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1kWWindTurbine(12.

5m/s)
2Blades(Carbonfibre),1.8MetreDiameter
&InductionmotortoPMAconversion

Abstract
A1kW@12.5m/s(2kW@17m/s),1.8metrediameterwindturbinewasdesignedandconstructedusingcarbonfibrecomposites.Thegeneratorwasbuilt
by converting an induction motor into a permanent magnet generator. Blade power and efficiency have been measured at different tipspeedratios and a
maximumefficiencyof30%ataTSRof11.6wasrecorded.Theseresultsverifytheaccuracyofcalculationsfromthebladecalculatorsoftware.Totalcostof
thegeneratorandbladeswaslessthanAU$200.
Keywords:Windpower,PermanentMagnetGenerator,InductionmotortoPMAconversion,1kwwindturbine,carbonfiberwindturbineblades

LISTOFFIGURES
Figure

Page

40Ampcaralternatorrotorwithmagnetsattached

40Ampcaralternatorrotorwithmagnetsfibreglassedinplace

40Ampcaralternatorstatorwithshielding

Completedconversionofthe40Ampcaralternator

Completedconversiona1/4hpinductionmotor

Windturbineairfoilcrosssections

Turbineairfoilcrosssectionsboltedtoframe

Positivemouldsofwindturbineblades

Negativemouldsofwindturbineblades

10

1.8mbladeset

11

Turbinetesting

12

MeasuredTSRvsefficiency

13

MeasuredPower

1.ConstructionofthePermanentMagnetGenerator
Designofapermanentmagnetgeneratorwasnecessarytotestandcharacterisethebladeset.Conversionofa40ampcar
alternatortoapermanentmagnetgeneratorwasattempted.
Thealternatorsrotorwasturneddownonalathetoaccommodate
neodymiummagnets.

Figure3.40Ampcaralternatorstator
withshielding

Figure1.40Ampcaralternator
rotorwithmagnetsattached

Figure2.40Ampcaralternatorrotorwith
magnetsfibreglassedinplace

Six magnets were carefully


placeonaslightangletoreduce
coggingofthegenerator.

Themagnetswerefibreglassed
inplacewithtwostripsofcarbon
fibre.

Sheet metal was placed inside the


stator to shield the magnetic field from
aluminium.
Without the sheet metal lining,
significant power was lost in the
aluminium.

DesignYourCustomWindTurbineBlades

Figure5.Completedconversionofa
1/4hpinductionmotor

Figure4.
Completed
conversionof
the40Amp
caralternator

Thesametechniquewasusedtoconvertalarger1/4hpinduction
motorintoa8pole/3phasePMG.
Poweroutputwasmeasuredto
belessthan500wattsatthe
Power output was measured to
be more than 2000 watts at the
rpmofthedesignedblades.The
rotational speed for the designed generatorwillnotproduce
blades. This generator produces
enoughpowerforthe1.8mdiameterblades.
enoughpowerforthe1.8m
diameterblades,itismoresuited
Thegeneratorhaszerocogging,thisisduetotheangledmagnetsand
to1.0mdiameterbladeswitha
the 2mm air gap between the rotor and
stator. It is configured for 3
hightipspeedratio.
phase,eachphasemeasuring5.6ohms.Outputvoltageis130Vrmsat
1333rpm,increasinglinearlywithrpm.

Power output was measured to be less


than 500 watts at the rpm of the designed
blades. The generator will not produce
enough power for the 1.8m diameter
blades, it is more suited to 1.0m diameter
bladeswithahightipspeedratio.

2.Calculatinggeneratorefficiency

Given:The3phasesareisolatedandconnectedas3singlephaseoutputs.
EachoutputisrectifiedtoDCusingasinglephasebridgerectifier.

V=IRrearrangedto
V/R=I

At666rpm,
generatorvoltage
Vs=65Volts.

Rs=resistanceofeach
phaseofthegenerator
(5.6Ohms)

Voltageacross
Rs=6548
Vs=17Volts

Currentintobattery=17/5.6
I=3ampsperphase

CalculatepowerusingP=VI
Powerintobattery=48x3
P=144wattsperphase
(432wattsforall3phases)

Ploss=V2/R
Efficiencyofgenerator=144/(144+51.6)
PowerLost=172/5.6
Efficiency=73.6%
Ploss=51.6wattsperphase

3.Designandconstructionofthewindturbineblades
The wind turbine blades were designed using the warlock
engineering blade calculator program. The airfoil chosen was
NACA2412andatwobladedturbinewasdesignedtohavea
tipspeedratioof10.

Figure6.Windturbineairfoilcrosssections

Theairfoilcrosssectionswerecutoutof3mm
aluminiumsheets.Thesesheetswereboltedto
asteelframe,spacedatappropriatedistances
andaligned.
Figure7.Windturbineairfoilcrosssectionsboltedtoaframe

The gaps between the airfoil sections


were filled with aluminium tape and the
back of the tape was fibre glassed in
place. Wax and mould release was
appliedtoitandtwopositivemouldswere
made.
The moulds were sanded down using the
aluminium impressions as a guide. Wax
and mould release was applied to the
positive moulds (in Figure 8) and new
negative moulds were made out of
fibreglassandcarbonfibre(Figure9).

Figure8.Positivemouldsofwind
turbineblades

Figure9.Negativemouldsofwind
turbineblades

Carefuldetailingofthepositivemouldproducedaperfectnegative
mould. This final negative mould was waxed and mould release
was applied. CSM fibreglass (220 g) with vinyl ester resin was
applied to each mould. The two mould halves were clamped
togetheraftertheresinhadgelledandthebladewasremovedafter
curing.
The blades were sanded and wrapped in carbon fibre, using an
additional carbon fibre layer around the hub section. The finished
bladesareextremelylightweight.
Figure10.1.8mbladeset

4.Testingthewindturbine

Thewindturbinewasboltedtoatrailerandtherpm,voltageandtsrwasmeasuredbyconnectingthegeneratortoaveryhigh
powermultitapresistor.Theturbinewasallowedtospeeduptoanopencircuitvoltageof65V(666rpm)beforetheresistor
loadwasconnected.

Measurementofresultsfromthewindturbine
Note:Ourmethodofturbinetestinggeneratedturbulentwind,affecting
efficiency.Theresultsshouldbeusedasaguideonly

Rsistheresistanceofthegeneratorwindingsplusthepowercable5.75ohms
Rlistheresistanceoftheload6.6,10,15,21.5and25ohms
Figure11.Turbinetesting

Oncethebladeshavebeencharacterized
anewgeneratorwillbedesigned.

Powergeneratedbythebladeswascalculatedbydividingmeasuredpowerbytheefficiencyofthegenerator.
Powergeneratedbythebladesiscalculatedusingthefollowingmethod:
Voltageacrosstheresistorloadwasmeasured(Vl),
Vs=Vlx[(Rs+Rl)/Rl]
Powerproducedbybladesandlostingenerator,powercableandresistorloadisgivenby
P=V2/R
P=Vs2/(Rs+Rl)
Theresultsfromthewindturbinetestareincludedbelow.
25ohm

21.5ohm

15ohm

30km/h

820

766

809

40km/h

1302

1363

851

645

50km/h

1753

1676

1489

1291

1105

2365

2098

1744

1607

60km/h

10ohm

6ohm

Rotationalspeed(rpm)
25ohm

21.5ohm

15ohm

30km/h

208

205

300

40km/h

524

649

332

252

50km/h

950

981

1017

1008

940

1953

2019

1873

1990

60km/h

10ohm

6ohm

21.5ohm

15ohm

278

260

275

40km/h

441

463

289

218

50km/h

595

569

506

438

375

803

712

592

546

60km/h

10ohm

6ohm

Power(watts)
25ohm

21.5ohm

15ohm

30km/h

0.23

0.23

stalled

40km/h

0.24

0.30

0.15

stalled

50km/h

0.22

0.23

0.24

0.24

stalled

0.27

0.27

0.25

0.27

60km/h

25ohm
30km/h

10ohm

6ohm

Tipspeed(km/h)

25ohm

21.5ohm

15ohm

30km/h

9.2

8.7

9.2

40km/h

11.0

11.6

7.2

5.5

50km/h

11.9

11.4

10.1

8.8

7.5

16.1

14.2

11.8

10.9

60km/h

10ohm

Tipspeedratio

Bladeefficiency

6.Totalcostofthe
windturbine
Systemcost(AUD)
Inductionmotor$15
Magnets$80
Moulds$72
TwoBlades$14

Totalcost$181

Figure12.EfficiencyvsTSR

6ohm

Conclusion
The carbon fibre blades
maintainedapeakefficiencyof
27% for all TSR values
between 10:1 and 14:1. The
maximum power generated
was 2.0 kW at 60 km/h wind
speed.
By comparison, the typical
TSRforwoodcarvedbladesis
7:1.Althoughtheyarecheaper
toproduce,woodbladesrotate
at half the RPM, reducing the
generators power output to
25%

Figure13.MeasuredPower.Power(Watts)vsSpeed(m/s)

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