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IJSTE - International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering | Volume 2 | Issue 12 | June 2016 ISSN (online): 2349-784X

Experimental Study on Metal Removal Rate of Al/Al 2 O 3 Metal Matrix Composite using EDM Process

Sourav Rana M. Tech Student Department of Mechanical Engineering Green Hills Engineering College, Solan

O. S. Bhatia Associate Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering Green Hills Engineering College, Solan

Abstract

In recent times, the revolution in the manufacturing industries is the result of the use hybrid non-conventional machining processes. Electro Discharge Machining (EDM) is an electro-thermal non-traditional machining process, where electrical energy is used to generate electrical spark and material removal mainly occurs due to thermal energy of the spark. The present paper deals with the effect of addition Alumina particulates on the metal removal rate using EDM process. Keywords: Metal Removal Rate, Alumina, MMC, EDM

I.

INTRODUCTION

The new concept of manufacturing uses non-conventional energy sources like sound, light, mechanical, chemical, electrical, electrons and ions. With the industrial and technological growth, development of harder and difficult to machine materials, which find wide application in aerospace, nuclear engineering and other industries owing to their high strength to weight ratio, hardness and heat resistance qualities has been witnessed. With the time, a lot of discoveries has been made related to the work on the EDM. In the EDM process, the metal is removing from the work piece due to erosion case by rapidly recurring spark discharge taking place between the tool and work piece. G.Dusro et.al [1] worked on the fabrication of micro holes using micro-EDM technology. The investigation focuses on the influence of different electrodes and workpiece materials on the process performance, expressed in terms of tool wear ratio. S. Dewangan et.al [2] investigated the influence of various EDM process parameters like pulse current (Ip), pulse-on time (Ton), tool work time (Tw) and tool lift time (Tup) on various aspects of surface integrity like white layer thickness (WLT), surface crack density (SCD) and surface roughness (SR). P. Narender Singh et al. [3] discussed the evolution of effect of the EDM current (C), Pulse ON-time (P) and flushing pressure (F) on MRR, TWR, taper (T), ROC, and surface roughness (SR) on machining as-cast Al-MMC with 10% SiCp. A. Soveja et al [4] have defined the experimental study of the surface laser texturing of TA6V alloy. The influence of the operating factors on the laser texturing process has been studied using two experimental approaches: Taguchi methodology and RSM. Lee and X.P.Li [5] showed the effect of the machining parameter in EDM of tungsten carbide on the machining characteristics. The EDM process with tungsten carbide better machining performances is obtaining generally with the electrode as the cathode and the workpiece is anode. Tool with negative polarity give the higher material removal rate, lower tool wear and better surface finish. Puertas and Luis[6] has define the optimization of machining parameter for EDM of Boron carbide of conductive ceramic materials. It is these conditions that determine such important characteristics as surface roughness, electrode wear, and MRR. Wang and Lin [7] discuss the optimization of W/Cu composite martial are used the Taguchi method. W/Cu composites are a type of cooling material highly resistant to heat corrosion produced through powder metallurgy. Tsai et al [8] had used working martial of graphite, copper and copper alloys are widely using EDM because these materials have high melting temperature, and excellent electrical and thermal conductivity. The electrodes made by using powder metallurgy technology from special powders have been used to modify EDM surfaces in recent years, to improve wear and corrosion resistance. Sameh S. Habib [9] performed the study of parameter in EDM by using the RSM, the parameter like MRR, TWR, gap size and SR and relevant experimental data were obtained through experimentation. They are using Al/Sic composites material and shown the correlations between the cutting rates, the surface finish and the physical material parameters of this process made it difficult to use. Jun Wang et.al [10] investigates in depth the influence of the alternating current flow on the tool-material interaction, a pulse counting method based on the detection of the current peak has been proposed to count the number of effective pulses.

II. FABRICATION OF THE COMPOSITE

The addition of abrasive particle in the aluminum mmc for enhancing mechanical properties is well known fact. The fabrication of the present composite completes with the use of aluminum as matrix and alumina as reinforcement. The fabrication of the MMC is done up with the help of furnace as shown in figure 1 (a). The aluminum was heated to around 750 degree Celsius before mixing

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Experimental Study on Metal Removal Rate of Al/Al 2 O 3 Metal Matrix Composite using EDM Process (IJSTE/ Volume 2 / Issue 12 / 004)

with alumina particles. The molten aluminum is mixed with the reinforcement using mechanical stir process. The final metal matrix composite was prepared using mechanical casting method. The experimentation was carried out on prepared sample according to design of experiments using EDM as shown in figure1 (b) with copper as electrode to get the values of material removal rate.

as electrode to get the values of material removal rate. (a) (b) Fig. 1: (a) Furnace

(a)

as electrode to get the values of material removal rate. (a) (b) Fig. 1: (a) Furnace

(b)

Fig. 1: (a) Furnace and (b) EDM

III. EXPERIMENTAL WORK

The specimens were prepared from the fabricated composite. The investigation on metal removal rate is completed using the electric discharge machining process. The table 1 shows the metal removal rate of the different specimens at different levels using design of experiments.

Table 1 Metal Removal Rate of Al/Al2O3 Composite

S.no

MRR 1

MRR 2

MRR 3

Average MRR

S/N Ratio, η (dB)

1

0.017308

0.015385

0.018077

0.017308

-35.2351

2

0.025

0.030625

0.030625

0.02875

-30.8272

3

0.058571

0.07

0.064286

0.064286

-23.8377

4

0.1225

0.1125

0.11

0.115

-18.7860

5

0.033846

0.032143

0.030667

0.032219

-29.8378

6

0.063333

0.098

0.073333

0.078222

-22.1334

7

0.24

0.525

0.23

0.331667

-9.5860

8

0.16

0.156667

0.163333

0.16

-15.9176

9

0.081667

0.088

0.076667

0.082111

-21.7120

S/N ratio graphs were generated from S/N ratio obtained based on experimental data of material removal rate. Figure2 shows the S/N ratio graph obtained for material removal rate using MINITAB.

Main Effects Plot for SN ratios Data Means IP Ton -15 -20 -25 -30 1
Main Effects Plot for SN ratios
Data Means
IP
Ton
-15
-20
-25
-30
1
2
3
1
2
3
Toff
Volt
-15
-20
-25
-30
1
2
3
1
2
3
Signal-to-noise: Larger is better
Mean of SN ratios

Fig. 2: S/N Ratio for MRR

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Experimental Study on Metal Removal Rate of Al/Al 2 O 3 Metal Matrix Composite using EDM Process (IJSTE/ Volume 2 / Issue 12 / 004)

Mathematical Model:using EDM Process (IJSTE/ Volume 2 / Issue 12 / 004) A regression based mathematical model

A regression based mathematical model was prepared using MINITAB. Equation (1) shows the mathematical regression model. MRR = 0.0679293 - 0.0779335 IP - 0.20401 Ton - 0.125558 Toff + 0.305832 Volt + 0.0388092 IP*Ip + 0.0410453 Ton*Ton + 0.038599 Toff*Toff - 0.067789 Volt*Volt (1)

Analysis of VarianceTon*Ton + 0.038599 Toff*Toff - 0.067789 Volt*Volt (1) Analysis of variance is a method of portioning

Analysis of variance is a method of portioning variability into identifiable sources of variation and the associated degree of freedom in an experiment. The frequency test (F-test) is utilized in statistics to analyze the significant effects of the parameters, which form the quality characteristics. Table 2 shows the result of ANOVA analysis for Material removal rate. This analysis was carried out for a level of significance of 5%, i.e., for 95% a level of confidence. The last column of the table shows the “percent” contribution (P) of each factor as the total variation, indicating its influence on the result.

Table 2 Analysis of Variance for MRR (using Adjusted SS for Tests)

Source

DF

Seq SS

Adj SS

Adj MS

F

P

IP

2

0.116601

0.116601

0.058300

18.40

0.000

Ton

2

0.038662

0.038662

0.019331

6.10

0.009

Toff

2

0.023908

0.023908

0.011954

3.77

0.043

Volt

2

0.049212

0.049212

0.024606

7.77

0.004

Error

18

0.057023

0.057023

0.003168

   

Total

26

0.285406

       

IV. CONCLUSION

This study concerns the fabrication and experimental investigation of Al/Al 2 O 3 metal matrix composite. The conclusions obtained from this investigation are as follow:

The fabrication of Al/Al 2 O 3 was successfully completed using mechanical stir casting process.

The composite was successfully machined using electrical discharge machining process and larger value of material removal rate was found at parametric combination of current =12A,Ton= 6µs, volt=50V and Toff at 200 µs.

From the analysis of variance it was found that for material removal rate Current most is significant factors.

For Roughness analysis of variance is carried out and it was found that Voltage and pulse off time are the most significant parameters.

Mathematical regression model was obtained from experimental data for material removal rate with R 2 value 80.02%.

REFERENCES

[1]

G.D’Urso, C. Merla, “Workpiece and electrode influence on micro-EDM drilling performance, Precision Engineering 38 (2014) 903914

[2]

S. Dewangan, S. Gangopadhyay, C.K. Biswas, “Study of surface integrity and dimensional accuracy in EDM using Fuzzy TOPSIS and sensitivity analysis,

Measurement 63 (2015) 364376 [3] Singh, P.N., Raghukandan, K., Rathinasabapathi, M. And Pai, B.C., 2004. Electric discharge machining of Al-10%sicp as-cast metal matrix composites.

[4]

Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 155-156(1-3), 1653-1657. Soveja, A., Cicala, E., Grevey, D. And Jouvard, J.M., 2008. Optimization of TA6V alloy surface laser texturing using an experimental design approach.

[5]

Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 46(9), 671-678. Yan, B.H., Wang, C.C., Chow, H.M. and Lin, Y.C., 2000. Feasibility study of rotary electrical discharge machining with ball burnishing for Al2O3/6061Al

[6]

composite. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 40(10), 1403-1421. Yan-Cherng Lin, Yuan-feng chen, Ching-tien Lin, AND Hsinn-jyh Tzeng Feasibility study of rotary electrical discharge machining with ball burnishing for

[7]

Al2O3/6061Al composite 2008, vol.23: 391399, Lee, S.H. and Li, X.P., 2001. Study of the effect of machining parameters on the machining characteristics in electrical discharge machining of tungsten

[8]

carbide. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 115(3), 344-358. Puertas, I. And Luis, C.J., 2004. A study of optimization of machining parameters for electrical discharge machining of boron carbide. Materials and

[9]

Manufacturing Processes, 19(6), 1041-1070. Wang, C.-. And Lin, Y.C., 2009. Feasibility study of electrical discharge machining for W/Cu composite. International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard

Materials, 27(5), 872-882. [10] Jun Wang, Fei Yang, Jun Qian, Dominiek Reynaerts, “Study of alternating current flow in micro-EDM through real-time pulse counting” Journal of Materials Processing Technology 231 (2016) 179188

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