love Busters
Wright, Communication: Key to Your
LaHaye, The Act of Marriage
Waite, The Case for Marriage
Wheat, Intended for Pleasure
Wright, Pre-Marital Counseling
Wright, Marital Counseling

Dungan, Biblical Hermeneutics
Lockhart, Principles of Interpretation
Kearley, ed., Biblical Interpretation
Warren, When is An Example Binding?
Ramm, Protestant Biblical Interpretation
Terry, Biblical Hermeneutics
Sanders, Let All the Earth Keep Silence
Kaiser & Silva, An Introduction to Biblical

Todays Culture
Sanders, Adrift: Postmodernism in the Church
Carson, The Gagging of God
Veith, Postmodern Times
McCallum, The Death of Truth
MacArthur, Ashamed of God
Any book by George Barna
Gallup, The Next American Spirituality
Lapin, Americas Real War
Current Thoughts and Trends

Bill Flatt, Personal Counseling
Narramore, The Psychology of Counseling
Adams, Competent to Counsel
Adams, The Christian Counselors Manual
Wright, Crisis Counseling
Moorehead, Counsel Yourself and Others from the

Myers, Evil and Suffering
Hicks, Yet Will I Trust Him
Wiersbe, Why Us?
Yancey, Where Is God When It Hurts?

Lectureship Books from various Universities, Colleges, and Schools of Preaching follow valuable
themes and provide helpful information.
Watch for new books and check libraries. I shop several different religious bookstores, because
buyers often gather materials I cannot find elsewhere.
Include money for books in your budget. These are your tools and sources.
Books on CD-Rom are often less expensive than in hardcover and easier to transport. You can often
buy a large collection for far less than the printed form.
Other Ways to Build Your Library
Subscribe to helpful periodicals. (Samples)
Gospel Advocate
Firm Foundation
Spiritual Sword
Reason and Revelation
Church & Family (Harding University)
Journal of Biblical Interpretation and Application
The Christian Chronicle
Time or Newsweek
US News & World Report

Phil Sanders, instructor


Current Thoughts and Trends

Biblical Archeological Review
Daily Newspaper
Build Files
Purchase a good file cabinet and plenty of file folders
Collect and sort articles, bulletins and paperskeep only what is valuable
Arrange your folders where you can find your information
Audio and Video Tapes
Lectureships, seminars and workshops, as well as sermons can be extremely valuable resources.
Bible and Related Software
Buy software that is compatible with new products as they are developed and will allow you to
download your most used books on your hard drive.
Read reviews of software before you buy. Some software is expensive and may not include what you
use most.
Package software often contains many books at very reasonable prices. This can be helpful if these are
books you use.
Illustration/Poem Files
Purchase blank 5x8 inch cards. These fit well into your Bible.
Type illustrations on the card or paste copies of illustrations from books and periodicals. Your daily
newspaper is an excellent source of information.
Draw illustrations from your life experiences and record them.
Assign a topic to each illustration.
Arrange in a box in alphabetical order according to topic.

Wedding Ceremony
Who gives this woman to this man in marriage?
Dear friends, we are gathered here today with joy in our hearts, because ______ and ______ have chosen
to enter a lifelong marriage covenant with each other. God knew that it was not good for man to be alone,
so He Himself made her a helper suitable for him. Marriage was God's plan for the male and female,
whom He made in His image and for whom He made the whole world. He Himself established the first
marriage to bless Adam and Eve with a mate for life. Each would enjoy the love and blessing of the other.
In marriage God unites two people so that they become one. Marriage for this reason is sacred and holy. It
is the making of a new family. Like no other relationship, husband and wife become one flesh.
Marriage before God is the making of a covenant with vows, wherein a man and a woman agree to love,
honor and cherish each other. Their relationship is unique and the most intimate of any on earth. A man is
to leave his father and mother and cleave to his wife. The breaking of this covenant is a very serious
matter. "What God has joined together, let not man put asunder."
The blessing of marriage is the reassurance that throughout life each of you has the committed yourself to
the other. This commitment will give you strength to endure the many hard challenges ahead of you.
These vows you make are not to be taken lightly. They are solemn and should only be entered with great
forethought and willingness. In marriage, love demonstrates itself in its highest and purest form.
Reading: 1 Cor. 13:4-8.

Phil Sanders, instructor


I say to both of you, commit yourselves to each other for the rest of your lives. Like the beautiful Ruth,
______, be in subjection to your husband _________. Tell him: "Don't urge me to leave you or to turn
back from you. Where you go I will go, and where you stay I will stay. Your people will be my people,
and your God will be my God. Where you die I will die, and there I will be buried. May the Lord deal
with me, be it ever so severely, if anything but death separates you and me." (Ruth 1:16,17)
To you, ________, Paul admonishes you to love your wife even as Christ loved the church and gave
Himself up for her. He who loves his wife loves himself; for no one ever hated his own flesh, but
nourishes and cherishes it, just as Christ also does the church. Love her, listen to her, make her the queen
of your life always.
Put the Lord first in your home, make each other second, and keep yourselves last. Never let anyone or
anything pull you apart or build a wall between you. Every day demonstrate your love for each other.
Never let the sun go down on your anger, but quickly reconcile and quickly forgive. Your home will be
what you make it. If you do these things, you will have home full of love and happiness--all that you have
dreamed about. That is what God wishes and what we all wish for you.
Today, God is making your new home, joining your hands and hearts. May He give you enough tears to
keep you tender, enough hurts to keep you compassionate, enough failure to keep your hands clenched
tightly in His, and enough success to make you sure you walk with Him.
God wants you to be together as long as you live. "What God has joined together, let not man put
Will you join hands and take these vows before God and these witnesses:
I, _______take you _______ to be my lawful wedded (husband/wife), to live together after
Phil Sanders 21 Nashville School of Preaching
the teaching of God, to love, honor, cherish, and (protect/respect) in sickness and in health, for better or
for worse, for richer or for poorer, and to give myself to you and you alone until death do us part?
May I have the ring? (bride's then groom's)
This ring is an unending circle that reminds us of the eternal love you are to show to each other.
As often as you see this token of love, as often as you feel it upon your finger, let it remind you of the
vows you are taking here today.
With this ring I thee wed
and pledge my faith and love
until death do us part.
Heavenly Father, we are grateful today for the privilege of witnessing these vows of love _____ and
_____ have made to each other. We pray that their new home will be filled with joy and love. May you,
Father, always be the center of their home. Help them through the changes and challenges ahead of them.
Give them the wisdom and patience they will need as they adjust to a new life. Help them to keep the
warmth of their love alive all the days of their lives.
As the years go by, Father, may their lives prosper. And if children be added to this home someday, may
they be healthy and happy. Father, we are grateful that this is a Christian home, and we pray that you will
always keep it secure in the hollow of your hand. Now,
The Lord bless you and keep you; The Lord make His face to shine upon you;
And be gracious unto you. The Lord lift up His countenance upon you
And give you peace. (Num. 6:24-26) In Jesus name, Amen.
By the authority vested in me as a minister of the Gospel of Christ and by this state, since you have made
these vows and fulfilled the lawful requirements, I now pronounce you husband and wife.

Phil Sanders, instructor


For Whom Shall I Perform a Wedding?

Christian ministers have an obligation before God not to participate in a union that violates the
Biblical teaching. No man of God wants to participate and support anothers evil. It is helpful to decide on
a policy before these issues arise. Some have no right to marry before God, and others would foolishly
enter such a union. You as a minister may be the only roadblock to a decision, which could ruin lives or
cost participants their souls.
1. I will not perform a wedding ceremony for those who have no right to marry.
Matthew 19:9 and 1 Corinthians 7:10-11 teach that some who are divorced commit adultery upon
their remarriage and thereby have no right to remarry. Those who have divorced because of mates
fornication do have a right to remarry. Divorce for other reasons gives no such right. 1 Corinthians
7:15 says that the brother or sister is free in the case where a non-believer has deserted him or her.
Some have held the Pauline privilege with the understanding that the non-believer will likely
divorce to go out and find another mate.
1 Corinthians 7:39 says that widows may marry only in the Lord. There is a question whether this
passage means only a Christian or as the Lord directs (cf. Eph. 6:1).
2 Corinthian 6:14 teaches Do not be bound together [unequally yoked] with unbelievers. Some
have suggested that Christians may not under any circumstances, while others believe one should not
marry a non-Christian whose convictions will unfairly hinder ones faith. No Christian minister
should marry a Christian woman to a Moslem man, for instance.
It is not an uncommon practice for people to lie at times. Some people will lie about the reason for
their prior divorce. If I find that people have lied to me, I will refuse to marry them.
2. I will not perform a wedding ceremony for those who are marrying foolishly.
People too immature for marriage, even if they have parental consent.
People who do not understand marriage is a commitment till death do us part.
People who marry just to escape a terrible life at the parents home.
People who marry for financial security but without love.
People who marry simply because all of their friends are marrying.
People who marry solely on the basis of physical attraction.
People who marry out of desperation to avoid the single life.
When I agree to perform a wedding ceremony, I expect a couple to have undergone some form of
premarital counseling or classroom training. Preachers should have some plan for premarital counseling.

Visiting the Hospital and the Shut-Ins

Some Golden Rules for Showing Love (Matt. 7:12)
1. Go. Dont equate avoidance with caregiving.
2. Go as Gods man. Go to say a prayer or read a Scripture. Remind them that God knows and
3. Keep the visit short unless the patient desires otherwise. The sick tire easily. Patients who are on
liquids need frequent trips to the bathroom. Observe visiting hours.
4. If the patient already has visitors, make your visit only a prayer.
5. Be friendly, cheerful and optimistic in your approach. Avoid belly-laughs with surgery patients.
6. Let the patient have the freedom to set the tone of the conversation. On such occasions, patients may
need you to listen more and speak less.
7. Remember a patient is a person, one who happens to be ill.

Phil Sanders, instructor


8. Never ask a patient what is wrong; he will tell you if he wants you to know.
9. Dont compare your past operations or ailments with the patients present illness except to sympathize.
10. Avoid discussions, which disturb or depress a patient.
11. Be considerate of other patients in wards or in semi-private rooms. Never be loud, since the sick are
sensitive to noise.
12. When a patient is having surgery, it is nice to pray with them before the surgery or to wait with the
family during the surgery. Patients usually are not suitable for company immediately after a surgery.
13. Medication and the illness may cause a patient to be emotionally charged. Be prepared and patient
with those who are suffering.
14. When you approach the room, check to see if the HELP light is on. If it is, wait until the need is
filled before you enter.
15. Always knock and wait for an answer before entering. Never barge in.
16. Respect NO VISITORS and ISOLATION signs. Ask the family or the nurse for instructions.
17. Stand or sit where it is convenient for the patient to see you. Avoid sitting on the bed.
18. Dont shake the bed. Be careful what you touch (infectious germs).
19. Wash your hands frequently before and after visiting.
20. Leave quickly if meals or medical personnel arrive.
21. If a patient is out for tests or treatments, leave a note or card to let them know you care.
How long should I stay?
Short visits are always best. Let the patient dictate the length of a stay. If he is restless, needs a nap,
fatigued, or needs to use the rest room, he needs you to leave. If it is hard for the patient to talk, dont
continue a conversation.
Some rehabilitating patients enjoy longer visits. They want company and need it. Stay only a little longer
if you can bless their lives by listening to them. They may wish to talk about important spiritual matters.
Give them that opportunity.
When a Patient is near Death
Ministers have an opportunity not only to minister to the ill patient but also to the family. Your show of
love and concern can make a difference in the lives of others. Prayer and assurance are important to
anyone who is near death. This may also be an opportune time to speak to family members who may not
be right with the Lord.
Sometimes modern technological capabilities can render services to sustain life, when additional
life is neither wanted nor beneficial. Patients need to obtain and sign a living will, if they prefer not to
have measures that will prolong their lives. The implementation of these heroic measures may only
sustain life for a short time. We must remember that disease is what kills patients, not our choices.
Patients and their families need to decide whether they desire to use them to delay the inevitable. There
are things worse than dying for the faithful Christian. Few people, if any, wish to remain alive unaware of
their surroundings. Ministers need to be available for families who must make hard decisions pertaining
to a dying loved one.
People in shock at the death of a loved one may need someone to guide them through what must
be done step by step. Help people when you can. Sudden deaths, when the family is at the emergency
room, may call for many different needs.
The best thing any minister can do in tragic circumstances is to listen and to pray with and for the
family. If you cannot solve their problems, give them comfort and assurance.

Phil Sanders, instructor


Funeral Etiquette for Ministers

1. The funeral as a service
2. The funeral as a testimony and/or witness
3. The biblical teaching concerning death (Involves your application of that toward the believer, nonbeliever, infant, youth, suicide, accident victim, murder victim, etc.)
When Death Comes
Be Prompt
1. Go wherever necessary to be with the family
2. Express your sympathy to the family
3. Encourage the family to talk about it. ("Can you tell me what happened?")
Be Helpful
1. Without going into great detail, help them to think through the next steps: funeral home,
permission for autopsy, contacting relatives, etc.
2. Offer and be willing to provide help. Offer to go with them to meet with the mortician.
Be Brief
1. Read scripture with them and pray.
2. Stay with them until things are under control.
The Day Following
1. Assist where possible in preliminaries with the family and the mortician.
2. Use the funeral planning sheet.
3. Help them think through the type, cost and location of the service.
4. If appropriate, help them plan the time, participants (ushers, musicians, pallbearers)
5. Pray with the family (and mortician).
The Viewing
1. Find out when the body can be viewed for the first time and be there one-half hour before so you
can be with the family.
2. Take your wife if at all possible.
3. The evening prior to the funeral is a good opportunity to minister, often at an additional or final
The Funeral or Memorial Service
Arrive at the church or mortuary 15-20 minutes early in order to prepare your own soul and to complete
details of the service (singers, mortician, etc.). Meet family as they are seated in the family room. Be
ready on time! Either walk in with the family or from a side door as the funeral begins. Usually the
funeral director will inform you where you need to be and when. The customs and practices of funeral
differ from state to state and from funeral home to funeral home. When in doubt, ask the funeral director
what they generally do.
Bring appropriate remarks. Perhaps start with a Scripture reading. Read the Obituary and make some kind
remarks (eulogy). Close your remarks with a prayer. Frequently, funerals will have more than one

Phil Sanders, instructor


speaker. Coordinate with the other speakers so that you do not monopolize the available time or repeat
what others have said.
At the close of the service, be available at the casket. The funeral director will come to the front, and the
minister will lead slowly the pallbearers and the casket to the door of the hearse.
Committal Service at the Graveside
At the cemetery, the minister again slowly leads the procession from the hearse to the burial site.
Stand at the head of the casket (ask the funeral director where the head faces before arrival at the
Brief remarks, short scripture, word of thanks to mortician for the family.
Committal prayer
Go to the family and express your concern and availability.
The funeral director will then try to get the family to return to their cars.
Social Time with Family and Friends
Depending upon the time of the service, the distance the family travels, and other factors, this might
include time before, after, or both before and after the funeral service. Church women may or may not be
Post Funeral Contact
1. Do not forget the bereaved after the funeral
2. Take a devotional pamphlet on death to the grieving.
Questions to Ask the Family for a Better Eulogy
Explain that you are trying to gain a better feel for what that person was like, so you can be more
What one adjective would you use to describe him?
Did he have any particular loves or hobbies?
Did he enjoy any particular songs? poems? or Scriptures?
If you could name one value or lesson he most wanted to teach the next generation, what would it
What one achievement or accomplishment would make his eyes light up when you mentioned it?
What were some of his favorite phrases or sayings?
Did he ever put anything up on the wall - a picture or motto that expresses who he was?
Did he like his first name? Did he have any nicknames?
Was there a cause or a movement that he felt deeply about and supported with his time and
If he could have me say one thing during the funeral, what do you think it would be?
Why do you think this world is a little different because of him?
(Taken from Leadership 100, March-April 1982, p. 26.)
Some Helpful Books for Crisis Counseling and Grief:
Bill Flatt, Growing Through Grief, Gospel Advocate, 1987.
Kenn Filkins, A Comforting Word, College Press, 1994.
H. Norman Wright, Crisis Counseling, Regal Books, 1993.

Accepting Bereavement, 21 Century Christian, 1999.


Virgil M. Fry, Disrupted: Finding God in Illness and Loss, 21 Century Christian, 1999.
Candy Lightner & Nancy Hathaway, Giving Sorrow Words, Warner Books, 1990.
Joseph A Krebs, How to Comfort the Sick and Dying, Roman Catholic Books, 1898.

Phil Sanders, instructor


Writing and Bulletins

Most churches expect preachers to publish a weekly bulletin, containing news items, spiritual helps and
reports of church activities. The bulletin serves not only as a means of information but also as an
historical record of the ministry and life of the congregation. Bulletin articles can often explain and
enlighten members and non-members in ways that the spoken word cannot do. A good church bulletin is
a great benefit to a congregation. What people read, they will become.
Once an article or bulletin is published, however; it cannot be changed. This is why accuracy, style and
grammatical correctness matter. Those who edit bulletins need to check and re-check their work before
they commit to printing copies for release. There is no such thing as good writing, only good re-writing.
Tips for better church bulletins:
1. Learn to write succinctly. Say more in fewer words. Use words everyone can easily understand.
Authors can say much even in a limited space, if they delete redundant and unneeded words. Many
times people say far more in announcements than is really necessary. Do not be repetitious.
2. Spell every name and word correctly. One bulletin listed a child named Bart as brat. You can
imagine the reaction of the parents and the congregation. Purchase an updated collegiate-level
dictionary. Writers are often their own worst editor. They often need someone else to read over
their material to correct mistakes.
3. Get to the point. You only have so much space. Avoid warm-up material that gives little information.
If one word will do, use it instead of two.
4. Check out your information before you release it. Make sure you have your times, locations, people
and events correct. Once information goes out, it is twice as hard to correct.
5. Get your facts together. Put everything on the same subject in the same place.
6. Use readable fonts. Since most bulletins are done on computer, choose a font that is large enough and
clear enough to be read easily.
7. Whenever possible write in the active voice; avoid passive verbs.
8. Use specific words. Rather than saying something is colorful, tell the specific color(s). Dont say car;
tell me what kind of car. The written image becomes more vivid when the writer is specific. Use
concrete verbs and nouns rather than abstract ideas.
9. Be fresh. Take an old clich and reword it. If I should die before I wake, can change into If I should
wake before I die.
10. Speak in positives and courageously. If you have something to say, find the courage to say it
forthrightly. Saying things tentatively or half-heartedly fosters doubt and confusion.
11. Keep moving. Keeping the readers attention means that you do not dwell on what he already knows.
You keep pointing him to additional information and move him from point to point. Keep the reader
in mind.
12. Write in simple words. Dont use complicated words when simple ones will do. Use ordinary,
everyday language. Words with one or two syllables are better than words with four or more
13. Avoid common grammatical errors:
Don't use no double negatives.
Make each pronoun agree with their antecedent.
Join clauses good, like a conjunction should.
When dangling, watch your participles.
Verbs has to agree with their subjects.
Don't use commas, which aren't necessary.
Try not to ever split infinitives.
Its important to use your apostrophe's correctly.

Phil Sanders, instructor


Don't write runon sentences they are hard to read.

It behooves the writer to avoid archaic expressions.
Don't use hyperbole; not one writer in a million can use it effectively.
Avoid cliches like the plague.
Mixed metaphors are a pain in the neck and should be thrown in the lake.
A truly good writer is always especially careful to practically eliminate the too-frequent use of
Placing a comma between subject and predicate, is not correct.
Parenthetical words however should be enclosed in commas.
Corect spellin is esential.
Always proofread your copy to see if you any words out.
Don't use contractions in formal papers.
Don't use "quotation marks" for emphasis.
"Quotation marks" may be used if the word is being used in a different way than its usual meaning,
but only use them the first time the word is used. Don't use "quotation marks" every time the
word appears.
"Punctuation", says a sage, "should go inside the quotation marks".
A writer should choose one set of pronouns and stick with it. He or she should not use both genders
or he or she will lose his or her readers. Nor should s/he attempt to use a combined form of the
pronouns. Nor should they substitute a plural form of the pronoun. The best solution is often to
rewrite the sentence so you don't need to specify a gender.
Unnecessary use of the word that is a mistake that many people make.
Many of the tips above came from:
Every preacher and editor would do well to purchase this brief but authoritative book: Strunk, William, Jr.
and White, E.B. 1979. The Elements of Style , 3rd ed. New York: MacMillan.

Plagiarism is "the appropriation or imitation of the language, ideas, and thoughts of another author, and
representation of them as one's original work" (The Random House College Dictionary, rev. ed.). It is
theft. When you quote someone, cite your source. It shows you respect the source enough to quote
him/her. Quoting others also shows you have done your homework. The internet has an abundance of
sources, but not all sources are worth quoting. Is your source credible? Is your information correct?
Writing for Publications:
Writing for publications is an important way to expand your ministry. People nationwide can come to
know you through your writings. Name recognition can be helpful to open doors for many ministry
efforts. Writing is hard work; but it is necessary to teach, to inform, to warn, and to encourage others in
the Lords work. Here are some suggestions:
1. Find out and observe writers guidelines. Publications often offer a free copy of their writers
guidelines. These guidelines reveal the length and format the publisher desires. Authors should respect the
publisher enough to submit their articles in a form that suits the publication.
2. Submit your article only after you have edited it. Publishers are more likely to print a well-written
article than one filled with mistakes. Mistakes in your manuscript mean that an editor must take the time
to correct them.
3. Organize your thoughts. Read your work a day or two after you have written it. Ask some questions
about your article:

Phil Sanders, instructor


Is it well organized?
Are your points clearly made?
Does it flow well from point to point?
Does it have an introduction and conclusion?
4. Know your audience. Write to the people who will be reading your article. Write what they need and
what is helpful. Keep them in mind as you word your sentences. Never assume your readers know the
meanings of your words. Define any word that is odd or rare.
5. If you are critical of others, is this article fair and kind? Some publications make it their business to
police the brotherhood. There is a time and place for rebuking and correcting others; but there is little
room in Christianity for dishonesty, rudeness, or hatefulness. Never write in anger (Eph. 4:26-27).
Some authors/editors seem to think they must be judge and jury for every error everywhere. It is one
thing to speak out against error; it is another to look for error under every rock and in every corner.
Preachers should never use the pulpit or the pen to take personal vengeance on others. (Note my
article Dealing with a Brother, in the section on conflict.)
6. Get in the habit of writing. Practice does make perfect, and people who write regularly grow in their
skill. Writing an article one per quarter for a major publication is not too often.
7. Do not get discouraged if you are not published quickly. Many publishers plan their issues well in
advance. You may send your article in and not be published for several months. This is usually what
happens. Even good articles are sometimes not usable by the publisher for a variety of reasons. The
article may be too long or too short. The publisher may have recently published an article like it. It
may not fit into his plan.

Most preachers are not equipped to be psychologists. There are some problems that are best left to those
who have been trained to handle them. Ministers are spiritual counselors, and secular counselors cannot
do what ministers do.
Christian counseling includes reading the Bible and praying, striving to help a person to overcome a sin
problem, a difficulty, or a loss, so that they can be spiritually healthy. Christian counseling hold strong
Christian values. Christian counselors must have the Lord and Scripture in their hearts. Some people do
not know what to do; some do not know what is right and wrong; and some know what is right but lack
the courage to do it. Many people who come to you are aware of the teaching of Scripture and are looking
for a loophole. Scripture and prayer are most effective when applied appropriately to the problem. Your
Bible is very often a statement of where you stand. Prayer must first be in your heart.
It is often difficult for a preacher to fulfill both the role of preaching and counseling. There is opportunity
for one role to compromise the other. Preaching can sometimes appear to compromise confidentiality.
The goal of counseling is to overcome the problem or difficulty while keeping a right relationship with
God. Proclaiming Gods will must deal with public problems, not individual ones. Counselees must never
come to think that you are preaching straight to them and about them.
As a minister and counselor, see yourself as the first line of defense and refer counselees to competent
counselors when they need long-term counseling. Preachers need to determine who are competent
counselors, practicing within an easy drive of where they live. If you refer a client to a counselor, be sure
that you can approve of that counselor. Would you send a family member to him? Does he/she have
Biblical values? Does this counselor have specialties?
When to seek counseling --Lynn McMillon

Phil Sanders, instructor


Listed below is a group of symptoms which suggest the need for counseling. In looking at the list, it is
important to identify several symptoms as an indication for counseling, since most people will display
one or two of the symptoms at different times but not need counseling.
1. Loss of interest in family members and family activities.
2. Loss of interest in caring for the house.
3. Chronic and unresolved conflicts.
4. A sense of drifting apart.
5. Poor interpersonal relations at home and other places.
6. Lower than usual achievement levels.
7. Marked changes in behavior.
8. Defensiveness and overprotection.
9. Low level of control over emotions.
10. Undue suspicion.
11. Chronic depression.
12. Over reaction to situations.
13. Extremes in behavior.
14. Distorted and confused communications.
Seven Biblical Steps in Christian Counseling
1. Be Kind. Prov. 19:22 says that kindness in a man is desirable. Those seeking to help others must show
gentleness (1 Thess. 2:7).
2. Focus on Behavior. What has happened and is happening? How has the person acted or responded to
behavior show toward him? Although feelings are important and should be noticed, most individuals
have very little control over changing their feelings. They can, however, change their behavior.
People tend to follow a cycle where feelings follow behavior and behavior follows feelings. To
interrupt the present circumstances and take control, focus on behavior. Start by having counselees
make a specific behavior plan involving daily quiet time, weekly exercise programs, daily social
contact, and avoiding specific sinful behaviors.
3. Help the Counselee Gain Insight. See Psalm 139:23-24. A person cannot change if he does not know
his problem. Knowing how the past affects the present and creates sinful or inappropriate defense
mechanisms that turn into inappropriate behavior is an invaluable tool.
4. Help with the Resolution of Feelings. Feelings are important as Heb. 4:16 shows. Counselees need to
be honest and to come to grips with their feelings. To deny feelings does not make them go away.
God knows and understands our feelings. Feelings are recorded in biochemical pathways of the brain,
and they cannot be simply erased. They can be resolved by using kindness and by reprogramming
them through the Scriptures (Ps. 119:9-11) and through the influence of Christ in our lives. Allow
people to share their feelings and to be understood; this is only common sense and kind. Help them to
understand how their past may be influencing their present. Insight is helpful, but it is imperative that
people move on in life and not remain in the past as depressed people are prone to do.
5. Help Them Reprogram Their Thinking. What happens to us in life is not the only important thing; it is
also what we believe about what happens to us that matters. A Christian should not view death as a
non-believer would. Our beliefs color our responses. 2 Cor. 4:16-18 and Romans 12:2 encourage us
to be transformed by renewing our minds. Phil. 4:8 alerts us to be aware of our way of thinking.
Sometimes Christians come to believe things about their lives that are simply not true. People can
believe nearly anything if they tell themselves a lie often enough.
6. Use a Comprehensive and Balanced Approach Along with Common Sense. Some problems are the
result of medical problems: a chemical imbalance in the brain, a brain tumor, or a disease. Medical
disease should be ruled out first; counselors should ask counselees to get a good physical. A
significant part of psychiatry is medical. Man is one beingbody, soul, and spirit. What affects one

Phil Sanders, instructor


part invariably will affect the others. Some counselors ignore the spiritual aspect and forget the every
soul will have to spend eternity somewhere.
7. Remember the Importance of the Spiritual. Walking with God and going to heaven must be first and
foremost in the mind of every Christian counselor and his counselees. To help someone with an
earthly problem and then ignore where he would spend eternity is useless.

Jesus As Counselor
Jesus wasted little time and often went to the very heart of a matter (Luke 9:57-62). He used four main
techniques in counseling.

This section comes from Allan Isom, Jesus As Counselor, Personal Counseling, ed. Bill Flatt, pp. 2935.
1. Jesus framed questions and answers that caused the hearer to have to make a decision. One could
not be indifferent to Jesus (Luke 12:13-15).
2. Jesus told parables to get the hearer to apply Jesus teaching.
3. Confrontation and evaluation responses were designed to cause the listener to think about his
relationship with God. Jesus approach gave more attention to mans thinking than to his feelings
(Matt. 21:38).
4. Jesus emphasized instruction, belief, and correct decisions as with Nicodemus (John 3). His focus
was more on the inner man than the outer.
Jesus goal in counseling was to lead an individual to faith in God (2 Cor. 3:3). A secondary goal was to
help people learn how to live happy lives (cf. Luke 10:41-42; Mark 6:30-35).
Some Principles of Christian Counseling:
1. The counselor must be a loving person who has compassion for those who need his help (Col. 3:12).
They have sought your assistance for help.
2. The counselor should truly attempt to understand his counselees burden.
3. The counselor must understand that he may not be able to provide instant or easy solutions to serious or
complex problems.
4. When a distressed person confides in you about his perplexing problem, do not be shocked or selfrighteous. Remember that we are all human, made of flesh (Psalm 78:38-39). We are all subject to
common temptations and to failure (1 Cor. 10:12-13).
5. Keep your emotions under control. You cannot help others if you yourself are out of control. It is
important to empathize with others in deep emotional pain (Rom. 12:15), but you cannot help others
if you have fallen to pieces. Hurting people are often confused; be patient with them. In their
frustration they may say untrue things, angry things, or lash out at you. The best thing you can do is
listen patiently and refrain from a heated response. There is no place in counseling for a short-fused
6. When you counsel those whose problems are sin-induced, do not be afraid to use the Bible as the
answer to their problems. God always gives the best answers. Press upon them the necessity of
repentance. Be firm yet kind. Jesus was neither crude nor compromising (Cf. Matt. 12:20; Luke
7. When a problem is beyond your competence, do not be too proud to ask for assistance or to refer this
problem to a more qualified counselor. Do not be offended if the counselee asks for additional help.
Your task is to help them, not build a reputation.7 Ethics demand that counselors refer to others when
they do not feel comfortable or are prejudiced against the sin problems of a person, e.g.,
homosexuality, alcoholism, incest, and other problems.
8. Always pray for wisdom (James 1:5).

Wayne Jackson, Christian Courier, n.d.

Phil Sanders, instructor


9. Learn how to listen actively. The most valuable skill of a counselor is listening. Hear are some tips on
how to listen:
Focus on the person who is speaking. Do not allow any distractions to take your attention
from him.
If you do not understand what he is saying, ask for clarification. Did I understand you to
mean ? Are you saying.? Help me; I am not sure I understand. Do you feel.?
Listen to his tone of voice. Watch his body language. Notice how he is speaking as well as
what he is saying.
Listen for what he is hinting at. He is likely reluctant to tell you what is really on his mind.
The reason for talking and what he needs are often different.
Dont concentrate so much on how youre going to respond that you miss what he is saying
to you.
Only interrupt him when you need clarification.
10. Realize that understanding a counselees point of view or behavior is not the same as accepting it. We
must allow counselees the freedom to speak and to bear their souls in an environment where they will
not be censured. This does not mean that we have no responsibility to give them Biblical counsel at a
later time.
11. When you want to know information, ask open-ended questions (questions beginning with why, how,
or what). When you want to confirm what he is saying, ask questions that call for a yes or no answer.
12. A counselee has come to you because he already has some trust in you. Build on that trust and
encourage it. If you make a mistake, admit it. Be open and honest. Behave in such a way that he may
explore his life and problems because he feels safe with you not in spite of you.
13. We can best help others by enabling them to do what they themselves ought to do and deeply wish to
14. Help others cope with reality rather than defend against it, deny it, or distort it.
Legal Advice for Ministerial Counselors
If you counsel people outside your congregation, you will be held liable just as a licensed
professional would be.
If information on sexual abuse of children comes to light, you MUST report it. One should do this
immediately; else he/she will become criminally responsible for withholding information.
In cases where inappropriate behavior has happened in the long past and where there is no
vulnerability in the present, it is best not to report. If you are in doubt about what you should
report, call the state hotline for information. Report only clear-cut cases of sexual abuse, incest, or
physical abuse. Use good judgment, and do not accuse without reason.
If a preacher divulges information on someones sexual behavior, he may be liable for a lawsuit.
Inform counselees of your own legal requirements. Dont start every session off with disclaimers,
but do tell clients prior to the revelation of a legal matter.
A tort or legal wrong for which one can be called into account presents itself when it can be established
A duty existed between the plaintiff and the defendant.
A breach of that duty has occurred.

There is a causal relationship between the breach of duty and the harm to the plaintiff.

Harold Bigham, Christian Chronicle, February, 1986.

The insurance package of every church should include coverage for preachers and elders who give
counsel to hurting individuals. Be sure to check with the leaders of the congregation to see if you are

Phil Sanders, instructor


Some Helpful Books:

Bill Flatt, ed., Personal Counseling, Resource Publications, 1991.
Frank Minrith, The Minrith Guide for Christian Counselors, Broadman & Holman, 2003.
Bob Moorehead, Counsel Yourself & Others from the Bible, Multnomah, 1994.
Jeffrey Watson, Biblical Counseling for Today, Word, 2000.
Jay Adams, The Christian Counselors Manual, Baker, 1973.
Bruce Narramore, The Psychology of Counseling, Zondervan, 1960.

General Advice
1. Matthew 7:12 "Therefore, however you want people to treat you, so treat them, for this is the Law and
the Prophets.
2. Matthew 5:38-48 Because you are Gods child, treat people better than they deserve.
3. Eph. 4:25-29 Therefore, laying aside falsehood, speak truth, each one of you, with his neighbor, for we
are members of one another. be angry, and yet do not sin; do not let the sun go down on your anger,
and do not give the devil an opportunity. Let him who steals steal no longer; but rather let him labor,
performing with his own hands what is good, in order that he may have something to share with him
who has need. Let no unwholesome word proceed from your mouth, but only such a word as is good
for edification according to the need of the moment, that it may give grace to those who hear.
4. Eph. 4:31-32 Let all bitterness and wrath and anger and clamor and slander be put away from you,
along with all malice. And be kind to one another, tender-hearted, forgiving each other, just as God in
Christ also has forgiven you.
5. James 1:19-20 This you know, my beloved brethren. But let everyone be quick to hear, slow to speak
and slow to anger; for the anger of man does not achieve the righteousness of God.
6. James 3:13-18 Who among you is wise and understanding? Let him show by his good behavior his
deeds in the gentleness of wisdom. But if you have bitter jealousy and selfish ambition in your heart,
do not be arrogant and so lie against the truth. This wisdom is not that which comes down from
above, but is earthly, natural, demonic. For where jealousy and selfish ambition exist, there is
disorder and every evil thing. But the wisdom from above is first pure, then peaceable, gentle,
reasonable, full of mercy and good fruits, unwavering, without hypocrisy. And the seed whose fruit is
righteousness is sown in peace by those who make peace.
7. 2 Tim. 2:24-26 And the Lord's bond-servant must not be quarrelsome, but be kind to all, able to teach,
patient when wronged, with gentleness correcting those who are in opposition, if perhaps God may
grant them repentance leading to the knowledge of the truth, and they may come to their senses and
escape from the snare of the devil, having been held captive by him to do his will.
8. You must be everyones preacher. You cannot show partiality (James 2:1-4).
9. You must keep your promises.
10. You must keep confidences. The only exception to this is if someone should tell you they have abused
a child. By law, you must report this to authorities (329-1911).
11. Never use the pulpit to address an individual problem or to punish someone.
12. Pay your bills on time as you have promised (Rom. 13:8).
Family Relationships
1. Proverb 5:15-23 reminds us to rejoice in our wives.
2. Keep yourself sexually pure (1 Cor. 6:15-20; 2 Tim. 2:19-22; Heb. 13:4).
3. Show kindness and understanding to your wife (1 Pet. 3:7; 1 Cor. 13:4-8).

Phil Sanders, instructor


4. Discipline your children (Heb. 12:5-9; Proverbs 19:18; 22:15).

5. Love and spiritually nurture your children (Eph. 6:4).
6. Do not be an absent husband or an absent father to the point your family despises you or resents the
work of the Lord.
Relationships with Elders
1. Hebrews 13:7,17 Remember that you are under the oversight of the elders. Listen to them and
cooperate with them. Before you criticize your elders or leaders, consider that they were wise enough
to hire you. The elders are accountable to God for the church.
2. Elders often work full time and have many other concerns. Elders are not usually paid for their labors,
while you are.
3. Elders make decisions with everyone is mind, not merely you. They must make out a budget for the
whole church.
4. Elders often cannot tell all they know about a matter. Trust them when they make decisions you do not
5. Help your elders, work with them, pray with them, and meet with them. Keep them informed of
problems and challenges.
6. When they must talk to you or admonish you, listen to them.
When You Begin a New Work
1. Learn everyones name as quickly as possible. I usually ask each person to tell me their names each
time I greet them for the first few weeks. Dont be ashamed to ask a name again and again. Tell them
they are important to you, and you want to remember their names.
2. People will tell you a lot about what went on before you. They are telling you what they appreciate and
approve. They are also telling you what they do not approve. Listen carefully for what they desire
from you, but keep quiet about former preachers. Be thankful they have loved former preachers, since
they are showing they can love you too.
3. Try to learn the way individual churches do things. Do not be too quick to change things. You are the
preacher, but that doesnt mean you are the boss and can control everything.
4. If you want people to listen to you, you must first listen to them. You must earn the right to speak to
people about the most important matters of their lives. This usually takes time to grow close. It takes
3-5 years to gain a hearing. The best years come when preachers have labored with them for more
than seven years. People are eager and willing to invite others to church if they know you will bring
consistently good messages with relevant and helpful Biblical material.
When You Leave a Congregation
1. Be gracious and thankful for the opportunity to serve, even if you are asked to leave. Encourage them
to remain true to God. Write a thank you note in the bulletin.
2. Do not use a time of parting to criticize or take pot shots at church leaders. Do not foster division or
encourage the beginning of a new congregation a few miles away. Encourage any disgruntled
members to remain with the congregation.
3. Do all you can to leave with a good relationship and the desire to reunite. These are people whom you
have loved and taught. You will see them in heaven.
4. Do not leave a community with debts you do not intend to pay. If you are moving, make sure your
creditors know your new address. Do not leave a congregation owing personal loans from church

Phil Sanders, instructor


Gods People Know How to Resolve Conflict

Colossians 3:12-14
We are individuals. We will disagree with each other. We do not think alike;
we have different homes of origin;
we have had different experiences;
we are going through different stages of life;
we have different maturity levels
we have different culture mindsets
we have different priorities and values
We must learn how to prevent disunity by learning how to deal with disagreements.
God always has the answers to our problems and difficultiesgo to Him!
Some Suggestions
1. Welcome the disagreement.
This is an opportunity to learn and grow. None of us knows everything. Learn from this and you will
not make the BIG mistakebelieving you must separate from your brother. Disagreement
doesnt mean I have to become negativeI can grow through the experience and overcome the
Gal. 5:19-21 (8 words dealing with relationships--NIV)
hatred, hostility
discord, strife, making trouble
jealousy, the desire to be as well off as another
fits of rage, temper tantrums, outbursts of anger
selfish ambition, selfishness, self-seeking ambition,
dissensions, divisiveness, making people mad
factions organized division, cliques, party spirit
and envy; the desire to appropriate anothers possessions
2. Distrust your first instinct.
Our first instinct = Defensive normal reaction. Cat in a corner stick out the claws, hiss, show
teeth. Remember that you may not know all the facts. James 1:19 Be quick to listen, slow to
speak, slow to anger
3. Control your temper
You can measure a man by what makes him angry. Proverbs 14:17 A quick-tempered man acts
foolishly, And a man of evil devices is hated. Prov. 29:22 says an angry man stirs up strife, And a
hot-tempered man abounds in transgression. Just because someone disagrees with you doesnt
mean they are an enemy.
Eph. 4:26,27 Be angry, and yet do not sin; do not let the sun go down on your anger, and do not give
the devil an opportunity. Dont stew over problems and rehearse them over and over in your
headeach time adding a little more anger and misunderstanding
4. Listen first.
Proverbs 15:1 A soft answer turns away wrath. Build bridges, not barriers. Matt. 7:12
Let him finish Was I thinking how I was going to respond or was I listening? Ask a question if you
dont understand what a person meant.
Be open to room for both to be right. Paul may have been right about John Mark at one point in
life but was wrong in another.
Acts 15:36-40 Paul and Barnabas part
2 Tim. 4:11 Only Luke is with me. Pick up Mark and bring him with you, for he is useful to me
for service.

Phil Sanders, instructor


Sometimes anger comes from the fact that the other person holds a grain of truth which we find
hard to face but need to hear. When someone criticizes, respond, You may be right.
5. Look for areas of agreement.
Jesus letters to churches Revelation 2, 3 Find what is right. It has amazed me through the years
to listen to heated discussions, where two people are arguing the same thing from different
perspectives. Many disagreements are problems of semantics, language
6. Be honest.
Apologize for your mistakes. Colossians 3:12-14 Bear and forebear. Endure = Bear; Let go, ignore
= forebear. Remember You are no bargain to life with either.
Because you are often blind to your own sins, you may need an honest friend or advisor who will help
you to take an objective look at yourself and face up to your contribution to a conflict.
When you identify ways that you have wronged another person, it is important to admit your wrongs
honestly and thoroughly. One way to do this is to use the "Seven A's of Confession:"
Address everyone involved (Prov. 28:13; 1 John 1:8-9)
Avoid if, but, and maybe (don't make excuses; Luke 15:11-24)
Admit specifically (both attitudes and actions)
Apologize (express sorrow for the way you affected someone)
Accept the consequences (Luke 19:1-9)
Alter your behavior (commit to changing harmful habits; Eph. 4:22-32)
Ask for forgiveness
7. Promise to think over and carefully study his ideas.
Think, examine openly and honestly his ideas. They might have some merit. He/she may have seen
something you did not see. If not, you will need to give clear reasons. The greatest courtesy you
can show anyone is to listen (1 Cor. 13:4,5)
8. Thank him for his interest.
It took courage to disagree with you. This shows that he cares deeply about the matter.
9. Postpone action and pray together.
Pray for wisdom, knowledge and understanding. (James 1:3-5). Things after a prayer may look very
different. Talk with a trusted friend about how to deal with the problemyou may need someone to
arbitrate between you.
Prov. 9:9 Give instruction to a wise man, and he will be still wiser, Teach a righteous man, and he
will increase his learning.
Prov. 27:9 Oil and perfume make the heart glad, So a man's counsel is sweet to his friend.
10. Remember that loving others is more important than winning victories.
1 Cor. 6:7 Actually, then, it is already a defeat for you, that you have lawsuits with one another. Why not
rather be wronged? Why not rather be defrauded? (better to be wronged than shame Jesus) God expects
all of us to give sometimeseven when we are in the rightI am not speaking here of compromising
Scripture. 1 Pet. 2:18-24 shows Jesus at the cross.
Go and show your brother his fault
Another key principle of peacemaking involves an effort to help others understand how they have
contributed to a conflict. Before you rush off to confront someone, however, remember that it is
appropriate to overlook minor offenses (see Prov. 19:11). As a general rule, an offense should be
overlooked if you can answer "no" to all of the following questions:
Is the offense seriously dishonoring God?

Phil Sanders, instructor


Has it permanently damaged a relationship?

Is it seriously hurting other people? and
Is it seriously hurting the offender himself?
If you answer "yes" to any of these questions, an offense is too serious to overlook, in which case God
commands you to go and talk with the offender privately and lovingly about the situation (see Matt.
18:15). As you do so, remember to:
Pray for humility and wisdom
Plan your words carefully (think of how you would want to be confronted)
Anticipate likely reactions and plan appropriate responses (rehearsals can be very helpful)
Choose the right time and place (talk in person whenever possible)
Assume the best about the other person until you have facts to prove otherwise (Prov. 11:27)
Listen carefully (Prov. 18:13)
Speak only to build others up (Eph. 4:29)
Ask for feedback from the other person
Recognize your limits (only God can change people; see Rom. 12:18; 2 Tim. 2:24-26)
If an initial confrontation does not resolve a conflict, do not give up. Review what was said and done, and
look for ways to make a better approach during a follow up conversation. It may also be wise to ask a
spiritually mature friend for advice on how to approach the other person more effectively. Then try again
with even stronger prayer support.
If repeated, careful attempts at a private discussion are not fruitful, and if the matter is still too serious to
overlook, you should ask one or two other people to meet with you and your opponent and help you to
resolve your differences through mediation, arbitration, or church discipline (see Matt. 18:16-20; 1 Cor.

Go and be reconciled
One of the most unique features of biblical peacemaking is the pursuit of genuine forgiveness and
reconciliation. Even though Christians have experienced the greatest forgiveness in the world, we often
fail to show that forgiveness to others. To cover up our disobedience we often use the shallow statement,
"I forgive herI just don't want to have anything to do with her again." Just think, however, how you
would feel if God said to you, "I forgive you; I just don't want to have anything to do with you again"?
Praise God that he never says this! Instead, he forgives you totally and opens the way for genuine
reconciliation. He calls you to forgive others in exactly the same way: "Bear with each other and forgive
whatever grievances you may have against one another. Forgive as the Lord forgave you" (Col. 3:12-14;
see also 1 Cor. 13:5; Psalm 103:12; Isa. 43:25). One way to imitate God's forgiveness is to make four
specific promises when you forgive someone:
I will not think about this incident.
I will not bring this incident up and use it against you.
I will not talk to others about this incident.
I will not allow this incident to stand between us or hinder our personal relationship.
Remember that forgiveness is a spiritual process that you cannot fully accomplish on your own.
Therefore, as you seek to forgive others, continually ask God for grace to enable you to imitate his
wonderful forgiveness toward you.
When a Brother Comes to You

Phil Sanders, instructor


If therefore you are presenting your offering at the altar, and there remember that your brother has
something against you, leave your offering there before the altar, and go your way; first be reconciled to
your brother, and then come and present your offering. Make friends quickly with your opponent at law
while you are with him on the way, in order that your opponent may not deliver you to the judge, and the
judge to the officer, and you be thrown into prison (Matt. 5:23-25).
If possible, so far as it depends on you, be at peace with all men (Rom. 12:18).
If we say that we have no sin, we are deceiving ourselves, and the truth is not in us. If we confess our
sins, He is faithful and righteous to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. If we
say that we have not sinned, we make Him a liar, and His word is not in us (1 John 1:8-10).
I, therefore, the prisoner of the Lord, entreat you to walk in a manner worthy of the calling with which
you have been called, with all humility and gentleness, with patience, showing forbearance to one another
in love, being diligent to preserve the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace (Eph. 4:1-3).

Dealing with a Brother

By Phil Sanders
Gospel Advocate 2002
It happened again. Some zealots have decided to label a brother a false teacher. The evidence was
slimly built upon ignorance, assumptions and misinformation. The accusers did little to substantiate the
facts but relied upon rumors and hearsay. Nor did the accusers feel any need to contact the brother to find
out the whole truth. Lately it has been open season upon many a faithful brother in the Lord. I am
reminded of Solomons proverbs,
There is one who speaks rashly like the thrusts of a sword (Prov. 12:18).
The first to plead his case seems just,
Until another comes and examines him (Prov. 18:17)
Do not go out hastily to argue your case; Otherwise, what will you do in the end,
When your neighbor puts you to shame? Argue your case with your neighbor,
And do not reveal the secret of another, Lest he who hears it reproach you,
And the evil report about you not pass away (Prov. 25:8-10).
The assumption is that since the offense was not personal, and since the brother spoke publicly,
he is fair game for public accusation and perhaps slander. Such men who speak out thus feel protected by
the fact that a brother cannot sue them. They feel free to bite and devour others on the narrowest of
pretext. They do not seem to ask whether the charge is either true or kind.
The justification for such speaking out normally falls upon the need to protect the flock. Certainly faithful
gospel preachers will speak out against evil. I wonder, however, if the protectors ever thought about the
souls of the people they ridicule and condemn. Even a brother who is deceived has a soul.
Let every one know that false teachers should be marked and avoided (Rom. 16:17,18), that
factious people should be rejected after a first and second admonition (Tit. 3:10-11), and that those who
go beyond the teaching of Christ do not have God and must not be supported (2 John 9-11). But we
should also realize that not every accused person is guilty.
I fear some of our brothers have been driven away from the Lord and the church by careless and hateful
speaking. How tragic when hateful and crude speech drives away a brother who could be saved. A hateful
representative of the truth has more than once driven a young man into the hands of a false but benevolent
teacher. No one sleeps with a dog that bites.
To be sure, ravenous wolves must not fill any pulpit, classroom, or editors desk (Matt. 7:15-20; 2
Tim. 2:16-18). Yet there are some that are misunderstood or misquoted. There are others still who

Phil Sanders, instructor


although good in heart are simply misinformed. Like Apollos they need an Aquila and Priscilla to take
them aside and shown them the way of the Lord more perfectly (Acts 18:24-28). It never seems to occur
to some brethren that a private discussion could help a brother. They have decided that writing up a
brother is the best means of dealing with him.
The fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, selfcontrol; against such things there is no law (Gal. 5:22,23). Those who practice writing up a brother upon
rumor and faulty evidence fail to show these characteristics toward their brother. Where is love? Where is
peace? Where is patience? Where is kindness? Where is gentleness? Being sound in doctrine does not
ensure being healthy in heart or practice.
The golden rule should apply between brethren. Therefore, however you want people to treat
you, so treat them, for this is the Law and the Prophets (Matt. 7:12). I have often wondered how some
sound brethren might feel if indeed a brother unjustly and publicly accused them of sin. I wonder how
they might feel if they had been slandered in ignorance and judged without mercy.
Some have argued that there is no need to discuss a matter privately with a false teacher before
writing him up publicly for all the church to know. I wonder how many sound brethren would like
being treated that way. The Lord teaches us to treat others the way we wish to be treated. Writing up a
brother before one clarifies an issue and before trying to make amends violates this principle. Paul
commands, Reject a factious man after a first and second warning (Tit. 3:10). In some cases, the
written-up brother finds out about his admonition through a third party weeks later. Such behavior
shows that the writer cares little about the soul of the one he has spoken against. Apparently the accusing
writer feels exempt from the golden rule, since he has found an opportunity to accuse. Do we not owe it to
our brother to talk to him before we talk about him?
The Pharisees sought to find fault and accuse Jesus with lies and half-truths. They likely felt
victory in condemning righteous Jesus to a cross for blaspheming. They had no love for Jesus, though
Jesus loved them. This, by the way, is one of the reasons the common people wanted to hear Jesus but
cared nothing for the Pharisees (Luke 15:1,2; 18:9ff.). One unjust accuser who has labeled many brethren
recently lamented that he had no friends. People dont like to sleep with dogs that bite.
The Pharisees once accused Jesus of leading the people astray, but Nicodemus defended Him.
The words of Nicodemus ought to sting the hearts of those who practice unfair accusation. Our Law does
not judge a man, unless it first hears from him and knows what he is doing, does it? (John 7:51). Every
brother, because he is a brother, ought to have the right to be heard before he is labeled and condemned.
Would a sound brother faced with a false accusation not wish to be heard before sentence is passed? Why
then should we not offer this right to any brother? Unwillingness to hear a brother often drives a wedge
deeper than the initial offense.
James reminds us, So speak and so act, as those who are to be judged by the law of liberty. For
judgment will be merciless to one who has shown no mercy; mercy triumphs over judgment (James
There can be no doubt that there is a time to judge, but let our judgments be according to the
teaching of Jesus. Do not judge according to appearance, but judge with righteous judgment (John
7:24). Find out the facts, let every word be established, and check with your brother to see if you have
understood him correctly. You might be surprised that what you heard or assumed may not be completely
right. A fact may be true but not the whole truth.
I fear that some have fallen into the trap of judging mercilessly on the basis of tradition rather
than truth. Jesus taught against such. Do not judge lest you be judged. For in the way you judge, you will
be judged; and by your standard of measure, it will be measured to you (Matt. 7:1-2). One is not a
Calvinist for simply quoting from the New International Version.
What do we owe our brothers with whom we differ? We owe them love (Rom. 13:8). We owe
them a hearing (John 7:51). We owe them concern for their souls (2 Thess. 3:15). We owe them the
fairness and respect we desire when we are accused (Matt. 7:12).
Let us talk to each other with patience before we talk about each other.

Phil Sanders, instructor


SWOT Analysis
Understanding Your Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats
SWOT Analysis is a very effective way of identifying your Strengths and Weaknesses, and of examining
the Opportunities and Threats you face. Carrying out an analysis using the SWOT framework will help
you to focus your activities into areas where you are strong, and where the greatest opportunities lie.
What are your advantages?
What do you do well?
What do other people see as your strengths?
Consider this from your own point of view and from the point of view of the people you deal
with. Don't be modest - be realistic. If you are having any difficulty with this, try writing down a
list of your characteristics. Some of these will hopefully be strengths!
What could you improve?
What do you do badly?
What should you avoid?
Again, consider this from an internal and external basis - do other people seem to perceive
weaknesses that you do not see? It is best to be realistic now, and face any unpleasant truths as
soon as possible.
Where are the good opportunities facing you?
What are the interesting trends you are aware of?
Useful opportunities can come from such things as:
Changes in technology on both a broad and narrow scale
Changes in the congregation or its leadership
Changes in social patterns, population profiles, lifestyle changes, etc.
Local Events
What obstacles do you face?
What are other churches and ministers doing?
Are the required specifications for your job or services changing?
Do you have bad debt or cash-flow problems?
What baggage does the congregation have?
What baggage do you bring to the congregation?
Carrying out this analysis will often be illuminating - both in terms of pointing out what needs to be done,
and in putting problems into perspective.

Phil Sanders, instructor


2 Cor. 13:5
Test yourselves to see if you are in the faith; examine yourselves!
Or do you not recognize this about yourselves, that Jesus Christ is in you
--unless indeed you fail the test?
1 2 3 4 5
I read my Bible and pray daily
I attend every service I can
I am excited about my faith and others see it.
I am giving liberally and cheerfully to the Lord
I am the spiritual leader of my family
I am a stronger Christian today than I was a year ago
I am working hard to overcome my temptations
I avoid using any foul or off-color words
I avoid pornography and R-rated movies
I am a good steward of the money God lets me possess
I am a person others count on for help
I control my temper
I am patient with others when I drive
I have encouraged other Christians to live faithfully
I am an example of Christianity to my family
When offended, I have learned to forgive
I have visited the hospital in the last few months
I have shared my faith with someone in the last few months
I avoid repeating gossip and hurtful stories
1. Entangled in the World
2. Babe in Christ
3. Maturing in the Faith
4. A Teacher in Word and Deed
5. Strong in the Lord (a powerful force for good)

Phil Sanders, instructor


The Epistles written to Timothy and Titus

Introduction to 1 Timothy
Paul was released from Roman imprisonment in 61 AD. We do not know whether Paul visited Spain
(Rom. 15:24,28) or whether he visited Philemon (Philemon 22). It is certain, however, that Paul returned
to prison in Rome, where he lost his life (65-67 AD). At the writing of 1 Timothy Paul is still free, since
he hopes to visit Timothy shortly (1 Tim. 3:14; 4:13) in Ephesus, where Timothy is to remain (1:3). Paul
may have been in Macedonia (Phil. 1:27) or Nicopolis at this writing (Tit. 3:12).
Early church history supports Pauls authorship (1 Tim. 1:1). Tertullian, Eusebius, Origin, Clement of
Alexandria, and Irenaeus all attribute the book to Paul. Polycarp, Justin Martyr, Clement of Rome and
Theophilus of Antioch all refer to this book.
Pauls three letters to Timothy and Titus are often referred to as pastoral epistles, but neither the
word pastor nor shepherd can be found in them. Timothy, however, is to preach, to do the work of an
evangelist, and to fulfill his ministry (2 Tim. 4:5). Paul refers to Timothy as a servant (1 Tim. 4:6; 2 Tim.
2:24). Paul gives the qualifications of overseers, elders, or pastors to both Timothy (1 Timothy 3:1-7) and
Titus (Tit. 1:5-9); but gives no suggestion that either Timothy or Titus are elders. The terms elder,
overseer and shepherd (pastor) are used interchangeably in Acts 20:17,28 and 1 Pet. 5:1-4. These three
books instruct preachers or ministers in their work.
Timothy was born in Lystra of a Greek father and a Jewish mother named Eunice (2 Tim. 1:5).
Fortunately the faith of his grandmother Lois and his mother Eunice lived in Timothy as well (2 Tim. 1:5;
3:15). Paul found Timothy at Lystra (Acts 16:1-3). Later Timothy joined Paul on his second missionary
journey and shared in his labors throughout the rest of his life. Timothy was Pauls true child in the
faith (1 Tim. 1:2), and Paul had no one like him who would truly care for the souls of others (Phil. 2:1924). Timothy traveled with Paul (Acts 17:13-14), was occasionally left behind to work (1 Thess. 3:1-3),
and served as Pauls emissary (1 Cor. 16:10-11; Phil. 2:19-24).
Paul circumcised Timothy early in his ministry because of the Jews who were in those parts, for
they all knew that his father was a Greek (Acts 16:3). Timothy was with Paul in Rome during his first
imprisonment (Col. 1:1; Phil. 1:1). Even though Paul refers to Timothys youth (1 Tim. 4:12), Timothy
was at least 30 years old when he received this epistle. The word for youth (neotetos) is a military term
referring to anyone up to the age of forty.
Paul is writing to Timothy so that you may know how you ought to conduct yourself in the house of
God, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth (1 Tim. 3:15). Paul warns
Timothy to take heed to himself and to the doctrine (4:16) and to charge some that they teach no other
doctrine nor give heed to fables and endless genealogies (1:3-4). Such things caused division and idle
talk. The purpose of the commandment was love from a pure heart, from a good conscience, and from
sincere faith (1:5). Paul wanted Timothy to wage the good warfare (1:18), since Hymenaeus and
Alexander had rejected the faith and were delivered to Satan (1:19-20).
Paul describes himself as one thankful to be enabled to serve, since he had been the chief of sinners in
persecuting the church (1:12-16).
Paul gives five faithful sayings in the three books to Timothy and Titus (1 Tim. 1:15; 3:1; 4:9; 2 Tim.
2:11; Tit. 3:8).
Paul is concerned with the worship and the organization of the church and instructs Timothy on
prayer (2:1-8), on the role of women (2:9-15), on the qualifications of bishops and deacons (3:1-13), on
enrolled widows (5:3-16), and on the treatment of elders (5:17-25). Timothy is to withdraw himself from
those who teach a different doctrine than comes from the words of our Lord Jesus (6:3-5). Some
apparently were seeking to make a profit through a pretended godliness, and others were caught up in
greediness (6:6:6-10).

Phil Sanders, instructor


Paul urged Timothy to flee from these things, and to pursue righteousness, godliness, faith, love,
patience, and gentleness. He is to fight the good fight of faith and to guard what was committed to his
truth (6:11-12,20). Timothy must avoid the idle babblings and contradictions of what is falsely called

Outline of 1 Timothy

Greeting (1:1-2).

II. The Nature of the Ministry (1:3-20)

1. Avoiding speculations (1:3-11).
2. Pauls message of salvation (1:12-17).
3. Pauls charge to Timothy (1:18-20).
III. The Worship and Organization of the Church (2:1-3:16).
1. Prayer (2:1-7).
2. Role of Men and Women in the Church (2:8-15).
3. The qualifications of bishops (3:1-7).
4. The qualifications of deacons (3:8-13).
5. The conduct and place of the church (3:14-16).
IV. Instructions for Ministry (4:1-16)
1. The coming apostasy (4:1-5).
2. Good ministry with godliness (4:6-11).
3. Various exhortations to ministry (4:12-16).
V. Ministry and Relationships (5:1-6:21).
1. To various groups (5:1).
2. To widows (5:3-16).
3. To elders (5:17-25).
4. To slaves (6:1-2).
5. To false teachers (6:3-10).
6. To his spiritual life (6:11-16).
7. To the rich (6:17-19).
VI. Final Admonition and Greeting (6:20-1).
The Man Timothy
The New Testament has much to say concerning Timothy. His name appears some twenty-four
times. He was from Lystra and probably was saved during Pauls first missionary trip (Acts
14:19, 20; 16:1, 2). His mother (Eunice) and grandmother (Lois) were godly Jewish women, but his father
was a pagan Greek (Acts 16:1; 2 Tim. 1:5). He had been brought up on Gods Word (2 Tim. 3:14, 15).
He is invited by Paul to join the team during the apostles second trip (Acts 16:3). This

team would consist of Silas, Paul, and Luke. Timothy may have been chosen to take John Marks
place. (See Acts 13:5.) He is circumcised by Paul that he might have freedom to preach the gospel in the
various Jewish synagogues (Acts 16:3; see also 1 Cor. 9:20). Timothy is formally ordained by Paul and
the presbytery (1 Tim. 4:14; 2 Tim. 1:6). He also accompanied Paul during the third missionary trip (Acts
19:22; 20:4; 2 Cor. 1:1, 19).
He becomes Pauls close companion during the apostles first imprisonment. (See Phil. 1:1; Col.
1:1; Philemon 1:1.) Like Paul, Timothy also suffers imprisonment (see Heb. 13:23).

Phil Sanders, instructor


He performs a ministry in at least five New Testament churches:

(1) Thessalonica (1 Thess. 3:2, 6)
(2) Corinth (1 Cor. 4:17; 16:10; 2 Cor. 1:19)
(3) Philippi (Phil. 2:19-23)
(4) Berea (Acts 17:14)
(5) Ephesus (1 Tim. 1:3)
Timothy may have been a somewhat reserved individual and one who did not always enjoy
robust health. (1 Tim. 4:12, 14, 15, 16) He was, nevertheless, a man of God. (See 1 Tim. 6:11.)

1 Timothy 1

Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the commandment of God our Saviour, and Lord Jesus
Christ, which is our hope; 2Unto Timothy, my own son in the faith: Grace, mercy, and peace,
from God our Father and Jesus Christ our Lord. 3As I besought thee to abide still at Ephesus,
when I went into Macedonia, that thou mightest charge some that they teach no other
doctrine, 4Neither give heed to fables and endless genealogies, which minister questions, rather
than godly edifying which is in faith: so do.

Phil Sanders, instructor


Now the end of the commandment is charity out of a pure heart, and of a good conscience,
and of faith unfeigned: 6From which some having swerved have turned aside unto vain
jangling; 7Desiring to be teachers of the law; understanding neither what they say, nor whereof
they affirm. 8But we know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully; 9Knowing this, that the
law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for
sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for
manslayers, 10For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers,
for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound
doctrine; 11According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, which was committed to my


And I thank Christ Jesus our Lord, who hath enabled me, for that he counted me faithful,
putting me into the ministry; 13Who was before a blasphemer, and a persecutor, and injurious: but
I obtained mercy, because I did it ignorantly in unbelief. 14And the grace of our Lord was
exceeding abundant with faith and love which is in Christ Jesus. 15This is a faithful saying, and
worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners; of whom I am
chief. 16Howbeit for this cause I obtained mercy, that in me first Jesus Christ might show forth all
longsuffering, for a pattern to them which should hereafter believe on him to life
everlasting. 17Now unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise God, be honour and
glory for ever and ever. Amen.

Phil Sanders, instructor



This charge I commit unto thee, son Timothy, according to the prophecies which went
before on thee, that thou by them mightest war a good warfare; 19Holding faith, and a good
conscience; which some having put away concerning faith have made shipwreck: 20Of whom is
Hymenaeus and Alexander; whom I have delivered unto Satan, that they may learn not to

1 Timothy 2

I exhort therefore, that, first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of
thanks, be made for all men; 2For kings, and for all that are in authority; that we may lead a quiet
and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty. 3For this is good and acceptable in the sight of
God our Saviour; 4Who will have all men to be saved, and to come unto the knowledge of the
truth. 5For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ
Jesus; 6Who gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time. 7Whereunto I am ordained
a preacher, and an apostle, (I speak the truth in Christ, and lie not;) a teacher of the Gentiles in
faith and verity. 8I will therefore that men pray every where, lifting up holy hands, without wrath
and doubting.

Phil Sanders, instructor


In like manner also, that women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with shamefacedness
and sobriety; not with broided hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly array; 10But (which becometh
women professing godliness) with good works. 11Let the woman learn in silence with all
subjection. 12But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in
silence. 13For Adam was first formed, then Eve. 14And Adam was not deceived, but the woman
being deceived was in the transgression. 15Notwithstanding she shall be saved in childbearing, if
they continue in faith and charity and holiness with sobriety.


1 Timothy 2:5-6
God chose the Lord Jesus to be the mediator between God and people. The Son of God, the second
person of the Trinity, is the eternal God-equal wit the Father. But he willingly took on himself the
nature of a man; yet he was without sin. These two complete, perfect, and distinct natures-Godhead
and manhood-were inseparably joined in the person of Jesus without being altered or jumbled. Jesus
is truly God and truly man.
The following verses show that Jesus was both God and man:
Matthew 16:27
Matthew 22:42-45

Matthew 25:31-40
Mark 14: 61-62
Luke 9:42-44

John 3:35
Romans 5:15

Romans 5:21

1 Corinthians 15:49

For I, the Son of Man, will come in the glory of my Father.

What do you think about the Messiah? Whose son is he? They replied, He
is the son of David. . . . Since David called him Lord, how can he be his son
at the same time?
But when the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him,
then he will sit upon his glorious throne.
Are you the Messiah, the Son of the blessed God? Jesus said, I am, . . .
But Jesus rebuked the evil spirit and healed the boy. Then he gave him
back to his father. . . . Awe gripped the people as they saw this display of
Gods power.
The Father loves his Son, and he has given him authority over everything.
And what a difference between our sin and Gods generous gift of
forgiveness. For this one man, Adam, brought death to many through his sin.
But this other man, Jesus Christ, brought forgiveness to many through Gods
bountiful gift.
So just as sin ruled over all people and brought them to death, now Gods
wonderful kindness rules instead, giving us right standing with God and
resulting in eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.
Just as we are now like Adam, the man of the earth, so we will someday be
like Christ, the man from heaven.

Phil Sanders, instructor


1 Timothy 3

This is a true saying, If a man desire the office of a bishop, he desireth a good work. 2A
bishop then must be blameless, the husband of one wife, vigilant, sober, of good behaviour,
given to hospitality, apt to teach; 3Not given to wine, no striker, not greedy of filthy lucre; but
patient, not a brawler, not covetous; 4One that ruleth well his own house, having his children in
subjection with all gravity; 5(For if a man know not how to rule his own house, how shall he take
care of the church of God?) 6Not a novice, lest being lifted up with pride he fall into the
condemnation of the devil. 7Moreover he must have a good report of them which are without;
lest he fall into reproach and the snare of the devil.

Likewise must the deacons be grave, not doubletongued, not given to much wine, not greedy
of filthy lucre; 9Holding the mystery of the faith in a pure conscience. 10And let these also first be
proved; then let them use the office of a deacon, being found blameless. 11Even so must their
wives be grave, not slanderers, sober, faithful in all things. 12Let the deacons be the husbands of
one wife, ruling their children and their own houses well. 13For they that have used the office of a
deacon well purchase to themselves a good degree, and great boldness in the faith which is in
Christ Jesus.

Phil Sanders, instructor



These things write I unto thee, hoping to come unto thee shortly: 15But if I tarry long, that
thou mayest know how thou oughtest to behave thyself in the house of God, which is the church
of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth. 16And without controversy great is the
mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels,
preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory.


1 Timothy 3:7
Acts 6:1-6

Seven men were appointed to help the church by waiting on tables, thereby
relieving the disciples of this duty so they could concentrate on preaching the
gospel. Many believe this was the beginning of the office of deacon.

Acts 14:23

As Paul and Barnabas prepared to return home to Antioch at the close of their
first Missionary journey, they appointed elders in each church to care for and
continue to teach the newly formed congregations.

Acts 20:17

At the end of Pauls third missionary journey, as he headed toward Jerusalem,

he sent for the elders of the church at Ephesus. Clearly this was a recognized
group, and to this group Paul gave special instruction (Acts 20:18-35).

Acts 20:28

Paul instructed the overseers to remember their commission by the Holy Spirit
and their primary dutiesto keep watch over themselves and over their

1 Thessalonians

Paul gave instructions to the believers in Thessalonica to respect those who

labored among them and who had God-given responsibility for them.

Philippians 1:1

Paul greeted the leaders in the churchoverseers and deacons.

1 Timothy 5:17

Paul instructed the congregations to recognize the honor due to their leaders.

Phil Sanders, instructor


1 Timothy 4

Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith,
giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils; 2Speaking lies in hypocrisy; having their
conscience seared with a hot iron; 3Forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats,
which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of them which believe and know the
truth. 4For every creature of God is good, and nothing to be refused, if it be received with
thanksgiving: 5For it is sanctified by the word of God and prayer.

If thou put the brethren in remembrance of these things, thou shalt be a good minister of
Jesus Christ, nourished up in the words of faith and of good doctrine, whereunto thou hast
attained. 7But refuse profane and old wives fables, and exercise thyself rather unto
godliness. 8For bodily exercise profiteth little: but godliness is profitable unto all things, having
promise of the life that now is, and of that which is to come. 9This is a faithful saying and worthy
of all acceptation. 10For therefore we both labour and suffer reproach, because we trust in the
living God, who is the Saviour of all men, specially of those that believe. 11These things
command and teach.

Phil Sanders, instructor



Let no man despise thy youth; but be thou an example of the believers, in word, in
conversation, in charity, in spirit, in faith, in purity. 13Till I come, give attendance to reading, to
exhortation, to doctrine. 14Neglect not the gift that is in thee, which was given thee by prophecy,
with the laying on of the hands of the presbytery. 15Meditate upon these things; give thyself
wholly to them; that thy profiting may appear to all. 16Take heed unto thyself, and unto the
doctrine; continue in them: for in doing this thou shalt both save thyself, and them that hear thee.

1 Timothy 5

Rebuke not an elder, but entreat him as a father; and the younger men as brethren; 2The elder
women as mothers; the younger as sisters, with all purity.

Honour widows that are widows indeed. 4But if any widow have children or nephews, let
them learn first to show piety at home, and to requite their parents: for that is good and
acceptable before God. 5Now she that is a widow indeed, and desolate, trusteth in God, and
continueth in supplications and prayers night and day. 6But she that liveth in pleasure is dead
while she liveth. 7And these things give in charge, that they may be blameless.

Phil Sanders, instructor


But if any provide not for his own, and specially for those of his own house, he hath denied
the faith, and is worse than an infidel. 9Let not a widow be taken into the number under
threescore years old, having been the wife of one man, 10Well reported of for good works; if she
have brought up children, if she have lodged strangers, if she have washed the saints feet, if she
have relieved the afflicted, if she have diligently followed every good work.


But the younger widows refuse: for when they have begun to wax wanton against Christ,
they will marry; 12Having damnation, because they have cast off their first faith. 13And withal
they learn to be idle, wandering about from house to house; and not only idle, but tattlers also
and busybodies, speaking things which they ought not. 14I will therefore that the younger women
marry, bear children, guide the house, give none occasion to the adversary to speak
reproachfully. 15For some are already turned aside after Satan. 16If any man or woman that
believeth have widows, let them relieve them, and let not the church be charged; that it may
relieve them that are widows indeed.

Phil Sanders, instructor



Let the elders that rule well be counted worthy of double honour, especially they who
labour in the word and doctrine. 18For the scripture saith, Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that
treadeth out the corn. And, The labourer is worthy of his reward. 19Against an elder receive not
an accusation, but before two or three witnesses. 20Them that sin rebuke before all, that others
also may fear.


I charge thee before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, and the elect angels, that thou observe
these things without preferring one before another, doing nothing by partiality. 22Lay hands
suddenly on no man, neither be partaker of other mens sins: keep thyself pure. 23Drink no longer
water, but use a little wine for thy stomachs sake and thine often infirmities. 24Some mens sins
are open beforehand, going before to judgment; and some men they follow after. 25Likewise also
the good works of some are manifest beforehand; and they that are otherwise cannot be hid.

Phil Sanders, instructor


1 Timothy 6

Let as many servants as are under the yoke count their own masters worthy of all honour,
that the name of God and his doctrine be not blasphemed. 2And they that have believing masters,
let them not despise them, because they are brethren; but rather do them service, because they are
faithful and beloved, partakers of the benefit. These things teach and exhort. 3If any man teach
otherwise, and consent not to wholesome words, even the words of our Lord Jesus Christ, and to
the doctrine which is according to godliness; 4He is proud, knowing nothing, but doting about
questions and strifes of words, whereof cometh envy, strife, railings, evil surmisings, 5Perverse
disputings of men of corrupt minds, and destitute of the truth, supposing that gain is godliness:
from such withdraw thyself.

But godliness with contentment is great gain. 7For we brought nothing into this world, and it
is certain we can carry nothing out. 8And having food and raiment let us be therewith
content. 9But they that will be rich fall into temptation and a snare, and into many foolish and
hurtful lusts, which drown men in destruction and perdition. 10For the love of money is the root
of all evil: which while some coveted after, they have erred from the faith, and pierced
themselves through with many sorrows.

Phil Sanders, instructor



But thou, O man of God, flee these things; and follow after righteousness, godliness, faith,
love, patience, meekness. 12Fight the good fight of faith, lay hold on eternal life, whereunto thou
art also called, and hast professed a good profession before many witnesses.


I give thee charge in the sight of God, who quickeneth all things, and before Christ Jesus,
who before Pontius Pilate witnessed a good confession; 14That thou keep this commandment
without spot, unrebukeable, until the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ: 15Which in his times he
shall show, who is the blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings, and Lord of lords; 16Who
only hath immortality, dwelling in the light which no man can approach unto; whom no man
hath seen, nor can see: to whom be honour and power everlasting. Amen.


Charge them that are rich in this world, that they be not highminded, nor trust in uncertain
riches, but in the living God, who giveth us richly all things to enjoy; 18That they do good, that
they be rich in good works, ready to distribute, willing to communicate; 19Laying up in store for
themselves a good foundation against the time to come, that they may lay hold on eternal life.

Phil Sanders, instructor



O Timothy, keep that which is committed to thy trust, avoiding profane and vain babblings,
and oppositions of science falsely so called: 21Which some professing have erred concerning the
faith. Grace be with thee. Amen.





Paul instructed Timothy to preserve

the Christian faith by teaching sound
doctrine and modeling right living.
Timothy had to oppose false teachers,
who were leading church members
away from belief in salvation by faith
in Jesus Christ alone.

We must know the truth in order to

defend it. We must cling to the belief
that Christ came to save us. We
should stay away from those who
twist the words of the Bible for their
own purposes.


Prayer in public worship must be done

with a proper attitude toward God and
fellow believers. Men are to take the
role of leadership.

Christian character must be evident in

every aspect of worship. We must rid
ourselves of any anger, resentment,
or offensive behavior that might
worship or damage church unity.


Paul gives specific instructions

concerning the qualifications for
church leaders so that the church
might honor God and operate

Church leaders must be wholly

committed to Christ. If you are a new
or young Christian, dont be anxious
to become a leader in the church.
Seek to develop your Christian
character first. Be sure to
seek God, not your own ambition.


It takes discipline to be a leader in the

church. Timothy, like all pastors, had
to guard his motives, minister
faithfully, and live above reproach.
Any minister must keep morally and
spiritually fit.

To stay in good spiritual shape, you

must discipline yourself to study
Gods Word and to obey it. Put your
spiritual abilities to work!

Caring Church

The church has a responsibility to

care for the needs of all its members,
especially the sick, the poor, and the
widowed. Caring must go beyond
good intentions.

Caring for the family of believers

demonstrates our Christ-like attitude
and exhibits genuine love to

Phil Sanders, instructor



1 Timothy 6:8
Everything comes from God

1 Chronicles 29:11-14 Colossians 1:15-17

1 Timothy 4:4

Money cannot buy salvation

Proverbs 11:4 Ezekiel 7:19

Matthew 16:26 Luke 16:19-31; 18:18-25

Riches do not last

Jeremiah 17:11 1 Timothy 6:17

James 1:10-11 Revelation 18:11-19

Money never satisfies

Ecclesiastes 5:10-11

Dont show favoritism to the rich

James 2:1-9

Money carries responsibility

1 Timothy 6:17-19

Obey God rather than chasing after money

Psalms 17:15; 119:36

Proverbs 19:1 1 Timothy 6:17

Be content

Philippians 4:11-13
Hebrews 13:5

Phil Sanders, instructor

Luke 12:15

1 Timothy 6:8


Introduction to 2 Timothy
Paul intended to visit Timothy in Ephesus (1 Tim. 1:2; 3:14; 4:13) but probably never reached
Timothy. After his release from his first imprisonment in Rome (61 AD), Paul reportedly took an
evangelistic journey as far as Spain (Clement of Rome, Eusebius; cf. Rom. 15:14,18). Spending a few
years there, Paul planned to return to Timothy.
Pauls cloak and books were with Carpus in Troas (2 Timothy 4:13), perhaps left in haste when Paul
was arrested. Nero had begun his persecution of Christians in 64 AD; and Alexander the coppersmith,
who did Paul much harm (2 Tim. 4:14), may have prompted his arrest. Soldiers took Paul to Rome
for his second imprisonment (65-67 AD), and according to tradition Paul was beheaded outside of
Rome on the Ostian Way. Romans usually did not execute high profile prisoners in Rome itself but
took them outside the city to avoid a disturbance.
As Paul writes Timothy in his last letter, he is imprisoned in a cold dungeon and nearing death (4:6).
He is lonely. All those in Asia had turned away from him, among whom are Hermogenes, Phygellus, and
Onesiphorus (1:15). Paul had sent Crescens to Galatia, Titus to Dalmatia, and Tychicus to Ephesus.
Erastus was left in Corinth and Trophimus was sick in Miletus (4:20). Demas, however, had forsaken
Paul for worldly Thessalonica (4:10-12). Only Luke remained with Paul, so the apostle asked Timothy to
come quickly and bring useful Mark. Paul longed for Timothy (1:4).
Looking toward his own departure (4:6), Paul felt great concern for the future of the churches. He
predicts perilous times will come, and people will grow more and more corrupt (3:1-9). He realizes that
false teachers will oppose the truth and seduce gullible women. Paul said that people will not endure
sound teaching but will heap to themselves teachers to meet their own desires and will turn away from the
truth (4:3-4).
Paul urged Timothy to entrust faithful men with the teaching he had received (2:2) so they may teach
others. Paul admonished Timothy to guard what had been entrusted to him (1:14), to continue in the
teachings (3:14), to preach the word (4:2) and to be ready to suffer for the gospel (1:8; 2:3; 3:12). Paul
also reminds Timothy to stir up the gift that is within him through the laying on of hands (1:6). Paul fears
that Timothy has become fearful or ashamed (1:7,8).
Paul regards all Scripture as inspired and profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, and for
instruction. The Scriptures are able to equip completely the man of God for every good work (3:16-17).

Outline of 2 Timothy

Personal greeting (1:1-2).

Pauls admonition to faithfulness (1:3-18).
1. Paul thankfulness for Timothy (1:3-5).
2. Pauls reminder to Timothy to act (1:6-7).
3. Pauls admonition not to be ashamed (1:8-12).
4. Pauls admonition to stay faithful to the sound words (1:13-18).

III. Pauls admonition to diligence (2:1-26)

1. Endure hardship as a good soldier (2:1-7).
2. The faithfulness of Jesus (2:8-13).
3. Present yourself an unashamed worker (2:14-18).
4. Flee youthful lusts (2:19-22).
5. The servant of the Lord (2:23-26).
IV. Pauls admonition to continue in the Word (3:1-4:5).

Phil Sanders, instructor


1. The coming perilous times (3:1-9).

2. Carefully follow the doctrine (3:10-17).
3. Preach the Word (4:1-5).
V. Pauls admonition to come (4:6-22).
1. Pauls departure is at hand (4:6-8).
2. Paul had been abandoned (4:9-16).
3. The Lords stand with Paul (4:17-18).
4. Final greetings and plea (4:19-22).

2 Timothy 1

Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, according to the promise of life which is
in Christ Jesus, 2To Timothy, my dearly beloved son: Grace, mercy, and peace, from God the
Father and Christ Jesus our Lord. 3I thank God, whom I serve from my forefathers with pure
conscience, that without ceasing I have remembrance of thee in my prayers night and
day; 4Greatly desiring to see thee, being mindful of thy tears, that I may be filled with joy; 5When
I call to remembrance the unfeigned faith that is in thee, which dwelt first in thy grandmother
Lois, and thy mother Eunice; and I am persuaded that in thee also.

Wherefore I put thee in remembrance that thou stir up the gift of God, which is in thee by
the putting on of my hands. 7For God hath not given us the spirit of fear; but of power, and of
love, and of a sound mind. 8Be not thou therefore ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of
me his prisoner: but be thou partaker of the afflictions of the gospel according to the power of
God; 9Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling, not according to our works, but
according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world
began, 10But is now made manifest by the appearing of our Savior Jesus Christ, who hath
abolished death, and hath brought life and immortality to light through the gospel: 11Whereunto I
am appointed a preacher, and an apostle, and a teacher of the Gentiles.

Phil Sanders, instructor



For the which cause I also suffer these things: nevertheless I am not ashamed: for I know
whom I have believed, and am persuaded that he is able to keep that which I have committed
unto him against that day. 13Hold fast the form of sound words, which thou hast heard of me, in
faith and love which is in Christ Jesus. 14That good thing which was committed unto thee keep by
the Holy Ghost which dwelleth in us.


This thou knowest, that all they which are in Asia be turned away from me; of whom are
Phygellus and Hermogenes. 16The Lord give mercy unto the house of Onesiphorus; for he oft
refreshed me, and was not ashamed of my chain: 17But, when he was in Rome, he sought me out
very diligently, and found me. 18The Lord grant unto him that he may find mercy of the Lord in
that day: and in how many things he ministered unto me at Ephesus, thou knowest very well.

2 Timothy 2

Thou therefore, my son, be strong in the grace that is in Christ Jesus. 2And the things that
thou hast heard of me among many witnesses, the same commit thou to faithful men, who shall
be able to teach others also. 3Thou therefore endure hardness, as a good soldier of Jesus
Christ. 4No man that warreth entangleth himself with the affairs of this life; that he may please
him who hath chosen him to be a soldier. 5And if a man also strive for masteries, yet is he not
crowned, except he strive lawfully. 6The husbandman that laboureth must be first partaker of the
fruits. 7Consider what I say; and the Lord give thee understanding in all things.

Phil Sanders, instructor


Remember that Jesus Christ of the seed of David was raised from the dead according to my
gospel: 9Wherein I suffer trouble, as an evil doer, even unto bonds; but the word of God is not
bound. 10Therefore I endure all things for the elects sakes, that they may also obtain the
salvation which is in Christ Jesus with eternal glory. 11It is a faithful saying: For if we be dead
with him, we shall also live with him: 12If we suffer, we shall also reign with him: if we deny him,
he also will deny us: 13If we believe not, yet he abideth faithful: he cannot deny himself.


Of these things put them in remembrance, charging them before the Lord that they strive not
about words to no profit, but to the subverting of the hearers. 15Study to show thyself approved
unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth. 16But
shun profane and vain babblings: for they will increase unto more ungodliness. 17And their word
will eat as doth a canker: of whom is Hymenaeus and Philetus; 18Who concerning the truth have
erred, saying that the resurrection is past already; and overthrow the faith of some.

Phil Sanders, instructor



Nevertheless the foundation of God standeth sure, having this seal, The Lord knoweth them
that are his. And, Let every one that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity. 20But in a
great house there are not only vessels of gold and of silver, but also of wood and of earth; and
some to honour, and some to dishonour. 21If a man therefore purge himself from these, he shall
be a vessel unto honour, sanctified, and meet for the masters use, and prepared unto every good


Flee also youthful lusts: but follow righteousness, faith, charity, peace, with them that call
on the Lord out of a pure heart. 23But foolish and unlearned questions avoid, knowing that they
do gender strifes. 24And the servant of the Lord must not strive; but be gentle unto all men, apt to
teach, patient, 25In meekness instructing those that oppose themselves; if God peradventure will
give them repentance to the acknowledging of the truth; 26And that they may recover themselves
out of the snare of the devil, who are taken captive by him at his will.

Phil Sanders, instructor



2 Timothy 1:1
First Imprisonment
A.D. 6062

Second Imprisonment
A.D. 6667


Accused by Jews and appealed to


Persecuted by the Roman



Relatively comfortable; in a rented

house (Acts 28:30-31)

Cold, dark, lonely dungeon


Visited by many friends

Almost totally alone


Had many opportunities to preach and teach

Christeventually was freed

Was totally confined to prison

but was able to
read and write


Expected freedom (Philippians


Expected to be executed (2
Timothy 4:6), but
looked forward to heaven (1:12;
2:8; 4:18)

2 Timothy 3

This know also, that in the last days perilous times shall come. 2For men shall be lovers of
their own selves, covetous, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful,
unholy, 3Without natural affection, trucebreakers, false accusers, incontinent, fierce, despisers of
those that are good, 4Traitors, heady, highminded, lovers of pleasures more than lovers of
God; 5Having a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof: from such turn away.

Phil Sanders, instructor


For of this sort are they which creep into houses, and lead captive silly women laden with
sins, led away with divers lusts, 7Ever learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the
truth. 8Now as Jannes and Jambres withstood Moses, so do these also resist the truth: men of
corrupt minds, reprobate concerning the faith. 9But they shall proceed no further: for their folly
shall be manifest unto all men, as theirs also was.


But thou hast fully known my doctrine, manner of life, purpose, faith, longsuffering,
charity, patience, 11Persecutions, afflictions, which came unto me at Antioch, at Iconium, at
Lystra; what persecutions I endured: but out of them all the Lord delivered me. 12Yea, and all that
will live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution. 13But evil men and seducers shall wax
worse and worse, deceiving, and being deceived.


But continue thou in the things which thou hast learned and hast been assured of, knowing
of whom thou hast learned them; 15And that from a child thou hast known the holy scriptures,
which are able to make thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus. 16All
scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction,
for instruction in righteousness: 17That the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto
all good works.

Phil Sanders, instructor


2 Timothy 4

I charge thee therefore before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the quick and
the dead at his appearing and his kingdom; 2Preach the word; be instant in season, out of season;
reprove, rebuke, exhort with all longsuffering and doctrine. 3For the time will come when they
will not endure sound doctrine; but after their own lusts shall they heap to themselves teachers,
having itching ears; 4And they shall turn away their ears from the truth, and shall be turned unto
fables. 5But watch thou in all things, endure afflictions, do the work of an evangelist, make full
proof of thy ministry.

For I am now ready to be offered, and the time of my departure is at hand. 7I have fought a
good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith: 8Henceforth there is laid up for me a
crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day: and not to
me only, but unto all them also that love his appearing.

Phil Sanders, instructor


Do thy diligence to come shortly unto me: 10For Demas hath forsaken me, having loved this
present world, and is departed unto Thessalonica; Crescens to Galatia, Titus unto
Dalmatia. 11Only Luke is with me. Take Mark, and bring him with thee: for he is profitable to me
for the ministry. 12And Tychicus have I sent to Ephesus. 13The cloak that I left at Troas with
Carpus, when thou comest, bring with thee, and the books, but especially the
parchments. 14Alexander the coppersmith did me much evil: the Lord reward him according to
his works: 15Of whom be thou ware also; for he hath greatly withstood our words.


At my first answer no man stood with me, but all men forsook me: I pray God that it may
not be laid to their charge. 17Notwithstanding the Lord stood with me, and strengthened me; that
by me the preaching might be fully known, and that all the Gentiles might hear: and I was
delivered out of the mouth of the lion. 18And the Lord shall deliver me from every evil work, and
will preserve me unto his heavenly kingdom: to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen. 19Salute
Prisca and Aquila, and the household of Onesiphorus. 20Erastus abode at Corinth: but Trophimus
have I left at Miletum sick. 21Do thy diligence to come before winter. Eubulus greeteth thee, and
Pudens, and Linus, and Claudia, and all the brethren. 22The Lord Jesus Christ be with thy spirit.
Grace be with you. Amen.

Phil Sanders, instructor






In the face of opposition and

persecution, Timothy was to carry out
his ministry without fear or shame.
Paul urged him to utilize boldly the
gifts of preaching and teaching that
the Holy Spirit had given him.

God helps us to be wise and strong. God

honors our confident testimony even when we
suffer. To get over our fear of what people
might say or do, we must take our eyes off of
people and look only to God.


Christ was faithful to all of us in dying

for our sin. Paul was a faithful minister
even when he was in prison. Paul
urged Timothy to maintain not only
sound doctrine but also loyalty,
diligence, and endurance.

We can count on opposition, suffering,

and hardship as we serve Christ. But this
shows that our faithfulness is having an
effect on others. As we trust Christ, he
counts us worthy to suffer, and he will
give us the strength we need to be

Preaching and

Paul and Timothy were active in

preaching and teaching the Good News
about Jesus Christ. Paul encouraged
Timothy not only to carry the torch of
truth but also to train others, passing on
to them sound doctrine and enthusiasm
for Christs mission.

We must prepare people to transmit Gods

Word to others so that they in turn might pass
it on. Does your church carefully train others
to teach?


In the final days before Christ returns,

there will be false teachers, spiritual
dropouts, and heretics. The remedy
for error is to have a solid program for
teaching Christians.

Because of deception and false teaching,

we must be disciplined and ready to
reject error. Know the Word of God as
your sure defense against error and

Phil Sanders, instructor


Introduction to Titus
Paul acknowledges from the beginning that he is the author of this book (Tit. 1:1), and early church
history overwhelmingly supports this. Titus accompanied Paul to Crete after his release from his first
imprisonment in Rome (61 AD). Apparently Paul left Titus at Crete (1:5), and went to Ephesus where he
left Timothy on his way to Macedonia (1 Tim. 1:3). Sometime later (ca. 64 AD), probably from Philippi
(Phil. 1:27), Paul wrote to Titus; Paul had not yet reached Nicopolis for the winter (Tit. 3:12).
We know very little about Titus, the one to whom this book is written and whose name is in its title.
Since Paul calls Titus a true son in the common faith (Tit. 1:4), Paul likely converted Titus. Titus is
Greek but Paul would not circumcise him as he did Timothy (Gal. 2:3; Acts 16:3). Titus is not mentioned
in Acts, but Paul counted him a trusted companion and coworker. Paul sent Titus to Corinth to help with
the collection for the needy saints in Jerusalem (2 Cor. 8:16). Titus helped Paul greatly by helping to
bring peace in a tense situation between Paul and the Corinthians (2 Cor. 7:6-15). Paul calls Titus his
partner and fellow worker (8:23). Our last Biblical word on Titus is that Paul sent him to Dalmatia,
which today is Yugoslavia (2 Tim. 4:10). Eusebius records the tradition that Titus returned to Crete and
served as a bishop there until his old age (Ecclesiastical History 3.4.6).
Paul left Titus in Crete, that you should set in order the things that are lacking, and appoint elders in
every city as I commanded you (1:5). Titus had the responsibility of caring for several young churches,
and this letter gives the details of his duties and the need to appoint elders in every city. Paul supports
Titus, saying, Speak these things, exhort, and rebuke with all authority. Let no one disregard you (2:15).
Crete was the fourth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and lies south of the Aegean Sea. Pauls
earlier experiences sailing past Crete are recorded in Acts 27:7-21). During the days of the New
Testament Crete had sunk to such low moral levels that even one of their own poets (Epimenides, a wellknown sixth-century BC poet) declared, Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, lazy gluttons (Tit. 1:12).
Paul emphasizes to Titus the need for these new Christians coming out of an immoral lifestyle to
practice good works (cf. 1:16; 2:7, 14; 3:1,8,14). Paul provides a classic statement of how grace teaches
us to deny ungodliness and to live righteously in the present age (2:11-14). He also notes how the mercy
and grace of God saves us through the washing of regeneration and renewing of the Holy Spirit, a
reference to baptism (Titus 3:3-7; cf. John 3:5; Rom. 6:3-7).

Outline of Titus

Greeting (1:1-4).

II. Instructions to Titus (1:5-3:14).

1. Commandment to set things in order and appoint elders (1:5).
2. Instructions about elders (1:6-9).
3. Instructions about deceivers and Jews (1:10-16).
4. Sound teaching for Christians (2:1-10).
5. What grace teaches Christians (2:11-15).
6. Instructions on conduct to outsiders (3:1-2).
7. How God saved us (3:3-7).
8. Instruction to maintain good works (3:8).
9. Instruction to avoid disputes (3:9-11).
10. Final instructions (3:12-14).
III. Final greetings (3:15).

Phil Sanders, instructor


Titus 1

Paul, a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ, according to the faith of Gods elect,
and the acknowledging of the truth which is after godliness; 2In hope of eternal life, which God,
that cannot lie, promised before the world began; 3But hath in due times manifested his word
through preaching, which is committed unto me according to the commandment of God our
Saviour; 4To Titus, mine own son after the common faith: Grace, mercy, and peace, from God
the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ our Saviour.

For this cause left I thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting,
and ordain elders in every city, as I had appointed thee:
If any be blameless, the husband of one wife, having faithful children not accused of riot or
unruly. 7For a bishop must be blameless, as the steward of God; not selfwilled, not soon angry,
not given to wine, no striker, not given to filthy lucre; 8But a lover of hospitality, a lover of good
men, sober, just, holy, temperate; 9Holding fast the faithful word as he hath been taught, that he
may be able by sound doctrine both to exhort and to convince the gainsayers.

Phil Sanders, instructor



For there are many unruly and vain talkers and deceivers, specially they of the
circumcision: 11Whose mouths must be stopped, who subvert whole houses, teaching things
which they ought not, for filthy lucres sake. 12One of themselves, even a prophet of their own,
said, The Cretians are alway liars, evil beasts, slow bellies. 13This witness is true. Wherefore
rebuke them sharply, that they may be sound in the faith; 14Not giving heed to Jewish fables, and
commandments of men, that turn from the truth.


Unto the pure all things are pure: but unto them that are defiled and unbelieving is nothing
pure; but even their mind and conscience is defiled. 16They profess that they know God; but in
works they deny him, being abominable, and disobedient, and unto every good work reprobate.

Titus 2

But speak thou the things which become sound doctrine:

That the aged men be sober, grave, temperate, sound in faith, in charity, in patience.

The aged women likewise, that they be in behaviour as becometh holiness, not false
accusers, not given to much wine, teachers of good things;

Phil Sanders, instructor


That they may teach the young women to be sober, to love their husbands, to love their
children, 5To be discreet, chaste, keepers at home, good, obedient to their own husbands, that the
word of God be not blasphemed.

Young men likewise exhort to be sober minded. 7In all things showing thyself a pattern of
good works: in doctrine showing uncorruptness, gravity, sincerity, 8Sound speech, that cannot be
condemned; that he that is of the contrary part may be ashamed, having no evil thing to say of

Exhort servants to be obedient unto their own masters, and to please them well in all things;
not answering again; 10Not purloining, but showing all good fidelity; that they may adorn the
doctrine of God our Saviour in all things.


For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men, 12Teaching us that,
denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly, in this
present world; 13Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and
our Saviour Jesus Christ; 14Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity,
and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.

Phil Sanders, instructor



These things speak, and exhort, and rebuke with all authority. Let no man despise thee.

Titus 2:6
Christian freedom does not grant us free and unrestrained use or abuse of the following verses:





Dont sin by letting anger gain control over you.

Proverbs 29:11

Dont let the sun go down while you are still angry.

Ephesians 4:26

My dear brothers and sisters, be quick to listen, slow to speak, and

slow to get angry.

James 1:19

No one can tame the tongue. It is an uncontrollable evil, full of

deadly poison.

James 3:8

But let the Lord Jesus Christ take control of you, and dont think of
ways to indulge your evil desires.

Romans 13:14

For when we place our faith in Christ Jesus, it makes no difference to

God whether we are circumcised or not circumcised. What is
important is faith expressing itself in love.

Galatians 5:6

Run from anything that stimulates youthful lust. Follow anything that
makes you want to do right. Pursue faith and love and peace, and
enjoy the companionship of those who call on the Lord with pure

2 Timothy 2:22

Dear brothers and sisters, you are foreigners and aliens here. So I
warn you to keep away from evil desires because they fight against
your very souls.

1 Peter 2:16

For the love of money is at the root of all kinds of evil. And some
people, craving money, have wandered from the faith and pierced
themselves with many sorrows.

1 Timothy 6:10

Stay away from the love of money; be satisfied with what you have.

Hebrews 13:5

For you have been called to live in freedomnot freedom to satisfy

your sinful nature, but freedom to serve one another in love.

Galatians 5:13

You are not slaves; you are free. But your freedom is not an excuse
to do evil. You are free to live as Gods slaves.

1 Peter 2:16

Phil Sanders, instructor


Titus 3

Put them in mind to be subject to principalities and powers, to obey magistrates, to be ready
to every good work, 2To speak evil of no man, to be no brawlers, but gentle, showing all
meekness unto all men.

For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts
and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, and hating one another. 4But after that the
kindness and love of God our Saviour toward man appeared, 5Not by works of righteousness
which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration,
and renewing of the Holy Ghost; 6Which he shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our
Saviour; 7That being justified by his grace, we should be made heirs according to the hope of
eternal life.

This is a faithful saying, and these things I will that thou affirm constantly, that they which
have believed in God might be careful to maintain good works. These things are good and
profitable unto men.

Phil Sanders, instructor


But avoid foolish questions, and genealogies, and contentions, and strivings about the law;
for they are unprofitable and vain. 10A man that is an heretic after the first and second admonition
reject; 11Knowing that he that is such is subverted, and sinneth, being condemned of himself.


When I shall send Artemas unto thee, or Tychicus, be diligent to come unto me to
Nicopolis: for I have determined there to winter. 13Bring Zenas the lawyer and Apollos on their
journey diligently, that nothing be wanting unto them. 14And let ours also learn to maintain good
works for necessary uses, that they be not unfruitful. 15All that are with me salute thee. Greet
them that love us in the faith. Grace be with you all. Amen.

Phil Sanders, instructor





A Good Life

The Good News of salvation is that we

cant be saved by living a good life; we
are saved only by faith in Jesus Christ.
But the gospel transforms peoples
lives, so that they eventually perform
good deeds. Our service wont save
us, but we are saved to serve.

A good life is a witness to the gospels

power. As Christians, we must have
commitment and discipline to serve.
Are you putting your faith into action
by serving others?


Tituss responsibility in Crete was to

appoint elders to maintain proper
organization and discipline, so Paul
listed the qualities needed for the
eldership. Their conduct in their
homes revealed their fitness for
service in the church.

Its not enough to be educated or to have

a loyal following to be Christs kind of
leader. You must have self-control,
spiritual and moral fitness, and Christian
character. Who you are is just as
important as what you can do.


Church teaching must relate to various

groups. Older Christians were to teach
and to be examples to younger men
and women. People of every age and
group have a lesson to learn and a
role to play.

Right living and right relationships go

along with right doctrine. Treat
relationships with other believers as an
outgrowth of your faith.


Christians must be good citizens in

society, not just in church. Believers
must obey the government and work

How you fulfill your civic duties is a

witness to the watching world. Your
community life should reflect Christs
love as much as your church

Phil Sanders, instructor