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Last Updated: August 03, 2016

Table of Contents
Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT Edition Help ........................................................................................ 6
Getting Started .....................................................................................................................................................................................................6
What is Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT? .................................................................................................................................... 6
Whats New in Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT .........................................................................................................................6
Installation, Upgrades, and Updates .......................................................................................................................................... 7
CONNECT Services in Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT ......................................................................................................... 8
Documentation ................................................................................................................................................................................. 15
Be Communities Search Button ............................................................................................................................................... 15
RSS Feeds ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 15
Contacting Us .................................................................................................................................................................................... 16
Introducing the Workspace .........................................................................................................................................................................17
Workspace ..........................................................................................................................................................................................17
Ribbon Interface - Getting Started .......................................................................................................................................... 22
Menus and Toolbars (MicroStation and ArcGIS Only) ................................................................................................... 27
Dynamic Manager Display ...........................................................................................................................................................53
Using Named Views ........................................................................................................................................................................56
Starting a Project ..............................................................................................................................................................................................57
Welcome Dialog Box ...................................................................................................................................................................... 58
Projects ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 58
Setting Project Properties ............................................................................................................................................................59
Setting Options ................................................................................................................................................................................. 59
Using ProjectWise ........................................................................................................................................................................... 67
Importing Data From Other Models ........................................................................................................................................74
Exporting Data ............................................................................................................................................................................... 111
Long Term Continuous Simulations in SewerGEMS V8i Using the SWMM Engine ..........................................115
Copying and Pasting Data To and From Tables ...............................................................................................................117
Using Modelbuilder ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 117
Preparing to Use ModelBuilder .............................................................................................................................................. 118
ModelBuilder Connections Manager ....................................................................................................................................119
ModelBuilder Wizard ..................................................................................................................................................................120
GIS-IDs ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 129
Reviewing Your Results ............................................................................................................................................................. 130
Multi-select Data Source Types .............................................................................................................................................. 130
Exporting X/Y Coordinates .......................................................................................................................................................131
ModelBuilder Warnings and Error Messages .................................................................................................................. 131
Esri ArcGIS Geodatabase Support ......................................................................................................................................... 132
Specifying Network Connectivity in ModelBuilder ........................................................................................................134
Handling Collection and Curve Data in Modelbuilder .................................................................................................. 135
Oracle as a Data Source for ModelBuilder ......................................................................................................................... 136
Using ModelBuilder to Import Time Series Data ............................................................................................................ 138
Integrating with Bentley Map ................................................................................................................................................ 139
Creating Your Model .................................................................................................................................................................................... 140
Elements and Element Attributes ......................................................................................................................................... 141
Adding Elements to Your Model .............................................................................................................................................246
Connecting Elements ...................................................................................................................................................................248

Manipulating Elements .............................................................................................................................................................. 256


Editing Element Attributes .......................................................................................................................................................264
Changing the Drawing View .....................................................................................................................................................270
Using Selection Sets ..................................................................................................................................................................... 273
Using the Network Navigator ..................................................................................................................................................280
Using Prototypes ...........................................................................................................................................................................283
Engineering Libraries ................................................................................................................................................................. 284
Minor Loss Coefficients ..............................................................................................................................................................287
Using the Totalizing Flow Meter ............................................................................................................................................ 289
Inlet Catalog Dialog Box ............................................................................................................................................................293
Gutter Catalog Dialog Box ........................................................................................................................................................ 301
Conduit Catalog Dialog Box ...................................................................................................................................................... 303
Vortex Valves ..................................................................................................................................................................................309
Using the SWMM Solver .............................................................................................................................................................311
Low Impact Development Controls ...................................................................................................................................... 341
Adding Hyperlinks to Elements ..............................................................................................................................................349
Queries Manager ........................................................................................................................................................................... 352
Controls .............................................................................................................................................................................................359
User Data Extensions .................................................................................................................................................................. 371
External Tools ................................................................................................................................................................................ 380
Hydraulic Reviewer Tool ...........................................................................................................................................................381
Using Named Views ..................................................................................................................................................................... 383
TRex Wizard ....................................................................................................................................................................................385
Property Grid Customizations ................................................................................................................................................ 386
Element Property Inferencing ................................................................................................................................................ 388
i-Models ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 395
Automatic Design .........................................................................................................................................................................398
Using PondMaker ........................................................................................................................................................................ 406
Storage Chambers Dialog Box ................................................................................................................................................. 424
SCADAConnect Overview .........................................................................................................................................................428
Loading ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 464
Methods for Entering Loads .....................................................................................................................................................465
Types of Loads ............................................................................................................................................................................... 467
Composite Hydrographs ............................................................................................................................................................480
Inflows ...............................................................................................................................................................................................481
Sanitary (Dry Weather) Flow Collections .......................................................................................................................... 496
LoadBuilder .....................................................................................................................................................................................498
Generating Thiessen Polygons ................................................................................................................................................506
Rainfall Derived Infiltration and Inflow (RDII) ............................................................................................................... 510
Stormwater Flow .......................................................................................................................................................................... 511
Pipeline Infiltration ......................................................................................................................................................................550
Pond Flow Loss ..............................................................................................................................................................................551
Extreme Flows ............................................................................................................................................................................... 551
Using Scenarios and Alternatives ...........................................................................................................................................................556
Understanding Scenarios and Alternatives .......................................................................................................................557
Scenario Example - Simple Water Distribution System ...............................................................................................563
Scenarios .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 568
Alternatives ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 571
Calculation Options ......................................................................................................................................................................621
Scenario Comparison .................................................................................................................................................................. 621
Scenario Comparison .................................................................................................................................................................. 626

Calculating Your Model ...............................................................................................................................................................................631


Steady State/Extended Period Simulation ........................................................................................................................ 631
Compute Center .............................................................................................................................................................................636
Creating Calculation Options ................................................................................................................................................... 637
Solvers (Numerical) .....................................................................................................................................................................663
Calculation Executive Summary Dialog Box (Implicit Solver) .................................................................................. 669
Calculation Detailed Summary Dialog Box (Implicit Solver) .....................................................................................670
Detailed Calculation Summary Dialog Box (GVF-Convex Solver) ............................................................................674
Calculation Executive Summary Dialog Box (GVF Rational Solver) ....................................................................... 680
Calculation Detailed Summary Dialog Box (GVF Rational Solver) .......................................................................... 680
SWMM Calculation Executive Summary ............................................................................................................................683
SWMM Engine Summary Report ............................................................................................................................................688
User Notifications ......................................................................................................................................................................... 688
Statistics ...........................................................................................................................................................................................690
Troubleshooting DynamicWave Model Calculations .................................................................................................... 694
Using the Totalizing Flow Meters .......................................................................................................................................... 696
System Head Curves .................................................................................................................................................................... 697
Presenting Your Results ............................................................................................................................................................................. 698
Using Background Layers ......................................................................................................................................................... 699
Annotating Your Model .............................................................................................................................................................. 706
Color Coding Your Model .......................................................................................................................................................... 716
Using Profiles ..................................................................................................................................................................................720
Viewing and Editing Data in FlexTables ............................................................................................................................. 738
Reporting ..........................................................................................................................................................................................752
Graphing ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 760
Chart Options Dialog Box .......................................................................................................................................................... 771
Print Preview Window ............................................................................................................................................................... 821
Contours ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 822
Terrain Models ...............................................................................................................................................................................826
Features of the MicroStation Version ...................................................................................................................................................832
MicroStation Environment ....................................................................................................................................................... 832
MicroStation Project Files .........................................................................................................................................................833
Bentley Element Properties ..................................................................................................................................................... 834
Working with Elements ............................................................................................................................................................. 835
Working in AutoCAD Mode .......................................................................................................................................................................837
The AutoCAD Workspace .......................................................................................................................................................... 838
AutoCAD Project Files .................................................................................................................................................................839
Working with Elements Using AutoCAD Commands .................................................................................................... 840
Theory ................................................................................................................................................................................................................843
Fundamental Solution of the Gravity Flow System ........................................................................................................843
Surface (Gutter) System .............................................................................................................................................................889
Hydraulic Boundaries ................................................................................................................................................................. 921
Dynamic Storage Routing ..........................................................................................................................................................932
Hydrograph Methods .................................................................................................................................................................. 947
Thiessen Polygon Generation Theory ...............................................................................................................................1001
Storage Chambers ......................................................................................................................................................................1002
Hydrogen-Sulfide (H2S) Modeling ..................................................................................................................................... 1007
Special Considerations .............................................................................................................................................................1009
Editing Attributes in the Property Editor ........................................................................................................................................ 1024
Pressure Pipe Attributes .........................................................................................................................................................1025
Conduit Attributes ..................................................................................................................................................................... 1028

Channel Attributes .....................................................................................................................................................................1042


Lateral Attributes ......................................................................................................................................................................1047
Gutter Attributes ........................................................................................................................................................................ 1050
Manhole Attributes ................................................................................................................................................................... 1055
Tap Attributes ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1061
Catch Basin Attributes ............................................................................................................................................................. 1063
Outfall Attributes ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1072
Pond Outlet Structure Attributes ........................................................................................................................................ 1076
Cross Section Attributes ..........................................................................................................................................................1078
Pump Attributes ......................................................................................................................................................................... 1084
Wet Well Attributes .................................................................................................................................................................. 1086
Catchment Attributes ............................................................................................................................................................... 1092
Low Impact Development Control Attributes ............................................................................................................... 1101
Pond Attributes ...........................................................................................................................................................................1105
Transition Attributes ................................................................................................................................................................1110
Pressure Junction Attributes .................................................................................................................................................1113
About Bentley Systems ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1116
Software ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 1117
Bentley Institute Press .............................................................................................................................................................1120
Training ..........................................................................................................................................................................................1120
Reference Tables .........................................................................................................................................................................................1121
Inlet Design Coefficients ......................................................................................................................................................... 1121
Mannings n Coefficients .......................................................................................................................................................... 1130

Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT Edition Help


Getting Started

Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT Edition Help


Getting Started
Thank you for purchasing Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT. At Bentley Systems, we pride ourselves in providing the
very best engineering software available. Our goal is to make software that is easy to install and use, yet so powerful
and intuitive that it anticipates your needs without getting in your way.
When you first use Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT, use the intuitive interface and interactive dialog boxes to guide
you. If you need more information, use the online help by pressing the F1 key or selecting Bentley SewerCAD
CONNECT Help from the Help menu. A help topic describing the area of the program in which you are working
appears.

What is Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT? (on page 6)


Whats New in Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT (on page 6)
Installation, Upgrades, and Updates (on page 7)
Documentation (on page 15)
Contacting Us (on page 16)

What is Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT?


Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT is the first and only fully-dynamic, multi-platform (GIS, CAD, and Stand-Alone)
sanitary and combined sewer modeling solution. With Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT, you will analyze all sanitary
and combined sewer system elements in one package and have the option of performing the analyses with the SWMM
algorithm or our own implicit solution of the full Saint Venant equations.
Simply put, Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT offers the most comprehensive solution available for optimizing Best
Management Practice (BMP) designs and meeting sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) and combined sewer overflow (CSO)
regulations.
With Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT, you can:

Develop system master plans


Assess the impact of inflow and infiltration on SSOs
Develop SSO and CSO remediation programs
Perform system evaluations associated with US EPA CMOM and NPDES
Optimize lift station and system storage capacities
Determine developer connection fees
Implement real-time control strategies
Model relief sewers, overflow diversions, and inverted siphons
Accurately simulate operations with variable-speed pumping and logical controls
Simulate out-of-service or proposed sewers within the same model

Whats New in Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT

Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT Edition Help


Getting Started
The following outline identifies new features and enhancements in this release:

New ribbon user interface


New property connection element
Automated catchment delineation
Energy costing
Improved tables for engineering profiles
Customizable reports
AVI creation from time results
Numerous usability enhancements

Installation, Upgrades, and Updates


For instructions on installing, registering, activating, and updating the software please refer to the Readme.pdf in the
Program Files/Bentley/SewerGEMS V8i directory.

Municipal License Administrator Auto-Configuration


At the conclusion of the installation process, the Municipal License Administrator will be executed, to automatically
detect and set the default configuration for your product, if possible. However, if multiple license configurations are
detected on the license server, you will need to select which one to use by default, each time the product starts. If this is
the case, you will see a Warning screen. Simply press OK to clear the Warning dialog, then press Refresh
Configurations to display the list of available configurations. Select one and press Make Default, then exit the License
Administrator. (You only need to repeat this step if you decide to make a different configuration the default in the
future.)

Software Updates via the Web and Bentley SELECT


Note: Your PC must be connected to the Internet to use the Check for Updates button.
Bentley SELECT is the comprehensive delivery and support subscription program that features product updates and
upgrades via Web downloads, around-the-clock technical support, exclusive licensing options, discounts on training
and consulting services, as well as technical information and support channels. Its easy to stay up-to-date with the
latest advances in our software. Software updates can be downloaded from our Web site, and your version of Bentley
SewerCAD can then be upgraded to the current version quickly and easily. Just click the Check for Updates button on
the toolbar to launch your preferred Web browser and open our Web site. You can also access our Knowledgebase for
answers to your Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs).
For more information, see Technical Support (on page 16).

Troubleshooting
Because of the multitasking capabilities of Windows, you may have applications running in the background that make
it difficult for software setup and installations to determine the configuration of your current system. If you have
difficulties during the installation or uninstallation process, please try these steps before contacting our technical
support staff:
1. Shut down and restart your computer.
2. Verify that there are no other programs running. You can see applications currently in use by pressing Ctrl+Shift
+Esc in Windows XP and Vista. Exit any applications that are running.

Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT Edition Help


Getting Started
3. Disable any antivirus software that you are running.
4. After you install Bentley SewerCAD , make certain that you restart any antivirus software you have disabled.
Failure to restart your antivirus software leaves you exposed to potentially destructive computer viruses.
5. Try running the installation or uninstallation again (without running any other program first).
If these three steps fail to successfully install or uninstall the product, contact our Technical Support staff. For more
information, see Contacting Us (on page 16).

License Check
Contact Bentley Systems if you want product information, to upgrade your software, or need technical support.
Related Topics

Sales (on page 16)


Technical Support (on page 16)
About Bentley Systems (on page 1116)
What is Bentley SewerCAD (on page 6)
Documentation (on page 15)
Contacting Us (on page 16)

CONNECT Services in Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT


The CONNECT Services edition of Bentley software is the overall name given to Bentley software that enables the
user to use Bentley software across numerous environments including desktop, cloud, servers and mobile applications.
Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT will initially remain a desktop application but with CONNECT, opportunities to be
used on other environments is being added. Work flows that have been used with previous editions will still work but in
conjunction with new capabilities.
Starting a model with CONNECT services product opens a CONNECTION client on the user's computer which enables
the user to access services on other Bentley web and cloud servers. The CONNECTION client is the desktop
application that enables the user to access various CONNECT edition features. The CONNECTION client runs in the
background and does not require the user to regularly interact with it.
To sign in to CONNECTION client, the user must enter an email address and password to the dialog below. The sign in
dialog can be opened by clicking on the CONNECTION client shortcut on the desktop. It also opens when the
computer reboots if the user had earlier chosen "Remember me". The status of the CONNECTION client can be viewed
by selecting CONNECTION client from the system Tray.

Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT Edition Help


Getting Started

If the user has not logged into the CONNECTION client, none of the options under Bentley Cloud Services will be
available. If the user does not have internet access, CONNECTION client will not be available. In general, Bentley
Cloud Services refers to the environment fostered by the CONNECT edition, where users can collaborate on projects
using the web and the cloud through the user's Personal Portal.
A user can also see CONNECTION Client status at the rightmost end of Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT's status in the
standalone version. (Other platforms will differ.) If user has not logged in, they will see a "Sign-In" button. Clicking on
it will open CONNECTION Client login dialog where a user can enter credential information to login. If user has
logged in, the
drop-down button gives a user quick access to either open a personal portal of currently logged-in
user or Sign Out.
The user interacts with the CONNECTION client through the user's Personal Portal. The user opens the Personal Portal
by selection Bentley Cloud Services from the main menu in Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT and picking Personal
Portal. Once the user logs into the CONNECTION client, the user has access to a variety of capabilities including
Learning, Cloud Services, Software Downloads, Bentley Communities, License Management and Service Requests
from the Personal Portal. The user can also publish i-models and pdf files from within Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT
and access them on other devices or share them with others using Personal Share. In general, the Personal Portal is the
starting point for Bentley CONNECT features, as opposed to the modeling features in Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT.

Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT Edition Help


Getting Started
In most cases, use of Bentley products is associated with some type of infrastructure project. The user has the ability to
associate model files with specific projects. This is done when a user creates a new hydraulic model file or by picking
Bentley Cloud Services > Associate Project from within Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT. At that time, a dialog opens
which enables the user to associate the project with that hydraulic model as shown below. Projects are usually set up by
project managers by "registering" a project.
When a user first creates or opens a hydraulic model they are notified about CONNECTED Projects with the following
dialog:

This dialog allows the user to determine when they are prompted to assign a CONNECTED project with their hydraulic
model. By default the association dialog will be displayed on creating a new hydraulic model or opening a hydraulic
model without an associated CONNECTED project. However, with this dialog the user can disable the prompt to
associate CONNECTED project by selecting "Never prompt (I will manually make this association later if desired). If
the user also checks "Do not notify me again" then by using both of these options the "Assign Project to Hydraulic
Model" dialog will not be shown when creating or opening any hydraulic model.
If the user leaves the default setting of "Always prompt to make this association" and checks "Do not notify me again"
then every time a user creates hydraulic model or opens a hydraulic model without an associated CONNECTED project
the user will be prompted with the "Assign Project to Hydraulic Model" dialog.
To change the settings for this dialog when "Do not notify me again" is checked go into the Tools->Options dialog and
click the prompts button. Uncheck the item labeled "CONNECTED Project Notification" and click OK. The next time a
hydraulic model is created or opened the aforementioned dialog will be displayed.
The following dialog is displayed if the user selects "Always prompt to make this association."

10

Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT Edition Help


Getting Started

In order to assign a project to a hydraulic model, the user must be signed in to the CONNECTION server. If the user is
not signed in or does not have internet access, the user can still use the hydraulic model independent of CONNECT.
A user can break the association between a project and a hydraulic model by selecting Bentley Cloud Services >
Disassociate Project while the model is open.
For more details on specific CONNECT functions, see the detailed help topics listed below.

CONNECT Integration
Bentley CONNECT is used to connect the people, information, systems, and resources for the projects in your
organization. Bentley SewerCAD integrates with CONNECT so you can associate your file with a CONNECTED
project for tracking application usage to that project.

Get CONNECTED
If you do not already have a CONNECT account, it is fast and free to register. Your Bentley CONNECT account
provides access to:

LEARN Content and personal LEARN Path Management


Application usage tracking across your organization's CONNECTED Projects
Share documents with others across your projects
Access shared documents directly from Bentley's Mobile Apps

Visit www.bentley.com/connect to learn more and register.


Sign in to Bentley's CONNECTION Client on your desktop to sign in. It is typically installed with Bentley
SewerCAD and can be found in the Windows notification area (system tray). Double-click the CONNECTION Client
icon, type your Email and Password, and click Sign In.

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Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT Edition Help


Getting Started

Assign Project dialog


Used to select a project to associate with your current file or model.
Register
Project

Opens the Register a Project page in your browser from where you can register a project.

Refresh

Refreshes the list of available CONNECTED projects.

View

Allows you to choose the list of projects that you want to see in the list box. Following are the options:

Note: Only users with Admin/Co-admin roles can register a project.

Favorites - Displays the projects that are marked as favorites.


Recent - Displays the recently used projects.
All - Displays all the projects.

Search

Searches through the list of available projects.

List box

Displays the following columns:

Favorite - Allows you to favorite a project. Select the star icon in this column for the project that
you want to mark as favorite.
Number - Displays the number of the project.
Name - Displays the name of the project.
Location - Displays the geographic location of the project.
Industry - Displays the industry of the project.
Asset Type - Displays the asset type of the project.

To Associate a CONNECTED Project with Your File


When you create a new file or open an existing file which is not associated with a project, use the following procedure
to associate your file with a CONNECTED project.
Note: You must be signed in using the CONNECTION client to associate a CONNECTED project with your file.
Tip: If you want to change the CONNECTED project associated with your file, use the same following procedure.
1. The Assign Project dialog opens.

12

Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT Edition Help


Getting Started

2. (Optional) If you want to register a new project, do the following:


a. Click Register Project.
The Register a Project page opens in your browser.
Note: Only users with Admin/Co-admin roles can register a project.
b. Type or select the required items (marked with an asterisk, *)
c. Click Save.
A list of registered projects within your organization opens. The newly created project is highlighted in green.
Tip: Alternately, you can visit connect.bentley.com and select +New on the Recent Projects tile on your
personal dashboard.
3. Select the desired project from the list.
Tip: Use the View controls and Search tool to locate your project.
4. Click Associate.

To Disassociate a CONNECTED Project from a File


When you need to disassociate a file from a CONNECTED project, use the following procedure.
Tip: If you want to change the CONNECTED project association to another CONNECTED project, this procedure is
not necessary.
1. The project association is removed from the file.

13

Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT Edition Help


Getting Started

To Register a CONNECTED Project


The Project Registration utility is used to provide information about a project as well as manage previously registered
projects.
Note: Only users with Admin/Co-admin roles can register a project.
1. Click Register Project.
The Register a Project page opens in your browser.
2. Type or select the required items (marked with an asterisk, *):
Number

Project ID officially used in Organization for tracking project internally (e.g., EAP id, like
DMO-063 VP 778).

Name

Common name for project within an Organization (e.g. I-565 Interchange at County Line Road).

Asset industry An Industry is a group of like organizations with a common business function centered on a like
set of infrastructure assets. Example, Electric Utility.
Asset type

An Asset Type is a set of related Assets. Example, the Asset Class Electric Network is comprised
of the following Assets: Distribution Network, Substation, and Transmission Network.

Location

Geographic location of the Project (Example, city/state/country, Latitude/longitude)

Status

Project state, either Active meaning the project is open for participation or inactive, closed for
participation.

3. Click Save.
A list of registered projects within your organization opens. The newly created project is highlighted in green.

Register a CONNECTED Project


Note: This task assumes that your organization is already registered with Bentley and that you have already
created a Bentley Cloud Services profile for yourself.
Note: To register a CONNECTED project you must have Administrator or Co-administrator privileges associated
with your Bentley Cloud Services profile.
1. On your Personal Portal home page, under Recent projects, click New.
2. Fill out the form as needed:
Number

Project ID officially used in Organization for tracking project internally (e.g., EAP id, like
DMO-063 VP 778).

Name

Common name for project within an Organization (e.g. I-565 Interchange at County Line Road).

Asset industry An Industry is a group of like organizations with a common business function centered on a like
set of infrastructure assets. Example, Electric Utility.
Asset type

An Asset Type is a set of related Assets. Example, the Asset Class Electric Network is comprised
of the following Assets: Distribution Network, Substation, and Transmission Network.

Location

Geographic location of the Project (Example, city/state/country, Latitude/longitude)

14

Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT Edition Help


Getting Started
Status

Project state, either Active meaning the project is open for participation or inactive, closed for
participation.

3. Click Save.

Documentation
Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT documentation comes in three parts:

Online help: The online help is accessible from the Help menu or by pressing F1. Additionally, when you are using
Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT, you can call the online help at any time by clicking a help button in any dialog box
or window. The context-sensitive online help is designed to make it easy for you to quickly find specific
information about a feature you are using in Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT. The online help makes extensive use
of hyperlinks and provides a table of contents, index, and keyword search to help you locate the information you
need.
Online PDF Book: The content in the online help is also available in .pdf format and is available at
docs.bentley.com. This pdf contains the same content as the online help, but includes hypertext and is designed to
be printed by you from a local printing device. As well as being more easily printable than the online help, the
online book also uses hypertext and is searchable.

Note: On-screen display of graphics in .pdf files is dependent on the zoom level you use. For more optimal
viewing of graphics in Adobe Acrobat Reader, try using 167% and 208% zoom.
Related Topics

What is Bentley SewerGEMS V8i (on page 6)


Contacting Us (on page 16)
About Bentley Systems (on page 1116)

Be Communities Search Button


The Be Communities search button allows you to access wikis and forum posts that provide extensive information
about the related program feature and expands upon the online help.
The following dialogs and features offer Be Communities Search functionality:

ModelBuilder Connections Manager


Scenarios Manager
ArcGIS Integration
Default Design Constraints

RSS Feeds
The RSS Feeds dialog displays a continuously updated, customizable, and searchable selection of wiki entries and Be
Communities forum posts.
Search for keywords using the search bar along the top of the dialog.
Sort and filter the displayed content by category using the Filter button at the top of the dialog.

15

Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT Edition Help


Getting Started
Select the product(s) that you want to see in the RSS feed using the RSS Settings button at the top right of the dialog.
Select the product feeds you are interested in and click the Apply button.

Contacting Us
Contact Bentley Systems if you want product information, to upgrade your software, or need technical support.
Related Topics

Sales (on page 16)


Technical Support (on page 16)
What is Bentley SewerGEMS V8i? (on page 6)
Documentation (on page 15)
Contacting Us (on page 16)
About Bentley Systems (on page 1116)

Sales
Bentley Systems professional staff is ready to answer your questions. Contact your account manager or use any of the
methods below for any questions regarding Bentley Systems latest products and prices.

Toll-free U.S. Phone1-800-BENTLEY


Worldwide Phone+1-203-755-1666
Email sales@bentley.com
Internet http://www.bentley.com/en-US/Products

Technical Support
We hope that everything runs smoothly and you never have a need for our technical support staff. However, if you do
need support, our highly-skilled staff offers their services seven days a week, and may be contacted by phone, chat, and
the Internet.
For information on the various levels of support that we offer, contact our sales team today and request information on
our Bentley SELECT program, or visit our Web site.
You can contact our technical support team at: http://selectservices.bentley.com where the following options are
available:
Service Ticket Manager: Open a new service ticket or monitor the status of your own or your entire company's service
tickets. You can review work notes added to the incident by our staff, or update the incident yourself for our input. A
variety of search tools are also available that can let you narrow in on a specific solution that was answered in the past.
Live Chat: Provides Bentley SELECT subscribers access to technical support personnel through the use of Internet
chat. Hours for Live Chat are 24 hours a day, Sundays at 6 p.m. through Fridays at 5 p.m. Eastern Time (EST/EDT).
Phone: Call a local technical support analyst via the toll-free number for your region.
When calling for support, in order to assist our technicians in troubleshooting your problem, please be in front of your
computer and have the following information available:

Your computer's operating system.


Name and build number of the Bentley Systems, Inc. software you are calling about. The build number can be
determined by clicking Help > About Bentley SewerGEMS V8i. The build number is the number in brackets
located in the lower-left corner of the dialog box that opens.

16

Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT Edition Help


Introducing the Workspace

A note of exactly what you were doing when you encountered the problem.
Any error messages or other information displayed on your screen.

When contacting support, please provide the following details, in addition to the above, to enable us to provide a more
timely and accurate response:

Company name, address, and phone number


A detailed explanation of your concerns
If you are submitting a service ticket, the Bentley SewerGEMS V8i.log files located in the product directory (e.g.,
C:\Documents and Settings\<User Name>\Local Settings\Application Data\Bentley\CivilStorm\8)

Note: When sending files, it is best to zip the model files and not include any model output files such as .out
or .rpc.

Introducing the Workspace


Click one of the following links to learn more about the workspace:

Workspace
You use Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT in one of these modes:

Stand-Alone Editor (on page 17)


MicroStation Mode (on page 21)
ArcGIS Mode (on page 21)
AutoCAD Mode (on page 21)

Stand-Alone Editor
The Stand-Alone Editor is the workspace that contains the various managers, toolbars, and menus, along with the
drawing pane, that make up the Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT interface. The Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT
interface uses dockable windows and toolbars, so the position of the various interface elements can be manually
adjusted to suit your preference.
By default, the Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT environment looks like this:

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Drawing View Toolbar


The Zoom toolbar provides access to the zooming and panning tools.

The zoom toolbar is available, by default, in the top-left corner of the drawing view. Each open hydraulic model
drawing will have its own zoom toolbar available for use with that hydraulic model. You can also hide the zoom
toolbar by going to the View tab and clicking on the Zoom and View Settings button (

).

In the menu that appears, uncheck the item labeled "Show "Zoom" toolbar in the drawing view" to hide the zoom
toolbar. This will hide the toolbar for all open hydraulic models.

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To:

Use:

Change the current scenario.

Scenario List Box

Open scenario manager.

The scenarios button to the


right of the scenario list box.

Select elements in the drawing. This is the default tool and becomes active when most
Select Tool
interactions are completed.
Set the view so that the entire model is visible in the drawing pane. Zoom extents is
the default behavior for the toolbar button.

Zoom Extents - either the


toolbar button or the menu
item in the drop-down menu.

Open the Zoom Center dialog box where you can set X and Y coordinates and then
percentage of Zoom.

Use the Zoom Center menu


item.

Activate the manual zoom tool, where you can specify a portion of the drawing to
enlarge. Only visible if zoom window is the default command for the zoom window/
zoom in button in the ribbon (on the View tab).

Zoom Window

Magnify the current view in the drawing pane. Only visible if zoom in is the default
command for the zoom window/zoom in button in the ribbon (on the View tab).

Zoom In

Reduce the current view in the drawing pane.

Zoom Out

Enable the real-time zoom tool, which allows you to zoom in and out by moving the
mouse while the left mouse button is depressed.

Zoom Real-time

Enable you to zoom to specific elements in the drawing. You must select the elements
Zoom Selection
to zoom to before you select the tool.

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To:

Use:

Return the zoom level to the most recent previous setting. If there is no available
previous zoom level, the menu item will be disabled. The button is always enabled in
case Zoom Next is available. Zoom previous is the default behavior for the toolbar
button. If the drawing cannot be zoom previous, nothing will happen.

Zoom Previous

Reset the zoom level to the setting that was active before a Zoom Previous command Zoom Next
was executed. If there is no available next zoom level, the menu item will be disabled.

Activate the Pan tool, which allows you to move the model within the drawing pane.
When you select this command, the cursor changes to a hand, indicating that you can
click and hold the left mouse button and move the mouse to move the drawing.

Pan

MicroStation Mode
MicroStation mode lets you create and model your network directly within your primary drafting environment. This
gives you access to all of MicroStations drafting and presentation tools, while still enabling you to perform Bentley
SewerCAD CONNECT modeling tasks like editing, solving, and data management. This relationship between Bentley
SewerCAD CONNECT and MicroStation enables extremely detailed and accurate mapping of model features, and
provides the full array of output and presentation features available in MicroStation. This facility provides the most
flexibility and the highest degree of compatibility with other CAD-based applications and drawing data maintained at
your organization.
Note: For more information about runnning Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT in MicroStation mode, see
MicroStation Environment (on page 832).

ArcGIS Mode
ArcGIS mode lets you create and model your network directly in ArcMap. Each mode provides access to differing
functionalitycertain capabilities that are available within ArcGIS mode may not be available when working in the
Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT Stand-alone Editor. All the functionality available in the Stand-alone Editor are,
however, available in ArcGIS mode.
Note: For more information about running Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT in ArcGIS mode, see Working in ArcGIS
Mode.

AutoCAD Mode
AutoCAD mode lets you create and model your network directly within your primary drafting environment. This gives
you access to all of AutoCAD's drafting and presentation tools, while still enabling you to perform Bentley SewerCAD
CONNECT modeling tasks like editing, solving, and data management. This relationship between Bentley SewerCAD
CONNECT and AutoCAD enables extremely detailed and accurate mapping of model features, and provides the full

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array of output and presentation features available in AutoCAD. This facility provides the most flexibility and the
highest degree of compatibility with other CAD-based applications and drawing data maintained at your organization.
Note: For more information about running Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT in AutoCAD mode, see the Working In
AutoCAD Mode topic.

Ribbon Interface - Getting Started


With the CONNECT edition release of Bentley SewerCAD , Bentley has upgraded to a ribbon-type interface. This
upgrade keeps users consistent with other software, such as Microsoft Office, which has used a ribbon for some time.
The Help below explains the layout of the ribbon. You are also encouraged to experiment with the ribbon and use the
search function on the top right to find items.
Upon opening Bentley SewerCAD , you will see an interface as shown. It will be open to the Home tab in the ribbon.

The most commonly used buttons are large with a text description; less commonly used button are smaller and less
commonly used are buttons only. Some have a drop down option to reach more choices. For example, the Compute
button has the following sub-options, which you can reach by picking the small arrow under Compute instead of the
large green and white arrow which would run a scenario.

Note: The wider the screen, the more buttons and text that appears. As the screen gets narrower for some tabs,
buttons may disappear. Making the Bentley SewerCAD window as large as possible ensures that all buttons are
visible.
The Select button is important for getting back to the ribbon and can be found on the Home, Analysis and Layout tabs
and alongside of the Zoom buttons.
The File tab opens a special list of features that are typical of most windows programs. This is referred to in some
places as the "backstage". Here you will find such common functions such as New, Open, Save and Help.

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At the top of the program window, you will find the Quick Access Toolbar. This toolbar contain access to common
functions such as New, Open and Save but you can use the drop down menu at the end of the toolbar to customize the
buttons, or locate the Quick Access Toolbar.

If you have trouble locating a function used in an earlier version of the program, type the name of the button in the
Search box at the top right corner and the location of the function in the ribbon will be identified.
The ribbon can be minimized by picking the arrow at the upper right of the ribbon. It can return to full size by picking it
again. Selecting the ALT key displays keyboard shortcuts to each selection.

The current scenario is displayed at the top of the drawing pane, just below the ribbon. Next to it are some other
commonly used commands such as scenario manager, zoom and pan.

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The behaviors of the other tabs are presented below:


Layout Tab
The Layout tab contains buttons for placing model elements and is similar to the vertical layout toolbar from previous
versions.

Analysis Tab
The Analysis tab contains the buttons for setting up and running models.

Components Tab
The Components tab provides you with a way to edit components such as storm data and pump definitions.

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View Tab
The View tab gives you access to all of the displays such as graphs, profiles, element symbology and zooming.

Tools Tab
The Tools tab gives you access to more of the advanced tools such as ModelBuilder, Hyperlinks, and PondMaker.

The general options which were available under Tools > Options are now available from the small arrow to the right of
the word Tools.

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Report Tab
The Report tab provides a quick way to open element flex tables and produce custom reports.

Bentley Cloud Services Tab


The Bentley Cloud Services tab provides a way for you to associate a model file with a Bentley project or open your
Personal Portal.

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Menus and Toolbars (MicroStation and ArcGIS Only)


The following topics and subtopics describe the menus and toolbars available in the MicroStation and ArcGIS
interfaces. For the Stand-Alone version, see Ribbon Interface - Getting Started (on page 22).

Menus
Menus are located at the top of Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT stand-alone editor window and provide access to
program commands, which are broken down by type of functionality.
The following menus are available:

File Menu (on page 27)


Edit Menu
Analysis Menu (on page 30)
Components Menu
View Menu
Tools Menu (on page 36)
Report Menu
Help Menu

File Menu
The File menu contains the following commands:
New

Creates a new project. When you select this command, a


new untitled project is created.

Open

Opens an existing project. When you select this


command, the Open dialog box appears, allowing you to
browse to the project to be opened.

Close

Closes the current project without exiting the program.

Close All

Closes all currently open projects.

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Save

Saves the current project.

Save As

Saves the current project under a new project name and/or


to a different directory location.

Save All

Saves all currently open projects.

Update Server Copy

Updates the ProjectWise server copy of the current


project.

Import

Opens a submenu containing the following commands:


SWMM v5 Opens a Windows Browse dialog box,
allowing you to choose the SWMM v5 file to import.
LandXML Lets you import a LandXML file.
SewerGEMS Database Lets you import a SewerGEMS
V8 project database file. Submodels Lets you import a
submodel. Bentley Wastewater Lets you import a
model .mdb and geometry data file (.dat) that was
previously exported from Bentley Wastewater
application. InRoads Lets you import InRoads drainage
database files. MX DrainageLets you import MX
Drainage database files.

Export

Opens a submenu containing the following commands:


DXF Lets you export the current network layout as a
DXF drawing. Submodels Lets you export the currently
selected portion of the model as a submodel. SWMM v5
Lets you export the current project to SWMM format.
LandXML Lets you export the current project to
LandXML format. InRoads Lets you export the current
project to InRoads format. Publish i-model Lets you
publish the current project as an i-model. Publish Map
Mobile i-modelOpens the Publish to Map Mobile imodel dialog. Export to ExcelOpens the Export to
Excel dialog.

Seed

Seed files allow you to save project settings and data as a


template (the seed file has an .cds extension). You can
then reuse these settings/data while creating new projects
using the data from the previously saved seed file.
Selecting the Seed command opens a submenu containing
the following commands: New from Seed: Allows you to
create a new project using the previously saved seed file
you specify. Save to Seed: Saves the current project
settings and data as a seed file for reuse in future projects.
See Using Seed Files for more information.

Page Setup

Defines the print settings that will be used when the


current view is printed.

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Print Preview

Opens a submenu containing the following commands:


Fit to Page - The view will be zoomed in or out so that the
current view fits to a single page of the default page size.
Scaled - The view will be scaled so that it matches the
user-defined drawing scale (this is defined on the
Drawing Tab of the Options dialog: Tools > Options).

Print

Prints the current view.

Hydraulic Model Properties

Opens the Hydraulic Model Properties dialog.

Recent Files

When the Recent Files Visible option is selected in the


Options dialog box, the most recently opened files will
appear in the File menu. See Options Dialog Box Global Tab (on page 60) for more information.

Exit

Closes the program.

Using Seed Files


When a seed file is created from a model file, it contains all of the information from the mdb and csd file. Therefore, if
you want to use the seed file to only save items such as color coding, project options, graph settings, etc., based on an
existing model but not the actual elements, you should remove all elements from the existing model, save it under a
new name, and make that the basis for a seed file. Otherwise the new model file created from the seed file will just be a
copy of the prior model file.

Edit Menu
The Edit menu contains the following commands:
Undo

Cancels the last data input action on the currently active


dialog box. Clicking Undo again cancels the second-tolast data input action, and so on.

Redo

Cancels the last undo command.

Delete

Deletes the currently highlighted element.

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Select By Polygon

Lets you select elements in your model by drawing a


polygon in the drawing pane. Click in the drawing pane to
draw each side of the polygon. After the polygon has been
drawn, right-click to select from the following options: As
Selected - All elements contained within the polygon will
be selected. Elements that were selected before the Select
By Polygon opperation will be de-selected. Add to
Selection - All elements contained within the polygon
will be selected in addition to any elements that were
selected before the Select By Polygon operation were
performed. Invert Selection - All elements contained
within the polygon that were selected before the operation
will be de-selected; all elements contained within the
polygon that were not selected before the operation will
be selected Remove From Selection - All elements
contained within the polygon that were selected before the
operation will be de-selected.

Select All

Selects all of the elements in the network.

Invert Selection

Selects all currently unselected elements and deselects all


currently selected ones.

Select by Element

Opens a submenu listing all available element types.


Select one of the element types from the submenu to
select all elements of that type in the model. Note that less
commonly used element types can be found under the
Other -... submenu.

Select by Attribute

Opens a menu listing all available attribute types. Select


one of the attribute types from the menu and the Query
Builder dialog box opens. Note that less commonly used
element types can be found under the Other -...
submenu.

Clear Selection

Deselects the currently selected element(s).

Clear Highlight

Removes Network Navigator highlighting for all


elements.

Find Element

Lets you find a specific element by entering the elements


label.

Analysis Menu
The Analysis menu contains the following commands:
Compute Center

Opens the Compute Center, which enables you to quickly


select the most commonly used options to set up a run.

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Scenarios

Opens the Scenario Manager, which lets you create, view,


and manage project scenarios.

Alternatives

Opens the Alternatives Manager, which lets you create,


view, and manage alternatives.

Calculation Options

Opens the Calculation Options Manager, which lets you


create, view, and manage calculation settings for the
project.

Statistics

Opens the Statistics Manager, which allows you to


perform statistical analysis.

Time Browser

Opens the Time Browser dialog box, which lets you


manipulate the currently displayed time step and to
animate the drawing pane.

Totalizing Flow Meter

Opens the Totalizing Flow Meters manager, allowing you


to create and view totalizing flow meters.

Calculation Summary

Opens the calculation summary report, which reports the


details of the calculations performed on your model.

User Notifications

Opens the User Notifications Manager, allowing you to


view warnings and errors uncovered by the validation
process.

Validate

Runs a diagnostic check on the network data to alert you


to possible problems that may be encountered during
calculation. This is the manual validation command, and
it checks for input data errors. It differs in this respect
from the automatic validation that Bentley SewerCAD
runs when the compute command is initiated, which
checks for network connectivity errors as well as many
other things beyond what the manual validation checks.
Pressing CTRL+F7 also selects this command.

Compute Hydrology

Lets you perform the hydrologic calculations for the


current scenario. Pressing CTRL+F8 also selects this
command.

Compute

Calculates the network. Before calculating, an automatic


validation routine is triggered, which checks the model
for network connectivity errors and performs other
validation. For more information, see Calculating Your
Model-529. Pressing F9 also selects this command.

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Always Compute Hydrology

Lets you turn hydrology calculations on and off whenever


the model is calculated. Turning hydrology computation
off improves performance and is recommended when the
hydrology input will not change.

Components Menu
The Components menu contains the following commands:
Storm Data

Opens the Storm Data dialog box, which lets you create,
edit, and delete storm data. These storms are available for
you to select for a catchment. For more information, see
Adding Storm Data-461.

Global Storm Events

Opens the Global Storm Events Settings dialog box,


which lets you define project-wide global storm data data.
For more information, see Adding Global Storm
Data-487.

Dimensionless Unit Hydrographs

Opens the Dimensionless Unit Hydrographs dialog box,


Which lets you create, edit, and delete dimensionless unit
hydrographs.

SWMM RTK Unit Hydrographs

Opens the SWMM RTK Unit Hydrographs manager,


allowing you to create, edit, and define RTK unit
hydrographs.

RTK Tables

Opens the RTK Tables dialog box, which lets you create
wet weather flow hydrographs using the RTK method.
For more information, see Adding Hydrographs Based
On the RTK Method-503.

Low Impact Development Controls

Opens the Low Impact Development Controls


Manager-365 where you can create, edit, and manage the
LID controls in the model.

Default Design Contraints

Opens the Default Design Constraints-440 manager,


where you can edit the design contraints for automated
design runs.

Inlet Catalog

Opens the Inlet Catalog dialog box, which lets you create,
edit, and view catalog inlets. Catalog inlets are an
efficient way to reuse common physical inlet definitions.
For more information, see Inlet Catalog Dialog
Box-297.

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Gutter Catalog

Opens the Gutter Catalog dialog box, which lets you


create, edit, and view catalog gutters. Catalog gutters are
an efficient way to reuse common physical gutter
definitions. For more information, see Gutter Catalog
Dialog Box-303.

Conduit Catalog

Opens the Conduit Catalog dialog box, which lets you


create, edit, and view catalog conduits. Catalog conduits
are an efficient way to reuse common physical conduit
definitions. For more information, see Conduit Catalog
Dialog Box-307.

Pump Definitions

Opens the Pump Definitions dialog box, which lets you


view, edit, and create Pump Definitions.

Composite Outlet Structures

Opens the Composite Outlet Structures manager, allowing


you to define composite outlet structures.

Conduit Control Structures

Opens the Conduit Control Structures manager.

Weir Depth Coefficient Table

Opens the Weir Depth Coefficient table manager.

Weir Submergence Table

Opens the Weir Submergence Table manager.

Vortex Valves

Opens the Vortex valves manager.

SWMM Extensions

Opens a submenu containing the following SWMMspecific commands: Climatology Opens the
Climatology dialog box, allowing you to view and edit
climatology data for use in SWMM calculations. Snow
Pack Opens the Snow Pack dialog box, allowing you to
view and edit snow pack data for use in SWMM
calculations. Aquifers Opens the Aquifers dialog box,
allowing you to view and edit aquifer data for use in
SWMM calculations. Control Sets Opens the Control
Sets dialog box, allowing you to view, edit, and create
control sets for use in SWMM calculations. Pollutants
Opens the Pollutants dialog box, allowing you to view
and edit pollutant data for use in SWMM calculations.
Pollutographs Opens the Pollutograph dialog box,
allowing you to view and edit pollutograph data for use in
SWMM calculations. Land Uses Opens the Land Use
dialog box, allowing you to view and edit land use data
for use in SWMM calculations. For more information, see
Using the SWMM Solver-320.

Unit Sanitary (Dry Weather) Loads

Opens the Unit Sanitary (Dry Weather) Loads dialog box,


which lets you create, edit, and delete unit sanitary loads.
For more information, see Adding Unit Sanitary (Dry
Weather) Loads-429.

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Patterns

Opens the Pattern Manager where you can create and edit
diurnal loading patterns for use with extended period
simulations. For more information, see Defining
Patterns-417.

Pattern Setups

Opens the Pattern Setup Manager where you can associate


diurnal patterns with the appropriate unit sanitary loads
for a given scenario. For more information, see Defining
Pattern Setups-421.

Patterns

Opens the Patterns manager, allowing you to create, edit,


and manage the patterns associated with the project.

Time Series Field Data

Opens the Time Series Field Data dialog, which allows


you to define time series field data for the elements in the
model.

Engineering Libraries

Opens the Engineering Libraries Manager.

View Menu
The View menu contains the following commands:
Element Symbology

Opens the Element Symbology Manager, which lets you


create, view, and manage annotation and color-coding in
your project.

Background Layers

Opens the Background Layers Manager, which lets you


create, view, and manage the background layers
associated with the project.

Network Navigator

Opens the Network Navigator.

Selection Sets

Opens the Selection Sets Manager, which lets you create,


view, and manage selection sets associated with the
project.

Queries

Opens the Query Manager, which lets you create SQL


expressions for use with selection sets and FlexTables.
For more information, see Using Queries-376.

Prototypes

Opens the Prototypes Manager, which lets you enter


default values for elements in your model. Prototypes can
reduce data entry requirements dramatically if a group of
network elements share common data. For more
information, see Using Prototypes-285.

FlexTables

Opens the FlexTables Manager, which lets you create,


view, and manage the tabular reports for the project.

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Graphs

Opens the Graph Manager, which lets you create, view,


and manage graphs for the project.

Profiles

Opens the Profile Manager, which lets you create, view,


and manage the profiles for the project.

Contours

Opens the Contours manager where you can create and


edit contour definitions.

Named Views

Opens the Named Views manager where you can create,


edit, and use Named Views.

Aerial View

Opens the Aerial View navigation window.

Properties

Turns the Properties Editor display on or off.

Property Grid Customizations

Opens the Customizations Manager.

Auto-Refresh

Turns automatic updates to the main window view on or


off whenever changes are made to the {{Bentley
CivilStorm V8i}} datastore. When selected, a check mark
appears next to this menu command, indicating that
automatic updates are turned on.

Refresh Drawing

Updates the main window view according to the latest


information contained in the {{Bentley CivilStorm V8i}}
datastore.

Zoom

Opens a submenu containing the following commands:


Zoom Extents Sets the view so that the entire network
is visible in the drawing pane. Zoom Window Activates
the manual zoom tool, which lets you specify a portion of
the drawing to enlarge. Zoom In Enlarges the size of
the model in the drawing pane. Zoom Out Reduces the
size of the model in the drawing pane. Zoom Realtime
Enables the realtime zoom tool, which lets you zoom in
and out by moving the mouse while holding down the left
mouse button. Zoom Center Opens the Zoom Center
dialog box, which lets you enter drawing coordinates that
will be centered in the drawing pane. Zoom to Selection
Enables you to zoom to specific elements in the
drawing. You must select the elements to zoom to before
you select the tool. Zoom Previous Resets the zoom
level to the last setting. Zoom Next Resets the zoom
level to the setting that was active before a Zoom
Previous command was executed.

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Pan

Activates the Pan tool, which lets you move the model
within the drawing pane. When you select this command,
the cursor changes to a hand, indicating that you can click
and hold the left mouse button and move the mouse to
move the drawing.

Toolbars

Opens a submenu that lists each of the available toolbars.


Select one of the toolbars in the submenu to turn that
toolbar on or off. For more information, see
Toolbars-31.

Reset Workspace

Resets the {{Bentley CivilStorm V8i}} workspace so that


the dockable managers appear in their default factory-set
positions.

Tools Menu
The Tools menu contains the following commands:
Active Topology Selection

Opens a Select dialog to select elements in the drawing to


make them Inactive or Active.

Thiessen Polygon

Opens the Thiessen Polygon Creator, which allows you to


quickly create polygon layers for use with the
LoadBuilder demand allocation module.

LoadBuilder

Opens the LoadBuilder manager where you can assign


demands to model nodes using data from outside sources.

Hyperlinks

Lets you associate external files, such as pictures or


movie files, with elements. For more information, see
Adding Hyperlinks to Elements (on page 349).

ModelBuilder

Opens the ModelBuilder Connections Manager, which


lets you create, edit, and manage ModelBuilder
connections to be used in the model-building/modelsynchronizing process. For more information, see
ModelBuilder Connections Manager (on page 119).

TRex

Opens the TRex Wizard, which steps you through the


process of automatically assigning elevations to specified
nodes based on data from a Digital Elevation Model or a
Digital Terrain Model.

User Data Extensions

Opens the User Data Extension dialog box, which lets


you add and define custom data fields. For example, you
can add new fields such as the pipe installation date. For
more information, see User Data Extensions (on page
371).

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Hydraulic Reviewer

Opens the Hydraulic Reviewer tool, which allows you to


quickly assess the convergence and stability of the model.

Element Property Inferencing

Opens the Element Property Inferencing tool, which lets


you tell Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT how to draw
"inferences" about missing values from the property
values of nearby elements

Inflow Control Center

Opens the Inflow Control Center, allowing you to create,


edit, and delete sanitary inflow definitions.

Sanitary Load Control Center

Opens the Sanitary Load Control Center, allowing you to


create, edit, and delete sanitary load definitions.

Scenario Comparison

The scenario comparison tool enables you to compare


input values between any two scenarios to identify
differences quickly.

Batch Pipe Split

Opens the Batch Pipe Split dialog.

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Database Utilities

Opens a submenu containing the following commands:


Compact Database When you delete data from a
Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT project, such as elements
or alternatives, the database store that Bentley SewerCAD
CONNECT uses can become fragmented, causing
unnecessarily large data files, which impact performance
substantially. Compacting the database eliminates the
empty data records, thereby defragmenting the datastore
and improving the performance of the file.
Note: Every tenth time a file is saved, Bentley
SewerCAD CONNECT will automatically prompt you
to compact the database. If you open a file without
saving it, the count does not go up. If you open and
save a file multiple times in the same session, the
count only goes up on the first save. If you open, save,
and close the file, the count goes up. Click Yes to
compact the database, or no to close the prompt
dialog box without compacting. Since compacting the
database can take time, especially for larger models,
you may want to postpone the compact procedure
until a later time. You can modify how Bentley
SewerCAD CONNECT compacts the database in the
Options dialog box. For more information, see Options
Dialog Box - Global Tab (on page 60).
Synchronize Drawing Synchronizes the current model
drawing with the project database. Update Database
Cache Ensures consistency between the database and
the model by recalculating and updating certain cached
information. Normally this operation is not required to be
used. Update Results From Project Directory This
command copies the model result files (if any) from the
project directory (the directory where the project .mdb file
is saved) to the custom result file directory. The custom
result directory is specified in Tools>Options>Project tab.
This allows you to make a copy of the results that may
exist in the model's save directory and replace the current
results being worked on with them. Copy Results to
Project Directory This command copies the result files
that are currently being used by the model to the project
directory (where the project .mdb is stored). Update
Conduit DescriptionsUpdate the conduit descriptions.

Layout

Opens a submenu that lists each of the available element


types. Select one of the element types in the submenu to
place that element in your model. Note that less
commonly used element types can be found under the
Other -... submenu.

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External Tools

Run an existing external tool or create a new one by


opening up the External Tools manager.

Options

Opens the Options dialog box, which lets you change


global settings such as display pane settings, drawing
scale, units, display precision and format used, and
element labeling.

Report Menu
The Report menu contains the following commands:
Element Tables

Opens a submenu that lets you display FlexTables for any


link or node element. These predefined FlexTables
contain most of the input data and results for each
instance of the selected element in the model.

Scenario Summary

Opens the Scenario Summary Report.

Project Inventory

Opens the Project Inventory Report, which contains the


number of each of the various element types that are in
the network.

Report Options

Opens the Report Options box where you can set Headers
and Footers for the predefined reports.

Help Menu
Toolbars provide access to frequently used menu commands and are organized by the type of functionality offered.
Many of the toolbars have additional buttons available that are not displayed by default. You can display these
additional buttons by following the procedure in Adding and Removing Toolbar Buttons-47.
The following toolbars are available:

Standard Toolbar-32
Edit Toolbar-33
Components Toolbar-33
Scenarios Toolbar-36
Analysis Toolbar-36
Compute Toolbar-36
View Toolbar-38
Help Toolbar-39
Layout Toolbar-40
Zoom Toolbar-43
Report Toolbar-44
Tools Toolbar-44
Select Toolbar-45

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Click on the following links to learn how to customize the toolbars:

Adding and Removing Toolbar Buttons-47


Controlling Toolbars-48

Toolbars
Toolbars provide access to frequently used menu commands and are organized by the type of functionality offered.
Many of the toolbars have additional buttons available that are not displayed by default. You can display these
additional buttons by following the procedure in Adding and Removing Toolbar Buttons .
The following toolbars are available:

Standard Toolbar (on page 40)


Edit Toolbar (on page 41)
Components Toolbar (on page 41)
Scenarios Toolbar (on page 44)
Analysis Toolbar (on page 44)
Compute Toolbar (on page 45)
View Toolbar (on page 46)
Help Toolbar (on page 47)
Layout Toolbar
Zoom Toolbar (on page 50)
Report Toolbar (on page 51)
Tools Toolbar (on page 51)
Select Toolbar (on page 52)

Click on the following links to learn how to customize the toolbars:

Adding and Removing Toolbar Buttons


Controlling Toolbars

Standard Toolbar
The Standard toolbar contains the following buttons:
New

Creates a new Bentley SewerCAD


CONNECT project. When you select
this command, the Select File to
Create dialog box appears, allowing
you to define a name and directory
location for the new project.

Open

Opens an existing Bentley


SewerCAD CONNECT project.
When this command is initialized, the
Select Bentley SewerCAD
CONNECT Project to Open dialog
box appears, allowing you to browse
to the project to be opened.

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Save

Saves the current project.

Print Preview

Opens the Print Preview window,


displaying the current view exactly as
it will be printed.

Print

Prints the current view of the network


as displayed in the drawing pane.

Edit Toolbar
The Edit toolbar contains the following buttons:
Undo

Cancels your most recent action.

Redo

Lets you redo the last cancelled


action.

Find Element

Lets you find a specific element by


choosing it from a menu containing
all elements in the current model.

Components Toolbar
The Components toolbar contains the following buttons:
Controls

Opens the Controls dialog box, which


lets you create, edit, and delete
controls.

Storm Data

Opens the Storm Data dialog box,


which lets you create, edit, and delete
storm data.

Global Storm Data

Opens the Global Storm Data Settings


dialog box, which lets you define
project-wide global storm data data.

Dimensionless Unit Hydrographs

Opens the Dimensionless Unit


Hydrographs dialog box, Which lets
you create, edit, and delete
dimensionless unit hydrographs.

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SWMM RTK Unit Hydrographs

Opens the SWMM RTK Unit


Hydrographs manager, allowing you
to create, edit, and define RTK unit
hydrographs.

RTK Tables

Opens the RTK Tables dialog box,


which lets you create wet weather
flow hydrographs using the RTK
method.

Low Impact Development Controls

Opens the Low Impact Development


Controls dialog, allowing you to
create, edit, and manage the LID
controls for the project.

Default Design Constraints

Opens the Default Design Constraints


dialog, allowing you to specify the
design constraints for automated
design runs.

Inlet Catalog

Opens the Inlet Catalog dialog box,


which lets you create, edit, and view
catalog inlets.

Conduit Catalog

Opens the Conduit Catalog dialog


box, which lets you create, edit, and
view catalog conduits. Catalog
conduits are an efficient way to reuse
common physical conduit definitions.

Gutter Catalog

Opens the Gutter Catalog dialog box,


which lets you create, edit, and view
catalog gutters. Catalog gutters are an
efficient way to reuse common
physical gutter definitions.

Extreme Flows

Opens the Extreme Flows dialog box,


which lets you view, edit, and create
extreme flows.

Extreme Flow Setups

Opens the Extreme Flows Setups


dialog box, which lets you view, edit,
and create extreme flow setups.

Pump Definitions

Opens the Pump Definitions dialog


box, which lets you view, edit, and
create Pump Definitions.

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Composite Outlet Structures

Opens the Composite Outlet


Structures manager, allowing you to
define composite outlet structures.

Conduit Control Structures

Opens the Conduit Control Structures


manager.

Flow-Headloss Curves

Opens the Flow-Headloss Curves


manager, allowing you to define flow
headloss curves.

Minor Loss Coefficients

Opens the Minor Loss Coefficients


manager, allowing you to define
minor loss coefficients.

Weir Depth Coefficient Table

Opens the Weir Depth Coefficient


table manager.

Weir Submergence Table

Opens the Weir Submergence Table


manager.

Vortex Valves

Opens the Vortex valves manager.

Pollutographs

Opens the Pollutographs manager.

Land Uses

Opens the SWMM Land Uses


manager.

Time Series Field Data

Opens the Time Series Field Data


dialog, which allows you to define
time series field data for the elements
in the model.

Engineering Libraries

Opens the Engineering Libraries


Manager.

Patterns

Opens the Pattern Manager where you


can create and edit diurnal loading
patterns for use with extended period
simulations.

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Unit Sanitary (Dry Weather) Loads

Opens the Unit Sanitary (Dry


Weather) Loads dialog box, which
lets you create, edit, and delete unit
sanitary loads.

Pattern Setups

Opens the Pattern Setup Manager


where you can associate diurnal
patterns with the appropriate unit
sanitary loads for a given scenario.
This button does not appear in the
toolbar by default, but can be added.
For more information, see Adding
and Removing Toolbar Buttons .

Scenarios Toolbar
The Scenario toolbar contains the following buttons:
Scenario List Box

Lets you quickly change the current


scenario.

Scenarios

Opens the Scenario manager, which


lets you create, view, and manage
project scenarios.

Alternatives

Opens the Alternatives Manager,


which lets you create, view, and
manage project alternatives.

Calculation Options

Opens the Calculation Options


manager, which lets you create
different profiles for different
calculation settings.

Analysis Toolbar
The Analysis toolbar contains the following button:
Statistics

Opens the Statistics manager, which


lets you create, view, and manage
statistical analysis runs.

Totalizing Flow Meters

Opens the Totalizing Flow Meters


manager, which lets you create, view,
and manage totalizing flow meters.

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Compute Toolbar
The Compute toolbar contains the following buttons:
Compute Center

Opens the Compute Center, which


enables you to quickly select the most
commonly used options to set up a
run.

Validate

Runs a diagnostic check on the


network data to alert you to possible
problems that may be encountered
during calculation. This is the manual
validation command, and it checks for
input data errors. It differs in this
respect from the automatic validation
that Bentley SewerCAD runs when
the compute command is initiated,
which checks for network
connectivity errors as well as many
other things beyond what the manual
validation checks.

Compute Hydrology

Performs hydrology calculations.

Compute

Calculates the network. Before


calculating, an automatic validation
routine is triggered, which checks the
model for network connectivity errors
and performs other validation. For
more information, see Calculating
Your Model (on page 631).

Calculation Summary

Opens the calculation summary


report, which reports the details of the
calculations performed on your
model.

Time Browser

Opens the Time Browser manager,


allowing you to manipulate the
currently displayed time step and to
animate the drawing pane.

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User Notifications

Opens the User Notifications


Manager, allowing you to view
warnings and errors uncovered by the
validation process. This button does
not appear in the toolbar by default,
but can be added. For more
information, see Adding and
Removing Toolbar Buttons .

View Toolbar
The View toolbar contains the following buttons, which give you easy access to many of the managers in Bentley
SewerCAD CONNECT.
Element Symbology

Opens the Element Symbology


manager, allowing you to create,
view, and manage the element symbol
settings for the project.

Background Layers

Opens the Background Layers


manager, allowing you to create,
view, and manage the background
layers associated with the project.

Selection Sets

Opens the Selection Sets Manager,


allowing you to create, view, and
modify the selection sets associated
with the project.

Network Navigator

Opens the Network Navigator dialog


box.

Queries

Opens and closes the Query Manager.

Prototypes

Opens and closes the Prototypes


Manager.

FlexTables

Opens the FlexTables manager,


allowing you to create, view, and
manage the tabular reports for the
project.

Graphs

Opens the Graph manager, allowing


you to create, view, and manage the
graphs for the project.

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Profiles

Opens the Profile manager, allowing


you to create, view, and manage the
profiles for the project.

Contours

Opens the Contours manager,


allowing you to create, view, and
manage the contours for the project.

Aerial View

Opens the Aerial View window,


which provides a graphical overview
of your entire drawing.

Properties

Opens and closes the Property Editor.

Help Toolbar
The Help toolbar provides quick access to the same commands that are available in the Help menu. The Help toolbar
contains the following buttons.
Check for SELECT Updates

Opens your web browser to the


SELECTservices page of our web
site, allowing you to check for
updates.

Training

Opens your web browser to the


Training page of our web site.

Bentley.com

Opens your web browser to the home


page of our web site.

Help

Opens the online help.

Layout Toolbar
You use the Layout toolbar to lay out your model in the drawing pane.
Note: Less commonly used elements are not displayed in the Layout toolbar by default but are still available for
use. For instructions on adding these elements to the toolbar see Customizing the Toolbars-44.
The Layout toolbar contains the following buttons:

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Select

Changes your mouse cursor into a


selection tool. The selection tool
behavior varies depending on the
direction in which the mouse is
dragged after defining the first corner
of the selection box, as follows: If the
selection is made from left-to-right,
all elements that fall completely
within the selection box that is
defined will be selected. If the
selection is made from right-to-left,
all elements that fall completely
within the selection box and that cross
one or more of the lines of the
selection box will be selected.

Layout

Changes your mouse cursor into a


network layout tool. Right-click to
change the type of element and the
type of link. Pressure Pipe Lets you
place an element through which water
moves under pressure. Pressure pipes
typically discharge from a pumping
station located upstream in the sewer
collection system. Conduit Lets
you place a closed section element
through which water moves. A
conduit has a constant roughness and
cross section shape along its entire
length. Available conduit shapes
consist of both open and closed cross
sections.

Manhole

Changes your mouse cursor into a


manhole element symbol. Clicking
the left mouse button while this tool is
active causes a manhole element to be
placed at the location of the mouse
cursor.

Transition

Changes your mouse cursor into a


transition element symbol. Clicking
the left mouse button while this tool is
active causes a transition element to
be placed at the location of the mouse
cursor.

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Catchment

Changes your mouse cursor into a


catchment element symbol. When this
tool is active, click in the drawing
pane to begin drawing a polygon that
represents the catchment.

Low Impact Development Control

Changes your mouse cursor into a


LID control element symbol. When
this tool is active, click in the drawing
pane to begin drawing a polygon that
represents the LID control.

Pond

Changes your mouse cursor into a


pond element symbol. When this tool
is active, click in the drawing pane to
begin drawing a polygon that
represents the pond.

Pond Outlet Structure

Changes your mouse cursor into a


pond outlet structure element symbol.
Clicking the left mouse button while
this tool is active causes a pond outlet
structure element to be placed at the
location of the mouse cursor.

Pump

Changes your mouse cursor into a


pump element symbol. Clicking the
left mouse button while this tool is
active causes a pump element to be
placed at the location of the mouse
cursor.

Wet Well

Changes your mouse cursor into a wet


well element symbol. Clicking the left
mouse button while this tool is active
causes a wet well element to be
placed at the location of the mouse
cursor.

Pressure Junction

Changes your mouse cursor into a


pressure junction element symbol.
Clicking the left mouse button while
this tool is active causes a pressure
junction element to be placed at the
location of the mouse cursor.

Pump Station

Changes your mouse cursor into a


Pump Station element symbol. When
this tool is active, click in the drawing
pane to begin drawing a polygon that
represents the pump station.

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Variable Speed Pump Battery

Changes your mouse cursor into a


variable speed pump battery element
symbol. Clicking the left mouse
button while this tool is active causes
a variable speed pump battery
element to be placed at the location of
the mouse cursor.

Air Valve

Changes your mouse cursor into an


air valve element symbol. Clicking
the left mouse button while this tool is
active causes a air valve element to be
placed at the location of the mouse
cursor.

Border

Changes your mouse cursor into a


border symbol. When the border tool
is active, you can draw a simple box
in the drawing pane using the mouse.
For example, you might want to draw
a border around the entire model.

Text

Changes your mouse cursor into a


text symbol. When the text tool is
active, you can add simple text to
your model. Click anywhere in the
drawing pane to display the Text
Editor dialog box, which lets you
enter text to be displayed in your
model.

Line

Changes your mouse cursor into a


line symbol. When this tool is active,
you can draw lines and polygons in
your model using the mouse.

Zoom Toolbar
The Zoom toolbar provides access to the zooming and panning tools. It contains the following buttons:
Zoom Extents

Sets the view so that the entire model


is visible in the drawing pane.

Zoom Window

Activate the manual zoom tool, where


you can specify a portion of the
drawing to enlarge.

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Zoom In

Magnifies the current view in the


drawing pane.

Zoom Out

Reduces the current view in the


drawing pane.

Zoom Realtime

Enables the realtime zoom tool,


which lets you zoom in and out by
moving the mouse while the left
mouse button is depressed.

Pan

Activates the Pan tool, which lets you


move the model within the drawing
pane. When you select this command,
the cursor changes to a hand,
indicating that you can click and hold
the left mouse button and move the
mouse to move the drawing.

Refresh Drawing

Updates the main window view


according to the latest information
contained in the Bentley SewerCAD
CONNECT datastore.

Report Toolbar
The Report toolbar provides quick access to commands that are available in the Report menu. The Report toolbar
contains the following buttons.
Scenario Summary

Opens the Scenario Summary report.

Project Inventory

Opens the Project Inventory report.

Report Options

Opens the Report Options dialog.

Tools Toolbar
The Tools toolbar provides quick access to commands that are available in the Tools menu. The Report toolbar contains
the following buttons.

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Active Topology Selection

Opens the Select toolbar.

ModelBuilder

Opens the ModelBuilder Connections


Manager, which lets you create, edit,
and manage ModelBuilder
connections to be used in the modelbuilding/model-synchronizing
process.

TRex

Opens the TRex Wizard, which steps


you through the process of
automatically assigning elevations to
specified nodes based on data from a
Digital Elevation Model or a Digital
Terrain Model.

LoadBuilder

Open the LoadBuilder manager where


you can create and manage Load
Build templates.

Thiessen Polygon

Open the Wizard used to create a


Thiessen polygon.

Element Property Inferencing

Opens the Element Property


Inferencing tool, which lets you tell
CivilStorm V8i how to draw
"inferences" about missing values
from the property values of nearby
elements.

Inflow Control Center

Opens the Inflow Control Center,


allowing you to create, edit, and
delete inflow definitions.

Sanitary Load Control Center

Opens the Sanitary Load Control


Center, allowing you to create, edit,
and delete sanitary load definitions.

Scenario Comparison

The scenario comparison tool enables


you to compare input values between
any two scenarios to identify
differences quickly.

Select Toolbar
The Select toolbar provides quick access to commands that allow you to select elements in the drawing using a variety
of methods. The Select toolbar contains the following buttons:

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Select By Polygon: Lets you select elements in your model by drawing a polygon in the drawing pane. Click in the
drawing pane to draw each side of the polygon.
Select All: Selects all of the elements in the network.
Select by Element: Opens a submenu listing all available element types. Select one of the element types from the
submenu to select all elements of that type in the mode.
Select By Attribute: Opens a menu listing all available attribute types. Select one of the attribute types from the
menu and the Query Builder dialog box opens.
Clear Selection: Deselects the currently selected element(s).
Invert Selection: Selects all of the currently unselected elements and deselects the currently selected element(s).

Dynamic Manager Display


You access most of the features in Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT through a system of dynamic windows called
managers. For example, the look of the elements is controlled in the Element Symbology manager while animation is
controlled in the Time Browser manager.
When you first start Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT, only two managers are displayed: the Element Symbology and
Background Layers managers. This is the default workspace. You can display as many managers as you want and move
them to any location in the Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT workspace.
To return to the default workspace:
1. Click View > Reset Workspace.
2. If you return to the default workspace, the next time you start Bentley SewerGEMS V8i, you will lose any
customizations you might have made to the dynamic manager display.
Related Topics

Opening Managers (on page 53)


Customizing Managers (on page 55)

Opening Managers
To open a manager:
Do one of the following:

Select the desired manager from the View menu.


Click a managers button on one of the toolbars.
Press the keyboard shortcut for the desired manager.
If the manager is not already docked, you can drag it to the top, left- or right-side, or bottom of the Bentley
SewerCAD CONNECT window to dock it. For more information on docking managers, see Customizing
Managers (on page 55).

Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT Managers


The following table lists all the Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT managers, their toolbar buttons, and keyboard
shortcuts.

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Toolbar Button

Manager

Keyboard Shortcut

Scenarios lets you build a model


run from alternatives. For more
information, see Scenario Manager
(on page 570).

ALT+1

Alternatives lets you create and


manage alternatives. For more
information, see Alternatives
Manager (on page 573).

ALT+2

Calculation Options lets you set


ALT+3
parameters for the numerical engine.
For more information, see Calculation
Options Manager (on page 638).
Statistics lets you perform
statistical frequency analysis on any
of the variables of each element in
model. For more information, see
Statistics (on page 690).

ALT+4

Element Symbology controls how


elements look and what attributes are
displayed. For more information, see
Element Symbology Manager (on
page 707).

CTRL+1

Background Layers lets you control CTRL+2


the display of background layers. For
more information, see Background
Layer Manager (on page 700).
Selection Sets lets you create and
manage selection sets. For more
information, see Selection Sets
Manager (on page 274).

CTRL+3

Network Navigator helps you find


nodes in your model. For more
information, see Using the Network
Navigator (on page 280).

CTRL+4

Queries lets you create SQL


CTRL+5
expressions for use with selection sets
and FlexTables For more information,
see Using Queries-376.

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Toolbar Button

Manager

Keyboard Shortcut

Prototypes lets you create and


CTRL+6
manage prototypes. For more
information, see Using Prototypes (on
page 283).
FlexTables lets you display and
edit tables of elements. For more
information, see FlexTables Manager
(on page 738).

CTRL+7

Graphs lets you create and manage


graphs. For more information, see
Graph Manager (on page 760).

CTRL+8

Profiles lets you draw profiles of


CTRL+9
parts of your network. For more
information, see Profiles Manager (on
page 721).
Contours Lets you visually display
calculated results for many attributes
using contour plots. For more
information, see Contours (on page
822).

CTRL+0

Property Editor displays properties


of individual elements or managers.
For more information, see Property
Editor (on page 265).

F4

Time Browser controls animated


displays. For more information, see
Animating Profiles (on page 722).

F7

User Notifications presents error


and warning messages resulting from
a calculation.

F8

Note: Although the toolbar button


for this manager does not appear
by default, you can add it to the
Compute toolbar.

Customizing Managers
When you first start Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT, you will see the default workspace, in which a limited set of
dockable managers are visible. You can decide which managers will be displayed at any time and where they will be
displayed. You can also return to the default workspace any time.

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There are four states for each manager:
Floating: A floating manager sits above the Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT workspace like a dialog box. You can drag
a floating manager anywhere and continue to work.
You can also:

Resize a floating manager by dragging its edges.


Close a floating manager by clicking on the x in the top right-hand corner of the title bar.
Change the properties of the manager by right-clicking on the title bar.
Switch between multiple floating managers in the same location by clicking the manager's tab.
Dock the manager by double-clicking the title bar.

Docked Static: A docked static manager attaches to any of the four sides of the Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT
window. If you drag a floating manager to any of the four sides of the Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT window, the
manager will attach or dock itself to that side of the window. The manager will stay in that location unless you close it
or make it dynamic. A vertical pushpin in the manager's title bar indicates its static state; click the pushpin to change
the manager's state to dynamic. When the push pin is pointing downward (vertical push pin), the manager is docked.
You can also:

Close a docked manager by left clicking on the x in the upper right corner of the title bar.
Change a docked manager into a floating manager by double-clicking the title bar, or by dragging the manager to
the desired location (for example, away from the side of the Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT window).
Change a static docked manager into a dynamically docked manager by clicking the push pin in the title bar.
Switch between multiple docked managers in the same location by clicking the manager's tab.

Docked Dynamic: A docked dynamic manager also docks to any of the four sides of the Bentley SewerCAD
CONNECTi window, but remains hidden except for a single tab. Show a docked dynamic manager by moving the
mouse over the tab, or by clicking the tab. When the manager is showing (not hidden), a horizontal pushpin in its title
bar indicates its dynamic state.
You can also:

Close a docked manager by left clicking on the x in the upper right corner of the title bar.
Change a docked dynamic manager into a docked static manager by clicking the push pin (converting it from
vertical to horizontal).
Switch between multiple docked managers in the same location by moving the mouse over the manager's tab or by
clicking the manager's tab.

Closed: When a manager is closed, you cannot view it. Close a manager by clicking the x in the right corner of the
manager's title bar. Open a manager by selecting the manager from the View menu (for example, View > Element
Symbology), or by selecting the button for that manager on the appropriate toolbar.

Using Named Views


The Named View dialog box is where you can store the current views X and Y coordinates. When you set a view in the
drawing pane and add a named view, the current view is saved as the named view. You can then center the drawing
pane on the named view with the Go To View command.
Choose View > Named Views to open the Named View dialog box.

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The toolbar contains the following controls:


New

Contains the following commands: Named View --Opens


a Named View Properties box to create a new named
view. Folder --Opens a Named Views Folder Properties
box to enter a label for the new folder.

Delete

Deletes the named view or folder that is currently


selected.

Rename

Rename the currently selected named view or folder.

Go to View

Centers the drawing pane on the named view.

Shift Up and Shift Down

Moves the selected named view or folder up or down.

Expand All or Collapse All

Expands or collapses the named views and folders.

Help

Displays online help for Named Views.

Starting a Project
This chapter contains the following sections:

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Starting a Project

Welcome Dialog Box (on page 58)


Projects (on page 58)
Setting Project Properties (on page 59)
Setting Options (on page 59)
Using ProjectWise (on page 67)
Importing Data From Other Models (on page 74)
Exporting Data (on page 111)
Long Term Continuous Simulations in SewerGEMS V8i Using the SWMM Engine (on page 115)

Welcome Dialog Box


When you first start the application, the Welcome dialog box appears. The Welcome dialog box contains the following
controls:
Quick Start Lessons

Opens the online help to the Quick Start Lessons


Overview topic.

Create New Project

Creates a new project. When you click this button, an


untitled Bentley project is created.

Open Existing Project

Opens an existing project. When you click this button, the


Windows Select Project to Open dialog box appears,
allowing you to browse to the project to be opened.

Show This Dialog at Start

When selected, the Welcome dialog box appears


whenever you start the application . Clear this box if you
do not want the Welcome dialog box to appear whenever
you start the application.

You can access the Welcome dialog box at any time from the Help menu.

Projects
All data for a model are stored in Bentley SewerGEMS V8i as a project. Bentley SewerGEMS V8i project files have
the file name extension csd. Bentley SewerGEMS V8i lets you open more than one project at a time. You can assign a
title, date, notes and other identifying information about each project using the Project Properties dialog box. You can
have up to five Bentley SewerGEMS V8i projects open at one time.
Starting with the SELECTseries 3 release, SewerGEMS V8i, SewerCAD V8i, CivilStorm V8i and StormCAD V8i all
share the same project file format. This means that a *.stsw file created in SewerGEMS V8i can be opened in any of the
other three products, and vice versa, without data loss or conversion.
SewerGEMS V8i SELECTseries 3 can also open SewerGEMS (*.swg), SewerCAD (*.swc), CivilStorm (*.csd) and
StormCAD (*.stc) project files created in releases prior to V8i SELECTseries 3.
Starting a New Project
To start a new project, select File > New or press Ctrl+N. An untitled project is opened in the drawing pane.
Opening an Existing Project

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To open an existing project, select File > Open or press Ctrl+O. A dialog box appears allowing you to browse for the
project you want to open.
Displaying Multiple Projects
To switch between multiple open projects, click the appropriate tab at the top of the drawing pane. The file name of the
project is displayed on the tab.
Related Topic

Setting Project Properties (on page 59)

Setting Project Properties


The Project Properties dialog box let you enter project-specific information to help identify the project. Project
properties are stored with the project.
To set project properties:
Select File > Project Properties, enter information in the Project Properties dialog box and click OK.
Project Properties Dialog Box
The dialog box contains the following text fields and controls:
Title

Lets you type a title for the project.

File Name

Displays the file name for the current project. If you have
not saved the project yet, the file name is listed as
Untitled.stsw.

Engineer

Lets you type name of the project engineer.

Company

Lets you type the name of your company.

Date

Click this field to display a calendar, which lets you use


your mouse to set a date for the project.

Notes

Lets you type additional information about the project.

Setting Options
You can change global settings for Bentley SewerGEMS V8i in the Options dialog box. The Options dialog box
contains four tabs, each of which lets you change a different group of global settings.
Click one of the following links to learn more about the Options dialog box:

Options Dialog Box - Global Tab (on page 60)


Options Dialog Box - Project Tab (on page 63)
Options Dialog Box - Drawing Tab (on page 64)
Options Dialog Box - Units Tab (on page 65)
Options Dialog Box - Labeling Tab (on page 66)
Options Dialog Box - ProjectWise Tab (on page 67)

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Options Dialog Box - Global Tab


The Global tab lets you change general program settings for the Bentley SewerCAD stand-alone editor, including
whether or not to display the status pane, as well as window color and layout settings.
The Global tab contains the following controls:
General Settings
Backup Levels

Indicates the number of backup copies that are retained


when a project is saved. The default value is 1.
Note: The higher this number, the more .BAK files
(backup files) are created, thereby using more hard
disk space on your computer.

Show recently used files

The checkbox turns the list of recently opened files on


and off. The File menu has the ability to display a list of
recently opened files, providing shortcuts that let you
quickly access projects. When this check box is cleared,
these shortcuts are not available from the File menu.
When the box is checked, you can specify a number of
files between 1 and 15 to show by typing the number in
the adjacent field.

Compact Database After

When selected, the Bentley SewerCAD database is


automatically compacted when you save a particular file
the specified number of times.

Show Status Pane

When selected, activates the Status Pane display at the


bottom of the Bentley SewerCAD stand-alone editor. This
check box is selected by default.

Show Welcome Page on Startup

When selected, activates the Welcome dialog that appears


when you first start Bentley SewerCAD . This check box
is selected by default.

Zoom Extents on Open

When this box is checked a Zoom Extents operation is


performed upon file open, so that the entire network is
displayed in the drawing pane.

Use Accelerated Redraw

Some video cards use "triple buffering", which we do not


support at this time. If you see anomalies in the drawing
(such as trails being left behind from the selection
rectangle), then you can shut this option off to attempt to
fix the problem. However, when this option is off, you
could see some performance degradation in the drawing.

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General Settings
Prompts

Opens the Stored Prompt Responses Dialog Box (on


page 62), which allows you to change the behavior of
the default prompts (messages that appear allowing you to
confirm or cancel certain operations).

Window Color Settings


Background Color

Displays the color that is currently assigned to the


drawing pane background. You can change the color by
clicking the ellipsis button (...) to open the Color dialog
box.

Foreground Color

Displays the color that is currently assigned to elements


and labels in the drawing pane. You can change the color
by clicking the ellipsis button (...) to open the Color
dialog box.

Read Only Background Color

Displays the color that is currently assigned to data field


backgrounds. You can change the color by clicking the
ellipsis button (...) to open the Color dialog box.

Read Only Foreground Color

Displays the color that is currently assigned to data field


text. You can change the color by clicking the ellipsis
button (...) to open the Color dialog box.

Selection

Displays the color that is currently assigned to elements


that are selected in the drawing pane. You can change the
color by clicking the ellipsis button (...) to open the Color
dialog box.

Layout Settings
Display Inactive Topology

When selected, activates the display of inactive element


in the drawing pane in the color defined in Ithe adjacent
color box. When not selected, inactive elements will not
be visible in the drawing pane. This check box is selected
by default.

Auto Refresh

Activates Auto Refresh. When Auto-Refresh is active, the


drawing pane automatically updates whenever changes
are made to the Bentley SewerCAD datastore. This check
box is selected by default.

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General Settings
Sticky Tool Palette

When selected, activates the Sticky Tools feature. When


Sticky Tools is activated, the drawing pane cursor does
not reset to the Select tool after you create a node or finish
a pipe run in your model, allowing you to continue
dropping new elements into the drawing without reselecting the tool. When Sticky Tools is not activated, the
drawing pane cursor resets to the Select tool after you
create a node. This check box is selected by default.

Select Polygons by Edge

When selected, lets you select polygons in your model at


their edges instead of anywhere inside the polygon. This
check box is cleared by default.

Selection Handle Size In Pixels

Specifies, in pixels, the size of the handles that appear on


selected elements. Enter a number from 1 to 10.

Default Drawing Style for New Projects

Choose the style in which elements are displayed in the


drawing pane. Under GIS style, the size of element
symbols in the drawing pane will remain the same
regardless of zoom level. Under CAD style, element
symbols will appear larger or smaller depending on zoom
level.

Stored Prompt Responses Dialog Box


This dialog allows you to change the behavior of command prompts back to their default settings. Some commands
trigger a command prompt that can be suppressed by using the Do Not Prompt Again check box. You can turn the
prompt back on by accessing this dialog and unchecking the box for that prompt type.

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Options Dialog Box - Project Tab


Geospatial Settings
Spatial Reference

Used for integration with Projectwise Geospatial. You


can leave the field blank if there is no spatial information.

Element Labeling Options


Element Identifier Format

Specifies the format in which reference fields are used.


Reference fields are fields that link to another element or
support object (pump definitions, patterns, controls,
zones, etc.).

Result Files
Specify Custom Results File Path?

When this box is checked, the result files are placed in the
directory as specified in the Path field described below.
When this option is checked, the result files are moved (as
opposed to copied) to a temp directory when the project is
opened. They are moved back to the custom location
when the project is closed (not when the project is saved).
When this box is unchecked, the result files get saved to
the project directory

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Geospatial Settings
Root Path

This field allows you to specify a directory for making the


building of a custom path easier. You can type the path
manually or choose the path from a Browse dialog by
clicking the ellipsis (...) button.

Path Format

This field allows you to build up the Path option by


placing the pieces of the path together as symbols. These
can include the root path, the project directory, etc. You
can type the path manually and use predefined attributes
from the menu accessed with the [>] button..

Path

Displays a dynamically updated view of the custom result


file path based on the settings in the Root Path and Path
Format fields. This field is not editable.

Pipe Length
Round Pipe Length to Nearest

When this box is checked, the program will round to the


nearest unit specified in this field when calculating scaled
pipe length.

Results Files and the Temp Directory


When you compute, the generated result files are stored in the [temp]\Bentley\ Bentley SewerCAD directory, where
[temp] is the temporary directory for the current user. If the user saves this model, the result files are, by default, copied
from the temp directory to the model's directory. When a model is opened, the result files are copied from the model
directory to the temp directory, where they are opened from. When a model is closed, the model and result files are
deleted from the temp directory. However in some rare cases if an error occurs, the files may not be deleted. It is
therefore good practice to periodically delete all files from the [temp]\Bentley\ Bentley SewerCAD directory, but only
when Bentley SewerCAD is not running.

Options Dialog Box - Drawing Tab


This tab contains drawing layout and display settings. You can set the scale that you want to use as the finished drawing
scale for the plan view output. Drawing scale is based upon engineering judgment and the destination sheet sizes to be
used in the final presentation. The Drawing tab contains the following controls:
Drawing Scale Settings
Drawing Mode

Drop-down list that lets you select either Scaled or


Schematic mode for models in the drawing pane.

Horizontal Scale Factor 1 in. =:

Controls the scale of the plan view. This value affects the
text height when printing-to-scale and does not affect the
scaled length or area results.

Annotation Multipliers Settings

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Drawing Scale Settings
Symbol Size Mulitplier

Increases or decreases the size of your symbols by the


factor indicated. For example, a multiplier of 2 would
result in the symbol size being doubled. The program
selects a default symbol height that corresponds to 4.0 ft.
(approximately 1.2 m) in actual-world units, regardless of
scale.

Text Height Multiplier

Increases or decreases the default size of the text


associated with element labeling by the factor indicated.
The program automatically selects a default text height
that displays at approximately 2.5 mm (0.1 in) high at the
user-defined drawing scale. A scale of 1.0 mm = 0.5 m,
for example, results in a text height of approximately 1.25
m. Likewise, a 1 in. = 40 ft. scale equates to a text height
of around 4.0 ft.

Pipe Text Setting


Align Text with Pipes

Turns text alignment on and off. When this check box is


selected, labels are aligned to their associated pipes.
When the check box is cleared, labels are displayed
horizontally near the center of the associated pipe.

Color Element Annotations

When this box is checked, color coding settings are


applied to the element annotation.

Options Dialog Box - Units Tab


The Units tab lets you modify the unit settings for the current project. The Units tab contains the following controls:
Save As

Lets you save the current unit settings as a separate .xml


file. This file allows you to reuse your Units settings in
another project. When the button is clicked, a Windows
Save As dialog box appears, allowing you to enter a name
and specify the directory location of the .xml file.

Load

Lets you load a previously created Units project .xml file,


thereby transferring the unit and format settings that were
defined in the previous project. When the button is
clicked, a Windows Load dialog box appears, allowing
you to browse to the location of the desired .xml file.

Reset Defaults - SI

Resets the unit and formatting settings to the original


factory defaults for the System International (Metric)
system.

Reset Defaults - US

Resets the unit and formatting settings to the original


factory defaults for the Imperial (U.S.) system.

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Default Unit System for New Project

Lets you specify the unit system that is used globally


across the project. Note that you can locally change any
number of attributes to use system other than the one
specified here.

Units Table

The units table contains the following columns: Label


Displays the parameter measured by the unit. Unit
Displays the type of measurement. To change the unit of
an attribute type, click the choice list and click the unit
you want. This option also allows you to use both U.S.
customary and SI units in the same worksheet. Display
Precision Sets the rounding of numbers and number of
digits displayed after the decimal point. Enter a negative
number for rounding to the nearest power of 10: (-1)
rounds to 10, (-2) rounds to 100, (-3) rounds to 1000, and
so on. Enter a number from 0 to 15 to indicate the number
of digits after the decimal point. Format Menu Lets you
select the display format used by the current field.
Choices include:

Options Dialog Box - Labeling Tab


The Element Labeling tab is used to specify the automatic numbering format of new elements as they are added to the
network. You can save your settings to an .xml file for later use. The Element Labeling tab contains the following
controls:
Save As

Lets you save your element labeling settings to an


element label project file, which is an. xml file.

Load

Lets you open an existing element label project file.

Reset

Fills in the Next column for each element based on the


labels already used in the model and the increment value
that has been set. So, for example, if the model contains
conduits CO-1, CO-2, and CO-3 and the Increment value
is 1, clicking Reset will fill in the Next column with CO-4
for the Conduit row.

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Labeling Table

The labeling table contains the following columns:


Element Shows the type of element to which the label
applies. On Lets you turn automatic element labeling
on and off for the associated element type. Next The
integer you want to use as the starting value for the ID
number portion of the label. Bentley SewerCAD
generates labels beginning with this number and chooses
the first available unique label. Increment The integer
that is added to the ID number after each element is
created to yield the number for the next element. Prefix
The letters or numbers that appear in front of the ID
number for the elements in your network. Digits The
minimum number of digits that the ID number has. For
instance, 1, 10, and 100 with a digit setting of two would
be 01, 10, and 100. Suffix The letters or numbers that
appear after the ID number for the elements in your
network. Preview Lets you see what the label looks
like, based on the information you have entered in the
previous fields.

Options Dialog Box - ProjectWise Tab


Note: These settings affect ProjectWise users only.
The ProjectWise tab contains options for using SewerGEMS V8i with ProjectWise.
This tab contains the following controls:

Default Datasource: Displays the current ProjectWise datasource. If you have not yet logged into a datasource, this
field will display <login>. To change the datasource, click the Ellipsis (...) button to open the Change Datasource
dialog box. If you click Cancel after you have changed the default datasource, the new default datasource is
retained.
Update Server on Save: When this is checked, any time you save your SewerGEMS V8i project locally using the
File > Save menu command, the files on your ProjectWise server will also be updated and all changes to the files
will immediately become visible to other ProjectWise users. This option is turned off by default.

Note: This option, when turned on, can significantly affect performance, especially for large, complex projects.

Using ProjectWise
Bentley ProjectWise provides managed access to Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT content within a workgroup, across a
distributed organization, or among collaborating professionals. When ProjectWise is integrated with Bentley
SewerCAD CONNECT, project files can be accessed quickly, checked out for use, and checked back in directly from
within Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT.
If ProjectWise is installed on your system, Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT automatically installs all the components
necessary for you to use ProjectWise to store and share your Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT projects.
To learn more about ProjectWise, refer to the ProjectWise online help. To learn more about using ProjectWise with
Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT, see the following topics:

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General Guidelines for using ProjectWise (on page 68)


Performing ProjectWise Operations-192

General Guidelines for using ProjectWise


Setting up ProjectWise integration for Standalone
In Standalone, ProjectWise integration is enabled using an xml file. The default xml file is located at the following
locations:
For Windows XP: C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\Bentley\<appname>
\8\ProjectWiseIntegrationLocalOptions.xml
For Windows Vista/7: C:\ProgramData\Bentley\<appname>\8\ProjectWiseIntegrationLocalOptions.xml
This file applies to all users. If the ProjectWise configuration varies among users on the same machine, a user specific
version of the file can be copied into the following directory, which if present will override the file from the All Users
directory.
For Windows XP: C:\Documents and Settings\<username>\Local Settings\Application Data\Bentley\<appname>\8\
ProjectWiseIntegrationLocalOptions.xml
For Windows Vista/7: C:\Users\<username>\AppData\Local\Bentley\<appname>\8\
ProjectWiseIntegrationLocalOptions.xml
The file must be edited manually to change the configuration. The xml file has two entries.
PWDIR/PWDIR64: Set either of them to point to the local directory where a compatible ProjectWise Explorer is
installed. If the directory is not set or is invalid then ProjectWise integration is considered to be disabled.
UseCaptiveEnvironment: This flag can be set to true or false.

If set to true and project file is opened from ProjectWise, then all subsequent prompt (file open/save dialog) during
application interaction is to/from ProjectWise Only.
If set to false and project is opened from ProjectWise, then all subsequent prompt shows ProjectWise dialog first.
Upon canceling ProjectWise dialog, a local file dialog is opened.
If set to false and project is opened locally, then settings doesn't have any affect. The subsequent prompt are always
local referring to local files.

Working with ProjectWise in Standalone


Once the integration is enabled, user has the following options to perform on ProjectWise.

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Login to ProjectWise: The first prompt that user gets during ProjectWise interaction is to log into a ProjectWise

datasource.
The datasource the users log into remains the current datasource until you change it from Tools > Options
>ProjectWise > ellipsis button.
Creating a new Project: Use File > New command to create a new project. The project is not stored in ProjectWise
until you select File > Save. User is prompted to save the project on ProjectWise. Upon cancel, the user is given an
option to save project locally.
Opening a Project: Use File > Open command shows ProjectWise prompt first to open a project from ProjectWise.
Upon cancel, local prompt is given to open a project locally. The user can quickly tell whether or not the current
project is in ProjectWise or not by looking at the title bar and the status bar of the window. If the current project is
in ProjectWise, "pwname://" will appear in front of the file name in the title bar, and a ProjectWise icon will appear
on the far right side of the status bar.
Saving a Project: Use File > Save command to save a copy of the current project to either on ProjectWise or locally,
depends upon from where it was opened in the first place.
Saving a local project to ProjectWise:
To copy an open project from one ProjectWise datasource to another:
To make a local copy of a project stored in a ProjectWise datasource:
To change the default ProjectWise datasource:
Closing a Project::
When you Close a project already stored in ProjectWise using File > Close, you are prompted to select one of the
following options:
Importing files: User can also import files (e.g. Submodel, SWMM, LandXML, InRoads, etc) before any model is
opened from File > Import. These import prompts will refer to files saved using ProjectWise simply based on if
ProjectWise integration is enabled. The model that is created during this import is considered as a local model
unless and until it is saved to ProjectWise.
Updating Server copy: In the Tools > Options dialog box, there is a ProjectWise tab with the Update server on Save
check box. This option, when turned on, can significantly affect performance, especially for large, complex projects.
When this is checked, any time you save your project locally using the File > Save menu command, the files on the
ProjectWise server will also be updated and all changes to the files will immediately become visible to other
ProjectWise users. This option is turned off by default.
Opening a recent file: Projects associated with ProjectWise appear in the Most Recently Used Files list (at the
bottom of the File menu) in the following format: pwname://PointServer:_TestDatasource/Documents/TestFolder/
example.stsw
Working with background layers:

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In the SELECTseries release, calculation result files are not managed inside ProjectWise. A local copy of results is
maintained on the local computer, but to ensure accurate results, the user should recalculate projects when the user first
opens them from ProjectWise.

Considerations for ProjectWise Users


Bentley ProjectWise provides managed access to model content within a workgroup, across a distributed organization,
or among collaborating professionals. When ProjectWise is integrated with a model product such as Bentley
SewerCAD CONNECT, project files can be accessed quickly, checked out for use, and checked back in directly from
within Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT.
If ProjectWise is installed, the installation automatically installs all the components necessary for you to use
ProjectWise to store and share projects.
To learn more about ProjectWise, refer to the ProjectWise online help.
To learn more about using ProjectWise with hydraulic model, see the following topics:
General Guidelines for using ProjectWise (on page 68)

Using ProjectWise with Bentley SewerCAD for AutoCAD


Bentley SewerCAD for AutoCAD maintains a one to one relationship between the AutoCAD drawing (.dwg) and the
Bentley SewerCAD project file. When using ProjectWise with this data, we recommend that you create a Set in the
ProjectWise Explorer. Included in this set should be the AutoCAD drawing (example.dwg), the Bentley SewerCAD
database (example.stsw.mdb), the Bentley SewerCAD project file (example.stsw), and optionally for stand-alone, the
stand-alone drawing setting file (example.stsw.dwh).
If you use the Set and the ProjectWise Explorer for all of your check-in / check-out procedures, you will maintain the
integrity of this relationship. We recommended that you do not use the default ProjectWise integration in AutoCAD, as
this will only work with the .dwg file.

Using ProjectWise with Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT for MicroStation


When using ProjectWise with a MicroStation Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT project, we recommend that you create a
Set in the ProjectWise Explorer. Included in this set should be the MicroStation drawing (example.dgn), the Bentley
SewerCAD CONNECT database (example.stsw.mdb), the Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT project file (example.stsw),
and optionally for stand-alone, the stand-alone drawing setting file (example.stsw.dwh).
If you use the Set and the ProjectWise Explorer for all of your check-in / check-out procedures, you will maintain the
integrity of this relationship. We recommended that you do not use the default ProjectWise integration in MicroStation,
as this will only work with the .dgn file.

ProjectWise Cross-Discipline Coordination Services Support


ProjectWise Cross-discipline Coordination Services (henceforth referred to as PWXDCS) refers to a shared library of
code and tools used to facilitate the communication of model engineering data between 2 (or more) separate
applications. For example, suppose building construction software wants to communicate relevant information about
the model with software being used to design the parking lot for the building. PWXDCS allows this communication
through a separate store of information called a consensus repository. This consensus repository has a schema called the
consensus schema. The consensus schema only contains those fields/attributes that are common/relevant to software
using it to sync data (in this example, the common fields/attributes between the building software and the parking lot
software).

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This is the basic workflow:

Water/Storm/Sewer Products publish their changes to an application repository. An application schema is adhered so
that only relevant properties are published.
A consensus repository exists in some shared location (perhaps on a server of some sort) and may be in a completely
different (consensus) schema. If the schema is incompatible with the schema of the applications using it, transformation
services need to be written to transform data between the two schemas.
Bentley Water/Storm/Sewer products only write our data out to the application repository, so the part of the process
handled by those products looks like this:

Workflow Walkthrough
Initial creation of a consensus repository:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Open a model you want to sync out.


Click File menu, select Repository Management -> Create Repository.
Select the name and location of the consensus repository.
Progress dialogs appear.
After the process is complete, the repository file (*.dgn) should be on the disk where you indicated.

Sync out changes to existing consensus repository:


1. Open the model you want to sync out.

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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Click File menu, select Repository Management -> Update Repository.


Pick the consensus repository you want to update.
Progress dialogs appear.
A dialog appears displaying what has changed since the last time you synced out.
Accept/reject the changes you want/don't want.
The consensus repository is updated.

Differences Dialog Box


The Differences dialog appears when you update a repository. It shows the differences between the previous head
revision and the new about-to-be-created revision. The user can select which changes they want to accept (keep) and
which they would like to reject (ignore).

Going from left-to-right across the top toolbar of the upper section of the dialog, the buttons are as follows:

Home: Restores the grid view back to its original state after following any relationships.
Back: Goes back a step after following any relationships.
Filter: Filters on an elements of the chosen types.
Show Added: Toggles the showing of newly added elements in the grid view.

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Show Deleted: Toggles the showing of the newly deleted elements in the grid view.
Show Modified: Toggles the showing of the newly modified elements in the grid view.
Show Unchanged: Toggles the showing of the elements that haven't changed since the latest repository revision.
Show Accepted: Toggles the showing of elements whose changes have all been accepted.
Show Rejected: Toggles the showing of elements whose changes have all been rejected.
Show Partial: Toggles the showing of elements whose changes are a mixture of accepted, rejected, and undecided.
Show Undecided: Toggles the showing of elements whose changes are all undecided.

The grid view lists the elements (filtered as described above):

Check Box: Selects/deselects the element as part of the set of elements affected by the bottom toolbar (described
below).
Type: The element type.
Label: The element's label.
Status: The status (added, deleted, modified, etc.) of the element.
Change: The current state of the decision to include the changes or not (accepted, rejected, etc.).

Going from left-to-right across the bottom toolbar of the upper section of the dialog, the buttons are as follows:

Select All: Checks all of the check boxes for the elements listed in the grid view above it.
Clear All: Unchecks all of the check boxes for the elements listed in the grid view above it.
Accept: Sets the change state of all of the checked elements in the grid view above it to accepted.
Reject: Sets the change state of all of the checked elements in the grid view above it to rejected.
Undecide: Sets the change state of all of the checked elements in the grid view above it to undecided.
Selected Objects: Gives the count of elements in the grid view above it that are checked.

In the lower section of the dialog, the Properties tab shows the properties of the currently selected elements in the grid
view of the upper section of the dialog.
Going from left-to-right across the top toolbar of the lower section of the dialog, the buttons are as follows:

Show Added: Toggles the showing of newly added properties in the grid view.
Show Deleted: Toggles the showing of the newly deleted properties in the grid view.
Show Modified: Toggles the showing of the newly modified properties in the grid view.
Show Unchanged: Toggles the showing of the properties that haven't changed since the latest repository revision.
Show Accepted: Toggles the showing of properties that have been accepted.
Show Rejected: Toggles the showing of properties that have been rejected.
Show Undecided: Toggles the showing of properties that are still undecided.

The grid view lists the elements (filtered as described above):

Check Box: Selects/deselects the property as part of the set of properties affected by the bottom toolbar (described
below).
Property: The name of the property.
New Value: The new (changed) value of the property.
Old Value: The previous value of the property.
Status: The status (added, deleted, modified, etc.) of the property.
Change: The current state of the decision to include the change or not (accepted, rejected, etc.).

Going from left-to-right across the bottom toolbar of the lower section, the buttons are as follows:

Select All: Checks all of the check boxes for the properties listed in the grid view above it.
Clear All: Unchecks all of the check boxes for the properties listed in the grid view above it.

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Accept: Sets the change state of all of the checked properties in the grid view above it to accepted.
Reject: Sets the change state of all of the checked properties in the grid view above it to rejected.
Undecide: Sets the change state of all of the checked properties in the grid view above it to undecided.
Selected Properties: Gives the count of properties in the grid view above it that are checked.

At the bottom of the dialog are the following buttons:


1. Update: commits the decisions on the changes you've made in this dialog to the repository.
2. Cancel: Cancels out of the dialog and the entire update operation. The repository is left as it was unchanged.

Importing Data From Other Models


Click one of the following links to learn more:

Importing Data from SWMM V5


Importing a Submodel (on page 76)
Importing Data from Bentley Wastewater (on page 74)
Importing a Bentley InRoads Storm and Sanitary V8i Model into Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT (on page 78)
Importing from LandXML (on page 95)

Conduits with a diversion are marked in the drawing pane with a symbol as shown in the screenshot below:

Importing Data from Bentley Wastewater


You can import data from a Bentley Wastewater data source. Before importing this data into Bentley SewerCAD , you
must first export it from Bentley Wastewater into a set of output files. These output files can then be imported into a
model.
To export Bentley Wastewater data to a set of output files:
1.
2.
3.
4.

In the Bentley Wastewater toolbar, click the Export > Data command.
In the dialog that appears, select all of the listed element types.
Click the File button and select a destination output file.
Use the MicroStation Place Fence tool and draw a fence surrounding the model.

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5. Click on the Start button in the Export Data dialog and click inside the fence you created in step 4.
To import Bentley Wastewater data from a set of output files:
1. In Bentley SewerCAD , click the File menu and select the Import > Bentley Wastewater Import command.
2. Follow the steps in the Bentley Wastewater Import Wizard that appears.

Bentley Wastewater Import Wizard


The Bentley Wastewater Import Wizard will guide you through the process of configuring the settings needed to import
the data contained in the Bentley Wastewater output files into a model.
The wizard consists of the following steps:

Step 1: Bentley Wastewater Import (on page 75)


Step 2: Bentley Wastewater Data Source (on page 75)
Step 3: Data Source Table Names (on page 76)
Step 4: Unit Options (on page 76)

Step 1: Bentley Wastewater Import


This step displays the filename and directory location of the target SewerGEMS V8i model for the import operation.
No user input is required for this step.

Bentley Wastewater Import Wizard (on page 75)


Step 1: Bentley Wastewater Import (on page 75)
Step 2: Bentley Wastewater Data Source (on page 75)
Step 3: Data Source Table Names (on page 76)
Step 4: Unit Options (on page 76)
Step 5: Import Options (on page 76)

Step 2: Bentley Wastewater Data Source


This step allows you to specify the data source and geometry file that contains the Bentley Wastewater data to be
imported.
The step consists of the following controls:
Select A Data Source TypeThis control consists of two pulldown menus. The value selected in the first pulldown
menu will determine the choices available in the second menu. For most of the Data Source Types, only one option will
be available in the second menu. When the OLEDB data source type is chosen, the second menu will contain a number
of OLEDB database types.
Select Data SourceThis control allows you to choose the data source of the type selected in the Select A Data Source
Type menus. Click the Browse button to bring up an Open dialog that will allow you to specify the data source.
Select Geometry Data FileThis control allows you to choose the .dat file that contains the Bentley Wastewater
geometry data. Click the Browse button to bring up an Open dialog that will allow you to specify the data file.
Note: The Select Geometry Data File field is optional. If the user wishes to import pipe geometry data which
contains the pipe vertices (bends) into the model, then this field should point to the data file that can be created
during the export pipe geometry data process. However, if the user chooses not to import geometry data, this
field can be left blank and the pipes will be imported without any bends associated with them.

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Update only the elements specified in the geometry data fileWhen this box is checked, only data for those elements
contained within the specified geometry data file will be imported. This option allows you to import just a subset of the
original Bentley Wastewater model.

Step 3: Data Source Table Names


This step allows you to specify the tables within the Bentley Wastewater data source that correspond to the various
SewerGEMS V8i element types. Each of the menus in this step allow you to choose a database table that contains the
data for each of the associated elements.

Bentley Wastewater Import Wizard (on page 75)


Step 1: Bentley Wastewater Import (on page 75)
Step 2: Bentley Wastewater Data Source (on page 75)
Step 3: Data Source Table Names (on page 76)
Step 4: Unit Options (on page 76)
Step 5: Import Options (on page 76)

Step 4: Unit Options


This step allows you to define the units used for various attributes of the model and the network elements. The units
specified should match those used in the Bentley Wastewater model being imported.

Bentley Wastewater Import Wizard (on page 75)


Step 1: Bentley Wastewater Import (on page 75)
Step 2: Bentley Wastewater Data Source (on page 75)
Step 3: Data Source Table Names (on page 76)
Step 4: Unit Options (on page 76)
Step 5: Import Options (on page 76)

Step 5: Import Options


This step allows you to specify other options that will be applied to the SewerGEMS V8i model. The menu allows you
to specify the friction method that will be used. Bentley Wastewater models can contain point nodes. If the checkbox in
this step is checked, these point nodes will be imported as SewerGEMS V8i manhole elements.

Bentley Wastewater Import Wizard (on page 75)


Step 1: Bentley Wastewater Import (on page 75)
Step 2: Bentley Wastewater Data Source- (on page 75)
Step 3: Data Source Table Names (on page 76)
Step 4: Unit Options (on page 76)
Step 5: Import Options (on page 76)

Importing a Submodel
Using the Submodel Import feature, you can import another model, or any portion thereof, into your project. Input data
stored in the Alternatives as well as any supporting data will also be imported. It is important to notice that existing
elements in the model you want to import the submodel into (i.e. the target model) will be matched with incoming
elements by using their label. Incoming input data will override existing data in the target model for any element
matched by its label. That also applies to scenarios, alternatives, calculation options and supporting data. Furthermore,

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any element in the incoming submodel that could not be matched with any existing element by their label, will be
created in the target model.
For example, the submodel you want to import contains input data that you would like to transfer in two Physical
Alternatives named "Smaller Pipes" and "Larger Pipes". The target model contains only one Physical Alternative
named "Larger Pipes". In that case, the input data in the alternative labeled "Larger Pipes" in the submodel will replace
the alternative with the same name in the target model. Moreover, the alternative labeled "Smaller Pipes" as well as its
input data will be added to the target model without replacing any existing data on it because there is no existing
alternative with the same label. Notice that imported elements will be assigned default values in those existing
alternatives in the target model that could not be matched.
Notice that regular models can be imported as a submodel of a larger model as their file format and extension are the
same.
For more information about input data transfer, see Exporting a Submodel (on page 113).
Note: The label-matching strategy used during submodel import will be applied to any set of alternatives,
including Active Topology alternatives. Therefore, if no Active Topology alternative stored in the submodel
matches the existing ones in the target model, the imported elements will preserve their active topology values
in the alternatives created from the submodel, but they will be left as "Inactive" in those previously existing
alternatives in the target model. That is because the default value for the "Is Active?" attribute in active topology
alternatives other than the one that is current is "False".
User-defined data is not transferred during submodel import and export operations.
To import a submodel
1. Click the File menu and select Import...Submodel.
2. In the Select Submodel File to Import dialog box, select the submodel file to be imported. Click the Open button.

Importing Pressure Pipes


The following rules and considerations govern the importing of pressure pipe elements from SWMM:
Import Rules
1. All Conduits of the type force main will be imported as pressure pipes regardless of their position in the SWMM
network.
2. A SWMM junction is converted to a pressure junction if all bounding links are pressure links. Pressure links are as
follows:
3. Conduits of shape force main.
4. SWMM pump links.
5. If a catchment is emptying into a SWMM junction, that junction will be turned into a manhole regardless of its
position in the system. A user notification will be generated.
6. On the import of a SWMM pump link, two links are created to connect the pump node to the system:
7. If the discharge node is a pressure junction - two virtual pressure links are created;
8. Otherwise two virtual conduits are created.
Pressure Pipe Considerations

Diameter directly translates.


The roughness value will be entered into Manning's, DarcyWeisbach, or Hazen Williams depending on which
SWMM Pressure Roughness method is selected in the calculation options.
Number of Barrels data is NOT imported.

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Presssure Junction Considerations

The invert directly translates.


Inflow and Sanitary Flows are directly translated.
Ground Elevation will equal Max Depth + Invert
RDII flow data will NOT be imported.

Importing a Bentley InRoads Storm and Sanitary V8i Model into Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT
The following tables describe how various InRoads element attributes are mapped to their Bentley SewerCAD
CONNECT counterparts.
Note: You can import an InRoads file to both new and existing projects; however, you can only import to existing
projects that contain no elements in the model.
Note: If the SDB file being imported uses imperial units, you will receive a prompt asking if you want to use
Survey Feet as the unit. If so, the coordinate values for the project are set appropriately. Conversely, if the
display unit on coordinates is survey feet, then that is what is written to the SDB file on export (coordinate
values only).

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Unsupported Elements During Export


Bentley InRoads doesn't support all of the storm sewer elements. Therefore, certain elements are ignored during the
export to Bentley InRoads. When elements are ignored, User Notfications are generated for them. Following is the list
of such elements:

Variable Speed Pump Battery


Pump Station
Air Valve
LID
Pond
Pressure Pipe
Pressure Junction
Cross Section
Pond Outlet Strcuture (exported as manhole)
WetWell (exported as manhole)

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InRoads Drainage Import Dialog Box


This dialog allows you to import optional InRoads files and an InRoads Drainage Database. The dialog consists fo the
following controls:

Project Configuration: Allows you to select a project configuration.


Preferences: Click the button to open a browse dialog that allows you to select the Preferences file (.xin) to be
imported. Click the Open Preferences button to open a browse dialog that allows you to select the Preferences file
(.xin) to be imported.
Structures: Click the button to open a browse dialog that allows you to select the Structures file (.dat) to be
imported. Click the Open Structures button to open a browse dialog that allows you to select the Structures file
(.dat) to be imported.
Rainfall Data: Click the button to open a browse dialog that allows you to select the Rainfall Data file (.idf) to be
imported. Click the Open Rainfall Data button to open a browse dialog that allows you to select the Rainfall Data
file (.idf) to be imported.
InRoads Drainage Database: Click the button to open a browse dialog that allows you to select the InRoads
Drainage Database file (.sdb) to be imported. Click the Open InRoads File button to open a browse dialog that
allows you to select the InRoads Drainage Database file (.sdb) to be imported.

Importing from LandXML


You can import a model from a LandXML format .xml file. LandXML is a non-proprietary data standard for the
persistence of civil engineering and survey measurement data commonly used in the Land Development and
Transportation Industries.
Bentley SewerCAD utilizes the PipeNetworks functionality of the LandXML file. Bentley SewerCAD is primarily
concerned with the overall physical structure and connectivity of the pipe network; hence some of the available
hydrologic and hydraulic data necessary for a hydraulic analysis is not transferred during export/import.
To import a LandXML .xml file:
1. Select File > Import > LandXML.
2. In the Select LandXML File to Import dialog, browse to the LandXML file to be imported, highlight it, and click
Open.
Note: You can import a LandXML file to both new and existing projects; however, you can only import to existing
projects that contain no elements in the model.

LandXML Attribute Mappings


The following topic describes how various LandXML element attributes are mapped to their Bentley SewerCAD
counterparts.
LandXML Import
Structs
Structs are either imported as Transitions or Gravity Junctions depending on the following subelements it contains.

Struct.Connection > Becomes a CrosSection


Struct.RectStruct > Becomes a rectangular gravity junction whose shape parameters are based on:
Struct.CircStruct > Becomes a circular gravity junction whose shape parameter is based on:

Pipes

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All pipes are brought in as gravity conduits.
LandXML Export
Catchments
Ponds are ignored.
Gravity Junction (CatchBasins or Manholes)

Circular > Struct.CircStruct


Box > Struct.RectStruct
Elevation (Invert) > Struct.elevSump
Elevation (Rim) > Struct.elevRim
Hydraulic Grade Line (In) > Struct.StructFlow.hglIn
Hydraulic Grade Line (Out) > Struct.StructFlow.hglOut

CrossSection > Struct.Connection

Elevation (Invert) > Struct.elevSump


Elevation (Top) > Struct.elevRim
Hydraulic Grade Line > Struct.StructFlow.hglIn
Hydraulic Grade Line > Struct.StructFlow.hglOut

PondOutletStructure > Struct.Connection

Elevation (Invert) > Struct.elevSump


Elevation (Top) > Struct.elevRim
Hydraulic Grade Line > Struct.StructFlow.hglIn
Hydraulic Grade Line > Struct.StructFlow.hglOut

Outfall > Struct.OutletStruct

Elevation (Rim) > Struct.elevRim


Elevation (Invert) > Struct.elevSump
Hydraulic Grade Line > Struct.StructFlow.hglIn
Hydraulic Grade Line > Struct.StructFlow.hglOut

Wet Well > Struct.Connection

Elevation (Minimum) > Struct.elevSump


Elevation (Maximum) > Struct.elevRim
Hydraulic Grade Line > Struct.StructFlow.hglIn
Hydraulic Grade Line > Struct.StructFlow.hglOut

Tap > Struct.Connection

Elevation Connection (Tap) > Struct.elevRim

Conduit

Start ID > Pipe.refEnd


Stop ID > Pipe.refStart
Length (Unified) > Pipe.length
Slope > Pipe.slope
Circular > Pipe.CircPipe

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Ellipse > Pipe.ElliPipe


Rectangular > Pipe.RectPipe
Trapezoidal > Pipe.Channel
Flow > Pipe.PipeFlow.FlowIn
Hydraulic Grade Line (In) > Pipe.PipeFlow.hglUp
Hydraulic Grade Line (Out) > Pipe.PipeFlow.hglOut

Channels are exported as trapezoidal conduits


Lateral links are exported as conduits
Gutters are ignored.
Pressure Pipes are not supported

Pump > Struct.Connection


Units

Note: The units landxml project will be exported based on the unit system for new projects attribute in the
project options dialog.

Importing From MX
Drainage data can be imported from MX using the File > Import > MX Drainage menu. It can be exported to MX using
the File > Export > LandXML menu.
The following requirements must be met when using MX import:
1. MX must be installed on the computer for the import process to work, but it does not need to be running.
2. You need to have MX version 08.11.09.700 or later installed.
3. You can only import data if you are using the 32 bit version of the Storm-Sewer products. If you are using the 64 bit
version (by default you will be on a 64 bit operating system) then you will get a message telling you that the
functionality is not available. To run the 32 bit version, locate the relevant exe in Windows Explorer, and double
click it to start the product. For example, for StormCAD browse to "C:\Program Files (x86)\Bentley\StormCAD8"
then double click StormCAD.exe.
4. You can import MX Drainage data to both new and existing projects; however, you can only import to existing
projects that contain no elements in the model.
The following tables describe how the MX Drainage data is mapped on import:

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Notes:
1. An external flow in MX Drainage is imported in to the Storm-Sewer products (as a Known Flow) but the External
ToC is not. In the Storm-Sewer products, a Known Flow is considered to be a constant flow, which does not vary
with time. If you need to model a flow which does vary with time, then you can either create a catchment and attach
it to an inlet, or enter the External CA and External Tc values. These are only available for inlets, not manholes.
2. Inlet capacities in MX Drainage can be calculated using a rules file. The import process does not automatically
create the equivalent data in the Storm-Sewer products, but in many cases you can replicate it yourself - either by
using an Inlet Catalog, or by defining an Inflow-Capture Curve.
3. Headwalls in MX Drainage are imported in to the Storm-Sewer products, but their hydraulic information is not. If
the headwall represents an inlet to a culvert, then you can enter the required data as Culvert Inlet Coefficients, or
use an appropriate entry from an existing library.
4. In MX Drainage, if there is a bypass flow from an inlet, then the target inlet for that bypass flow is found (either
automatically or manually defined). This information is imported as a gutter element in the Storm-Sewer products,
and the gutter shape and dimensions are taken from the inlet where the bypass occurs. Gutter elements are only
created if a bypass flow exists. You can force this situation to occur by locking the network, and selecting a larger
storm event.

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Notes:
1. Fixture control pipes are not imported.
2. Offset pipes, and pipes of a constant radius, are modelled in the Storm-Sewer products by the addition of points in
the geometry collection.
3. A Conduit Catalog is created when MX Drainage data is imported, using the information in the pipe library, and the
pipes then use the data from this catalog. The Conduit Catalog does not include information from the MX Drainage
Open Channel or Culvert Barrel libraries, so the relevant information for these types of conduit is added to the
individual conduits.

Notes:
1. Transition elements are not imported.
2. Offset open channels, and open channels of a constant radius, are modelled in the Storm-Sewer products by the
addition of points in the geometry collection.

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Note: If a subcatchment in MX Drainage uses the Kinematic Wave equation, then this information is imported if
the subcatchment is 100 % pervious or impervious. If it isn't, then the resulting Time of Concentration calculated
by MX Drainage is imported.
Transferring Rainfall Data from MX Drainage to the Bentley Storm-Sewer Products
Rainfall data can be exported from MX Drainage in IDF format using the Scheme > Export > LandXML menu. This
creates an XML file, and also a CSV file which contains the rainfall data in IDF format. To use this data in a StormSewer product, go to Components > Storm Data, and create a new User Defined IDF Table. Make sure the units for the
Duration column are minutes (right click on the column and click Units and Formatting if they're not). Finally, click the
Import icon and browse to the CSV file to import the data. This will import a series of storm events - one for each of
the return periods. You can then select the storm event you want to use in the Components > Global Storm Events
dialog.
MX Drainage Import Dialog Box
This dialog lets you choose the MX Drainage scheme to import, and specify the locations of the various libraries.
Scheme Name: select the scheme to import from the list.
Styles: Select the paths for the MX public, project, and private styles folders. If you are running MX, then these paths
are read from the MX project file (*.mmd). If MX is not running, then by default the paths to the project and private
styles folders will both be set to the same path, which is that of the \styles folder for the MX project. You can use the
browse buttons to manually set any paths which are not correct.

Importing From MicroDrainage


You can import a model from a MicroDrainage .sws / .fws / .ews file.
Bentley SewerCAD is primarily concerned with the overall physical structure and connectivity of the pipe network;
hence some of the available hydrologic and hydraulic data necessary for a hydraulic analysis is not transferred during
import.
To import a MicroDrainage file:
1. Select File > Import > MicroDrainage.

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2. In the Select MicroDrainage File dialog, browse to the file to be imported, highlight it, and click Open.
Note: You can import a MicroDrainage file to both new and existing projects; however, you can only import to
existing projects that contain no elements in the model.
The following table shows how the pipe attributes are mapped to Bentley SewerCAD elements and attributes:
Pipeline Variable

Attribute

Mapping

PipeLabel

Label on Conduit

kRoughness (mm)

Darcy-Weisbach roughness
on Conduit

PipeNumber

Applied to local conduit


description

Length (mm)

Length (User Defined) on


Conduit

Area (ha)

Imported as the User


Defined Area of the
upstream catchment to the
current conduit. If the area
is 0, then no catchment will
be created.

Diameter (mm)

Imported as the local


diameter on the current
conduit

Time of Concentration
(min)

Imported as the single User


Defined Tc for the
catchment.

15

Base Flow (lps)

If the value is greater than 0


then will be applied as a
fixed flow applied to the
wet weather inflow
collection list

17

Upstream Invert Level (m)

Will be the start invert of


the current pipe.

21

Upstream Cover Level (m)

Will be the ground


elevation of the start
manhole of the current
conduit.

24

Downstream Invert Level


(m)

Will be the stop invert of


the current pipe.

101

Notes

Set invert to start is set to


false.

Set invert to stop is set to


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Pipeline Variable

Attribute

Mapping

25

Downstream Cover Level


(m)

Will be the ground


elevation of the stop
manhole of the current
conduit.

26

Upstream Manhole Number Applied to the label of the


If the label contains
start manhole of the current "Outfall" or is blank then
conduit.
the node will be imported as
an outfall, otherwise it will
be imported as a manhole.

27

Downstream Manhole
Number

Applied to the label of the


stop node of the current
conduit.

30

Upstream Manhole
Diameter (mm)

Represents the diameter of


the start node if the node
structure is circular, or the
length if the structure is
rectangular

31

Downstream Manhole
Diameter (mm)

Represents the diameter of


the stop node if the node
structure is circular, or the
length if the structure is
rectangular

32

Upstream Manhole Width


(mm)

Represents the Width of the If the value is 0 then the


rectangular structure of the structure is circular,
start node.
otherwise it is rectangular.

33

Downstream Manhole
Width (mm)

Represents the Width of the If the value is 0 then the


rectangular structure of the structure is circular,
stop node.
otherwise it is rectangular.

41

Upstream Easting (m)

The x coordinate of the start


node.

42

Upstream Northing (m)

The y coordinate of the start


node.

43

Downstream Easting (m)

The x coordinate of the stop


node.

44

Downstream Northing (m)

The y coordinate of the stop


node.

102

Notes

If the label contains


"Outfall" or is blank then
the node will be imported as
an outfall, otherwise it will
be imported as a manhole.

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Pipeline Variable

Attribute

Mapping

53

Manhole Sump Depth (mm) Subtracted from the lowest


adjacent invert of the start
node to compute the invert
of the start node.

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Mannings N

Notes

Applied to the Mannings


value on the conduit.

Importing From GEOPAK


In SewerGEMS V8i, support has been added to import and export GEOPAK drainage project data. SewerGEMS V8i
leverages the GEOPAK runtime, so this support is only available in MicroStation with a GEOPAK license. Import and
export of GeoPAK drainage files only works in an integrated environment of SewerGEMS V8i/GeoPAK/MicroStation.
A GEOPAK drainage project consists of three files:
1. GPF file for drainage preferences
2. DLB file which is the drainage library
3. GDF file which contains the drainage project data
Note: There are two variants of PowerCivil - "PowerCivil for North America" and "PowerCivil <for Country>".
For help on data transfer with PowerCivil for North America, refer to the topics on GEOPAK, and for help on
PowerCivil <for Country>, refer to the topics on InRoads.
As with any independent set of applications, there is not a perfect mapping of the data from one system to the other.
The differences are described below.
Importing GEOPAK Drainage Files
You can create a SewerGEMS V8i model by importing a GEOPAK drainage project. If you are in the same DGN file
that contains the element references to the GEOPAK drainage file, the geometries for the areas and links will be
derived from the MicroStation elements. If not, then the geometries will be limited to whatever is available in the GDF
file.
SewerGEMS V8i utilizes the following mappings between GEOPAK for importing:
Library Objects:

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Note: For grate in sag, the length and width for SewerGEMS V8i are computed from the grate area and perimeter.

For the elements the following mappings are used:

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Note: For junction loss equations and reduction, the SewerGEMS V8i method will be set to Absolute with a loss
value of 0.0.

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Other values that may not necessarily map directly into SewerGEMS V8i are brought in as User Defined Attributes.
Some of these attributes include Network Name, Pay Items and Pay Item Descriptions. These attributes can be used in
FlexTables, Queries and Reports in SewerGEMS V8i.
Exporting to GEOPAK Drainage Files
You can create or update a GEOPAK Drainage File library and drainage file using this command. If the StormCAD
project was created using GEOPAK import, you will be prompted if you want to sychronize back to those files.
Otherwise, you can create these files from scratch.
Note that you are prompted for two files, first is the DLB or drainage library in GEOPAK, second is the GDF or
GEOPAK drainage file. There are also no MicroStation elements created from this export command, only the file data
is written.
The mapping is the inverse of that described above.
Note: Headwalls are exported to GEOPAK but the hydraulic information is not, so you may need to review the
data and adjust it if you need to do further hydraulic calculations in GEOPAK. For example, if the headwall
represents a culvert inlet, you may need to specify the inlet characteristics.
Additional
There are two additional commands available as keyins only. You can import and export only library data (storm data,
conduits catalogs and inlet catalogs) using these commands.

Exporting Data
You can export your Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT data as a SWMM .INP file, you can export all or a part of a
model as a submodel, or export the graphical representation of your model as a .DXF file.

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Click one of the following links to learn more:

Exporting a .DXF File (on page 112)


Exporting a Submodel (on page 113)
Exporting to SWMM 5 (on page 112)
Exporting to Bentley InRoads Storm and Sanitary V8i (on page 113)
Exporting to Shapefile (on page 113)
Exporting to LandXML (on page 114)

Exporting a .DXF File


A project can be saved in .dxf format for use by AutoCAD and other CAD-based applications. When you use the
Export command, you first specify the drive, directory, and file name of the .DXF file to be saved; then the Export to
DXF Layer Settings window opens, allowing you specify the names of the .dxf layers on a per-element type basis.
The Export to DXF Layer Settings dialog is divided into tabs for Link Layers, Node Layers, and Polygon Layers.

Each tab contains a table that allows you to specify a prefix and suffix for the associated dxf layer. The Preview field
displays how the label will appear.
Note that specifying a prefix or suffix also creates new layers for each prefix/suffix. If no prefix or suffix is specified all
links/nodes/polygons will be exported to the same DXF layer.
The Link Layers tab has additional controls: Entering a value in the Pipe Size Significant Digits field allows you to
organize the pipe layer into multiple layers taking the pipe sizes into account using the Layer by Pipe Size checkbox.

Exporting to SWMM 5
You can export your Bentley SewerCAD model data to a SWMM 5 .INP file.
To export the current project to a SWMM 5 file:

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1. Select File > Export > SWMM v5.
2. In the Select SWMM v5 File to Export dialog that appears, browse to the directory that you want to save the file to.
3. Type the name of the .INP file, then click Save.
Note: Only catchments using the EPA SWMM Runoff Method will be exported using this command.

Exporting a Submodel
You can export any portion of a model as a submodel for import into other projects. Input data is also stored in the file
that is created in the process of Exporting a Submodel. This input data will be imported following a label-matching
strategy for any element, alternative, scenario, calculation option or supporting data in the submodel. For more
information about input data transfer, see Importing a Submodel (on page 76).
To export a submodel
1. In the drawing view, highlight the elements to be exported as a submodel. To highlight multiple elements, hold
down the Shift key while clicking elements.
2. Click the File menu and select Export...Submodel.
3. In the Select Submodel File to Export dialog box, specify the directory to which the file should be saved, enter a
name for the submodel and click the Save button.
Note: User-defined data is not transferred during submodel import and export operations.

Exporting to Bentley InRoads Storm and Sanitary V8i


You can export your Bentley SewerCAD model data to a InRoads Drainage file (.sdb).
Note: If the model has conduits with user defined lengths, the InRoads plan length will be set to the Bentley
SewerCAD pipe length.
To export the current project to an InRoads Drainage file:
1. Select File > Export > InRoads.
2. In the Export to InRoads dialog that appears, browse to the directory that you want to save the file to.
3. Type the name of the .sdb file, then click Save.

Exporting to Shapefile
It is possible to export model elements and data to create a shapefile. Unlike the other export features in Bentley
SewerCAD , the export to shapefile operation occurs in a FlexTable as opposed to the File > Export menu. Shapefiles
must be created one element type at a time. That means there will be a separate shapefile to junctions, pipes, tanks, etc.
To create a shapefile, open the FlexTable for the type of element. Use selection sets or filtering to reduce the size of the
FlexTable to what is desired in the shapefile. Use the table edit feature to eliminate any columns that are not desired.
When the FlexTable is in the correct form, pick the first button at the top left of the table which is the Export button. A
drop down list will appear, pick Export to Shapefile. The user is asked for the name of shapefile and path. When the
user names the file and hits Save, the dialog below appears.

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It is important to ensure that any shapefile field names are less than or equal to 10 characters. The default name for
shapefile field is the name of the column in the FlexTable. (If the user changes the name to something different from
the FlexTable column name, the editor remembers it when other shapefiles are created from this table.) Once the names
are acceptable, hit OK to create the shapefile. A shapefile consisting of .dbf, .shx and .shp files are created.

Exporting to LandXML
You can export a model to LandXML format. See Importing from LandXML (on page 95) and LandXML Attribute
Mappings (on page 95) for information about the data that will be exported.
To export the current project to a LandXML .xml file:
1. Select File > Export > LandXML.
2. Type the name of the xml file , then click Save.
3. You may now open the .xml file in another program.

Exporting to MicroDrainage
You can export a model to MicroDrainage .sws format.
To export the current project to a MicroDrainage .sws file:
1. Select File > Export > MicroDrainage.
2. If there is more than one network, select the outfall for the network to export.
3. In the Select MicroDrainage File dialog, type the name of the sws file , then click Save.
Notes on exporting data:
Outfalls
All outfalls can be selected. Headwalls which serve as outfalls can also be selected.

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All outfalls are exported with label "Outfall"


Outfalls are exported with circular structures with a 0 mm diameter
The ground elevation is exported as a cover level
The invert of the outfall is ignored

Laterals

All laterally connected catchments will be consolidated and applied to start node of the reference conduit
All laterally connected fixed\constant loads will be consolidated and applied to the start of lateral's reference pipe

Catchments

All catchments associated with the start node of the pipe as well as all laterally connected catchments associated
with the pipe are consolidated into a single catchment
Each area is multiplied by its runoff coefficient, and the resultant values are summed
The longest Tc of each of the catchment is applied to the Time of Concentration attribute of the Micro Drainage
Pipe

Manholes

All manholes, transitions, catch basins, and non-outfall headwalls will be exported as MicroDrainage manholes
The MicroDrainage manhole will have the same label as the Bentley element
The shape data will exported as follows: For Manholes, and Catch Basins - the diameter is exported if the structure
is circular, otherwise the length and width are exported if the structure is rectangular. For Transitions and Headwalls
- they are exported as circular structures with a diameter of zero.
The ground elevation is exported as the cover level
The Sump Depth is determined based on the distance of lowest adjacent pipe invert to the invert of the structure
Only constant loads on the Wet Weather Inflow collections on the node are summed and exported as the base flow
on the downstream pipe

Conduits

The label of the exported conduit is based on the UK dendritic numbering mechanism of branch pipe
The diameter of the pipe is exported
The Manning's n is exported to the Manning's n property
The active length of the pipe (User Defined or Scaled) is exported to the length property of the conduit
The Upstream and Downstream invert levels are exported based on the active invert levels of the conduit
Upon export all conduits will be oriented from upstream to downstream towards the outfall

Unsupported Elements

Links - these types of link are excluded from the export: Channels, Gutters, and Pressure Pipes
Nodes and Polygons - these types of nodes and polygons cannot be present in the network: Cross Sections, Pond
Outlet Structures, Pumps, Wet Wells, Ponds, and Pressure Junctions

Long Term Continuous Simulations in SewerGEMS V8i Using the SWMM Engine
SewerGEMS and CivilStorm can now more easily leverage SWMM's ability to run simulations over very long
durations (years vs. days). Here are few notes to keep in mind when attempting to work through the process.
Rainfall

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Commonly, LTCS's are used to test sewer models with many years worth of rainfall data. Although, you can manually
enter in this data directly into the Storm Data Group Library, CivilStorm and SewerGEMS now have the capability to
reference external rainfall files when using the SWMM engine. This functionality eliminates the necessity of entering
years worth of rainfall data into the CivilStorm/SewerGEMS Storm Libraries and allows you to directly access rainfall
stored in many common formats including:

DSI-3240
DSI-3260
HLY03, HLY21
FIF21
And a generic SWMM specific format which works as follows where each line of the file contains the station ID,
year, month, day, hour, minute, and non-zero precipitation reading, all separated by one or more spaces

STA01 2004 6 12 00 00 0.12


STA01 2004 6 12 01 00 0.04
STA01 2004 6 22 16 00 0.07
For more information on how SWMM utilizes external rain files see the SWMM user manual section 11.3 here: http://
www.epa.gov/ednnrmrl/models/swmm/epaswmm5_user_manual.pdf
When setting up a reference to a rainfall file in the Storm Data dialog, note that not all data is required for all data
types. For example when using the SWMM specific format, you will need to set the Rain Data File Type, the Station ID
and the interval, for other file types this data may be implicit in the file. Also, if the Rain Data File contains multiple
stations you can create multiple references to the same file, by clicking the add button in the Rain File Storm Data
section.
Note: Rainfall Files only work when using the SWMM engine.
Runoff Calculations
The SWMM engine only directly supports the EPA-SWMM runoff method when computing runoff off of catchments.
When using other runoff methods, the hydrographs are computed using a separate engine and passed into the SWMM
engine as opposed to the SWMM engine computing the hydrographs directly. Therefore, it is highly recommended, if
not necessary in most cases to use the EPA-SWMM runoff method when performing a LTCS for these reasons:
1. You will be able to take into account Climate Data, Snow Melt, and Groundwater, all of which play a more active
role in runoff computations over longer durations.
2. When computing the hydrographs independently of SWMM you are restricted to 32,000 points per catchment. This
may require you to use larger time steps than desired to span larger periods of time.
3. If you have many catchments with large number of runoff points, not using the EPA-SWMM runoff method could
overly bloat the SWMM input data.
When running a LTCS with a SewerGEMS/CivilStorm model using the SWMM engine, you can save considerable
time during the overall runs by saving the calculated hydrology data using a Runoff Interface file through the SWMM
calc options. This procedure is useful, once catchment and rainfall data has been well established in the model and only
data associated with the sewer needs adjusting. To perform the procedure.
1. In the SWMM Calculation Options change the Runoff File Mode from None to Save, and select a location to save
the Runoff File.
2. Compute the model.
3. Change the Runoff File Mode from Save to Use.

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From now on when you compute the model SWMM will use the runoff hydrographs stored in the Runoff File instead
of recomputing them. Obviously, if any of your catchment or climate data changes you will need to rebuild the Runoff
File.
Restricting Results
Running a LTCS with the SWMM engine has the potential to generate an unwieldy amount of results. In some cases it
might be worthwhile to restrict results generated to a few proxy elements then for every element in the model,
especially for very large models over long periods of time. You can do this by setting the Catchments, Nodes, and
Links Results Type in the SWMM calculation options. You can set the type to either All Results, No Results, or choose
a selection set. If the Selection Set is chosen, results will be generated for elements of the appropriate type in the
selection set.

Copying and Pasting Data To and From Tables


This topic describes the best practices used to copy and paste data from and to the various tables.
Copying data from a table
There are generally 3 ways to copy data from tables:
1. The first is to highlight (or select) the data by clicking in the top-left corner of the table. This will highlight all the
data in the table including the column headers. When you use the windows short combination, CTRL-C, it will copy
the highlighted data to the windows clipboard. The data copied will include the column headers and the rows below
it. This also includes the last row which is blank. It will not copy the row headers.
2. The second approach is to highlight the columns. This is similar to the first approach except it does not highlight the
row headers. When you use the CTRL-C combination it will again copy the header data along with the row data
including the last blank row.
3. The best approach for copying the data is to highlight just the rows you want to copy without highlighting the
column headers. To do this you can just click on the first row and drag your mouse down while holding the left
mouse button. This will highlight the table. When you use the CTRL-C combination in this case it will copy only
the data that you want. The column and row headers will not be copied. You can also use the CTRL-<left click>
approach to copy non-consecutive rows.
Pasting data into a table
When you paste data into one of our tables you want to make sure you do not include any header data. If you include
any non-numerical data a row will be inserted and the default values for the columns will be used in place of any text or
non-numerical data that was pasted.
Note: We advise that you delete any rows containing "0" values that may be inadvertently created during a copypaste operation.

Using Modelbuilder
ModelBuilder lets you use your existing GIS asset to construct a new model or update an existing model. ModelBuilder
supports a wide variety of data formats, from simple databases (such as Access and DBase), spreadsheets (such as
Excel or Lotus), GIS data (such as shapefiles, coverages, Esri ArcGIS Geodatabases, and ArcGIS Geometric
Networks), to high end data stores (such as Oracle, and SQL Server), Bentley dgn and dgndb files, and more.
Using ModelBuilder, you map the tables and fields contained within your data source to element types and attributes in
your model. The result is that a model is created, either in stand-alone mode or in an existing ArcMap project.

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Note: ModelBuilder lets you bring a wide range of data into your model. However, some data is better suited to
the use of the more specialized Bentley SewerGEMS V8i modules. For instance, LoadBuilder offers many
powerful options for incorporating loading data into your model.
ModelBuilder is the first tool you will use when constructing a model from GIS data. The steps that you take at the
outset will impact how the rest of the process goes. Take the time now to ensure that this process goes as smoothly and
efficiently as possible. The following topics are included:

Preparing to Use ModelBuilder

Determine the purpose of your model--Once you establish the purpose of your model, you can start to make
decisions about how detailed the model should be.
Get familiar with your data--If you obtained your GIS data from an outside source, you should take the time to get
acquainted with it. Review spatial and attribute data directly in your GIS environment. Do the nodes have
coordinate information, and do the pipes have start and stop nodes specified? If not, the best method of specifying
network connectivity must be determined.
Contact those involved in the development of the GIS to learn more about the GIS tables and associated attributes.
Find out the purpose of any fields that may be of interest, ensure that data is of an acceptable accuracy, and
determine units associated with fields containing numeric data.
Ideally, there will be one GIS source data table for each Bentley StormCAD V8i element type. This isnt always the
case, and there are two other possible scenarios:
Many GIS tables for one element type--In this case, there may be several tables in the GIS/database corresponding
to a single GEMS modeling element . In this case each data source table must be individually mapped to the Bentley
StormCAD V8i element, or the tables must be combined into a single table in the GIS/database before running
ModelBuilder.
One GIS table containing many element types--In this case, there may be entries that correspond to several Bentley
StormCAD V8i modeling elements in one GIS/database table. You should separate these into individual tables
before running ModelBuilder. The one case where a single table can work is when the features in the table are
ArcGIS subtypes. ModelBuilder handles these subtypes by treating them as separate tables when setting up
mappings. See Subtypes (on page 133) for more information. If you are working with an ArcGIS data source, see
Esri ArcGIS Geodatabase Support for additional information.
Preparing your data--When using ModelBuilder to get data from your GIS into your model, you will be associating
rows in your GIS to elements in Bentley StormCAD V8i. Your data source needs to contain a Key/Label field that
can be used to uniquely identify every element in your model. The data source tables should have identifying
column labels, or ModelBuilder will interpret the first row of data in the table as the column labels. Be sure data is
in a format suited for use in ModelBuilder. Use powerful GIS and Database tools to perform Database Joins, Spatial
Joins, and Update Joins to get data into the appropriate table, and in the desired format.

Note: When working with ID fields, the expected model input is the Bentley StormCAD V8i ID. After creating
these items in your Bentley StormCAD V8i model, you can obtain the assigned ID values directly from your
Bentley StormCAD V8i modeling file. Before synchronizing your model, get these Bentley StormCAD V8i IDs into
your data source table (e.g., by performing a database join).
One area of difficulty in building a model from GIS data is the fact that unless the GIS was created solely to support
modeling, it most likely contains much more detailed information than is needed for modeling. This is especially true
with regard to the number of piping elements. It is not uncommon for the GIS to include every service line and hydrant
lateral. Such information is not needed for most modeling applications and should be removed to improve model run
time, reduce file size, and save costs.

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ModelBuilder Connections Manager


ModelBuilder is available within both the Stand-Alone and ArcMap client interfaces. To access the ModelBuilder
Connections Manager:

In Stand-Alone: Click the Tools menu and select the ModelBuilder command.
In ArcMap: Click the Bentley StormCAD V8i menu, click the Tools menu, then select the ModelBuilder command.

The ModelBuilder Connections manager allows you to create, edit, and manage ModelBuilder connections to be used
in the model-building/model-synchronizing process.
At the center of this window is the Connections List which displays the list of connections that you have defined.
There is a toolbar located along the top of the Connections list.
The set of buttons on the left of the toolbar allow you to manage your connections:
New

Create a new connection using the


ModelBuilder Wizard.

Edit

Edit the selected connection using the


ModelBuilder Wizard.

Rename

Rename the selected connection.

Duplicate

Create a copy of the selected


connection.

Delete

Permanently Remove the selected


connection.

The button on the right of the toolbar allows you to either build or synchronize a model. Click the menu arrow
associated with this button to access the following options:

Build New Model--Starts the ModelBuilder build process using the selected connection. You will be prompted to
interactively specify a new filename.
Synchronize Existing Model--Starts the ModelBuilder synchronize process using the selected connection. You will
be prompted to interactively specify an existing Bentley StormCAD V8i model filename.

Note: If you set up a ModelBuilder mapping to an Access mdb, it requires a primary key for that table.
After specifying your target, ModelBuilder will perform the selected operation. During the process, a progress-bar will
be displayed indicating the step that ModelBuilder is currently working on.

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When ModelBuilder completes, you will be presented with a summary window that outlines important information
about the build process. We recommend that you save this summary so that you can refer to it later.

Specify Datasource Location


This dialog allows you to specify the associated datasource when you import a ModelBuilder connection.file (.mbc).
Click the Browse button to open a windows Open dialog, allowing you to select the datasource.

ModelBuilder Wizard
The ModelBuilder Wizard assists in the creation of ModelBuilder connections. The Wizard will guide you through the
process of selecting your data source and mapping that data to the desired input of your model.
The ModelBuilder Wizard can be resized, making it easier to preview tables in your data source. In addition, Step 1 and
Step 3 of the wizard offer a vertical split bar, letting you adjust the size of the list located on the left side of these pages.
There are 6 steps involved; click the links below for more information.

Step 1-Specify Data Source


In this step, the data source type and location are specified. After selecting your data source, the desired database tables
can be chosen and previewed.

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The following fields are available:

Data Source type (drop-down list)This field allows you to specify the type of data you would like to work with. If
your specific data source type is not listed in the Data Source type field, try using the OLE DB data source type.
OLE DB can be used to access many database systems (including ORACLE, and SQL Server, to name a few).
Data Source (text field)This read-only field displays the path to your data source.
Browse (button)This button opens a browse dialog box that allows you to interactively select your data source.
Some Data Source types expect you to choose more than one item in the Browse dialog box. For more information,
see Multi-select Data Source Types-190.
Table/Feature Class (list)This pane is located along the left side of the form and lists the tables/feature classes
that are contained within the data source. Use the check boxes (along the left side of the list) to specify the tables
you would like to include.
The list can be resized using the split bar (located on the right side of the list). Right-click to Select All or Clear the
current selection in the list.
Duplicate Table (button)

The duplicate table button is located along the top of the Table/Feature Class list. This button allows you to make
copies of a table, which can each be mapped to a different element type in your model. Use this in conjunction with
the WHERE clause.
Remove Table (button)

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The remove table button can be used to remove a table from the list.
WHERE Clause (field)Allows you to create a SQL query to filter the tables. When the box is checked, only tables
that meet the criteria specified by the WHERE clause will be displayed. Click the

button to validate the query and to refresh the preview table.


Preview PaneA tabular preview of the highlighted table is displayed in this pane when the Show Preview check
box is enabled.

Note: If both nodes and pipes are imported in the same ModelBuilder connection, nodes will be imported first
regardless of the order they are listed here.
Note: When running within Bentley Map, a new entry will appear in the ModelBuilder Datasource combobox
called "Bentley Map". Select that to import and export any available data sets that live in the currently open
Bentley Map file.

Step 2-Specify Spatial Options


In this step you will specify the spatial options to be used during the ModelBuilder process. The spatial options will
determine the placement and connectivity of the model elements. The fields available in this step will vary depending
on the data source type.

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Specify the Coordinate Unit of your data source (drop-down list)This field allows you to specify the coordinate
unit of the spatial data in your data source. The default unit is the unit used for coordinates.
Create nodes if none found at pipe endpoint (check box)When this box is checked, ModelBuilder will create a
pressure junction at any pipe endpoint that: a) doesnt have a connected node, and b) is not within the specified
tolerance of an existing node. This field is only active when the Establish connectivity using spatial data box is
checked. (This option is not available if the connection is bringing in only point type geometric data.)
ModelBuilder will not create pipes unless a valid start/stop node exists. Choose this option if you know that there
are nodes missing from your source data. If you expect your data to be complete, then leave this option off and if
this situation is detected ModelBuilder will report errors for your review. For more information see Specifying
Network Connectivity in ModelBuilder (on page 134).
Establish connectivity using spatial data (check box)When this box is checked, ModelBuilder will connect pipes
to nodes that fall within a specified tolerance of a pipe endpoint. (This option is available if the connection is
bringing in only polyline type geometric data.) Use this option, when the data source does not explicitly name the
nodes at the end of each pipe. For more information, see Specifying Network Connectivity in ModelBuilder (on
page 134).
Tolerance (numeric field)This field dictates how close a node must be to a pipe endpoint in order for connectivity
to be established. The Tolerance field is only available when the Establish connectivity using spatial data box is
checked. (This option is available if the connection is bringing in only polyline type geometric data.) Tolerances
should be set as low as possible so that unintended connections are not made. If you are not sure what tolerance to
use, try doing some test runs. Use the Network Review queries to evaluate the success of each trial import. Pipes
will be connected to the closest node within the specified tolerance.
The unit associated with the tolerance is dictated by the Specify the Coordinate Unit of your data source field. For
more information, see Specifying Network Connectivity in ModelBuilder (on page 134).

Step 3 - Specify Element Create/Remove/Update Options


Because of the variety of different data sources and they way those sources were created, the user has a wide variety of
options to control the behavior of ModelBuilder.

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How would you like to handle synchronization between source and destination?:

Add objects to destination if present in source (check box)-When this box is checked, ModelBuilder will
automatically add new elements to the model for "new" records in the data source when synching in (or vice-versa
when synching out).
This is checked by default since a user generally wants to add elements to the model (especially if this is the initial
run of ModelBuilder). This should be unchecked if new elements have been added to the source file since the model
was created but the user does not want them in the model (e.g. proposed piping).
Remove objects from destination if missing from source (check box)-When this box is checked, ModelBuilder will
delete elements from the model if they do not exist in the data source when synching in (or vice-versa when
synching out). This option can be useful if you are importing a subset of elements.
This is used if abandoned pipes have been deleted from the source file and the user wants them to automatically be
removed from the model by ModelBuilder.
Update existing objects in destination if present in source (check box) - If checked, this option allows you to control
whether or not properties and geometry of existing model elements will be updated when synching in (or vice-versa
when synching out). Turning this option off can be useful if you want to synchronize newly added or removed
elements, while leaving existing elements untouched.

If an imported object refers to another object that does not yet exist in the model, should ModelBuilder:

Create referenced element automatically? (check box)-When this box is checked, ModelBuilder will create any
domain and/or support elements that are referenced during the import process.

Note: These options listed above apply to domain elements (pipes and nodes) as well as support elements (such
as Zones or Controls).

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Step 4-Additional Options

How would you like to import incoming data? (drop-down list) - This refers to the scenario (and associated
alternatives) into which the data will be imported. The user can import the data into the Current Scenario or a new
child scenario. If the latter is selected, a new child scenario (and child alternatives) will be created for any data
difference between the source and the active scenario. If there is no data change for a particular alternative, no child
alternative will be created in that case.
New scenario and alternatives will be automatically labeled "Created by ModelBuilder" followed by the date and
time when they were created.
Specify key field used during object mapping (drop-down list) - The key field represents the field in the model and
data source that contains the unique identifier for associating domain elements in your model to records in your data
source. Refer to the "Key Field (Model)" topic in the next section for additional guidance on how this setting applies
to ModelBuilder. ModelBuilder provides three choices for Key Field:

The following options only apply when using the advanced GIS-IDs key field option.

If several elements share the same GIS-IDs, then apply updates to all of them? (check box) - When using the GISIDs option, ModelBuilder allows you to maintain one-to-many, and many-to-one relationships between records in
your GIS and elements in your Model.
For example, you may have a single pipe in your GIS that you want to maintain as multiple elements in your Model
because you have split that pipe into two pipes elements in the model. You may accomplish this using the native
Bentley SewerCAD layout tools to split the pipe with a node; the newly created pipe segment will be assigned the
same GIS-IDs as the original pipe (establishing a one-to-many relationship). By using this option, when you later
synchronize from the GIS into your model, any data changes to the single pipe record in your GIS can be cascaded
to both pipes elements in your model (e.g. so a diameter change to a single record in the GIS would be reflected in
both elements in the model).

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How would you like to handle add/removes of elements with GIS-IDs mappings on subsequent imports? - These
options are useful for keeping your GIS and Model synchronized, while maintaining established differences.

Note: This setting only applies if the "Remove objects from destination if missing from source" option is checked.
When you do make connectivity changes to your model, it is often beneficial to make those same changes to the GIS.
However, this is not always possible; and in some cases is not desirable -- given the fact that Modeling often has highly
specialized needs that may not be met by a general purpose GIS.

Step 5-Specify Field mappings for each Table/Feature Class


In this step, data source tables are mapped to the desired modeling element types, and data source fields are mapped to
the desired model input properties. You will assign mappings for each Table/Feature Class that appears in the list; Step
1 of the wizard can be used to exclude tables, if you wish.

Tables (list)-This pane, located along the left side of the dialog box, lists the data source Tables/Feature Classes to
be used in the ModelBuilder process. Select an item in the list to specify the settings for that item. The tables list
can be resized using the splitter bar.
There are two toolbar buttons located directly above Tables list (these buttons can be a great time saver when setting
up multiple mappings with similar settings).
Settings Tab-The Settings tab allows you to specify mappings for the selected item in the Tables list.
The top section of the Settings tab allows you to specify the common data mappings:
Element Types-This category of Table Type includes geometric elements represented in the drawing view such as
conduits, catch basins, manholes, etc.
Components-This category of Table Type includes the supporting data items in your model that are potentially
shared among elements such as patterns, pump definitions, and controls.

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Collections-This category of Table Type includes table types that are typically lists of 2-columned data. For
instance, if one table in your connection consists of a list of (Time From Start, Multiplier) pairs, use a Pattern
collection table type selection.
Key Field (Data Source) (drop-down list)-Choose the field in your data source that contains the unique identifier for
each record. If you plan to maintain synchronizations between your model and GIS, it is best to define a unique
identifier in your data source for this purpose. Using an identifier that is unique across all tables is critical if you
wish to maintain explicit pipe start/stop connectivity identifiers in your GIS.
When working with ArcGIS data sources, OBJECTID is not a good choice for Key field (because OBJECTID is
only unique for a particular Feature Class). For one-time model builds -- if you do not have a field that can be used
to uniquely identify each element -- you may use the <label> field (which is automatically generated by
ModelBuilder for this purpose).
Key Field (Model) (drop-down-list) - This field is only enabled if you specified <custom> in the "Specify key field
to be used in object mapping?" option in the previous step. If you specified "GIS-IDs' or "Label" the field will be
disabled.
If you specified <custom>, then you will be presented with a list of the available text fields for that element type.
Choose a field that represents the unique alphanumeric identifier for each element in your model. You can define a
text User Data Extensions property for use as your <custom> model key field.
The <custom> key field list is limited to read-write text fields. This is because during import, the value of this field
will be assigned as new elements in your model are created. Therefore, the models internal (read-only) element ID
field cannot be used for this purpose.
Start/Stop - Select the fields in a pipe table that contain the identifier of the start and stop nodes. Specify <none> if
you are using the spatial connectivity support in ModelBuilder (or if you want to keep connectivity unchanged on
update). For more information, see Specifying Network Connectivity in ModelBuilder. When working with an
ArcGIS Geometric Network data source, these fields will be set to <auto> (indicating that ModelBuilder will
automatically determine connectivity from the geometric network).
X/Y Field - These fields are used to specify the node X and Y coordinate data. This field only applies to point table
types. The Coordinate Unit setting in Step 2 of the wizard allows you to specify the units associated with these
fields.
When working with ArcGIS Geodatabase, shape file and CAD data sources, these fields will be set to <auto>
(indicating that ModelBuilder will automatically determine node geometry from the data source).
Suction Element (drop-down list)-For tables that define pump data, select a pipe label or other unique identifier to
set the suction element of the Pump.
Downstream Edge (drop-down list)-For tables that define pump or valve data, select a pipe label or other unique
identifier to set the direction of the pump or valve.
Field - Field refers to a field in the selected data source. The Field list displays the associations between fields in the
database to properties in the model.
Property (drop-down list)-Property refers to a Bentley Bentley SewerCAD property. Use the Property drop-down
list to map the highlighted field to the desired property.
Unit (drop-down list)-This field allows you to specify the units of the values in the database (no conversion on your
part is required). This field only applies if the selected model property is unitized.
Preview Tab-The Preview tab displays a tabular preview of the currently highlighted source data table when the
Show Preview check box is checked.

To map a field in your table to a particular Bentley Bentley SewerCAD property:


1. In the Field list, select the data source field you would like to define a mapping for.
2. In the Property drop-down list, select the desired Bentley Bentley SewerCAD target model property.
3. If the property is unitized, specify the unit of this field in your data source in the Unit drop-down list.
To remove the mapping for a particular field:

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1. Select the field you would like to update.
2. In the Property drop-down list, select <none>.

Step 6-Build operation Confirmation


In this step, you are prompted to build a new model or update an existing model.

To build a new model, click the Yes radio button under Would you like to build the model now?.
If you choose No, you will be returned to the ModelBuilder Manager dialog. The connection you defined will appear in
the list pane. To build the model from the ModelBuilder Manager, highlight the connection and click the Build Model
button.
Create Selection Set options: Often a user wants to view the elements that have been affected by a ModelBuilder
operation. To do this, ModelBuilder can create selection sets which the user can view and use within the application.
To create a selection set containing the elements added during the ModelBuilder, check the box next to "Create
selection set with elements added".
To create a selection set containing the elements for which the properties or geometry were modified during the
ModelBuilder, check the box next to "Create selection set with elements modified."
Note: Selection sets created as a result of these options will include the word "ModelBuilder" in their name,
along with the date and time (e.g. "Elements added via ModelBuilder - mm/dd/yyyy hh:mm:ss am/pm").

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GIS-IDs
All domain elements in StormCAD V8i have an editable GIS-IDs property which can be used for maintaining
associations between records in your source file and elements in your model. These associations can be one-to-one,
one-to-many, or many-to-one.
ModelBuilder can take advantage of this GIS-IDs property, and has advanced logic for keeping your model and GIS
source file synchronized across the various model to GIS associations.
The GIS-IDs is a unique field in the source file which the user selects when ModelBuilder is being set up. In contrast to
using Label (which is adequate if model building is a one time operation) as the key field between the model and the
source file, a GIS-IDs has some special properties which are very helpful in maintaining long term updating of the
model as the data source evolves over time.
In addition, StormCAD V8i will intelligently maintain GIS-IDs as you use the various tools to manipulate elements
(Delete, Morph, Split, Merge Nodes in Close Proximity).

When an element with one or more GIS-IDss is deleted, ModelBuilder will not recreate it the next time a
synchronization from your GIS occurs if the "Recreate elements associated with a GIS-IDs that was previously
deleted from the model" option is left unchecked.
When an element with one or more GIS-IDss is morphed, the new element will preserve those GIS-IDss. The
original element will be considered as "deleted with GIS-IDss", which means that it will not be recreated by default
(see above).
When a link is split, the two links will preserve the same GIS-IDss the original pipe had. On subsequent
ModelBuilder synchronizations, any data-change occurring for the associated record in the GIS can be cascaded
into all the split link segments (see Step 4--Additional Options (on page 125)).
When nodes in close proximity are merged, the resulting node will preserve the GIS-IDss of all the nodes that were
removed. On subsequent ModelBuilder synchronizations into the model, if there are data-update conflicts between
the records in the GIS associated with the merged node in the model, updates from the first GIS-IDs listed for the
merged node will be preserved in the model. Note that in this case, the geometry of the merged node can't be
updated in the model. For synchronizations going from the model to the GIS, data-updates affecting merged-nodes
can be cascaded into all the associated records in the GIS (see Step 4--Additional Options (on page 125)).

To support these relationship (specifically one to many), GIS-IDs are managed as a collection property (capable of
holding any number of GIS identifiers).
A variety of model element(s) to GIS record(s) associations can be specified:

If the GIS-IDs collection is empty, there is no association between the GIS and this element.
If there is a single entry, this element is associated with one record in the GIS.
If there are multiple entries, this element is associated with multiple records in the GIS.
More than one element in the model can have the same GIS-IDs, meaning multiple records on the model are
associated with a single record in the GIS.

Note: You can also manually edit the GIS-IDs property to review or modify the element to GIS association(s).

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GIS-IDs Collection Dialog Box

This dialog box allows you to assign one or more GIS-IDs to the currently selected element.

Reviewing Your Results


At the end of the ModelBuilder process, you will be presented with statistics, and a list of any warning/error messages
reported during the process. You should closely review this information, and be sure to save this data to disk where you
can refer to it later.
Note: Refer to the section titled ModelBuilder Warnings and Error Messages-189 (on page 131) to determine
the nature of any messages that were reported.

Multi-select Data Source Types


When certain Data Source types are chosen in Step 1 of the ModelBuilder Wizard (see Step 1--Specify Data Source
(on page 120)), multiple items can be selected for inclusion in your ModelBuilder connection.
After clicking the Browse button to interactively specify your data source, use standard Windows selection techniques
to select all items you would like to include in the connection (e.g., Ctrl+click each item you would like to include).
The following are multi-select Data Source types:

ArcGIS Geodatabase Features


Shapefiles
DBase, HTML Export, and Paradox.

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Exporting X/Y Coordinates


StormCAD V8iX/Y coordinates can be exported to an external data tables, such as spreadsheets, using ModelBuilder.
1. Add fields to the external data table to accept the coordinate data.
2. In Step 5--Specify Field mappings for each Table/Feature Class (on page 126) of the ModelBuilder Wizard, click
the No radio button under Build Model Now?, then click Finish.
3. In the ModelBuilder Manager, highlight the connection and click the Sync Out button.

ModelBuilder Warnings and Error Messages


Errors and warnings that are encountered during the ModelBuilder process will be reported in the ModelBuilder
Summary.
For more information, see:

Warnings (on page 131)


Error Messages (on page 131)

Warnings
Warning messages include:
1. Some rows were ignored due to missing key-field values. - ModelBuilder encountered missing data (e.g., null or
blank) in the specified Key/Label field for rows in your data source table. Without a key, ModelBuilder is unable to
associate this source row with a target element, and must skip these items. This can commonly occur when using a
spreadsheet data source. To determine where and how often this error occurred, check the Statistics page for the
message <x> row(s) ignored due to missing key-field values.
2. Unable to create pipe <element>; start and/or stop node could not be found. - Pipes can only be created if its start
and stop nodes can be established. If you are using Explicit connectivity, a node element with the referenced start or
stop label could not be found. If you are using implicit connectivity, a node element could not be located within the
specified tolerance. For more information, see Specifying Network Connectivity in ModelBuilder-195.
3. Unable to update pipe <element> topology; (start or stop) node could not be found. - This error occurs when
synchronizing an existing model, and indicates that the pipe connectivity could not be updated. For more
information, see warning message #2 (above).
4. The downstream edge for <element> could not be found. - ModelBuilder was unable to set a Pump direction
because a pipe with the referenced label could not be found.
5. Directed Node <element> direction is ambiguous.
6. ModelBuilder was unable to set the direction of the referenced pump or valve because direction could not be
implied based on the adjacent pipes (e.g. there should be one incoming and one outgoing pipe).

Error Messages
ModelBuilder was built using ArcObjects, and supports the following Esri ArcGIS Geodatabase functionality. See your
ArcGIS documentation for more information about ArcObjects. For more information, see:

Geodatabase Features (on page 132)


Geometric Networks (on page 132)
ArcGIS Geodatabase Features versus ArcGIS Geometric Network (on page 132)

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Subtypes (on page 133)


SDE (Spatial Database Engine) (on page 133)

Esri ArcGIS Geodatabase Support


ModelBuilder was built using ArcObjects, and supports the following Esri ArcGIS Geodatabase functionality. See your
ArcGIS documentation for more information about ArcObjects. For more information, see:

Geodatabase Features (on page 132)


Geometric Networks (on page 132)
ArcGIS Geodatabase Features versus ArcGIS Geometric Network (on page 132)
Subtypes (on page 133)
SDE (Spatial Database Engine) (on page 133)

Geodatabase Features
ModelBuilder provides direct support for working with Geodatabase features. A feature class is much like a shapefile,
but with added functionality (such as subtypes).
The geodatabase stores objects. These objects may represent nonspatial real-world entities, such as manufacturers, or
they may represent spatial objects, such as pipes in a network. Objects in the geodatabase are stored in feature classes
(spatial) and tables (nonspatial).
The objects stored in a feature class or table can be organized into subtypes and may have a set of validation rules
associated with them. The ArcInfo system uses these validation rules to help you maintain a geodatabase that
contains valid objects.
Tables and feature classes store objects of the same typethat is, objects that have the same behavior and attributes.
For example, a feature class called WaterMains may store pressurized water mains. All water mains have the same
behavior and have the attributes ReferenceID, Depth, Material, GroundSurfaceType, Size, and PressureRating.

Geometric Networks
ModelBuilder has support for Geometric Networks, and a new network element type known as Complex Edge. When
you specify a Geometric Network data source, ModelBuilder automatically determines the feature classes that make up
the network. In addition, ModelBuilder can automatically establish model connectivity based on information in the
Geometric Network.

ArcGIS Geodatabase Features versus ArcGIS Geometric Network


Note: See your ArcGIS documentation for more information about Geometric Networks and Complex Edges.
When working with a Geometric Network, you have two options for constructing your modelif your model contains
Complex Edges, then there is a distinct difference. A Complex Edge can represent a single feature in the Geodatabase,
but multiple elements in the Geometric Network.
For example, when defining your Geometric Network, you can connect a lateral to a main without splitting the main
line. In this case, the main line will be represented as a single feature in the Geodatabase but as multiple edges in the
Geometric Network.
Depending on the data source type that you choose, ModelBuilder can see either representation. If you want to include
every element in your system, choose ArcGIS Geometric Network as your data source type. If you want to leave out

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laterals and you want your main lines to be represented by single pipes in the model, choose ArcGIS Geodatabase
Features as your data source type.

Subtypes
Shapefiles can be converted into Geodatabase Feature Classes if you would like to make use of Subtypes. See your
ArcGIS documentation for more information.
If multiple types of Bentley SewerCAD elements have their data stored in a single geodatabase table, then each element
must be a separate ArcGIS subtype. For example, in a valve table PRVs may be subtype 1, PSVs may be subtype 2,
FCVs may be subtype 3, and so on. With subtypes, it is not necessary to follow the rule that each GIS/database feature
type must be associated with a single type of GEMS model element. Note that the subtype field must be of the integer
type (e.g., 1, 2) and not an alphanumeric field (e.g., PRV). For more information about subtypes, see ArcGIS Help.
ModelBuilder has built in support for subtypes. After selecting your data source, feature classes will automatically be
categorized by subtype. This gives you the ability to assign mappings at the subtype level. For example, ModelBuilder
allows you to exclude a particular subtype within a feature class, or associate each subtype with a different element
type.

SDE (Spatial Database Engine)


When importing spatial data (ArcGIS Geodatabases or shapefile data contain spatial geometry data that ModelBuilder
can use to establish network connectivity by connecting pipe ends to nodes, creating nodes at pipe endpoints if none are
found.), ModelBuilder provides two ways to specify network connectivity:

Explicit connectivitybased on pipe Start node and Stop node (see Step 4Additional Options (on page 125)).
Implicit connectivitybased on spatial data. When using implicit connectivity, ModelBuilder allows you to specify
a Tolerance, and provides a second option allowing you to Create nodes if none found (see Step 2Specify Spatial
Options (on page 122)).

The method that you use will vary depending on the quality of your data. The possible situations include (in order from
best case to worst case):

You have pipe start and stop informationExplicit connectivity is definitely the preferred option.
You have some start and stop informationUse a combination of explicit and implicit connectivity (use the Spatial
Data option, and specify pipe Start/Stop fields). If the start or stop data is missing (blank) for a particular pipe,
ModelBuilder will then attempt to use spatial data to establish connectivity.
You do not have start and stop informationImplicit connectivity is your only option. If your spatial data is good,
then you should reduce your Tolerance accordingly.
You do not have start and stop information, and you do not have any node data (e.g., you have GIS data that defines
your pipes, but you do not have data for nodes)Use implicit connectivity and specify the Create nodes if none
found option; otherwise, the pipes cannot be created.

Note: If pipes do not have explicit Start/Stop nodes and Establish connectivity using spatial data is not
checked, the pipes will not be connected to the nodes and a valid model will not be produced.
Other considerations include what happens when the coordinates of the pipe ends do not match up with the node
coordinates. This problem can be one of a few different varieties:
1. Both nodes and pipe ends have coordinates, and pipes have explicit Start/Stop nodes. In this case, the node
coordinates are used, and the pipe ends are moved to connect with the nodes.
2. Nodes have coordinates but pipes do not have explicit Start/Stop nodesThe nodes will be created, and the
specified tolerance will be used to connect pipe ends within this tolerance to the appropriate nodes. If a pipe end

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does not fall within any nodes specified tolerance, a new node can be created using the Create nodes if none found
option.
3. Pipe ends have coordinates but there are no junctionsNew nodes must be created using the Create nodes if none
found option. Pipe ends are then connected using the tolerance that is specified.
Another situation of interest occurs when two pipes cross but arent connected. If, at the point where the pipes cross,
there are no pipe ends or nodes within the specified tolerance, then the pipes will not be connected in the model. If you
intend for the pipes to connect, then pipe ends or junctions must exist within the specified tolerance.

Specifying Network Connectivity in ModelBuilder


When importing spatial data (ArcGIS Geodatabases or shapefile data contain spatial geometry data that ModelBuilder
can use to establish network connectivity by connecting pipe ends to nodes, creating nodes at pipe endpoints if none are
found.), ModelBuilder provides two ways to specify network connectivity:

Explicit connectivity--based on pipe Start node and Stop node (see Step 4--Additional Options (on page 125)).
Implicit connectivity--based on spatial data. When using implicit connectivity, ModelBuilder allows you to specify
a Tolerance, and provides a second option allowing you to Create nodes if none found (see Step 2--Specify Spatial
Options (on page 122)).

The method that you use will vary depending on the quality of your data. The possible situations include (in order from
best case to worst case):

You have pipe start and stop information--Explicit connectivity is definitely the preferred option.
You have some start and stop information--Use a combination of explicit and implicit connectivity (use the Spatial
Data option, and specify pipe Start/Stop fields). If the start or stop data is missing (blank) for a particular pipe,
ModelBuilder will then attempt to use spatial data to establish connectivity.
You do not have start and stop information--Implicit connectivity is your only option. If your spatial data is good,
then you should reduce your Tolerance accordingly.
You do not have start and stop information, and you do not have any node data (e.g., you have GIS data that defines
your pipes, but you do not have data for nodes)--Use implicit connectivity and specify the Create nodes if none
found option; otherwise, the pipes cannot be created.

Note: If pipes do not have explicit Start/Stop nodes and Establish connectivity using spatial data is not
checked, the pipes will not be connected to the nodes and a valid model will not be produced.
Other considerations include what happens when the coordinates of the pipe ends do not match up with the node
coordinates. This problem can be one of a few different varieties:
1. Both nodes and pipe ends have coordinates, and pipes have explicit Start/Stop nodes--In this case, the node
coordinates are used, and the pipe ends are moved to connect with the nodes.
2. Nodes have coordinates but pipes do not have explicit Start/Stop nodes--The nodes will be created, and the
specified tolerance will be used to connect pipe ends within this tolerance to the appropriate nodes. If a pipe end
does not fall within any nodes specified tolerance, a new node can be created using the Create nodes if none found
option.
3. Pipe ends have coordinates but there are no junctions--New nodes must be created using the Create nodes if none
found option. Pipe ends are then connected using the tolerance that is specified.
Another situation of interest occurs when two pipes cross but arent connected. If, at the point where the pipes cross,
there are no pipe ends or nodes within the specified tolerance, then the pipes will not be connected in the model. If you
intend for the pipes to connect, then pipe ends or junctions must exist within the specified tolerance.

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ModelBuilder Data Source Format


Note: Database formats (such as MS Access) are preferable to simple spreadsheet data sources. The sample
below is intended only to illustrate the importance of using expected data formats.
Here are two examples of possible data source tables. The first represents data that is in the correct format for an easy
transition into ModelBuilder, with no modification. The second table will require adjustments before all of the data can
be used by ModelBuilder.
Label

Roughness_C

Diam_in

Length_ft

Material_ID

Subtype

P-1

120

120

P-2

110

75

P-3

130

356

P-4

100

10

729

The table above is superior to the table below in that it clearly identifies the units that are used for unitized attribute
values, such as length and diameter. Unless you are very familiar with your data source, unspecified units can lead to
errors and confusion.
P-1

120

120

PVC

Phase2

P-2

110

66

75

DuctIron

Lateral

P-3

130

356

PVC

Phase1

P-4

100

83

729

DuctIron

Main

P-5

100

1029

DuctIron

Main

In the table above, no column labels have been specified. ModelBuilder will interpret the first row of data in the table
as the column labels, which can make the attribute mapping step of the ModelBuilder Wizard more difficult unless you
are very familiar with your data source setup.
The table above is also storing the Material and Subtype attributes as alphanumeric values, while ModelBuilder uses
integer ID values to access this input. This data is unusable by ModelBuilder in alphanumeric format, and must be
translated to an integer ID system in order to read this data

Handling Collection and Curve Data in Modelbuilder


ModeBuilder has the ability to import Collection and Curve data, such as pump curves, hydrographs, and IDF curves,
among others. In the model, these data types are always associated to either Domain elements (pumps, pipes, ...) or
Components (pump definitions, hydrographs, ...). You can just import the collection data, and ModelBuilder will create
a default domain/component element if it doesn't yet exist, and if the creation option to automatically create referenced
elements is enabled. But a better technique would be to import the domain/component element from an external table,
and then import the collection data into those created domain/component elements. This gives you the ability to import
the most amount of detail.

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The external tabular data for a collection curve must have a label field, where the label field contains string values that
match the label of the associated domain/component element. For example, if two pattern curves are defined in an
external table, the table would look something like the following:
Sample Tabular Data
Label

Time from Start

Multiplier

Order

Normal

1.2

.8

Normal

1.7

.7

Normal

12

.2

Normal

17

.5

High

1.0

High

19

.85

High

12

.65

This would assign 4 entries to the 'Normal' pattern, and 3 entries to the 'High' pattern. The Order field is optional, and is
discussed below. The same approach applies to nodes, for such things as a variable area tank curve, or junction
demands. In these cases, the label field would contain the name of the node that collection entries are being added into.
ModelBuilder also includes an advanced feature to allow precise ordering of the collection records. For some
collections, the order of the records does not matter and this feature isn't needed. For other cases, order of the records is
meaningful. For these types of collections, there is a Sort By Field in the ModelBuilder mapping form. By default, it
uses the record order as the records exist in the external data source. If the records are not ordered correctly in the data
source, then the external table must have an additional field that contains numeric values. These values will represent
the order that the records should be imported. So for the above example data, normally the records would be imported
in the order entered (5, 19, then 12 for the High pattern). However the user can set the Sort By Field in the
ModelBuilder form to use the 'Order' external field, and this will import the records based on either Ascending 'Order'
values (5, 12, 19) or Descending 'Order' values (19, 12, 5).

Oracle as a Data Source for ModelBuilder


StormCAD V8i makes it possible to import data to create a model from an Oracle database. To use this database, the
user must have Oracle 11g Client software installed on the same computer in which StormCAD V8i is running and it
must be connected t the Oracle Server.
The user needs to understand the nature of the data stored in Oracle and the way it is stored. For example, the user must
know if the data are stored as simple tabular data or whether the data are spatial data associated with polygons, lines,
and points. The user needs to decide which fields in the database are to be imported into StormCAD V8i.
It is possible to connect to an Oracle database from StormCAD V8i using any supported CAD/GIS platform. Start
ModelBuilder the same as with any other data source (see ModelBuilder Connections Manager (on page 119)).
However, when the user browses for a data source some additional information is required.
When the user Browses for an Oracle datasource, ModelBuilder opens an Oracle login form. The user can enter just a
service name if they have setup an alias on their system for the Oracle datasource. The user should contact their
administrator for details on how to setup this alias. Otherwise, the user must enter all of the connection information,

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which includes the computer/host that Oracle is running on, the network port number that Oracle is using, and the raw
Oracle service name. Again, the user should contact their administrator for those details. The user must also supply a
valid Oracle username and password to log into the data source.

On the mapping form in ModelBuilder, there is a Generator (Sync out) combo-box. The user only needs to select a
sequence generator in this box if they plan to sync out to Oracle and have ModelBuilder create new records in Oracle.
The Oracle sequence generator is an object that is created in Oracle by the administrator. It allows Oracle to create
records with unique Oracle identifiers, which is may be required when creating new records. ModelBuilder will display
the available sequence generators that are available for use.

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Using ModelBuilder to Import Time Series Data


Time Series data maps onto the following two table types in ModelBuilder: Time Series, and Time Series Collection.
The "Time Series" mapping represents entries in the TreeView along the left of the form (including the simple "Start
Date Time", "Element", and "Notes" values shown on the right). The "Time Series Collection" mapping represents the
tabular data shown in the table at the bottom right of the form.
Export Sample Time Series Data
To automatically determine the appropriate values for handling Pipe Flow time series data, we're going to first export a
sample from Bentley SewerCAD to Excel.
Note: We recommend that you choose MSAccess over MSExcel if possible; there is no explicit way to specify the
data-type of a column in Excel, which can result in some problems.
1. First, create a sample Pipe Flow time series in Bentley SewerCAD .
2. Next, create a new Excel .xls file. We'll need two "sheets" to receive the data (the default "Sheet1" and "Sheet2"
will do).
3. Time Series: This is the more difficult of the two Excel sheets we need to set up. To determine the columns to
define in Excel, create a temporary ModelBuilder connection and get to the "Specify Field Mappings" step (you
won't be saving this connection, so to get past Step 1 of the Wizard, just pick any data source). Navigate to this step,
choose the Time Series table type, and click on the "Property" drop-down field.
4. Click on the Sheet1 tab in Excel to define the necessary columns for the "Time Series" table (You don't need all of
these columns for Flow Data, but go ahead and define them all to be sure we don't miss any that are required for
your use-case).

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5. Time Series Collection: Again, get to the "Specify Field Mappings" step in ModelBuilder, choose the "Time Series
Collection" table type, and click on the "Property" drop-down field to determine the columns to define.
6. Click on the Sheet2 tab in Excel and define the necessary columns for the "Time Series Collection" table.
7. Save and close your spreadsheet
Define the ModelBuilder Connection
Now we're ready to create the ModelBuilder connection to this spreadsheet
1. Open ModelBuilder and create a new Connection. In step 1 of the Wizard, choose "Excel" as the data source type,
browse to the Excel spreadsheet that you created to select it. You should see Sheet1 and Sheet2 in the list of
available tables, select those (and unselect any others that appear).
2. Navigate through the next few steps, just use the defaults there.
3. When you reach the Mapping Step, set things up for Sheet1 and Sheet2.
4. Navigate to the end of the Wizard.
5. On the last step, click "No" for the "Would you like to build a model now?" prompt and click [Finish].
Synchronize Out from ModelBuilder
1. Choose the connection you just defined (be sure to close the Excel spreadsheet you just defined), and click the Sync
Out toolbar button.
2. The sample time series data from Bentley SewerCAD will now be available in the Excel spreadsheet you created.
Using that as a go-by, you should be able to enter the data in the appropriate format to import in to Bentley
SewerCAD .

Integrating with Bentley Map


To integrate Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT with Bentley Map, follow these steps:
1. Open the Project Configuration File for Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT that has been copied to the Microstation
"Examples" workspace subfolder in a text editor. (MicroStation V8i default: "c:\ProgramData\Bentley\Workspace
\Projects\Examples\)
2. Navigate to the configuration section labeled "Integrate Map application with Microstation",

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3. Removing the comment character (#) from the marked lines.

4. Save the configuration file.


5. Restart Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT for Microstation.

Creating Your Model


Click one of the following links to learn how to create your model using the layout and editing tools:

Elements and Element Attributes (on page 141)


Adding Elements to Your Model (on page 246)
Connecting Elements (on page 248)
Manipulating Elements (on page 256)
Editing Element Attributes (on page 264)
Changing the Drawing View (on page 270)
Using Selection Sets (on page 273)
Using the Network Navigator (on page 280)

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Using Prototypes (on page 283)


Engineering Libraries (on page 284)
Minor Loss Coefficients (on page 287)
Using the Totalizing Flow Meter (on page 289)
Inlet Catalog Dialog Box (on page 293)
Gutter Catalog Dialog Box (on page 301)
Conduit Catalog Dialog Box (on page 303)
Vortex Valves (on page 309)
Using the SWMM Solver (on page 311)
Low Impact Development Controls (on page 341)
Adding Hyperlinks to Elements (on page 349)
Queries Manager (on page 352)
Creating Queries (on page 354)
Controls (on page 359)
User Data Extensions (on page 371)
External Tools (on page 380)
Hydraulic Reviewer Tool (on page 381)
TRex Wizard (on page 385)
Property Grid Customizations (on page 386)
Element Property Inferencing (on page 388)
i-Models (on page 395)
Automatic Design (on page 398)

Elements and Element Attributes


You use the Layout toolbar to add elements to your model and edit the attributes of elements using the Property Editor,
one of the dockable managers in Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT stand-alone editor.
To learn about the different elements available in Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT, click one of the following links:

Link Elements (on page 142)


Catch Basins (on page 158)
Manholes (on page 923)
Junctions (on page 166)
Cross Sections (on page 166)
Outfalls (on page 185)
Catchments (on page 216)
Ponds (on page 944)
Pond Outlet Entrances (on page 167)
Pumps (on page 941)
Wet Wells (on page 943)
Pressure Junctions (on page 166)
Pump Stations (on page 211)
Variable Speed Pump Battery (on page 209)
Air Valves (on page 234)
Other Tools (on page 245)

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Link Elements

Link elements connect the other elements to form the sewer network. The link elements are the conveyance elements
that carry flow through the network to its eventual discharge point at an outlet. You can add any of the following link
elements to your model, depending on the link elements location within the network:

Pressure pipes
Conduits
Laterals
Channels
Gutters

When you click the Layout tool on the Layout toolbar, you select the type of link element to add (pressure pipe,
conduit, channel, lateral, or gutter), then select an element. You can place multiple elements with different kinds of
connections using the Layout tool.
Related Topics

Entering Additional Data to Link Elements (on page 142)


Pressure Pipe Attributes (on page 1025)
Conduit Attributes (on page 1028)
Channel Attributes (on page 1042)
Gutter Attributes (on page 1050)
Depth Width Curve Dialog Box (on page 152)
What Happens When the Water Level Exceeds the Top Elevation of an Open Channel? (on page 156)
How Do Cross Section Nodes Control the Shape of Channel Cross-Sections? (on page 156)

Entering Additional Data to Link Elements


There are several dialog boxes that are available from the Property Editors that let you enter additional data for link
elements.

Defining a Control Structure in a Conduit (on page 143)


Adding a Minor Loss Collection to a Pressure Pipe (on page 148)
Defining the Geometry of a Link Element (on page 149)
Defining the Cross-Sectional Shape of a Link Element (on page 150)
Defining Mannings n vs. Depth Curves (on page 307)
Defining Mannings n vs. Flow Curves (on page 308)

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Defining a Control Structure in a Conduit


In Bentley SewerCAD , you can attach a control structure, such as a weir or orifice, at either the upstream end or the
downstream end of a conduit, or at both ends of the conduit. A control can also have a flap gate which allows flow to
travel in only one direction. You define control structures for conduits in the Conduit Control Structures dialog box,
which is accessible from the Property Editor for a conduit.
Note: For more information about control structures in Bentley SewerCAD , see Flow Control Structures-357.
To define a control structure in a conduit:
1. Click a conduit in your model to display the Property Editor, or right-click a conduit and select Properties from the
shortcut menu.
2. If the conduit has a start control structure, do the following:
3. In the Physical: Control Structure section of the Property Editor for the conduit, select the type of start control
structure by selecting Side or Inline from the Start Control Structure Type submenu.
4. If the conduit contains a start control structure, set the Has Start Control Structure? field to True.
5. If the control structure contains a flap gate, set the Flap Gate field to True.
6. If the conduit contains a stop control structure, set the Has Stop Control Structure? field to True.
7. To define a control structure, click the Ellipses (...) button next to the Start Control Structure field and/or the Stop
Control Structure, then perform the following steps:
8. In the Conduit Control Structure dialog box, click the New button, then select the type of control structure you want
to create from the submenu (Functional, Orifice, Depth-Flow Curve, or Weir).
9. For a Functional control structure, specify whether the structure has a flap gate or not, then enter values for Crest
Elevation, Coefficient, and Exponent.
10. For an Orifice control structure, specify whether the structure has a flap gate or not, enter values for Crest Elevation
and Orifice Coefficient, select the Orifice Type (Bottom Outlet or Side Outlet) and Orifice Shape (Circular or
Rectangular), then enter values for Diameter for a Circular orifice or Height and Width for a Rectangular orifice.
11. For a Depth-Flow Curve orifice, specify whether the structure has a flap gate or not, enter a value for Crest
Elevation, then enter Depth and Flow values in the Depth-Flow table.
12. For a Weir control structure, specify whether the structure has a flap gate or not, enter values for Crest Elevation,
Weir Coefficient, and Structure Top Elevation, then select the Weir Type (Inline, Side, V-Notch, or Trapezoidal)
and enter values for the selected Weir Type.
13. Repeat Steps a - e for each additional component you want to add to the control structure, then click Close.
14. Perform the following optional steps:
15. To delete a component from the control structure, select the item in the list pane then click Delete.
16. To rename a control structure, select the control structure you want to rename, click Rename, then type the new
name.
17. To view a report on the control structure, click Report.
18. To view a graph of a Depth-Flow curve, click Graph above the Depth-Flow curve table.
Conduit Control Structure Dialog Box
The Conduit Control Structure dialog box lets you add and edit control components to the control structure of a conduit.
Note: Only one control structure can be assigned to a conduit.

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New

Lets you create a new component for


your control structure. These
attributes are Functional , Orifice ,
Depth-Flow Curve , and Weir .

Delete

Lets you delete the selected attribute.

Rename

Lets you rename the control structure.


By default, the structure is given a
unique name, but you can set any
other unique name that you prefer.

Duplicate

This button allows you to create a


copy of the currently highlighted
control structure.

Expand All

Expands all of the branches in the


hierarchy displayed in the list pane.

Collapse All

Collapses all of the branches in the


hierarchy displayed in the list pane.

Report

Lets you create and view a report of


the control structure.

Depending on the type of control structure you select, the Conduit Control Structure dialog box contains the following
controls:
Functional
Has Flap Gate?

Select this check box if the component includes a flap


gate, clear it if not. When checked, reverse flow is not
allowed through the structure.

Crest Elevation

The structure elevation at which flow starts to occur.

Depth or Head?

Define flow as a function of either freeboard depth or


head across the outlet.

Coefficient

Set the coefficient.

Exponent

Set the exponent.

Orifice
Crest Elevation

Set the orifice crest elevation.

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Functional
Has Flap Gate?

Select this check box if the component includes a flap


gate, clear it if not. When checked, reverse flow is not
allowed through the structure.

Orifice Coefficient

Set the coefficient.

Time to Open/Close

The time to open a closed (or to close an open) gated


orifice. If 0 then time is not applied to the simulation.

Orifice Type

Select the type of orifice from the drop-down list: Side


Outlet or Bottom Outlet . A Bottom Outlet type refers to a
drop orifice (flow drops through it). A Side Outlet type
refers to a normal flow-by orifice

Orifice Shape

Choose a circular or rectangular orifice.

Orifice Diameter

Set the diameter of a circular orifice.

Orifice Height

Set the height for a rectangular orifice.

Orifice Width

Set the width for a rectangular orifice.

Depth-Flow Curve
Has Flap Gate?

Select this check box if the component includes a flap


gate, clear it if not. When checked, reverse flow is not
allowed through the structure.

Depth or Head?

Define flow as a function of either freeboard depth or


head across the outlet.

Depth-Flow Curve

Set the depth and flow values that define the depth-flow
curve. The depth-flow curve consists of a table of the
depth and pairs that define the depth-flow curve. Depth in
this case refers to the water depth above the invert on the
upstream side of the control structure and flow is the flow
through/over the control structure.

New

Click this button to add new rows to the depth-flow table.

Delete

Click this button to remove selected rows from the depthflow table. You can only remove one row at a time, if you
have selected more than one row, only the last row you
selected is removed

Graph

Click this button to view a graph of the Depth-Flow


curve.

Weir

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Functional
Has Flap Gate?

Select this check box if the component includes a flap


gate, clear it if does not. When checked, reverse flow is
not allowed through the structure.

Side Slope

Set the side slope of the weir.

Weir Coefficient

Set the weir coefficient, which is also known as the


coefficient of flow. This value is used to account for
variables that are not otherwise directly accounted for in
the weir equation (e.g., vena contracta). The weir
coefficient is unitless for V-Notch weirs, with a standard
value around 0.58. The weir coefficient is unitized for the
other weir types.

Structure Top Elevation

Set the structure top elevation for the weir.

Weir Type

Select the type of weir from the drop-down list: inline,


side, V-notch, or trapezoidal.

Number of Contractions

Set the number of contractions for an inline weir. This


field is available only when you select Inline Weir as the
Weir Type.

Weir Length

Set the length of the weir.

Weir Angle

Set the weir angle for a V-notch weir. This field is


available only when you select V-Notch Weir as the Weir
Type.

Weir End Coefficient

Discharge coefficient for flow through the triangular ends


of a trapezoidal weir. Typical values are 2.4 - 2.8 US
(1.35 - 1.55 SI). This field is available only when you
select Trapezoidal Weir as the Weir Type.

Weir Side Slope

Set the slope of the side of a trapezoidal weir. This field is


available only when you select Trapezoidal Weir as the
Weir Type.

SWMM Label

This is the weir link label used in the SWMM solver.

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Functional
Can Surcharge

This option specifies how the calculation is performed if


the weir opening is surcharged (submerged). If "True" is
selected the solver switches the flow calculation from the
weir equation to orifice equation when the weir opening is
submerged and the weir equation is always used if the
"False" is selected. This option does not apply to a weir
that is part of a pond outlet structure since in that case a
group of EQT (Pond Elevation - Outlet flow - Tail water
elevation) curves are pre-generated and used in the pond
calculations.

Note: The implicit solver may not be able to handle a structure when its crest elevation is higher than the pipes'
crown elevation.
A note on the V-Notch weir coefficient with SWMM:
In Bentley SewerCAD the weir coefficient (Cv) is Unitless and has a typical value around 0.58. However, in SWMM
the v-notch weir coefficient (C) is unitized. In order to account for this the unitless value is converted to the unitized
value upon export using the following equation.
C = (8/15)*Sqrt(2*g) * Cv
Alternativly, on import from SWMM C is converted to Cv:
Cv = (15/8) * C/(Sqrt(2*g))

Depth-Flow Curve Dialog Box


The Depth-Flow Curve dialog box lets you enter points on a depth-flow curve for a conduit control structure.
The dialog box contains the depth vs. flow table and the following controls:
New

This button creates a new row in the


depth-flow table.

Delete

This button deletes the currently


highlighted row from the depth-flow
table.

Report

Opens a print preview window


containing a report that details the
input data for this dialog box.

Help

Opens the online help.

The table contains the following columns:

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Column

Description

Depth

Lets you define the depth of the curve point.

Flow

Lets you define the flow in the conduit at the specified


depth.

Adding a Minor Loss Collection to a Pressure Pipe


Pressure pipes can have an unlimited number of minor loss elements associated with them. Bentley SewerCAD
provides an easy-to-use table for editing these minor loss collections in the Minor Loss Collection dialog box.
Note: For more information on minor losses, see Minor Losses-356.
To add a minor loss collection to a pressure pipe:
1. Click a pressure pipe in your model to display the Property Editor, or right-click a pressure pipe and select
Properties from the shortcut menu.
2. In the Physical: Minor Losses section of the Property Editor, click the Ellipses (...) button next to the Minor Loss
Coefficient field.
3. In the Minor Loss Collection dialog box, each row in the table represents a single minor loss type and its associated
headloss coefficient. For each row in the table, perform the following steps:
4. Type the number of minor losses of the same type to be added to the composite minor loss for the pipe in the
Quantity column, then press the Tab key to move to the Minor Loss column.
5. Click the Ellipses (...) button in the Minor Loss column to display the Minor Loss Libraries in the Engineering
Libraries.
6. Click the plus signs to expand the Minor Loss Libraries, then select the desired minor loss type and click the Select
button. The minor loss type and its associated headloss coefficient appears in the table in the Minor Loss Collection
dialog box. Note that the Headloss Coefficient column in the table is not editable. You can edit the values of a
minor loss type in the Engineering Libraries in the Editor pane.
7. When you are finished adding minor losses to the table, click Close. The composite minor loss coefficient for the
minor loss collection appears in the Property Editor.
8. Perform the following optional steps:
9. To delete a row from the table, select the row label then click Delete.
10. To view a report on the minor loss collection, click Report.
11. You can override the headloss coefficient for the minor loss collection by typing a custom value in the Minor Loss
Coefficient field of the Property Editor.
Minor Loss Collection Dialog Box
The Minor Loss Collection dialog box contains buttons and a minor loss table. The dialog box contains the following
controls:
New

This button creates a new row in the


table.

Delete

This button deletes the currently


highlighted row from the table.

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Report

Opens a print preview window


containing a report that details the
input data for this dialog box.

The table contains the following columns:


Column

Description

Quantity

The number of minor losses of the same type to be added


to the composite minor loss for the pipe.

Minor Loss

The type of minor loss element. Clicking the Ellipses


button next to this field displays the Minor Loss
Engineering Libraries, where you select an existing minor
loss type to be included in your minor loss collection.

Headloss Coefficient

The headloss coefficient for a single minor loss element


of the specified type.

Defining the Geometry of a Link Element


You define the geometry of a link element by entering the location and angle of bends for the selected link element.
You enter X vs. Y points that plot the shape of the polyline that represents the element in the Polyline Vertices dialog
box .
To define the geometry of a link element:
1. Click a link element in your model to display the Property Editor, or right-click a link element and select Properties
from the shortcut menu.
2. In the Geometry section of the Property Editor, click the Ellipses (...) button next to the Geometry field.
3. In the Polyline Vertices dialog box, click the New button to add a new row to the table.
4. Type values for X and Y points for each row in the table.
5. To remove rows from the table, click the Delete button.
6. Click OK.
Polyline Vertices Dialog Box
This dialog box contains the X vs. Y table that allows you to define any number of points that plot the shape of the
polyline representing the selected link element.
The dialog box contains the following controls:
New

This button creates a new row in the


table.

Delete

This button deletes the currently


highlighted row from the table.

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Defining the Cross-Sectional Shape of a Link Element


You define the cross-sectional shapes of link elements in their respective Property Editor as follows:

Define the cross-sectional shape of a conduit section by entering data in the Physical section of the elements
Property Editor.
Define the cross-sectional shape of an irregular conduit section by entering Station vs. Depth data in the StationDepth Curve dialog box.
Define the cross-sectional shape of an irregular channel or gutter section by entering Station vs. Elevation data in
the Station-Elevation Curve dialog box.
Define the cross-sectional shape of a trapezoidal channel or gutter section by entering data in the Physical section of
the elements Property Editor.
Define the circular shape of a pressure pipe by entering data in the Physical section of the elements Property
Editor.

You access the curve dialog boxes in the selected link elements Property Editor.
Note: Although you can have complex channels, the algorithm does not support split flows or bridges. If you split
the channel within the cross section, a constant water surface across the cross section is assumed.
When the elevation of the water surface exceeds the highest elevation in the table, the last two unsubmerged points are
linearly extrapolated to create a new, wider channel.
To define the cross-sectional shape of a link element:
1. Display the Property Editor for the link element:
2. For a conduit, gutter, or pressure pipe, click the link element in your model, or right-click the link element and
select Properties from the shortcut menu.
3. For a conduit or a gutter, click the link element in your model, or right-click the link element and select Properties
from the shortcut menu.
4. For a channel, click the connecting cross-section node in your model, or right-click the channel and select Properties
from the shortcut menu.
5. In the Physical section of the Property Editor for the selected link element, define the cross-section of the selected
link element as follows:
6. For a cross-section (channel link element) or a gutter, select either Trapezoidal Channel or Irregular Channel as the
Section Type. For trapezoidal channels, enter data in the appropriate fields. If you select Irregular Channel, the
Station-Elevation Curve field becomes available. Click the Ellipses (...) button next to the Station-Elevation Curve
field to display the Station-Elevation Curve dialog box, then type values for station and elevation in the table.
7. For a conduit, select a section type, then enter data in the appropriate fields. If you select Irregular Channel as the
Section Type, the Station-Depth Curve field becomes available. Click the Ellipses (...) button next to the StationDepth Curve field to display the Station-Depth Curve dialog box, then type values for station and depth in the table.
8. For a pressure pipe, which always has a circular section shape, enter data in the appropriate fields.
Station-Elevation Curve/Depth Dialog Box
This dialog box allows you to enter Station vs. Elevation data for the cross-sectional shape of a cross-section or a gutter
element, or Station vs. Depth data for the cross-sectional shape of a conduit.
The dialog box contains the station vs. elevation table along with the following controls:
New

This button creates a new row in the


station-elevation table.

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Delete

This button deletes the currently


highlighted row from the stationelevation table.

Report

Opens a print preview window


containing a report that details the
input data for this dialog box.

Graph

Opens a graph window plotting the


station-elevation curve defined by the
points in the table

The table contains the following columns:


Column

Description

Station

This field allows you to define the cross-sectional


distance at the current curve point. You can enter these in
any order that defines the channel (e.g., from left-to-right,
from right-to-left, with an upstream or downstream
perspective).

Elevation/Depth

This field allows you to define the elevation for the


current curve point for a cross-section or gutter, or depth
for a conduit. The value here is relative, i.e. you can
define it based on the bottom of the gutter being 0 feet
and the top being 1 foot, and it will perform identically as
using the actual elevation of one endpoint for the bottom
of the gutter, and the top sides of the gutter being the
bottom+1ft. This value can be a negative number.

C-Depth Table Dialog Box


This dialog box allows you to enter Depth vs. C data for a weir associated with a conduit.
The dialog box contains the Depth vs. C table along with the following controls:
New

This button creates a new row in the


Depth vs. C table.

Delete

This button deletes the currently


highlighted row from the Depth vs. C
table.

Report

Opens a print preview window


containing a report that details the
input data for this dialog box.

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Graph

Opens a graph window plotting the


Depth vs. C curve defined by the
points in the table.

The table contains the following columns:


Column

Description

Depth

This field allows you to define the depth at the current


curve point. You can enter these in any order that defines
the weir (e.g., from left-to-right, from right-to-left, with
an upstream or downstream perspective).

This field allows you to define the C value for the current
curve point.

Depth Width Curve Dialog Box


A depth-width curve is a method of describing a closed conduit that is not a standard shape. The Depth Width Curve
dialog box lets you enter points on a depth-width curve for a conduit whose Section Type is defined as Irregular Closed
Section.
The dialog box contains the depth vs. width table and the following controls:
New

This button creates a new row in the


depth-width table.

Delete

This button deletes the currently


highlighted row from the depth-width
table.

Report

Opens a print preview window


containing a report that details the
input data for this dialog box.

Graph

Opens a graph window plotting the


depth-width curve defined by the
points in the table

The table contains the following columns:


Column

Description

Elevation (Relative)

Lets you define the depth of the curve point.

Width

Lets you define the width of the conduit at a specific


depth.

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Irregular Channel
The Irregular Channel dialog box contains buttons and a station vs. elevation table. The dialog box contains the
following controls:
New

This button creates a new row in the


table.

Delete

This button deletes the currently


highlighted row from the table.

Report

Generates a preformatted report


containing the data in the table.

Help

Opens the online help.

The table contains the following columns:


Column

Description

Station

Allows you to select whether the associated values define


the Left Bank, Right Bank, or the Main Channel.

Elevation (Relative)

Allows you to define the depth at which the Manning's n


you define will be applied.

Elevation-Roughness Data Dialog Box


The Elevation-Roughness dialog box contains buttons and a elevation-roughness table. The dialog box contains the
following controls:
New

This button creates a new row in the


table.

Delete

This button deletes the currently


highlighted row from the table.

The table contains the following columns:


Column

Description

Channel Bank Location

Allows you to select whether the associated values define


the Left Bank, Right Bank, or the Main Channel.

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Column

Description

Depth

Allows you to define the depth at which the Manning's n


you define will be applied.

Mannings n

Allows you to define the Manning's n at the associated


depth.

Interpolate

Allows you to define interpolation zones for the


variations in Manning's n.

Diversion Rating Curve Dialog Box


This dialog allows you to define the rating curve using Upstream Flow vs. Diverted Flow points. The rating curve
determines the flow into the associated conduit. At each upstream flow point, you define how much of the flow is
diverted.

Profile in a Diversion Link


In both SewerCAD and StormCAD, a conduit can be designated as a diversion link by selecting "Is Diversion" as true.
In a diversion conduit link the flow is determined by a flow diversion curve that specifies the flow amount diverted
from the upstream node total inflow. The profile in the diversion link is then computed by gradually varied flow
backwater calculations, using the downstream node hydraulic grade as the downstream control elevation, and working
upstream.

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The upstream hydraulic grade in a diversion link is the result of the backwater profile calculation moving up the
diversion link, thus it has no impact on the upstream node hydraulic grade since the upstream node hydraulic grade is
determined from the primary (non-diversion) conduit profile calculation, not the diversion profile. Because of such
profile calculation treatment, sometimes a discontinuity of the diversion profile with the upstream node hydraulic grade
can be observed (i.e. the profile at the upstream end of the diversion link will be different than the profile at the
upstream end of the non-diversion link and the upstream node). Usually this difference is small.
If the diversion links upstream hydraulic grade is higher than the upstream node hydraulic grade, it indicates that either
the diverted flow is too big or the diversion conduit is undersized. The reverse case is also true. For multiple diversions,
such as those seen in a wastewater treatment plant, the multiple diversion profiles provide a clue to adjust the multiple
diversion curves so that the resulting profiles are continuously connected to the upstream node hydraulic grade. If the
upstream heads in the diversion links are significantly different than that at the upstream node, the user may wish to
modify the flow split or modify the hydraulic characteristics of the system downstream of the split.

Sections Results Dialog Box


The Section Results dialog box shows the calculated flow variables at the start, middle and end of a pipe, conduit, or
channel section. You can view the data but you cannot edit it while in the dialog.
The dialog box contains a table displaying the section results and the following control:
Report: Opens a print preview window containing a report of the sections results.
The table displays the following section results:

Section Distance
Section Velocity
Section Flow
Section Hydraulic Grade
Section Depth
Section Flow-Width
Section Flow-Area
Section Is Overflowing?
Section Froude Number

To open this dialog box, go to the Results section of the Property Editor for a pipe, conduit, or a channel after the model
has been calculated. Then click the Ellipsis (...) button in the Section Results field.
To find flow results for more than 3 points in a conduit, under Analysis -> Calculation Options, choose an appropriate
computational distance (that divides the conduit in more than 2 sections).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

To view the section results for all conduits, do the following.


Open the FlexTables for Conduits.
Click on Edit and Add the Output Options Column to the FlexTable.
Choose Global Edit & Choose Detailed Results.
Once this is done, run your model.
Now, use animation control to go to the time step you're interested in.
Click on a pipe and open the Properties grid.
Under Results, look at the "Sections Results" collection.

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What Happens When the Water Level Exceeds the Top Elevation of an Open Channel?
When the hydraulic grade line (HGL) exceeds the channel top elevation, the last width defined for the channel (or the
cross section node) is extended vertically to no limit. So there is no overflow for these. When the channel is bounded by
a manhole, overflow occurs at the manhole.

How Do Cross Section Nodes Control the Shape of Channel Cross-Sections?


When you connect a channel between two cross section nodes, the cross-section of the channel is interpolated between
the two cross section nodes. When there is only one cross-section node at either the upstream or downstream end of a
channel, then the channel will have a constant cross-section, as defined by that one cross-section node.
If there is a cross section node at each end of a channel, then the channel will start with a cross section as defined in the
upstream cross-section node, and will make a transition to the cross-section defined in the downstream cross section
node.
When you connect a channel to a conduit at a cross-section node, a transition is added between the channel and the
conduit. You can specify the type of transition in the Property Editor for the cross-section node as either Gradual or
Abrupt. If you specify Abrupt, the top width of the channel cross-section is used as the length of the transition part. If
you select Gradual, you enter a value for the Transition Length. If the Transition Length is larger than the top width of
the cross-section node, the Transition Length value is used as the length of the transition part.

Laterals
Laterals are pipes which are connected to a catchbasin at their upstream end, and either a node or another conduit at
their downstream end. When connected to a conduit (which is done through a Tap node) the crucial aspect is that
they do not break that conduit into two separate pieces.
There could be a number of lateral connections to a single trunk conduit. The flows from each lateral are assumed to
enter the network at the upstream end of the trunk conduit in the GVF Rational and GVF Convex solvers, and at the
Tap node in the SWMM solver. They are not supported in the DW solver.

Pressure Elements in the Gradually Varied Flow Solver


The Gradually Varied Flow (GVF) rational solver does not directly support pressure pipes or pressure junctions. To
runthe GVF-Rational solver on a model, the software internally converts pressure pipes and pressure junctions to
conduits and manholes during calculation, respectively. To protect the original data, the pressure pipe and pressure
junction elements are not changed in the model, only invisibly during GVF solver loading .
Pressure pipes are treated as circular conduits and are solved with Mannings equation with the following rules applied
to the converted conduit:

The converted conduit has the same diameter as the pressure pipe.
Pressure pipe roughness is converted to an equivalent conduit roughness value based on the pressure friction
method and gravity friction method as follows:
Manning's n = 1.3/C, where C is Hazen Williams C
Manning's n = 0.0952/(|ln(e/7.4 + 0.000182)|), where e is Darcy Weisbach e
Manning's n = Kutter's n
Virtual pipes are treated as physical pipes, using the original data.
Number of Barrels is set to 1.
Design Conduit is set to False.

Pressure junctions are treated as manholes with the following rules applied to the converted manhole:

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Manhole diameter is set to zero.


Manhole rim elevation is set to the highest crown elevation of connected pressure pipes.
Manhole is set to Bolted.
Manhole Design is set to False.

Gutters in the SewerCAD Gradually Varied Flow Solver


When computing with the GVF-Convex (SewerCAD) Solver, gutter surface flows are ignored and not computed. Inlet
capture calculations are not performed, and catchbasin nodes are treated as if they were a 'Full Capture' inlet type
(see Inlet Type (on page 159)). Therefore, no bypass gutter flow exists. This also means that, like manholes,
catchments with a catch basin outflow node accept all runoff.

Parabolic Gutters in the SewerGEMS Dynamic Wave Solver


The Dynamic Wave solver approximately models a gutter as a depth vs. width rating table based channel. Therefore,
the solved depth and spread results for the gutter link will not be as accurate as the StormCAD Gradually Varied FlowRational solver implementation of HEC-22 gutters.
Note: When gutter is connected to a catchbasin with an inlet type for which depth and spread arent calculated,
some results will be reported as N/A.

Cross Sections in the Gradually Varied Flow Solver


For a node, the Flow (In) result is all flows from incoming pipes, but does not include local inflow into the node. It is
otherwise the same as Flow (Out) since the Gradually Varied Flow calculations have no storage effect.
The following input data will not be used by the GVF-Rational Solver, and user notifications will be generated on
compute or validate:

Roughness Type: If the Roughness Type is a value of Manning's n - Depth Curve or Manning's n -Flow Curve.
Transition Type: If the Transition Type is Gradual and the Transition Length is greater than zero.

Pipe-Arch and Arch Conduit Shapes


In SewerGEMS and CivilStorm for the Implicit and Explicit solvers you have the option of the "Arch" shape type. This
is simply defined by a rise and span. For the Explicit solver you have the additional option of the Arch Data Type.
In SewerCAD and StormCAD for the GVF-Convex and GVF-Rational solvers you can only use a Pipe-Arch shape as a
Catalog Conduit reference. If the conduit is user defined you do not have the option of either Pipe-Arch or Arch.
If you set the conduit type to "Catalog Conduit" you can select, if available, the Pipe-Arch conduit shape which will in
turn filter any catalog conduits that are of that type.
Note that if you have SewerGEMS/CivilStorm SELECTseries 2 model which references a Pipe-Arch from the Catalog
Conduit library, upon conversion to SELECTseries 3 those references will be converted to User-Defined Arch shapes
local to each relevant conduit. The more complex Pipe-Arch shape is only supported by the Rational and GVF-Convex
engines. A validation error will occur if the Pipe-Arch shape is used with the Implicit or Explicit engines.
Conversely, if you set up a StormCAD or SewerCAD SELECTseries 3 model (or within SewerGEMS or CivilStorm
using the appropriate GVF solver) and the conduit is set to user defined with the Arch conduit shape you will get an
error message that will prevent the model from computing. If you receive this error, change the conduit to catalog
conduit and select a pipe-arch reference.

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Tractive Force Design


To determine if there is sufficient tractive stress in a gravity conduit or channel, it is necessary to compare the actual
tractive stress calculated by the model with a target tractive stress required to move particles. Typical target values are
0.018 lb/sq ft or 0.87 Newtons/sq m (Pascals). Target tractive stress values can be specified globally in the calculation
options or locally for the individual conduit or channel. The model calculates that available tractive stress for each link
element and reports if the target value is exceeded for the current time step or at any time step.

Hydrograph Curve Dialog Box


This dialog lets you specify the time-flow points that describe the infiltration load for the current element.

Click New to create a new Hydrograph Time vs. Flow point for the hydrograph.
Click Delete to remove the currentlty selected row.
Click Report to open a print preview window containing a report that details the input data for this dialog box.
Click Graph to generate a graph of the hydrograph.

Catch Basins

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Catch basins convey surface water into a storm sewer pipe system. A catch basin (a.k.a., storm drain inlet, curb inlet) is
an inlet to the storm drain system that typically includes a grate or curb inlet where stormwater enters the catch basin
and a sump to capture sediment, debris and associated pollutants. They are also used in combined sewer watersheds to
capture floatables and settle some solids.
When you click the catch basin element on the Layout toolbar, your mouse cursor changes into a catch basin element
symbol. Clicking in the drawing pane while this tool is active causes a catch basin element to be placed at the location
of the mouse cursor.
CivilStorm V8i now supports HEC-22 inlet capacity calculations. You can set up inlets (grate, combination, curb
opening, etc.) and CivilStorm V8i will compute inlet capacity based on flow to the inlet, as well as inlet and gutter
geometry.
Related Topics

Adding Inflow vs. Capture Data to a Catch Basin (on page 160)
Inlet Type (on page 159)
Adding Surface Depth vs. Area Data to a Catch Basin or a Manhole (on page 163)
Catch Basin Attributes (on page 1063)

Inlet Type
The inflow to a catch basin does not all enter the basin. The flow that actually enters the basin is referred to as its
capture.
A catch basin may:

Capture all the flow that comes to it, which is referred to as full capture.
Capture all of the flow up to a maximum capacity, and you specify the maximum flow.
Capture flow in accordance with some curve called an inflow vs. capture curve. For more information on inflow vs.
capture curves, see Adding Inflow vs. Capture Data to a Catch Basin (on page 160).
When Inlet Type is set to Catalog Inlet, with the Inlet attribute you can select a Catalog Inlet reference. By
referencing a catalog inlet, the capture is computed instead of defined by the user. For more information on Catalog
Inlets see Inlet Catalog Dialog Box (on page 293).
Capture a percentage of flow that comes to it, which is referred to as "percent capture.

Any inflow that is not captured goes to a gutter. If there is no gutter, the inflow that is not captured is lost from the
system.

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Adding Inflow vs. Capture Data to a Catch Basin


You can add an Inflow vs. Capture curve to any catch basin in your model. The Inflow vs. Capture curve plots the total
inflow against the total captured flow for a series of data points that you define.
To add Inflow vs. Capture data to a catch basin:
1. Click a catch basin in your model to display the Property Editor, or right-click a catch basin and select Properties
from the shortcut menu.
2. In the Inlet section of the Property Editor, select Inflow-Capture Curve as the Inlet Type. The Inflow-Capture Curve
field becomes available.
3. Click the Ellipses (...) button next to the Inflow-Capture Curve field.
4. In the Inflow-Capture Curve dialog box, each row in the table represents a data point on the Inflow-Capture curve.
Type values for the Total Inlet Flow and Inlet Capture for each row. Click the New button to add a row or press the
Tab key to advance to the next field in the table.
5. Perform the following optional steps:
6. To delete a row from the table, select the row then click Delete.
7. To view a report on the curve, click Report.
8. To view a plot of the curve, click Graph.
9. Click OK to close the dialog box and save your curve data in the Property Editor.
Inflow-Capture Curve Dialog Box
This dialog box allows you to define Total Inflow vs. Inlet Capture tables for catchments. The dialog box contains the
inflow vs. capture table along with the following controls:
New

Creates a new row in the inflowcapture curve table.

Delete

Deletes the currently highlighted row


from the inflow-capture curve table.

Report

Opens a print preview window


containing a report that details the
input data for this dialog box.

Graph

Opens a graph window plotting the


inflow-capture curve defined by the
points in the table.

The table contains the following columns:


Column

Description

Total Inlet Inflow

Lets you define the inflow at the current curve point.


Total inlet flow is the cumulative flow from all
catchments and other loads that actually reaches the catch
basin.

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Column

Description

Inlet Capture

Lets you define the total captured flow for the current
curve point. Inlet capture is the portion of the total inlet
flow that actually enters the catch basin and is passed
downstream.

Catch Basins in the SewerCAD Gradually Varied Flow Solver


When computing with the GVF-Convex (SewerCAD) Solver, gutter surface flows are ignored and not computed. Inlet
capture calculations are not performed, and catchbasin nodes are treated as if they were a 'Full Capture' inlet type
(see Inlet Type (on page 159)). This also means that, like manholes, catchments with a catch basin outflow node
accept all runoff.

Flow (Local Surface) at Catch Basins


The "Flow (Local Surface)" attribute represents all surface flows to the inlet of a catch basin. This includes runoff flow
from catchments, flow derived from the Inflow (Wet Weather) collection on the catch basin, and upstream carry over
flow in gutters.
Sanitary Loads on Catch Basins should be added directly into the system, and should not be applied as surface flow.
SWMM Engine
Sanitary Loads will be applied to a catch basin when using the SWMM engine in a different manner depending on
which routing method (Dynamic, Kinematic, Uniform) is used.

Sanitary Loading at Catch Basins when using Kinematic, Uniform:


When using these routing methods the sanitary loading will be applied to the Catch Basin differently depending on
the inlet type, which determines whether or not the catch basin is split into two nodes upon export to SWMM.
HEC-22 in Sag, Inflow-Capture Flow Curve, Percent Capture with Non Dynamic:
For these inlet types, catch basins are split into two nodes upon export; a surface node, and a subsurface node. In
other words the sanitary loads on the catch basin will be applied to the subsurface node.
Full Capture:
If the inlet type is full capture, then the catch basin will be exported as two nodes. All wet weather flows will be
applied to the main node, whereas the sanitary loads will be applied to a dummy node connected to the main node
by a virtual link. This allows surface flow to be differentiated from internal flow.
Sanitary Loading at Catch Basins when using Dynamic Routing:
When using the dynamic routing method, and a sanitary load exists on the catch basin, the load will be applied to
the node differently depending on the inlet type that is used.
Full Capture, HEC-22 on Grade, Inflow-Capture Flow Curve, Percent Capture:
For these inlet types, internal SWMM engine modifications handle the inlet/flow split calculations. A separate
injection node is created and connected to the catch basin node with a dummy/virtual conduit.

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For example, in the following system with two catch basins. CB-1 has an applied sanitary load, whereas CB-2 does

not. CB-1 and CB-2 have HEC-22 style inlets.


Upon export to SWMM a junction is created connected to CB-1 with the name CB-1-SAN, where all sanitary loads

are applied.
Dynamic Wave (Implicit) Solver
The Dynamic Wave (Implicit) solver treats the dry weather flow (sanitary load) the same for all type of sanitary loads;
it creates a separate inflow for the load and the solver knows that the inflow is a dry weather flow (a new inflow type is
added in the input file).
For the calculation, the solver will not include the dry weather flow when calculating the inlet capture/bypass flows, so
the dry weather flow is always added to the pipe system and there is no bypass flow for them.
All other calculations are unaffected.

Manholes

Manholes are placed in a sewer system to provide access for inspection, maintenance, and emergency service.
Manholes should be placed at sewer junctions (i.e., tees, wyes, and crosses), upstream terminal ends of sewers, and

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locations where there is a change in sewer grade or direction. Manholes are locations where loads enter the gravity
portion of the sewer system.
When you click the manhole element on the Layout toolbar, your mouse cursor changes into a manhole element
symbol. Clicking in the drawing pane while this tool is active causes a manhole element to be placed at the location of
the mouse cursor.
Related Topics

Manhole Attributes-276
What is the Difference Between a Drop Manhole and a Regular Manhole?-575

Adding Surface Depth vs. Area Data to a Catch Basin or a Manhole


You can add a Surface Depth vs. Area curve to any catch basin or manhole in your model. The Surface Depth vs. Area
curve plots depth against area for a series of data points that you define.
To add Surface Depth vs. Area data to a catch basin or a manhole:
1. Display the Property Editor for a catch basin or manhole by clicking the element in the Drawing Pane, or by rightclicking the element then selecting Properties from the shortcut menu.
2. In the Physical: Surface Storage section of the Property Editor, select Surface Depth- Area Curve as the Surface
Storage Type. The Surface Depth-Area Curve field becomes available.
3. Click the Ellipses (...) button next to the Surface Depth-Area Curve field.
4. In the Surface Depth-Area Curve dialog box, each row in the table represents a data point on the Surface DepthArea curve. Type values for the Depth and Area for each row. Click the New button to add a row or press the Tab
key to advance to the next field in the table.
5. Perform the following optional steps:
6. To delete a row from the table, select the row then click Delete.
7. To view a report on the curve, click Report.
8. To view a plot of the curve, click Graph.
9. Click OK to close the dialog box and save your curve data in the Property Editor.
Surface Depth-Area Curve Editor
This dialog box allows you to define Depth vs. Area tables for manholes and catch basins. The dialog box contains the
depth-area table and the following buttons:
New

Creates a new row in the depth-area


table.

Delete

Deletes the currently highlighted row


from the depth-area table.

Report

Opens a print preview window


containing a report that details the
input data for this dialog box.

Graph

Opens a graph window plotting the


surface depth-area curve defined by
the points in the table.

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The table contains the following columns:
Column

Description

Depth

The depth data for the curve.

Area

The area data for the curve.

Flow Headloss Curves Dialog Box


This dialog box allows you to enter flow vs. headloss data for a manhole or transition element.
The dialog box contains the Flow vs. Headloss table along with the following controls:

New: This button creates a new Flow-Headloss Curve.


Duplicate: Creates a copy of the currently selected Flow-Headloss Curve.
Delete: This button deletes the currently highlighted Flow-Headloss Curve.
Rename: This button allows you to rename the currently highlighted Flow-Headloss Curve.
Report: Opens a print preview window containing a report that details the input data for this dialog box.
Synchronization Options: Clicking this button opens a submenu containing the following commands:
Browse Engineering LibraryOpens the Engineering Library manager dialog, allowing you to browse the FlowHeadloss Curve Library.
Synchronize From LibraryLets you update a flow-headloss curve previously imported from a Flow-Headloss
Curve Library. The updates reflect changes that have been made to the library since it was imported.
Synchronize To LibraryLets you update an existing Flow-Headloss Curve Library using current flow-headloss
curves that were initially imported but have since been modified.
Import From LibraryLets you import a flow-headloss curve from an existing Flow-Headloss Curve Library.
Export To LibraryLets you export the current flow-headloss curve to an existing Flow-Headloss Curve Library.

The table contains the following columns:

Flow: This field allows you to define the flow at the current curve point.
Headloss: This field allows you to define the headloss for the current curve point.

The tab section is used to define the settings for the flow-headloss curve that is currently highlighted in the flowheadloss curve list pane. The following controls are available:
Data Tab

This tab consists of input data fields that allow you to


define the points that make up the flow-headloss curve.

Flow

Enter the flow data point.

Headloss

Headloss at the associated flow data point value.

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Library Tab

This tab displays information about the flow-headloss


curve that is currently highlighted in the flow-headloss
curve list pane. If the curve is derived from an
engineering library, the synchronization details can be
found here. If the curve was created manually for this
project, the synchronization details will display the
message Orphan (local), indicating that the curve was not
derived from a library entry.

Notes Tab

This tab contains a text field that is used to type


descriptive notes that will be associated with the flowheadloss curve that is currently highlighted in the flowheadloss curve list pane.

To assign a Flow-Headloss curve to a node element:


1. Double-click the node element in your model to display the Property Editor, or right-click a node and select
Properties from the shortcut menu.
2. In the Physical (Structure Losses) section of the Property Editor, select Flow-Headloss Curve as the Headloss
Method. The Flow-Headloss Curve field becomes available.
3. Click the <Select...> list item in the Flow-Headloss Curve field.
4. In the Flow-Headloss Curves Dialog Box, all of the Flow-Headloss Curves that have been created for the model are
listed in the left pane. Create a new Curve by clicking the New button.
5. The data for each Flow-Headloss Curve is displayed in the table on the right. Each row in the table represents a data
point on the Flow-Headloss Curve curve. Type values for the Flow and Headloss for each row. Click the New
button to add a row or press the Tab key to advance to the next field in the table.
6. Perform the following optional steps:
7. To delete a row from the table, select the row then click Delete.
8. To view a report on the curve, click Report.
9. Click OK to close the dialog box and save your curve data in the Property Editor.

Overflow in the SewerGEMS Dynamic Wave Solver


The behavior of manhole overflow when using the SewerGEMS Dynamic Wave solver varies depending on which
Surface Storage Type you choose as follows:
No Storage: overflow at rim elevation
Default Storage Equation: overflow at 0.4 ft above the rim
Ponded Area: no overflow
Surface Depth-Area Curve: overflow at the highest depth in the table

Taps
A Tap node is used to connect a lateral pipe to another conduit. It controls the location of the connection, and the stop
invert elevation of the lateral pipe. Unlike most other types of node, when it is placed it does not break the conduit into
two separate pieces, so it is the same as a bend in that respect. A tap can either be inserted into the conduit, and will
therefore be along its path, or associated to the trunk conduit, and therefore be at an offset from it.

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The Tap node can either be connected so that the invert of the lateral pipe is aligned with the centre or the soffit of the
other conduit. In both cases an offset can be specified to adjust this, so that the lateral can be made to align centre to
centre with the other conduit, or a vertical connection into the top of the other conduit can be modelled if required.
Note: Tap elevations are dynamic, based on the elevation at the location where the tap connects to the pipe. All
tap elevations are reset to N/A whenever anything changes that might impact the elevation (e.g. move an
element, change a diameter, etc).

Cross Sections

When you click the cross section element on the Layout toolbar, your mouse cursor changes into a cross section
element symbol. Clicking in the drawing pane while this tool is active causes a cross section element to be placed at the
location of the mouse cursor.
You can model an open channel with the combination of a channel link and a cross section network element. The
transect of the channel is defined by the upstream cross section node attributes. You have the option to define the
channel shape as User Defined or using a Conduit Catalog reference. The user defined 'Section Types' are Trapezoidal
Cross Section and Irregular Channel. If the Cross Section Type is Catalog Cross Section, you may select a Conduit
Catalog reference that is a trapezoidal or irregular channel shape. The other catalog conduit shapes are not applicable to
cross section nodes.
Related Topics

Cross Section Attributes (on page 1078)

Transitions
Transitions are locations where upstream flows in a gravity system combine. No loads enter the sewer at these points.
When you click the transition element on the Layout toolbar, your mouse cursor changes into a transition element
symbol. Clicking in the drawing pane while this tool is active causes a transition element to be placed at the location of
the mouse cursor.

Pressure Junctions

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Pressure junctions are connections between two or more pressure pipes of varying characteristics. Loads may enter a
pressure portion of a network through a pressure junction.
When you click the pressure junction on the Layout toolbar, your mouse cursor changes into a pressure junction
element symbol. Clicking in the drawing pane while this tool is active causes a pressure junction element to be placed
at the location of the mouse cursor.
Related Topics

Pressure Junction Attributes (on page 1113)

Pond Outlet Entrances

When you click the outlet structure element on the Layout toolbar, your mouse cursor changes into a outlet structure
element symbol. Clicking in the drawing pane while this tool is active causes a outlet structure element to be placed at
the location of the mouse cursor.
Note: If there are multiple discharges locations serving a pond then they must all be modeled in the same
manner; that is, they must either all be modeled with outlet control structures, or all modeled without outlet
control structures.
The outlet control structure hydraulics normally result in relationships (as we expressed and internally used in the form
of E-Q-T), however in some unusual conditions, characterized by an extremely undersized downstream conduit from
the control, the use of EQT can result in instabilities for extreme flows (as compared with the downstream conduit
capacity). In order to prevent such instability from happening, the model adds a flow filter to limit the flow from the
control if the flow exceeds overflow level. The overflow level is:
Q(over) = 1.5 * Q(capacity) +0.5 (cfs)
If the Q given by EQT, Q(eqt), exceeds the overflow level, the model uses the following filtered new flow:

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Q(new) = Q(over) + 0.05 * ( Q(eqt) Q(over))
Related Topics

Defining Composite Outlet Structures (on page 168)


Irregular Weir Cross Section Dialog Box (on page 180)
Pond Outlet Structure Attributes (on page 1076)

Defining Composite Outlet Structures


Bentley SewerCAD lets you define composite outlet structures for pond outlet structures in your model. A composite
outlet structure can contain any combination of orifices, risers, and weirs. You define these outlet structures in the
Composite Outlet Structures dialog box.
To define a composite outlet structure:
1. Click a pond outlet structure in your model to display the Property Editor, or right-click a pond outlet structure and
select Properties from the shortcut menu.
2. In the Pond Outlet section of the Property Editor, select Yes in the Has Control Structure field. The Control
Structure field becomes available.
3. Click the Ellipses (...) button next to the Control Structure field. The Composite Outlet Structures dialog box
appears, displaying the existing composite outlet structure associated with the selected pond outlet structure.
4. To create a new composite outlet structure, perform these steps:
5. Click New, then select the type of outlet structure component you want to add.The right side of the dialog box
displays settings for the composite outlet structure and for each individual component in the composite outlet
structure. With the composite outlet structure selected in the list pane, enter values for Tolerance Settings and ICPM
Settings.Select each individual component in the list pane, then enter values for that component in the fields on the
right.If you define a weir as an Irregular Weir, you must define the cross-sectional shape of the irregular weir by
entering X (Station) vs. Y (Depth) data. To do this, click the Cross Section button, enter X and Y values in the
Irregular Cross Section dialog box, then click OK to close that dialog box.
6. To edit an existing composite outlet structure, perform these steps:
7. If necessary, edit the Tolerance Settings and ICPM Settings for the selected composite outlet structure.Click the
plus sign (+) next to the outlet structure in the list pane to display its individual components.Select the component
(Orifice, Riser, or Weir), then edit the values for the component on the right side of the dialog box. If you define a
weir as an Irregular Weir, you must define the cross-sectional shape of the irregular weir by entering X (Station) vs.
Y (Depth) data. To do this, click the Cross Section button, enter X and Y values in the Irregular Cross Section
dialog box, then click OK to close that dialog box.To add a new component to an existing composite outlet
structure, select the outlet structure in the list pane then click New and select Orifice, Riser, or Weir from the
submenu. You can also right click an existing composite structure in the list pane, then select New > Orifice, New >
Riser, or New > Weir from the shortcut menu.
8. Perform the following optional steps:
9. To delete a row from the table, select the row then click Delete.
10. To rename an existing composite outlet structure, click Rename, then type the new name.
11. To view a report on the composite outlet structure, click Report.
12. To view a plot of the composite outlet structure, click Graph. The graph will display multiple curves, one for each
component in the composite outlet structure.
13. Click OK to close the dialog box and save your data in the Property Editor.
Composite Outlet Structures Dialog Box
The Composite Outlet Structures dialog lets you create complex outlet structures.

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The dialog consists of a tree view pane and property editor on the left and a tabbed section on the right. The tree view
displays all of the outlet structure definitions associated with the project. The property editor allows you to define the
attributes of the element currently highlighted in the tree view. Above the tree view are the following buttons:

New: Creates a new entry in the list pane.

Delete: Removes the entry that is currently highlighted in the list pane

Rename: Allows you to enter a new label for the entry that is currently highlighted in the list pane.

Duplicate: Creates a copy of the entry that is currently highlighted in the list pane.

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Expand All: Expands each of the nodes in the tree view, so that all entries are displayed.

Collapse All: Collapses each of the nodes so that only the top-level nodes are visible.

Report: Generates a preformatted report that details the data associated with the entry that is currently highlighted in
the list pane.

Compute: When you click this button a submenu opens. The submenu contains the following commands:
Validate: Click this button to perform a validation on the entry that is currently highlighted in the list pane.
Compute: Click this button to compute the entry that is currently highlighted in the list pane.
ComputeAll: Click this button to compute all of the entries in the list pane.

Help: Opens the online help associated with this dialog.


The attributes displayed in the property editor section below the tree view will change depending on the type of node
that is currently highlighted in the tree view. Depending on the node type, the property grid allows you to define the
following attributes:

Composite Structure Node (Top Level Node): When a top level node is highlighted in the tree view, the following
properties are available:
ID: Unique identifier assigned to this element.
Label: Descriptive label for this element.
Notes: Additional informkation about this element.
Headwater Type: The type of headwater range to use.
Pond: The pond to use for headwater range.

Note: The <Automatic> headwater/tailwater calculation only works if you access this dialog through the
Properties grid. If you access it from the components menu (where topology is not known and the range has
already been set by a previous calculation) the standard validation is executed.
The headwater and tailwater elements do not need to be user-defined to determine the ranges. If edited from the
Properties grid of the pond outlet structure node the ranges will automatically be determined ( in the same way as if you
computed the entire hydraulic model).

Minimum (Headwater): The minimum pond surface elevation to use in the headwater range.

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Increment (Headwater): The step value represents the step increment for the rating table. As a general rule,
interpolation precision between table points increases as the step increment is decreased.
Maximum (Headwater): The maximum pond surface elevation to use in the headwater range.
Spot Elevations (Headwater): The spot elevations for the headwater range.
Tailwater Range Type: Select the type of tailwater range to specify. You can specify a user defined range or
automatically determine the range by selecting a pond or outfall.
Downstream Element ID: Specify the domain element in which to determine the tailwater range or leave it set to
Automatic and let the application figure it out automatically.
Minimum (Tailwater): The minimum tailwater elevation to use in the range.
Increment (Tailwater): Set the step used to compute the rating curve for the elevation beginning at the minimum
tailwater and increment by this tailwater step elevation until the maximum tailwater is reached. In general, smaller
tailwater step increments yield more precise routing interpolation.
Maximum (Tailwater): The maximum tailwater elevation to use in the range.
Spot Elevations (Tailwater): The spot elevations for the tailwater range.
Store Elevation-Flow-Tailwater Table: Determines if the elevation-flow-tailwater curves are stored. This option can
be used in conjunction with the Store Elevation-Flow-Tailwater Table? Calculation Option. See Store ElevationFlow-Tailwater Table (on page 176) for more details.
Elevation-Flow-Tailwater Table: The E-Q-TW table to save results to.
Maximum Iterations: During iterative tailwater convergence procedures, computations will stop after exceeding the
specified maximum iterations.
Headwater Tolerance (Minimum): If Bentley SewerCAD is checking computed headwater (HW) elevations during
the iterative HW convergence computations, minimum headwater tolerance and maximum headwater tolerance
values specify the minimum target convergence and the maximum allowable difference between the computed
value and the known headwater value.
Headwater Tolerance (Maximum): If Bentley SewerCAD is checking computed headwater (HW) elevations during
the iterative HW convergence computations, minimum headwater tolerance and maximum headwater tolerance
values specify the minimum target convergence and the maximum allowable difference between the computed
value and the known headwater value.
Tailwater Tolerance (Minimum): If Bentley SewerCAD is checking computed tailwater (TW) elevations during the
iterative TW convergence computations, minimum tailwater tolerance and maximum tailwater tolerance values
specify the minimum target convergence and the maximum allowable difference between the computed value and
the known tailwater value.
Tailwater Tolerance (Maximum): If Bentley SewerCAD is checking computed tailwater (TW) elevations during the
iterative TW convergence computations, minimum tailwater tolerance and maximum tailwater tolerance values
specify the minimum target convergence and the maximum allowable difference between the computed value and
the known tailwater value.
Flow Tolerance (Minimum): If Bentley SewerCAD is checking computed flow during the iterative TW
convergence computations, these tolerance values specify the minimum target convergence and the maximum
allowable difference between the computed value and the known flow value. Iterative computations on flow are
ended when either the solution converges within the minimum flow tolerance, or when more than the specified
maximum iterations are performed. In general, smaller flow tolerances yield more precise convergence.
Flow Tolerance (Maximum): If Bentley SewerCAD is checking computed flow during the iterative TW
convergence computations, these tolerance values specify the minimum target convergence and the maximum
allowable difference between the computed value and the known flow value. Iterative computations on flow are
ended when either the solution converges within the minimum flow tolerance, or when more than the specified
maximum iterations are performed. In general, smaller flow tolerances yield more precise convergence.
Orifice Attributes: When an Orifice is selected in the tree view the following attributes are available:
Elevation: Structures invert elevation.
Outlet ID: Upstream structure ID.

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Flow Direction: Defines the direction in which flow is considered.


Downstream ID: Downstream Structure ID.
Notes: Additional information about this element.
Elevation (On): Elevation (On) is the lower elevation of range over which to use this structure. No flows will be
computed for elevations less than this value. If 0.0 then this value is ignored.
Elevation (Off): Elevation (Off) is the upper elevation of range over which to use this structure. No flows will be
computed for elevations equal to or greater than this number. If 0.0 then this value is ignored.
Orifice: The type of orifice this structure represents.
Number of Openings: Set the number of openings the orifice uses.
Orifice Coefficient: The orifice coefficient for this structure.
Orifice Diameter: The orifice diameter for this structure.
Orifice Area: The orifice area for this structure.
Orifice Orientation: The orientation of this orifice structure.
Datum Elevation: The datum elevation for this orifice structure.
Top Elevation: The top elevation of this orifice structure.
Riser Attributes: When a Riser is selected in the tree view the following attributes are available:
Elevation: Structures invert elevation.
Outlet ID: Upstream structure ID.
Flow Direction: Defines the direction in which flow is considered.
Downstream ID: Downstream Structure ID.
Notes: Additional information about this element.
Elevation (On): Elevation (On) is the lower elevation of range over which to use this structure. No flows will be
computed for elevations less than this value. If 0.0 then this value is ignored.
Elevation (Off): Elevation (Off) is the upper elevation of range over which to use this structure. No flows will be
computed for elevations equal to or greater than this number. If 0.0 then this value is ignored.
Riser: The type of riser for this structure.
Diameter: The stand pipe diameter for this structure.
Weir Coefficient: The coefficient of discharge multiplied by other constants in the weir flow equation. For example,
flow over a rectangular weir with no end contractions can be determined using the following equation:

Where:

Q = discharge (cfs, m3/s)


Cd = coefficient of discharge
g = gravitational constant (32.2 ft/s2, 9.81 m/s2)
L = length of the weir crest (ft, m)
H = height of the energy grade above weir crest (ft, m)
In this case the Weir Coeffcient,

(ft0.5/s, m0.5/s), simplifying the weir equation to:

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.
A typical value for the Weir Coefficient is 3.3 (ft0.5/s) or 1.8 (m0.5/s).
Orifice Coefficient: The orifice coefficient for this structure.
Orifice Area: The orifice area of this riser structure.
Transition Elevation: The transition elevation for this structure.
Transition Height: The transition height for this structure.
K Reverse: The K reverse coefficient for this structure.
Weir Length: The weir length of this riser structure.
Use Orifice Depth to Crest?: There are two methods available to calculate the headwater depth of a fully charged
riser orifice. The default method measures the headwater depth from the riser crest to the headwater elevation. The
other method measures the headwater depth from the tailwater elevation to the headwater elevation. To use the first
method, this value should be set to True (the default). To use the second method, set this property to False.
If the Use Orifice Depth to Crest property is set to True, then Head Across Orifice = Pond Elevation - Riser Crest
Elevation.
If the Use Orifice Depth to Crest property is set to False, then Head Across Orifice = Pond Elevation - Tailwater
Elevation.
Use Submerged Weir Equation?: There are two methods available to calculate a fully-charged riser weir flow: nonsubmerged weir and submerged weir. The non-submerged weir method is used when this property is set to False
(the default method). When this property is set to True, the submerged weir method is used.
If the Use Submerged Weir Equation? property is set to False, then:
Qw = Kwc * Lw * (Pond Elevation - riser crest)1.5
Where:
Qw = weir flow through the riser
Kwc = riser weir flow coefficient
Lw = riser weir length
If the Use Submerged Weir Equation? property is set to True, then
Qws = Qw * (1 - (H2/H1)1.5)0.385
Where:
Qw = weir flow through the riser
Qws = weir flow through riser (weir is submerged)
H1 = Pond Elevation - Riser Crest Elevation
H2 = Tailwater Elevation - Riser Crest Elevation
Culvert Attributes: When a Culvert is selected in the tree view the following attributes are available:
Culvert Type: The type of culvert.
Outlet ID: Upstream structure ID.
Flow Direction: Defines the direction in which flow is considered.
Downstream ID: Downstream Structure ID.
Notes: Additional information about this element.
Convergence Tolerance: Performance can be greatly increased by increasing the convergence tolerance. However,
since this parameter affects the calculation precision, the results should be checked to see if this assumption
produces results within an acceptable precision.
Specify Number of Backwater Sections: Specify to use a user defined number of backwater sections.

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Number of Backwater Sections: Calculation performance can usually be greatly increased by setting the number of
backwater sections to three. Results should be checked to see if this assumption produces results with an acceptable
precision.
Inlet Description: The description of the culvert coefficients.
Chart: The inlet chart that this set of coefficients appears on.
Nomograph: The culvert nomograph this set of coefficients belongs to.
Equation Form: The type of equation form to use for this culvert.
K: K and M are equation coefficients used in both forms of the unsubmerged inlet control equation.
M: K and M are equation coefficients used in both forms of the unsubmerged inlet control equation.
C: C and Y are equation coefficients used in the submerged inlet control equation.
Y: C and Y are equation coefficients used in the submerged inlet control equation.
Mannings n: The Mannings n coefficient for this culvert.
Ke: The Ke coefficient.
Kr: The Kr coefficient.
Slope Correction Factor: The slope correction factor to use for this culvert.
Number of Barrels: The number of barrels for this culvert.
Length: The length of this culvert.
Upstream Invert: The upstream invert of the culvert.
Downstream Invert: The downstream invert of the culvert.
Diameter: The culvert diameter.
Width: The culvert width.
Height: The culvert height.
Elevation (On): Elevation (On) is the lower elevation of range over which to use this structure. No flows will be
computed for elevations less than this value. If 0.0 then this value is ignored.
Elevation (Off): Elevation (Off) is the upper elevation of range over which to use this structure. No flows will be
computed for elevations equal to or greater than this number. If 0.0 then this value is ignored.
Specify Transitions: Defines whether user defined transitions are used.
HW/D End Unsubmerged: The user defined HW end unsubmerged value.
HW/D Begin Submerged: The user defined HW begin submerged value.
Compute Outlet Control Only: Determines if inlet control only is considered during calculations.
Weir Attributes: When a Weir is selected in the tree view the following attributes are available:
Elevation: Structures invert elevation.
Outlet ID: Upstream structure ID.
Flow Direction: Defines the direction in which flow is considered.
Downstream ID: Downstream Structure ID.
Notes: Additional information about this element.
Weir: The type of weir for this structure.
Vary Coefficient with Depth: Determines if a depth-coefficient table is considered.
Weir Coefficient: The coefficient of discharge multiplied by other constants in the weir flow equation. For example,
flow over a rectangular weir with no end contractions can be determined using the following equation:

Where:
Q = discharge (cfs, m3/s)

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Cd = coefficient of discharge
g = gravitational constant (32.2 ft/s2, 9.81 m/s2)
L = length of the weir crest (ft, m)
H = height of the energy grade above weir crest (ft, m)
In this case the Weir Coeffcient,

(ft0.5/s, m0.5/s), simplifying the weir equation to:

.
A typical value for the Weir Coefficient is 3.3 (ft0.5/s) or 1.8 (m0.5/s).
Weir-Depth Coefficient Table: The weir depth coefficient table to use for this weir structure.
Coefficient of Discharge: The ratio of actual discharge to theoretical discharge across a weir (the differences
between actual and theoretical values are generally due to contractions and energy losses). Note that the coefficient
of discharge is unitless and is different from a weir coefficient, and is typically on the order of 0.6. This property
is only available for V-Notch Weirs.
V-Notch Angle: The angle for this v-notch weir structure.
Elevation (On): Elevation (On) is the lower elevation of range over which to use this structure. No flows will be
computed for elevations less than this value. If 0.0 then this value is ignored.
Elevation (Off): Elevation (Off) is the upper elevation of range over which to use this structure. No flows will be
computed for elevations equal to or greater than this number. If 0.0 then this value is ignored.
User Defined Table: Determines if a weir submergence table is considered for this weir structure.
Weir Submergence Table: The weir submergence table to use with this weir structure.
Irregular Weir: The station-depth curve for this irregular weir section.
Rectangular Weir: The type of rectangular weir for this structure.
Weir Length: The weir length for this weir structure.
Rating Table Attributes: When a Rating Table is selected in the tree view the following attributes are available:
Elevation: Structures invert elevation.
Outlet ID: Upstream structure ID.
Flow Direction: Defines the direction in which flow is considered.
Downstream ID: Downstream Structure ID.
Notes: Additional information about this element.
Elevation (On): Elevation (On) is the lower elevation of range over which to use this structure. No flows will be
computed for elevations less than this value. If 0.0 then this value is ignored.
Elevation (Off): Elevation (Off) is the upper elevation of range over which to use this structure. No flows will be
computed for elevations equal to or greater than this number. If 0.0 then this value is ignored.
Elevation-Flow Curve: The user defined depth-elevation curve for this structure.
Vortex Valve Attributes: When a Vortex Valve is selected in the tree view the following attributes are available:
Elevation: Structures invert elevation.
Outlet ID: Upstream structure ID.
Flow Direction: Defines the direction in which flow is considered.
Downstream ID: Downstream Structure ID.

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Notes: Additional information about this element.


Vortex Valve: Allows you to select the vortex valve to use. Click the ellipsis (...) button to open the Vortex Valve
dialog.
Elevation (On): Elevation (On) is the lower elevation of range over which to use this structure. No flows will be
computed for elevations less than this value. If 0.0 then this value is ignored.
Elevation (Off): Elevation (Off) is the upper elevation of range over which to use this structure. No flows will be
computed for elevations equal to or greater than this number. If 0.0 then this value is ignored.

The tabbed section on the right contains the following tabs:

Results Tab: This tab consists of a graph displaying the calculated results for the element that is currently
highlighted in the tree view pane.
Rating Table Tab: This tab displays a rating table of the calculated results for the element that is currently
highlighted in the tree view pane.

Store Elevation-Flow-Tailwater Table


The Store Elevation-Flow-Tailwater Table property in the Composite Outlet Structures dialog (well refer to this as
Option 1) and the Store Elevation-Flow-Tailwater Table? Calculation Option (well refer to this as Option 2) are
related, but slightly different.
Option 1 allows you to store the results of an interconnected outlet structure (which is a composite outlet structure with
a tailwater setting of "Interconnected Ponds") into an Elevation-Flow-Tailwater curve.
You first set this option to "Yes" and then specify the table to store the data in. If there is no table available yet you can
select "<Create New EQTW Series>" which will automatically create one for you with the label of the composite outlet
structure.
The storing of the results into the Elevation-Flow-Tailwater curve is generally done only when computing from the
composite outlet structure dialog box. However, there is an option in Bentley SewerCAD that allows you to store these
results when you run the scenario.
Option 2 allows you to store the Elevation-Flow-Tailwater table when computing the scenario that uses the calculation
options you just modified. It tells the engine that if the pond outlet link has the "Has Control Structure?" property set to
"Yes" and an assigned composite outlet structure that has a tailwater of "Interconnected Ponds" and the "Store
Elevation-Flow-Tailwater Table" set to "Yes" to store the results in the specified table.
These two options are used in conjunction with each other. You would not normally set Option 2 to True if you are not
using interconnected pond routing or have an outlet structure that has "Store Elevation-Flow-Tailwater" set to No.
If, however, you have Option 2 set to False and Option 1 set to Yes and for the latter have the "<Create New EQTW
Series>" selected, a new blank Elevation-Flow-Tailwater Series table will be created with no data.
If you have Option 1 set to Yes with an actual table specified and Option 2 set to False and you compute the scenario
the data in the selected Elevation-Flow-Tailwater table will NOT change.
Option 1 can be used alone but Option 2 should be used with Option 1.
EQT Curves
EQT curves refer to the relationship between the flow (Q) through a structure and the elevation (E) of the water
upstream of the structure and the water elevation in the tailwater (T) downstream of the structure. They consist of a
family of curves with upstream elevation on the horizontal axis, flow on the vertical axis and individual curves for
different tailwater elevations.

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EQT curves are an intermediate step in the hydraulic calculations for pond outlets (composite outlet structure), and (box
and circular) conduits that are culverts.
To view the EQT curve for a structure (after an implicit or explicit solver run),,
1. Go to Components > Composite Outlet Structures.
2. Right clicking in a pond outlet structure and picking "Outlet Structure EQT" graph.
3. Right clicking a conduit with a culvert and picking "Culvert EQT Graph".
When the GVF solver is used, the tailwater effect is ignored so there is only a single EQ line. It usually corresponds to
the lowest of the EQT curves.

Irregular Weir Dialog Box


This dialog allows you to define the station-depth curve for an irregular weir section.

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Click the New button to add a row. Click the Delete button to remove the currently highlighted row. Click the Report
button to generate a preformatted report containing all of the curve data.
Enter the X vs. Y points to define the cross-sectional shape of the weir.
The graph pane dynamically plots the irregular weir.

Elevation-Flow Curve Dialog Box


This dialog allows you to define a elevation-flow curve to use with a Rating Table outlet structure.

Click the New button to add a row. Click the Delete button to remove the currently highlighted row. Click the Report
button to generate a preformatted report containing all of the curve data.
Enter the Elevation vs. Flow points to define the curve.

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The graph pane dynamically plots the elevation-flow curve.

Spot Elevations (Headwater) Dialog Box


This dialog allows you to define the spot elevations for the headwater range.

Click the New button to add a row. Click the Delete button to remove the currently highlighted row.
For each spot elevation enter the elevation.

Spot Elevations (Tailwater) Dialog Box


This dialog allows you to define the spot elevations for the tailwater range.

Click the New button to add a row. Click the Delete button to remove the currently highlighted row.
For each spot elevation enter the elevation.

Elevation-Flow-Area Curve Dialog Box


This dialog allows you to define a elevation-flow-area curve to use with an outlet structure using the Elevation-FlowArea Curve Tailwater Type.

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Click the New button to add a row. Click the Delete button to remove the currently highlighted row. Click the Report
button to generate a preformatted report containing all of the curve data. Click the Graph button to generate a plot of the
elevation-flow-area curve.
Enter the Elevation vs Flow vs Area points to define the curve.

Irregular Weir Cross Section Dialog Box


The Irregular Weir Cross Section dialog box allows you to define the cross-sectional shape of an irregular weir in a
composite outlet structure by entering X (Station) vs. Y (Depth) data.
The Irregular Weir Cross Section dialog box is accessible only from within the Composite Outlet Structures dialog box
when a weir component is selected in the list pane. For the selected weir, click the Cross Section button to display the
Irregular Weir Cross Section dialog box.
The dialog box contains the x vs. y table along with the following controls:
New

This button creates a new row in the


x-y table.

Delete

This button deletes the currently


highlighted row from the x-y table.

The table contains the following columns:


Column

Description

This field allows you to define the cross-sectional


distance at the current point.

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Column

Description

This field allows you to define the depth (0 at the weir


crest) for the current point.

Weir Depth Coefficient Table Dialog Box


This dialog allows you to define weir depth coefficient tables.

The dialog consists of a list pane on the left and a tabbed section on the right. The list pane displays all of the weir
depth coefficient definitions associated with the project. Above the list pane are the following buttons:

New: Creates a new entry in the list pane.

Duplicate: Creates a copy of the entry that is currently highlighted in the list pane.

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Delete: Removes the entry that is currently highlighted in the list pane

Rename: Allows you to enter a new label for the entry that is currently highlighted in the list pane.

Report: Generates a preformatted report that details the data associated with the entry that is currently highlighted in
the list pane.

Synchronization Options: Clicking this button opens a submenu containing the following commands:

Help: Opens the online help associated with this dialog.


The tabbed section on the right side of the dialog consists of the following tabs:

Weir Depth Table: Enter the Weir Depth vs Weir Coefficient points to define the weir depth coefficient curve. Click
the New button above the table to add a new row; click the Delete button to remove the currently highlighted row.
Notes Tab: This text field that allows you to enter descriptive notes that will be associated with the currently
highlighted list pane entry.
Library Tab: This tab displays information about the template that is currently highlighted in the list pane. If the
template is derived from an engineering library, the synchronization details can be found here. If the template was
created manually for this project, the synchronization details will display the message Orphan (local), indicating that
the template was not derived from a library entry.

Weir Depth Coefficient Table Library Editor


This dialog box lets you define weir depth coefficient tables.
The dialog box contains the weir depth coefficient table and the following buttons:
New

Creates a new row in the table.

Delete

Deletes the currently highlighted row


from the table.

The table contains the following columns:

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Column

Description

Weir Depth

Lets you define the weir depth for the corresponding weir
coefficient.

Weir Coefficient

Lets you define the weir coefficient at the corresponding


weir depth.

Weir Submergence Table Dialog Box


This dialog allows you to define custom submergence correction tables to adjust weir discharges for submergence
effects. The correction table is a dimensionless table of discharge multipliers (qr) which are a function of the tailwaterto-headwater depth ratio (TW/HW). These depths are measured relative to the weir crest elevation.

The dialog consists of a list pane on the left and a tabbed section on the right. The list pane displays all of the weir
submergence definitions associated with the project. Above the list pane are the following buttons:

New: Creates a new entry in the list pane.

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Duplicate: Creates a copy of the entry that is currently highlighted in the list pane.

Delete: Removes the entry that is currently highlighted in the list pane

Rename: Allows you to enter a new label for the entry that is currently highlighted in the list pane.

Report: Generates a preformatted report that details the data associated with the entry that is currently highlighted in
the list pane.

Synchronization Options: Clicking this button opens a submenu containing the following commands:

Help: Opens the online help associated with this dialog.


The tabbed section on the right side of the dialog consists of the following tabs:

Weir Submergence Table: Enter the Hw/Tw Ratio vs Q Multiplier points to define the weir submergence correction
table. Click the New button above the table to add a new row; click the Delete button to remove the currently
highlighted row.
Notes Tab: This text field that allows you to enter descriptive notes that will be associated with the currently
highlighted list pane entry.
Library Tab: This tab displays information about the template that is currently highlighted in the list pane. If the
template is derived from an engineering library, the synchronization details can be found here. If the template was
created manually for this project, the synchronization details will display the message Orphan (local), indicating that
the template was not derived from a library entry.

User Defined Rating Curve


This dialog allows you to define the rating curve.
Click the New button to add a row. Click the Delete button to remove the currently highlighted row. Click the Report
button to generate a preformatted report containing all of the rating curve data.

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Enter the Elevation vs. Flow points to define the rating curve.
The graph pane dynamically plots the rating curve.

Outfalls

Outfalls represent the ultimate termination points in a sanitary sewer network.


When you click the outfall element on the Layout toolbar, your mouse cursor changes into a outfall element symbol.
Clicking in the drawing pane while this tool is active causes a outfall element to be placed at the location of the mouse
cursor.
Related Topics

Adding Time vs. Elevation Data to an Outfall (on page 185)


Adding Elevation vs. Flow Data to an Outfall (on page 186)
Adding Cyclic Time vs. Elevation Data to an Outfall (on page 187)
Outfall Attributes (on page 1072)

Adding Time vs. Elevation Data to an Outfall


You can define tidal curve tables for outfalls in Bentley SewerCAD . You define a tidal curve for an outfall as a Time
vs. Elevation curve.
Note: You can also add a Cyclic Time vs. Elevation curve to an outfall. For more information, see Adding Cyclic
Time vs. Elevation Data to an Outfall (on page 187).
To add a Time vs. Elevation curve to an outfall:
1. Click an outfall in your model to display the Property Editor, or right-click an outfall and select Properties from the
shortcut menu.
2. In the Boundary Condition section of the Property Editor, select Time-Elevation Curve in the Boundary Condition
Type field. The Time-Elevation Curve field becomes available.
3. Click the Ellipses (...) button next to the Time-Elevation Curve field.
4. In the Time-Elevation Curve dialog box, each row in the table represents a point on the Time-Elevation curve. Type
values for the Time and Elevation for each row. Click the New button to add a row or press the Tab key to advance
to the next field in the table.

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5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Perform the following optional steps:


To delete a row from the table, select the row then click Delete.
To view a report on the curve, click Report.
To view a plot of the curve, click Graph.
Click OK to close the dialog box and save your curve data in the Property Editor.

Time-Elevation Curve Dialog Box


This dialog box allows you to define tidal curve (time vs. elevation) tables for outfalls when the Boundary Condition is
set to Time-Elevation Curve.
The dialog box contains the time-vs.-elevation table and the following buttons:
New

This button creates a new row in the


tidal curve table.

Delete

This button deletes the currently


highlighted row from the tidal curve
table.

Report

This button opens a print preview


window containing a report that
details the input data for this dialog
box.

Graph

This button opens a graph window


plotting the time-elevation curve
defined by the points in the table.

The table contains the following columns:


Column

Description

Time

This field allows you to define the hour of the tidal curve
point.

Elevation

This field allows you to define the elevation for the tidal
curve point.

Adding Elevation vs. Flow Data to an Outfall


You can add an Elevation-Flow (E-Q-T) curve to an outfall in Bentley SewerCAD . Each series of Elevation-Flow (EQ-T) curves represents the performance curves for a pond outlet operating under various downstream tailwater (T)
elevations.
To add an Elevation vs. Flow (E-Q-T) curve to an outfall:
1. Click an outfall in your model to display the Property Editor, or right-click an outfall and select Properties from the
shortcut menu.
2. In the Boundary Condition section of the Property Editor, select Elevation-Flow Curve in the Boundary Condition
Type field. The Elevation-Flow Curve field becomes available.

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3. Click the Ellipses (...) button next to the Elevation-Flow Curve field.
4. In the Elevation-Flow Curve dialog box, each row in the table represents a point on the Elevation-Flow curve. Type
values for Elevation and Outlet Flow for each row. Click the New button to add a row or press the Tab key to
advance to the next field in the table.
5. Perform the following optional steps:
6. To delete a row from the table, select the row then click Delete.
7. To view a report on the curve, click Report.
8. To view a plot of the curve, click Graph.
9. Click OK to close the dialog box and save your curve data in the Property Editor.
Elevation-Flow Curve Dialog Box
The dialog box contains the elevation vs. flow table and the following buttons:
New

This button creates a new row in the


E-Q-TW curve table.

Delete

This button deletes the currently


highlighted row from the E-Q-TW
curve table.

Report

This button opens a print preview


window containing a report that
details the input data for this dialog
box.

Graph

This button opens a graph window


plotting the elevation-volume curve
defined by the points in the table.

The table contains the following columns:


Column

Description

Outlet Elevation

This field allows you to define the elevation of the E-QTW curve point.

Outlet Flow

This field allows you to define the flow for the E-Q-TW
curve point.

Adding Cyclic Time vs. Elevation Data to an Outfall


Bentley SewerCAD lets you add tidal curves to outfalls in your model. You define a tidal curve for an outfall as a Time
vs. Elevation curve.
Note: You can also add a Time vs. Elevation curve to an outfall. For more information, see Adding Time vs.
Elevation Data to an Outfall (on page 185).
To add a Cyclic Time vs. Elevation curve to an outfall:

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1. Click an outfall in your model to display the Property Editor, or right-click an outfall and select Properties from the
shortcut menu.
2. In the Boundary Condition section of the Property Editor, select Tidal in the Boundary Condition Type field. The
Cyclic Time-Elevation Curve field becomes available.
3. Click the Ellipses (...) button next to the Cyclic Time-Elevation Curve field.
4. In the Cyclic Time-Elevation Curve dialog box, each row in the table represents a point on the Cyclic TimeElevation curve. Type values for Time and Elevation for each row. Click the New button to add a row or press the
Tab key to advance to the next field in the table.
5. Perform the following optional steps:
6. To delete a row from the table, select the row then click Delete.
7. To view a report on the curve, click Report.
8. To view a plot of the curve, click Graph.
9. Click OK to close the dialog box and save your curve data in the Property Editor.
Cyclic Time-Elevation Curve Dialog Box
This dialog box allows you to define tidal curve (time vs. elevation) tables for outfalls when the Boundary Condition is
set to Tidal.
The dialog box contains the time-vs.-elevation table and the following buttons:
New

This button creates a new row in the


tidal curve table.

Delete

This button deletes the currently


highlighted row from the tidal curve
table.

Report

This button opens a print preview


window containing a report that
details the input data for this dialog
box.

Graph

This button opens a graph window


plotting the time-elevation curve
defined by the points in the table.

The table contains the following columns:


Column

Description

Time

This field allows you to define the hour of the tidal curve
point.

Elevation

This field allows you to define the elevation for the tidal
curve point.

Wet Wells

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Wet wells are required at a pumping station to store wastewater before it is pumped. Wet wells represent boundary
conditions between pressure and gravity portions of a sewer network. They serve as collection points for gravity
systems, and as an HGL boundary node for the pressure system. Dry loads can also enter the sewer network at these
locations.
Wet wells serve as collection points in gravity systems.
When you click the wet well element on the Layout toolbar, your mouse cursor changes into a wet well element
symbol. Clicking in the drawing pane while this tool is active causes a wet well element to be placed at the location of
the mouse cursor.
Related Topics

Adding Depth vs. Area Data to a Wet Well-176 (on page 189)
Wet Well Attributes-314

Adding Depth vs. Area Data to a Wet Well


You can add Depth vs. Area data to a wet well in your model. You define the Depth vs. Area curve for a wet well in the
Wet Well Depth-Area Curve dialog box.
To add a Depth vs. Area curve to wet well:
1. Click a wet well in your model to display the Property Editor, or right-click a wet well and select Properties from
the shortcut menu.
2. In the Physical section of the Property Editor, select Wet Well Depth-Area Curve in the Wet Well Boundary Type
field. The Wet Well Depth-Area Curve field becomes available.
3. Click the Ellipses (...) button next to the Wet Well Depth-Area Curve field.
4. In the Wet Well Depth-Area Curve dialog box, each row in the table represents a point on the Wet Well Depth-Area
curve. Type values for Depth and Area for each row. Click the New button to add a row or press the Tab key to
advance to the next field in the table.
5. Perform the following optional steps:
6. To delete a row from the table, select the row then click Delete.
7. To view a report on the curve, click Report.
8. To view a plot of the curve, click Graph.
9. Click OK to close the dialog box and save your curve data in the Property Editor.
Wet Well Depth-Area Curve Dialog Box

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This dialog box allows you to define Depth vs. Area tables for wet wells. The dialog box contains the depth-area table
and the following buttons:
New

Creates a new row in the depth-area


table.

Delete

Deletes the currently highlighted row


from the depth-area table.

Report

Opens a print preview window


containing a report that details the
input data for this dialog box.

Graph

Opens a graph window plotting the


surface depth-area curve defined by
the points in the table.

The table contains the following columns:


Column

Description

Depth

The depth data for the curve.

Area

The area data for the curve.

Transitioning From Gravity Conduits to Pressure Pipes


The only way to transition between a gravity conduit and a force main pressure pipe in SewerGEMS and SewerCAD is
through an intermediate wet well. This establishes a boundary condition between the upstream gravity subnetwork and
the downstream pressure subnetwork. During a Steady State analysis the wet well level can be calculated based on
generating the required HGL for the outflow to either match or exceed the inflow, or the wet well level can be fixed to a
user-specified level. During an Extended Period Simulation the wet well level is determined for a time step by
calculating the change in storage over time.
The inflow into the wet well is determined by summing all loads flowing to that wet well.
Hydraulic (HGL) Transition from Gravity to Pressure Network
Gravity hydraulic calculations upstream of a wet well are based on the wet well hydraulic grade, just as they are for
standard calculations within gravity systems.
During a Steady State analysis there is a difference, however, in determining the hydraulic grade within the wet well
itself. The wet well level may be set by the user to either be fixed or not fixed.
Fixed Wet Well Level during Steady State Analysis
If the wet well level is fixed, the wet well's starting hydraulic grade is used for pressure calculations. No adjustments
are made, and this grade is used as the tailwater grade for the upstream gravity systems.
Non-Fixed Wet Well Level during Steady State Analysis

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If the wet well level is not fixed, the pressure calculations will attempt to balance the wet well level such that the total
flow out of the wet well is equal to or greater than the total flow into the wet well.
The wet well's starting grade is used for the first iteration. If the calculated flows out of each wet well are greater than
or equal to each wet well's incoming flow, the iterations stop there. If not, the wet well levels are increased by the
increment specified in the calculation options, and the pressure subnetwork is recalculated. When the wet well level is
increased, it changes the static heads and increases the discharge for connected pumps, and may also trigger additional
pumps to turn on.
This process continues until the level in each non-fixed wet well either meets the flow criteria, or is prevented by rising
to the maximum elevation of the wet well.
Wet Well Level During Extended Period Simulations
During an Extended Period Simulation the fixed wet well level options are not available. The wet well level for a time
step is actually determined by the change in storage due to inflows and outflows over a single time step.
Hydrologic (Flow) Transition from Gravity to Pressure Network
In the hydrologic transition from a gravity system into a pressure system, gravity loads upstream from the wet well are
accumulated and combined with the wet well's local load to determine the total load entering the pressure system at that
location. This can be imagined as the total load "dumping into" the wet well. The GVF solver will determine the impact
of the wet well on the HGL upstream but the wet well will not back flow up into the inflow conduit in the GVF solver.
If the user wants to study this occurrence, one of the dynamic wave solvers should be used.
Connecting Gravity Conduits to Pressure Pipes
If a user attempts to connect a gravity conduit to a pressure pipe, a user notification "Gravity elements do not have
downstream wet well or outfall. Cannot flow directly to pressure pipes. Find with network navigator." will be issued. In
complex systems, it may be difficult to locate the node where this occurs. This can be found using the Network
Navigator query "Isolated Gravity Elements". This will identify the elements in the gravity subnetwork connected to
pressure subnetworks.
Users may want to model a gravity conduit discharging into a pressure pipe in an inverted siphon. In that situation, it is
best to model the pipes in the inverted siphon as gravity conduits with bolted manhole covers.

Cross-Section Curve
This dialog allows you to define the Cross-Section Curve for a Wet Well with a Variable Volume Cross Section.
Define the cross section by entering the Depth Ratio vs Volume Ratio points in the table.

Pumps

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In a wastewater collection system, pumps are placed where the hydraulic grade line must be raised. Since sewage
primarily flows by gravity, a pump transports sewage from a low elevation to a higher elevation. The sewage then
flows again by gravity to the next pumping station or until it reaches its destination.
When you click the pump element on the Layout toolbar, your mouse cursor changes into a manhole pump symbol.
Clicking in the drawing pane while this tool is active causes a manhole pump to be placed at the location of the mouse
cursor.
Note: Since parallel pumps are a special case of looped network, they are not supported in the StormCAD engine.
Related Topics

Defining Pump Settings-180


Pump Curve Dialog Box (on page 202)
Pump Attributes (on page 1084)
Pumps (on page 191)

Applying a Zone to a Pump


You can group elements together by any desired criteria through the use of zones. A Zone can contain any number of
elements and can include a combination of any or all element types. For more information on zones and their use, see
Zones-301.
To Apply a Previously Created Zone to a Pump
1. Select the pump in the Drawing View.
2. In the Properties window, click the menu in the Zone field and select the zone you want.
Defining Pump Settings
You define the settings for each pump in your model in the Pump Definitions dialog box. You can define a collection of
pump settings for each pump.
To define pump settings
1. Click a pump in your model to display the Property Editor, or right-click a pump and select Properties from the
shortcut menu.
2. In the Physical section of the Property Editor, click the Ellipses (...) button next to the Pump Definitions field. The
Pump Definitions dialog box opens.
3. In the Pump Definitions dialog box, each item in the list represents a separate pump definition. Click the New
button to add a new definition to the list.
4. For each definition in the list, perform these steps:
5. Type a unique label for the pump definition.
6. Define a new pump definition by entering Head, Efficiency, and Motor data.
7. Click OK to close the Pump Definitions dialog box and save your data in the Property Editor.
Elevation Controls in the SewerCAD Engine

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When using the SewerCAD Gradually Varied Flow - Convex (GVF-Convex) engine, user defined on/off elevations
will toggle the pump setting based on the HGL at the node immediately upstream of the pump.
Internally, two logical controls will be generated for each pump during the engine loading phase.
For example:
1. If WW-1 HGL > (On Elevation) Then Pmp-1 is ON
2. If WW-1 HGL < (Off Elevation) then Pmp-1 is OFF
You also have the option of ignoring the on and off elevations on the pump using the "Ignore On/Off Elevations?"
property. When set to True this allows the user to create more complex logical controls with the existing infrastructure,
without worrying about potential conflicting controls.

Pump Definitions Dialog Box


This dialog box is used to create pump definitions. There are two sections: the pump definition pane on the left and the
tab section on the right. The pump definition pane is used to create, edit, and delete pump definitions. F
The following controls are available in the pump definitions dialog box:
New

Creates a new entry in the pump


definition Pane.

Duplicate

Creates a copy of the currently


highlighted pump definition.

Delete

Deletes the currently highlighted


entry in the pump definition Pane.

Rename

Renames the currently highlighted


entry in the pump definition Pane.

Report

Generates a pre-formatted report that


contains the input data associated
with the currently highlighted entry in
the pump definition Pane.

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Synchronization Options

Clicking this button opens a submenu


containing the following commands:
Browse Engineering Library Opens
the Engineering Library manager
dialog, allowing you to browse the
Pump Definition Libraries.
Synchronize From Library Updates
a set of pump definition entries
previously imported from a Pump
Definition Engineering Library. The
updates reflect changes that have been
made to the library since it was
imported. Synchronize To Library
Updates an existing Pump Definition
Engineering Library using current
pump definition entries that were
initially imported but have since been
modified. Import From Library
Imports pump definition entries from
an existing Pump Definition
Engineering Library. Export To
Library Exports the current pump
definition entries to an existing Pump
Definition Engineering Library.

The tab section includes the following controls:


Head Tab

This tab consists of input data fields that allow you to


define the pump head curve. The specific fields vary
depending on which type of pump is selected in the Pump
Definition type field.

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Pump Definition Type

A pump is an element that adds head to the system as


water passes through it. This software can currently be
used to model six different pump types: Constant Power
When selecting a Constant Power pump, the following
attribute must be defined: Pump Power Represents the
water horsepower, or horsepower that is actually
transferred from the pump to the water. Depending on the
pump's efficiency, the actual power consumed (brake
horsepower) may vary. Design Point (One-Point) When
selecting a Design Point pump, the following flow vs.
head points must be defined: Shutoff Point at which the
pump will have zero discharge. It is typically the
maximum head point on a pump curve. This value is
automatically calculated for Design Point pumps. Design
Point at which the pump was originally intended to
operate. It is typically the best efficiency point (BEP) of
the pump. At discharges above or below this point, the
pump is not operating under optimum conditions. Max
Operating Highest discharge for which the pump is
actually intended to run. At discharges above this point,
the pump may behave unpredictably, or its performance
may decline rapidly. This value is automatically
calculated for Design Point pumps. Standard (ThreePoint) When selecting a Standard Three-Point pump,
the following flow vs. head points must be defined:
Shutoff Point at which the pump will have zero
discharge. It is typically the maximum head point on a
pump curve. Design Point at which the pump was
originally intended to operate. It is typically the best
efficiency point (BEP) of the pump. At discharges above
or below this point, the pump is not operating under
optimum conditions. Max Operating Highest discharge
for which the pump is actually intended to run. At
discharges above this point, the pump may behave
unpredictably, or its performance may decline rapidly.

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Pump Definition Type (contd)

Standard Extended When selecting a Standard


Extended pump, the following flow vs. head points must
be defined: Shutoff Point at which the pump will have
zero discharge. It is typically the maximum head point on
a pump curve. Design Point at which the pump was
originally intended to operate. It is typically the best
efficiency point (BEP) of the pump. At discharges above
or below this point, the pump is not operating under
optimum conditions. Max Operating Highest discharge
for which the pump is actually intended to run. At
discharges above this point, the pump may behave
unpredictably, or its performance may decline rapidly.
Max Extended Absolute maximum discharge at which
the pump can operate, adding zero head to the system.
This value may be computed by the program, or entered
as a custom extended point. This value is automatically
calculated for Standard Extended pumps. Custom
Extended When selecting a Custom Extended pump,
the following attributes must be defined: Shutoff Point
at which the pump will have zero discharge. It is typically
the maximum head point on a pump curve. Design
Point at which the pump was originally intended to
operate. It is typically the best efficiency point (BEP) of
the pump. At discharges above or below this point, the
pump is not operating under optimum conditions. Max
Operating Highest discharge for which the pump is
actually intended to run. At discharges above this point,
the pump may behave unpredictably, or its performance
may decline rapidly. Max Extended Absolute
maximum discharge at which the pump can operate,
adding zero head to the system. This value may be
computed by the program, or entered as a custom
extended point. Multiple Point (SWMM Type 3) When
selecting a Multiple Point pump, an unlimited number of
Flow vs. Head points may be defined defined relating the
pump flow and head as found in a pump head
characteristics curve. The points should be entered in
increasing order in terms of flow. Volume vs. Flow The
user populates a table in increasing order with respect to
volume of the flow from the pump as a stepwise function
of volume in the wet well. Depth vs. Flow (SWMM Type
2) The user enters a table in increasing order with
respect to depth of the flow from the pump as a stepwise
function of depth in the wet well. Depth Flow (Simulated
Variable Speed) Variable speed in-line pump where
flow varies continuously with inlet node depth. The user
enters a table giving the flow as a function of depth in the
wet well. It can be used in the implicit dynamic wave or
explicit SWMM solvers to approximate the behavior of
one of more variable speed pumps in a station where the

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variable speed pump flows are controlled to match the


inflow to the wet well. The user should initialize the wet
well depth to be the level which the user wants to
maintain. The flow in the pump definition should increase
significantly when the level exceeds the target and
decrease significantly when the level decreases below the
target.
Efficiency Tab

This tab allows you to specify efficiency settings for the


pump that is being edited.

Pump Efficiency

Allows you to specify the pump efficiency type for the


pump that is being edited. The following efficiency types
are available: Constant Efficiency This efficiency type
maintains the efficiency determined by the input value
regardless of changes in discharge. When the Constant
Efficiency type is selected, the input field is as follows:
Pump Efficiency The Pump Efficiency value is
representative of the ability of the pump to transfer the
mechanical energy generated by the motor to Water
Power. Best Efficiency Point This efficiency type
generates a parabolic efficiency curve using the input
value as the best efficiency point. When the Best
Efficiency Point type is selected, the input fields are as
follows: BEP Flow The flow delivered when the pump
is operating at its Best Efficiency point. BEP Efficiency
The efficiency of the pump when it is operating at its
Best Efficiency Point. Define BEP Max Flow When
this box is checked the User Defined BEP Max Flow field
is enabled, allowing you to enter a maximum flow for the
Best Efficiency Point. User Defined BEP Max Flow
Allows you to enter a maximum flow value for the Best
Efficiency Point. Multiple Efficiency Points This
efficiency type generates an efficiency curve based upon
two or more user-defined efficiency points. These points
are linearly interpolated to form the curve. When the
Multiple Efficiency Points type is selected, the input field
is as follows: Efficiency Points Table This table allows
you to enter the pump's efficiency at various discharge
rates.

Motor Tab

This tab allows you to define the pump's motor efficiency


settings. It contains the following controls:

Motor Efficiency

The Motor Efficiency value is representative of the ability


of the motor to transform electrical energy to rotary
mechanical energy.

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Is Variable Speed Drive?

This check box allows you to specify whether or not the


pump is a Variable Speed Pump. Toggling this check box
On allows you to input points on the Efficiency Points
table.

Efficiency Points Table

This table allows you to enter speed/efficiency points for


variable speed pumps. This table is activated by toggling
the "Variable Speed Drive" check box On.

Transient Tab

This tab allows you to define the pump's Bentley


SewerCAD -specific transient settings. It contains the
following controls:

Inertia (Pump and Motor)

Inertia is proportional to the amount of stored rotational


energy available to keep the pump rotating (and
transferring energy to the fluid), even after the power is
switched off. You can obtain this parameter from
manufacturer's catalogs, or from pump curves, or by using
the Pump and Motor Inertia Calculator. To access the
calculator, click the ellipsis button.

Speed (Full)

Speed denotes thenumber of rotations of the pump


impeller per unit time, generally in revolutions per minute
or rpm. This is typically shown prominently on pump
curves and stamped on the name plate on the pump itself.

Specific Speed

Specific speed provides four-quadrant characteristic


curves to represent typical pumps for each of the most
common types, including but not limited to: 1280, 4850,
or 7500 (U.S. customary units) and 25, 94, or 145 (SI
metric units).

Reverse Spin Allowed?

Indicates whether the pump is equipped with a ratchet or


other device to prevent the pump impeller from spinning
in reverse.

Library Tab

This tab displays information about the pump that is


currently highlighted in the Pump Definitions Pane. If the
pump is derived from an engineering library, the
synchronization details can be found here. If the pump
was created manually for this project, the synchronization
details will display the message Orphan (local), indicating
that the pump was not derived from a library entry.

Notes Tab

This tab contains a text field that is used to type


descriptive notes that will be associated with the pump
that is currently highlighted in the Pump Definitions Pane.

To create a pump definition


1. Select Components > Pump Definitions.

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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Click New to create a new pump definition.


For each pump definition, perform these steps:
Select the type of pump definition in the Pump Definition Type menu.
Type values for for the pump attributes as required. The available table columns or fields change depending on
which definition type you choose.
For Multiple Point pumps, click the New button above the curve table to add a new row to the table, or press the
Tab key to move to the next column in the table. Click the Delete button above the curve table to delete the
currently highlighted row from the table.
Define efficiency and motor settings in the Efficiency and Motor tabs.
You can save your new pump definition in Bentley SewerCAD Engineering Libraries for future use. To do this,
perform these steps:
Click the Synchronization Options button, then select Export to Library. The Engineering Libraries dialog box
opens.
Use the plus and minus signs to expand and collapse the list of available libraries, then select the library into which
you want to export your new unit sanitary load.
Click Close to close the Engineering Libraries dialog box.
Perform the following optional steps:
To delete a pump definition, select the curve label then click Delete.
To rename a pump definition, select the label of the pump definition you want to rename, click Rename, then type
the new name.
To view a report on a pump definition, select the label for the pump definition, then click Report.
Click Close to close the dialog box.

The following illustration shows the four different pump curve types.

Bentley SewerCAD pump types correspond to the above pump types as follows:

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Design Point -> Multiple Point (Type 3)


Standard (3 Point) -> Multiple Point (Type 3)
Standard Extended -> Multiple Point (Type 3)
Custom Extended -> Multiple Point (Type 3)
Volume vs. Flow -> (Type I)
Depth vs. Flow -> (Type 2)
Multiple Point -> (Type 3)
Depth vs. Flow (Simulated Variable Speed) -> (Type 4)

Some pump types only work with certain solvers as described below:
Available Pump Types by Solver
Pump Type

Implicit

Explicit

Gradually Varied

Standard 3 Point

Design 1 Point

Multipoint

Standard Extended

Custom Extended

Volume vs. Flow

Depth vs. Flow

Depth Flow

In the GVF solver, the user can specify (in the Calculation Options) whether linear or smooth interpolation is used with
the multipoint pump curve. The implicit and explicit solvers use linear interpolation between points.
You define pump curves in the Pump Definitions dialog box. You can also define pump curves in the Engineering
Library.
To create a pump definition:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Select Analysis > Pump Definitions.


Click New to create a new pump definition.
For each pump definition, perform these steps:
Select the type of pump curve in the Pump Curve Type submenu.
Type values in the curve table. The columns change depending on which curve type you choose.
Click the New button above the curve table to add a new row to the table, or press the Tab key to move to the next
column in the table.
Click the Delete button above the curve table to delete the currently highlighted row from the table.
Click the Graph button above the curve table to view a plot of the curve.
You can save your new pump definition in Bentley SewerCAD Engineering Libraries for future use. To do this,
perform these steps:
Click the Synchronization Options button, then select Export to Library. The Engineering Libraries dialog box
appears.

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11. Use the plus and minus signs to expand and collapse the list of available libraries, then select the library into which
you want to export your new unit sanitary load.
12. Click Close to close the Engineering Libraries dialog box.
13. Perform the following optional steps:
14. To delete a pump definition, select the curve label then click Delete.
15. To rename a Pump Definition, select the label of the pump definition you want to rename, click Rename, then type
the new name.
16. To view a report on a pump definition, select the label for the pump definition, then click Report.
17. Click Close to close the dialog box.

Pump Controls
There are several ways of controlling pump on/off status depending on the active solver. There are three types of
controls: on/off, SWMM control statements and GVF pressure control statements and are summarized below and
described in more detail in the following paragraphs.
Available Controls by Solver
Solver

On/Off

Implicit

Explicit

GVF-Convex

SWMM

GVF Pressure

X
X

GVF-Rational
The GVF-rational solver and steady runs in the GVF-convex solver do not have pump controls because these solvers
only perform a steady run only and the initial pump status is all that is needed.
On/Off controls are a property of a given pump based on the hydraulic grade line elevation at the node (usually a wet
well) immediately upstream of the pump. These controls will not be used if "Ignore On and Off Elevations" is set to
True. If it is set to false, these settings must be specified and the on elevation must be higher than the off elevation.
This type of control setting is the simplest and works with all three solvers than use controls which makes it easy to
switch between solvers. However, it cannot consider complicated control actions such as those based on time or flow
rates.
On/off controls are stored in the operational alternative.
SWMM control statements can be established for any element when the explicit solver is used. These can handle
complex conditions and actions. They are set up under Components > SWMM extensions > Control sets. See the help
for [Control Sets Tab and Control Sets Dialog Box] for details on setting up these controls.
GVF pressure control statements apply to pressure elements in a pressure subnetwork and are generally used for
controlling pumps. These controls are set in Components > Controls. Like SWMM control statements, they can contain
complex conditions and actions. See the help for [Controls and Controls Tab] for details on setting up these controls.
When both GVF pressure controls and on/off controls are provided for a pump, the GVF pressure controls have priority
in case the two types of controls try to set different pump status.

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Pump Curve Dialog Box


This dialog allows you to define the points that make up the pump curve that is associated with the Pump Definition
Library entry that is currently highlighted in the Engineering Library Manager explorer pane.
The columns that are available in this dialog will vary depending on the Pump Curve Type that is selected in the menu
of the same name in the Engineering Library. For descriptions of the various pump attributes, see Pump Definitions
Dialog Box (on page 193).

Pump Curve Combinations


There are a number of ways to view pump curves including Components > Pump Definition which shows all available
pump curves, and right clicking on a pump and selecting Pump Curves once a run is complete. Users also may want to
view the performance of multiple pumps running together in parallel in a pump station. The display of multiple pump
and system head curves is accomplished using the Bentley pressure solver which is only available when the active
solver is set to GVF-convex.
To view combination pump curves it is first necessary to include the pumps in a Pump Station element. This can be
done by opening the property grid for the pump, picking the Pump Station property and selecting the pump station in
which this pump is located. It is usually advisable to draw the pump station polygon to include the pumps within the
polygon (See Pump Stations (on page 211)).
The pump head and efficiency characteristic curves are properties solely of the pump and can be displayed even if the
model only consists of the pump station with the pumps. If the user wants to display system head curves, then the pump
station must be part of a valid hydraulic model.
To start the Combination Pump Curve feature to view the curves either
1. Select Analysis > Combination Pump Curve.
2. Right click on the Pump Station and select Combination Pump Curves.

Pump Curve Combination Editor


Upon opening a Combination Pump Curve dialog, the user must first select which pump station is to be analyzed by
either selecting one of the previously used pump stations from the drop down or picking the ellipse (...) button and
selecting the station from the drawing.

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Once the pump station has been selected, the dialog displays the possible pump combinations in the top left pane and
the head curves in the bottom pane.

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The column marked "Active" is checked if the user wants that combination displayed in the graph.
The column "ID" displays the index on the curve in the graph (e.g. Head[1] is the curve corresponding to the head of
the pump combination with ID = 1).
There is one column in the table for each pump definition referenced in that pump station. The number in the cell
indicates the number of pumps of that definition that are running for the combination corresponding to that row. If there
is a zero in a cell, the pump is off for that combination.
The top middle pane determines which type of pump or system curve is displayed. By default, only the Head
characteristic curve is displayed. The user can also turn on the (pump) efficiency or wire-to-water (overall) efficiency
curves.
The system head curves are a property of the system calculated from the perspective of a pump. When the System Head
Curve box is checked, the user must specify which pump is the Representative Pump which means which path through
the station is head loss calculated. Usually the results don't vary significantly depending on which pump is selected.

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The Maximum flow and Number of Intervals entries determine the horizontal extent of the system head curve and the
number of points along the curve that will be calculated.
The top right pane is used to account for the fact that the system head curve will depend somewhat on the time of day.
The user must select at least one time step to use in determining the system head curve. If the user selects a time step in
which the pump is discharging into a closed system with no pressure dependent demands, the system head curve may
show very high or low values for head. Do not select time steps where this occurs.
In order to run or rerun the pump combination graph, select the green Compute button at the top left of the bottom pane.
The graph below shows an example with three different combinations for two time steps (system head curves).

If the user wants to change the look of the graph such as the range of head values, use the second button in the bottom
pane. That opens the graphing manager. To change the axis range, pick Chart > Axes > Left Axis > Maximum >
Change and enter a new value. See Graphing for more details.

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Flow-Efficiency Curve Dialog Box


This dialog is used to define the points that make up the flow-efficiency curve that is associated with the Pump
Definition Library entry that is currently highlighted in the Engineering Library Manager explorer pane.
The Flow-Efficiency Curve dialog is only available for the Multiple Efficiency Points efficiency curve type. The curve
is defined by entering points in the Flow vs. Efficiency table. Click the New button to add a new row and click the
Delete button to delete the currently highlighted row.

For more information about Engineering Libraries, see Engineering Libraries.

Speed-Efficiency Curve Dialog Box


This dialog is used to define the points that make up the speed-efficiency curve that is associated with the Pump
Definition Library entry that is currently highlighted in the Engineering Library Manager explorer pane
The Speed-Efficiency Curve dialog is only available for Variable Speed Drive pumps (Is Variable Speed Drive? is set
to True). The curve is defined by entering points in the Speed vs. Efficiency table. Click the New button to add a new
row and click the Delete button to delete the currently highlighted row.

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For more information about Engineering Libraries, see Engineering Libraries.

Efficiency Points Table


A variable speed drive introduces some inefficiency into the pumping system. The user needs to supply a curve relating
variable speed drive efficiency to pump speed. This data should be obtained from the variable speed drive manufacturer
but is often difficult to find. Variable frequency drives (VFD) are the most common type of variable speed drive used.
The graph below shows the efficiency vs. speed curves for a typical VFD: Square D (Schneider Electric) model
ATV61:

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Variable-Speed Pumps (VSP or VFD)


Variable speed pumps are used in wastewater collection systems, usually to have pump outflow match wet well inflow
to maintain a roughly constant wet well level. Each of the Bentley solvers handles variable speed pumping somewhat
differently. Users need to be careful switching solvers for models with variable speed pumps.
With the implicit and explicit solvers, which solve the full St. Venant equations, the discharge from the pumps is
represented as a function relating flow rate from the pump(s) to the water level in the adjacent wet well. Usually the
function should span the full range of water levels in the wet well such that when the wet well is empty, the flow should
be zero while if the wet well is full, it should be the maximum flow that the pumps can deliver. When the wet well is at
its typical level, the flow should roughly match the average inflow to the wet well. These solvers do not directly use the
pump head characteristic curve, nor will they determine the actual pump speed. Under the Components > Pump
Definitions, this type of pump is referred to as a "Depth flow (Simulated Variable Speed Pump)", which is sometimes
called a "SWMM Type 4" pump.
For the GVF-convex solver, variable speed pumps are solved with a true pressure solver. The user would create a pump
definition corresponding to the full speed pump and assign that definition to a pump element. The definition could be
any of those for pressure elements including 1-pont, 3-point, multipoint, standard extended and custom extended. In the
pump element, the user would set "Is Variable Speed Pump" to True, "VSP Type" to the appropriate type (usually
Fixed head), "Control Node" to the node controlling the pump speed (usually the wet well), "Hydraulic Grade (Target)"
to the level that will maintained in the wet well and "Control on Suction Side" to True if the control node is on the
suction side of the pump. When the target element of a VSP is a wet well, the target HGL field is hidden and it assumes
the target is the initial wet well level. The convex solver will not only determine the flow from the pump but will also
calculate the pump's speed. It is also possible to set the speed as a function of time (VSP Type = Pattern Based) to
calculate the flow and head given the speed, or alternatively specify a known flow (VSP Type = Fixed Flow) t calculate

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speed and head. Usually one pump in a station is run as a variable speed pump. When there are more than one running
in parallel, the Variable Speed Pump Battery element should be used.
In the GVF-Rational solver, the pump uses the pump curve provided in the pump definition without any adjustment for
speed.
Because the different solvers use very different methods to compute pump flows, the results will not exactly match
between solvers but by adjusting input curves, some reasonable agreement can be achieved in most cases.

Submersible Pumps
Wastewater collection systems frequently use submersible pumps. However, the model needs a link to connect the
suction side of the pump to a node (usually a wet well). The pressure solver in the GVF-convex solver needs a suction
pipe (pressure pipe) connecting the pump to a suction node (a wet well for submersible pumps). To simulate a
submersible pump, the user should connect the wet well to the pump with a short pipe to move the water into the pump
with negligible head loss. It can even be a virtual conduit. In the GVF-convex solver, this pipe must be a pressure pipe
while in the other solvers it can be a pressure pipe or conduit. If the user plans to switch between solvers, it is bet to
make it a pressure pipe.
The Elevation (Invert) for the submersible pump should be the low point of the pump inlet.

Pumps and Wet Wells in the GVF-Rational Solver


Pumps in the GVF-rational solver must have a wet well immediately upstream of the pump connected by a single
conduit or pressure pipe with zero head loss; the exception being that a pond with no control structure can be connected
to a downstream pump - in this case the pond would not need to be connected to a wet well. This accurately models
submersible pumps and the suction losses in dry well pumps are usually small. Parallel pumps and variable speed pump
batteries are not allowed. If detailed analysis of pumping and force (rising) mains is required, one of the other solvers
should be used.
The following hydraulic and hydrologic behaviors apply to pumps and wet wells when using the Gradually Varied
Flow - Rational engine:
Flows:
When the status of the pump is ON, then pump discharge is equal to wet well inflow. When the status is OFF, pump
discharge is set to zero.
Profiles:
The pump curves specified in the other solvers are not used by the GVF solver. Instead, the suction head of the pump is
taken as the wet well level and the discharge head on the pump is determined using the GVF backwater analysis from
downstream elements. The heads can be used to determine pump selection.

Variable Speed Pump Battery

A Variable Speed Pump Battery element represents multiple variable speed pumps that meet the following criteria:

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1.
2.
3.
4.

the VSPs are parallel with each other (not in-line)


the VSPs are sharing common upstream (inflow) and downstream (outflow) nodes
the VSPs are identical (have the same pump definition)
the VSPs are controlled by the same target node and the same target head.

Parallel variable speed pumps (VSPs) are operated as one group and led by a single VSP, the so-called lead VSP, while
the other VSPs at the same battery are referred as to as lag VSPs. A lag VSP turns on and operates at the same speed as
the lead VSP when the lead VSP is not able to meet the target head and turns off when the lead VSP is able to deliver
the target head or flow.
From the standpoint of input data, Variable Speed Pump Batteries are treated exactly the same as single pump elements
that are defined as variable speed pumps of the Fixed Head Type with one exception; number of Lag Pumps must be
defined in the Lag Pump Count field.
When simulating a Pump Battery in a transient analysis, the pump battery is converted to an equivalent pump using the
following conversion rules:
1. The Flow (Initial) of the equivalent pump is the total flow of all the running pumps in the pump battery.
2. The Inertia of the Pump and Motor of the equivalent pump is the sum of all the inertia values for all the running
pumps.
3. The Specific Speed of the equivalent pump is the Specific Speed value that is closest to the result of the following
equation: sqrt(number of running pumps) * Specific Speed of pump battery

Variable Speed Pump Batteries in Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT


A variable speed pump battery (VSPB) element represents a set of identical parallel variable speed pumps which can be
controlled to provide a fixed head or fixed flow or follow a time pattern of speeds. This type of element is only
available with the GVF-convex solver. SeeVariable Speed Pump Battery (on page 209) for details.
The behavior of a VSPB in cannot be captured with the GVF-rational solver if the pump is operated any way other than
inflow matching outflow. However, there are ways of mimicking VSPB behavior in the dynamic wave implict (DW)
and explicit (SWMM) solvers using the Depth-Flow (Variable Speed)" (Type 4) pump in the pump definition. For
example, suppose that a variable speed pump station with several pumps is operated to maintain a wet well depth of 30
in. (outflow matching inflow), and the normal inflow is roughly 0.5 cfs and the maximum the station can pump is 2 cfs.
The table of flow vs. depth in the pump definition might have values like the ones below. The final point should
correspond to the maximum pump battery flow at the maximum wet well depth. It is advisable to cover the full range of
wet well depths.
VSPB Pump Definition
Flow (cfs)

Depth (in.)

28

0.3

29

0.5

30

32

34

2.2

60

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As soon as the inflow deviated from the previous value, the depth would change and the outflow would respond.
If you want to switch between the GVF-convex and either SWMM or DW with a VSPB, a different active topology
must be used for the two types of models. Create an active topology which contains a VSPB for GVF-convex scenarios
and one which contains a pump that simulates a VSPB for SWMM and DW scenarios. The model should look
something like the image below, which shows the case where the VSPB is inactive.

If there is an active VSPB element in a solver other than GVF-convex a fatal error message is issue and the run does
not proceed.

Pump Stations

A pump station element provides a way for a user to indicate which pumps are in the same structure, serving the same
pressure zone. It provides a graphical way to display the pumps associated with the station. A pump station is not a
hydraulic element in that it is not directly used in a hydraulic analysis but rather it is a collection of pumps which are
the hydraulic elements.
A pump station is a polygon element which displays which pumps are in the station by dashed lines connecting the
pumps with the station polygon centroid. A pump does not need to be inside the polygon to be a pump assigned to the
station and pumps inside the polygon still need to be assigned to the station. The only information saved with a pump
station is the geometry of the station and the list of pumps assigned to the station.

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A pump station element is useful in calculating and displaying an analysis of pump combinations (see Pump Curve
Combinations).
Usually the pumps and associated piping are laid out before the station is drawn. However, the station polygon can be
drawn first. The station element is created by picking the pump station element icon

from the layout menu and drawing a polygon around the extents of the station. When the polygon is complete, the user
right clicks and selects "Done".
Individual pump elements are assigned to a station by selecting the pump element and in the Pump Station property,
picking the pump station which the pump is associated. A dashed line is drawn from the pump to the station. This also
can be done in the physical alternative for pumps. To assign several pumps at once, a global edit can be used provided
that at least one pump has already been assigned to that station.

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Sometimes a pump station structure can house pumps pumping to more than one pressure zone (e.g. medium service
and high service). For the purposes of Bentley SewerCAD , this would be two (or more) pump station polygon
elements, one for each pressure zone.

Pump Stations Dialog Box


This dialog allows you to define a pump station by creating a collection of individual pumps.
New

Creates a new pump station that uses


an automatically created label.

Delete

Deletes the currently highlighted


pump station.

Rename

Lets you rename the currently


highlighted pump station.

Report

Lets you generate a preformatted


report that contains the input data
associated with the currently
highlighted pump station.

The tab section on the right includes the following controls:


Pump List Tab
New Button

Click the New button to add a pump to the collection.


When you click this button you are returned to the
drawing view and the Select toolbar appears, allowing
you to select the desired pump.

Delete Button

Click the Delete button to remove the currently


highlighted pump from the collection.

Pump

This read-only field displays the element ID of the pump.

Label

This read-only field displays the label of the pump.

Status (Initial)

This field allows you to define whether the pump is


initially on or off when the simulation starts.

Pump Definition

This field allows you to select the pump definition for the
corresponding pump. Click the ellipsis button to open the
Pump Definitions manager.

Elevation (On)

This field allows you to define the water surface elevation


at the immediate upstream node at which the pump turns
on.

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Pump List Tab
Elevation (Off)

This field allows you to define the water surface elevation


at the immediate upstream node at which the pump turns
off.

Notes Tab

This tab contains a text field that allows you to enter


descriptive notes that will be associated with the currently
highlighted pump station.

Pumps Dialog Box


This dialog allows you to view the collection of pumps assigned to a pump station element.

Click the Report button to generate a report containing the list of pumps included in the pump station as well as their
associated pump definitions. Click the Zoom To button to focus the drawing view on the pump that is highlighted in the
list.

Pump Stations and Pump Station Elements


Most pumps are installed in pump stations with multiple pumps. However, for the purpose of hydraulic calculations,
pumps need to be considered as individual elements and hydraulic data are assigned to pumps rather than pump
stations.
The notion of pump stations changed significantly with the SELECT series 3 release of the Bentley storm and sanitary
sewer models. Pump stations are treated differently in the GVF-convex solver vs. the implicit and explicit solvers.
Pump station elements are polygons and individual pumps are assigned to them by assigning the "Pump station"
property for each pump element in the property grid. Pumps do not need to be assigned to pump stations for the model
to run. Below, PMP-1 and PMP-2 are assigned to pump station PS-1 as indicated by the dashed line.

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In the GVF-convex solver, it is possible to right click on a pump station polygon and analyze combination pump curves
which can overlay pump head and efficiency curves and when the station is part of a runable model, can overlay the
system head curve. See [combination pump curve help] for details.
Variable speed pump batteries can also be assigned to pump station but they are only used in the GVF-convex solver.
In the explicit and implicit solver, the pump station element is used only for drawing purposes and generally there is
one pump element for each pump. (The ability to lump multiple pumps into a single station using Components > Pump
station only exists in SELECTseries 1 and earlier. When importing an earlier model into a newer version, the pump
station properties (initial level and on/off settings) are assigned to the individual pumps not a pump station.)
In special cases in explicit and implicit solvers, a Volume vs. Flow or Depth vs. Flow curve can be used to approximate
multiple pumps turning on with a curve as shown below.

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Catchments

When you click the catchment element on the Layout toolbar, your mouse cursor changes into a catchment element
symbol. Clicking in the drawing pane while this tool is active causes a catchment element to be placed at the location of
the mouse cursor.
Related Topics

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Hydrograph Methods (on page 217)


Specifying a Time of Concentration (Tc) Method for a Catchment (on page 218)
Defining the Geometry of a Catchment or a Pond (on page 221)
Defining CN Area Collections for Catchments (on page 534)
Catchment Attributes (on page 1092)

Hydrograph Methods
With the exception of purely sanitary flow systems with no wet weather effects, Bentley SewerCAD starts its hydraulic
calculations from a hydrograph for each catchment. There are numerous ways of generating those hydrographs. Most
involve starting with Storm Data (Adding Storm Data-461) then calculating a runoff hydrograph using one of the
following methods:

SCS
Unit Hydrograph
EPA SWMM
Modified Rational Method
RTK Unit Hydrograph Method

Virtually any hydrograph and loss method can be used with any numerical engine with the following exceptions:
1. Modified rational method only works with Implicit engine and only with peak intensity (IDF) rainfall (Local rainfall
is not supported).
2. If you choose the SWMM engine and specify EPA-SWMM runoff method, then all catchments must use that runoff
method and the loss method specified on the calculation options manager (only Green -Amt, Horton, or SCS).
However, it is also possible to directly enter a hydrograph by specifying a user-defined hydrograph (Adding User
Defined Hydrographs-413) for any catchment.

Snowmelt and Groundwater


Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT can calculate the accumulation, re-distribution, and melting of precipitation that falls
as snow on a catchment. In addition, Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT can model groundwater flow between and aquifer
underneath a catchment and a node of the drainage system.
The snowmelt and groundwater calculations both require the catchment's Runoff Method to be set to 'EPA-SWMM
Runoff', and the Engine Type to be set to 'Explicit (SWMM 5)' in the calculation options. For methods to determine
snowmelt rates, the user is referred to the Haestad Press publication Stormwater Conveyance Modeling and Design.
Shown below is a definitional sketch of the two-zone groundwater model that is used in SWMM. The upper zone is
unsaturated with a variable moisture content of . The lower zone is fully saturated and therefore its moisture content is
fixed at the soil porosity .

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The fluxes shown in the figure, expressed as volume per unit area per unit time, consist of the following:

After computing the water fluxes that exist during a given time step, a mass balance is written for the change in water
volume stored in each zone so that a new water table depth and unsaturated zone moisture content can be computed for
the next time step.
See also:

SWMM Hydrology (on page 313)


SWMM Snow Packs (SWMM Snow Pack Editor) (on page 315)
Climatology Dialog Box (on page 317)

Specifying a Time of Concentration (Tc) Method for a Catchment


You can add Time of Concentration (Tc) Methods to a catchment in your model. Bentley SewerCAD supports 17
different methods, which are listed below. You define the TC Method in the TC Data Collection dialog box. You can
define both single and multiple flow segments for a catchment.
Some types of Tc equations can apply to flow segments within a multiple-segment Tc calculation. Other Tc methods
are equations intended to model the entire average subarea flow distance and slope in one single flow segment. When
combining multiple flow segments to compute Tc, it is up to you to only combine Tc methods that can be modeled in
combination with multiple flow segments.

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To define the Tc Method for a catchment:
1. Click a catchment in your model to display the Property Editor, or right-click a catchment and select Properties
from the shortcut menu.
2. In the Runoff section of the Property Editor, select Modified Rational Method in the Runoff Method field. The Tc
(hours) field becomes available.
3. Click the Ellipses (...) button next to the Tc (hours) field. The Tc Data Collection dialog box appears.
4. Click New, then select a Tc Method from the submenu.
5. Different fields become available depending on which Tc Method you select. For each Tc Method, type values in
the appropriate fields.
6. Click OK to close the dialog box and save your Tc Collection data (time of concentration in hours) in the Property
Editor.
Tc Data Collection Dialog Box
This dialog box allows you to define the Time of Concentration method. Both single and multiple flow segments can be
modeled in this dialog box.
The dialog box contains the Tc Method display pane, which lists all of the methods currently assigned to the catchment,
a control section that allows you to edit the attributes associated with the method currently highlighted in the table, and
the following buttons:
New

Displays a submenu that allows you


to specify the Tc method to be
created.

Delete

Deletes the currently highlighted


method from the table.

Report

Opens a print preview window


containing a report that details the
input data for this dialog box.

Bentley SewerCAD supports the following 13 methods, which are listed along with the required input data for each:

User Defined TcThe user-defined time of concentration (Tc) is a method that allows the direct input of the Tc
rather than using an equation to calculate it. This method would be used when the Tc needs to be calculated using a
methodology that is not supported by Bentley SewerCAD , or when a quick estimate of Tc is sufficient for the
analysis.
User Defined TcLets you explicitly define the Tc, rather than have it calculated for you using one of the other
methods.
CarterThis method requires the following input data:
Hydraulic LengthLets you define the flow length of the catchment section.
SlopeLets you define the slope of the catchment section.
EaglesonThis method requires the following input data:
Hydraulic LengthLets you define the flow length of the catchment section.
Mannings nThe Mannings roughness value of the catchment section.
Hydraulic RadiusLets you define the hydraulic radius of the catchment section.
SlopeLets you define the slope of the catchment section.
Espey/WinslowThis method requires the following input data:

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Channel FactorLets you define the Espey channelization factor of the catchment section.
Hydraulic LengthLets you define the flow length of the catchment section.
SlopeLets you define the slope of the catchment section.
ImperviousLets you define the percentage of impervious area of the catchment section.
FAAThis method requires the following input data:
Overland Flow LengthLets you define the length of the overland pipe flow of the catchment section.
Rational Method CLets you define the rational C coefficient of the catchment section.
SlopeLets you define the slope of the catchment section.
Kerby/HathawayThis method requires the following input data:
Mannings nThe Mannings roughness value of the catchment section.
SlopeLets you define the slope of the catchment section.
Hydraulic LengthLets you define the flow length of the catchment section.
Kirpich PAThis method requires the following input data:
Tc MultiplierLets you define the time-of-concentration adjustment multiplier.
SlopeLets you define the slope of the catchment section.
Hydraulic LengthLets you define the flow length of the catchment section.
Kirpich TNThis method requires the following input data:
Hydraulic LengthLets you define the flow length of the catchment section.
SlopeLets you define the slope of the catchment section.
Tc MultiplierLets you define the time-of-concentration adjustment multiplier.
Length and VelocityThis method requires the following input data:
Hydraulic LengthLets you define the flow length of the catchment section.
VelocityLets you define the velocity of flow in the catchment section.
SCS LagThis method requires the following input data:
Hydraulic LengthLets you define the flow length of the catchment section.
CNLets you define the SCS runoff curve number of the catchment section.
SlopeLets you define the slope of the catchment section of the catchment section.
TR-55 Sheet FlowThis number represents the sheet flow time computed for each column of sheet flow data. This
method requires the following input data:
Hydraulic LengthLets you define the flow length of the catchment section.
Mannings nThe Mannings roughness value of the catchment section.
SlopeLets you define the slope of the catchment section.
2 yr. 24 hr. DepthDepth of 2 year 24 hour storm.
TR-55 Shallow ConcentrationThis number represents the sheet flow time computed for each column of shallow
concentrated flow data. This method requires the following input data:
Hydraulic LengthLets you define the flow length of the catchment section.
Is PavedLets you specify whether the catchment section is paved or unpaved.
SlopeLets you define the slope of the catchment section.
TR-55 Channel FlowThis number represents the channel flow time computed for each column of channel flow
data. This method requires the following input data:
Flow AreaLets you define the flow area of the catchment section.
Hydraulic LengthLets you define the flow length of the catchment section.
Mannings nThe Mannings roughness value of the catchment section.
SlopeLets you define the slope of the catchment section.
Wetted PerimeterLets you define the wetted perimeter of the catchment section.
Friend's EquationThis method requires the following input data:

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Overland Flow LengthLets you define the overland flow length of the catchment section.
SlopeLets you define the slope of the catchment section.
Horton's RoughnessThe Hortons roughness value of the catchment section.
Kinematic WaveThis method requires the following input data:
Overland Flow LengthLets you define the overland flow length of the catchment section.
SlopeLets you define the slope of the catchment section.
Manning's nThe Mannings roughness value of the catchment section.
Bransby-Williams EquationThis method requires the following input data:
Hydraulic LengthLets you define the flow length of the catchment section.
SlopeLets you define the slope of the catchment section.
Wallingford (UK)This method requires the following input data:
Hydraulic LengthLets you define the flow length of the catchment section.
SlopeLets you define the slope of the catchment section.

Defining the Geometry of a Catchment or a Pond


You define the geometry of a polygonal element, such as a catchment or a pond, by entering the location and angle of
bends for the selected element. You enter X vs. Y points that plot the shape of the polygon that represents the element
in the Polygon Vertices dialog box.
You may have defined the geometry of a polygon element with some number of points (vertices) but you want to refine
the shape by adding more vertices to the polygon or removing vertices. To add vertices, right click on an edge of the
polygon and pick Bend > Add Bend. If you want to smooth the edge by removing points, pick on the point, right click
and pick Bend > Remove Bend.
To define the geometry of a catchment or a pond:
1. Click a catchment or pond in your model to display the Property Editor, or right-click a catchment or pond and
select Properties from the shortcut menu.
2. In the Geometry section of the Property Editor, click the Ellipses (...) button next to the Geometry field.
3. In the Polygon Vertices dialog box, click the New button to add a new row to the table.
4. Type values for X and Y points for each row in the table.
5. To remove rows from the table, click the Delete button.
6. Click OK.
Polygon Vertices Dialog Box
This dialog box lets you define X vs. Y points that plot the shape of the polygon that represents the selected element.
The dialog box contains the X vs. Y table that allows you to define any number of points and the following buttons:
New

Creates a new row in the table.

Delete

Deletes the currently highlighted row


from the table.

Time-Area Table Dialog

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This dialog allows you to specify a time-area table for use with the Time-Area runoff method .
Specify the Time vs Area points in associated columns of the table. Click New to create a new row in the table. Click
Delete to remove the currently highlighted row from the table. Click Report to generate a report for the Time-Area
table. Click Graph to generate a graph of the time-area points.

Loss Methods
Supported hydrology runoff and loss methods include:

Constant Rate: This method is also called as "fLoss", the model uses the user specified loss rate (unit being depth/time)
to deduct it from the rainfall intensity curve to get the excess rainfall curve for runoff calculation.
Initial Loss and Constant Rate: User specifies an initial loss value and a constant loss rate, the model first applies the
initial loss to the rainfall intensity curve and after the initial loss taken the model applies a constant loss rate to get the
excess rainfall intensity curve for runoff calculation. If one of the two data is zero then it means that only one of the
loss types (either initial loss or the constant rate loss) is applied. Therefore basically this loss method covers 3 types of
losses:

Initial Loss
Constant Rate Loss
Initial Loss and Constant Rate Loss combined

Initial Loss and Constant Fraction: User specifies an initial loss value and a constant fraction, the model first applies the
initial loss to the rainfall intensity curve and after the initial loss taken the model applies a constant fraction loss to get
the excess rainfall intensity curve for runoff calculation. If one of the two data is zero then it means that only one of the
loss types (either initial loss or the constant fraction loss) is applied. Therefore basically this loss method covers 3 types
of losses:

Initial Loss
Constant Rate Loss
Initial Loss and Constant Rate Loss combined

Subareas Collection
Most catchments are comprised of more than one type of ground cover. For example, a roadside drainage inlet may
accept flow from the paved roadway, the curbside grass, and a nearby wooded area. This dialog allows you to model

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this, using a collection of subareas, each with their own characteristics. You can define the percentage of the total
catchment area, a surface description, and a runoff coefficient. Note that the percentages must add up to 100. Surface
description is a text field that you can use to further describe the subarea, so you could use descriptions like "Paved
Roadway Surface" or "Curbside Grass" for example.

Subareas Collection - Time of Concentration


This dialog allows you to define the Tc Method and associated values for a subarea.

Depending on the Tc Method you choose, the dialog will contain different attribute fields that are associated with that
method.

Low Impact Development Controls

In the network layout, a Low Impact Development Control element represents the area of a catchment that is associated
with a Low Impact Development (LID) control. A LID control can be deployed throughout a study area to store,
infiltrate, and evaporate subcatchment runoff.
When you click the LID control element on the Layout toolbar, your mouse cursor changes into a LID control element
symbol. LID control elements are polygons. Clicking in the drawing pane while this tool is active causes one point of
the LID control polygon to be placed at the location of the mouse cursor. Continue clicking to define the other points
that make up the polygon to define the shape of the LID control. To finish placing the LID control, right-click and
select Done.
If the shape of the LID control is not important, such as in a schematic drawing, you can place a generic LID control by
holding down the Ctrl button after clicking once, then moving the mouse cursor to define the size of the LID control,
then clicking again to place it.

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LID Controls are defined in the Low Impact Development Controls.

LID Control and Parent Catchment Network Representation


Every LID control element in the network must be associated with a "Parent" catchment. The Parent catchment
contributes flow to the LID and receives LID outflow. Once the Parent has been specified in the LID Properties (see
LID Control-General), the association is represented by a dotted line in the drawing.
Although a LID control can only be associated with a single Parent catchment, a single catchment may be a "Parent" for
multiple LID controls acting in parallel.
Further, a Parent catchment may represent only the area occupied by LID controls, or it may include non-LID area. The
catchment must have an outflow node, which, if desired, can be another catchment.
The possibilities just described for configuring LID controls and Parent catchments translate to two main options for
how to approach your network configuration. The benefits and limitations of each approach should be carefully
considered against the needs of a particular project.
Option 1: LID occupies full subcatchment (usually recommended)
With this approach, a new catchment is created for each LID control in the network. It is the LID control's Parent
Catchment, and represents only the area occupied by the LID control.
Flow from additional catchment area(s) is directed to the LID control by designating the LID's Parent Catchment as the
additional catchment's "Outflow Node."
Under this scenario, in the Low Impact Development Control properties dialog, the attribute "Occupies Full
Subcatchment" will be set to True.
The advantages of this option are:

Multiple LIDs can be placed in series, if desired (i.e., upstream LID's parent catchment and have downstream LID's
parent catchment as its outflow node)
Explicit definition of a LID's contributing area (as opposed to defining as a percentage of impervious area, which is
in turn a percentage of total catchment area)
Ability to direct upstream pervious area to the LID control. (With a parent catchment, only impervious non-LID
area can be directed to the LID control.)
Avoids possible mistakes with parent catchment impervious area percentage and characteristic width resulting from
the addition of a LID control (see Option 2)
Enables more explicit hydrograph reporting to show LID control effects

A possible disadvantage of this option is a greater number of network elements in the model.
Option 2: LID displaces an equal amount of non-LID catchment area
With this option, the Parent catchment Area includes the total area occupied by the LID Control(s), as well as adjacent
non-LID area. The LID Control attribute "Occupies Full Catchment?" is set to False, and the attributes "Area of Each
Unit" and "Number of "Replicate Units" define the area that a LID control displaces from the Parent catchment.
This approach allows multiple LID controls to be associated with a single catchment. If multiple LID controls are
present, they act in parallel to each treat a different portion of the runoff generated from the non-LID catchment area.
The advantage of this option is that it minimizes the number of network elements that must be placed in the model,
enabling a more uncluttered appearance and reducing data entry in some cases.
The disadvantages of this approach are:

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The catchment's LID controls cannot be considered in series (i.e., the outflow from one LID control cannot be
inflow for another downstream).
Only runoff from the impervious portion of the parent catchment can be directed to the LID control(s).
Caution must be exercised with regard to parent catchment attributes for Percent Impervious and Width. These
values must reflect the non-LID portion of the catchment only. For example, if the original Parent catchment is 40%
impervious, and in the course of design, 75% of this impervious area is changed to porous pavement, then the
percent impervious must be adjusted to (1 - 0.75)*40/(100 - 0.75*40) = 14.3%. Similarly, the catchment's
"Characteristic Width" can be affected. If estimating this value as area divided by overland flow length, the area
used would typically be the non-LID area only.

Ponds

When you click the pond element on the Layout toolbar, your mouse cursor changes into a pond element symbol.
Clicking in the drawing pane while this tool is active causes a pond element to be placed at the location of the mouse
cursor.
Note: If there are multiple discharges locations serving a pond then they must all be modeled in the same
manner; that is, they must either all be modeled with outlet control structures, or all modeled without outlet
control structures.
Related Topics

Physical Characteristics of Ponds (on page 225)


Adding Elevation vs. Area Data to a Pond (on page 230)
Adding Elevation vs. Volume Data to a Pond (on page 231)
Pond Attributes (on page 1105)

Physical Characteristics of Ponds


There are categories of storage elements that can be modeled in Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT:

Outdoor ponds with a free surface


Large underground pipes built solely to store water during storms
Wet wells at pumping stations

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The first two are modeled as ponds in Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT. Any of these elements may be used as the
suction side of a pump.
The following pond volume options are available:

Elevation vs. Area


Elevation vs. Volume
Underground Pipe Volume
Functional

Not all of the physical properties are needed for each method of describing pond (storage element) dimensions.
The type of attribute needed for each type of data entry is summarized in the table below:
Required Pond Attributes
Attribute

Elevation-Volume
Curve

Elevation-Area Curve

Volume Function

Pipe Volume

Volume Type

Required

Required

Required

Required

Elevation (Invert)

Required

Required

Required

Required

Depth (Maximum)

Required

Required

Required

Elevation-Area Curve

Required

Elevation-Volume
Curve

Required

Percent VoidSpace
(%)

Required

Required

Number of Barrels

Required

Length

Required

Invert (Start)

Required

Invert (Stop)

Required

Pipe Diameter
Pond Coefficient A

Required

Pond Exponent B

Required

Pond Constant C

Required

For more information on the physical characteristics of ponds, see the following help topics:

Outdoor Ponds (on page 227)


Elevation vs. Area (on page 227)
Elevation vs. Volume (on page 228)

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Percent Void Space (%) (on page 229)


Pipe Volumes (on page 229)
Functional (Equation) (on page 230)

Outdoor Ponds
The physical size of outdoor graded ponds is usually described using a depth vs. area or depth vs. volume curve. A
typical set of curves is shown below:

Related Topics

Physical Characteristics of Ponds-222 (on page 225)


Elevation vs. Area-226 (on page 227)
Elevation vs. Volume-227 (on page 228)
Percent Void Space (%)-228 (on page 229)
Pipe Volumes-228 (on page 229)
Functional (Equation)-229 (on page 230)

Elevation vs. Area


This approach is common for outdoor ponds. The Elevation vs. Area table represents the grading plan contour
information for the pond. The area column represents the water surface area with respect to the corresponding water
surface elevation on the same row in the table. Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT will calculate the cumulative volume at
each given elevation, based on the given Elevation vs. Area data.
Pond Elevation vs. Area

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Elevation (ft)

Area (ac)

Percent Void Space (%)

100

0.003

100

0.008

100

0.016

100

0.024

100

0.034

100

0.044

100

0.056

100

0.068

100

0.081

100

10

0.095

100

Related Topics

Physical Characteristics of Ponds-222 (on page 225)


Outdoor Ponds-225 (on page 227)
Elevation vs. Volume-227 (on page 228)
Percent Void Space (%)-228 (on page 229)
Pipe Volumes-228 (on page 229)
Functional (Equation)-229 (on page 230)

Elevation vs. Volume


This feature gives the user complete control over how to calculate pond volumes. The Elevation vs. Volume table is
typically used in situations where the standard elevation vs. area or pipe volume calculations do not apply and the user
desires to perform custom calculations and enter the results. The volume column represents the water volume being
stored in the pond at the corresponding water surface elevation on the same row in the table.
Pond Depth vs. Volume
Depth (ft)

Volume (ac-ft)

Percent Void Space (%)

0.000

100

0.001

100

0.007

100

0.019

100

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Depth (ft)

Volume (ac-ft)

Percent Void Space (%)

0.038

100

0.067

100

0.106

100

0.156

100

0.217

100

0.292

100

10

0.379

100

Related Topics

Physical Characteristics of Ponds-222 (on page 225)


Outdoor Ponds-225 (on page 227)
Elevation vs. Area-226 (on page 227)
Percent Void Space (%)-228 (on page 229)
Pipe Volumes-228 (on page 229)
Functional (Equation)-229 (on page 230)

Percent Void Space (%)


This option is available for both Elevation vs. Area and Elevation vs. Volume tables. The default value is 100%. The
percent void represents the amount of real storage available at each elevation. For open ponds this value is 100%. This
option is useful for situation where the pond storage area is filled with impervious material, such as stone or gravel. The
percent void space represents the open pore areas that can store water.
Example: For 50% void space, only of the calculated (or specified) total volume would be available as water storage.
Related Topics

See Physical Characteristics of Ponds. (on page 225)


See Outdoor Ponds. (on page 227)
See Elevation vs. Area. (on page 227)
See Elevation vs. Volume. (on page 228)
See Pipe Volumes. (on page 229)
See Functional (Equation). (on page 230)

Pipe Volumes
Another storage option models large, buried, sloped pipes. These are described to the model using the diameter, length
and number of pipe barrels (assuming parallel buried pipes are of the same dimension). The stop invert elevation of the
incoming pipe and the start invert elevation of the outgoing pipe must also be specified in order to determine the slope
of the pipe, which will affect the volume calculation at each water surface elevation.
Related Topics

Physical Characteristics of Ponds-222 (on page 225)

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Outdoor Ponds-225 (on page 227)


Elevation vs. Area-226 (on page 227)
Elevation vs. Volume-227 (on page 228)
Percent Void Space (%)-228 (on page 229)
Functional (Equation)-229 (on page 230)

Functional (Equation)
Another approach for calculating pond volume is to enter the coefficients of the following polynomial equation:
Area = Coeff * DepthExp + Constant
Where:

Area = Surface Area at given depth


Coeff = User input value which is derived from existing volume data
Depth = Distance from the invert of the pond
Exp = User input value which is derived from existing volume data
Constant = The area at the bottom of the pond and is a user input value

Note: The function parameters are based on depths in feet and areas in square feet.
Related Topics

Physical Characteristics of Ponds-222 (on page 225)


Outdoor Ponds-225 (on page 227)
Elevation vs. Area-226 (on page 227)
Elevation vs. Volume-227 (on page 228)
Percent Void Space (%)-228 (on page 229)
Pipe Volumes-228 (on page 229)

Adding Elevation vs. Area Data to a Pond


You can add an elevation-area curve to a pond. The area-elevation points defined in the curve are used to calculate
pond volumes. You define elevation-area curves in the Elevation-Area Curve dialog box.
To add an Elevation vs. Area curve to a pond:
1. Click a pond in your model to display the Property Editor, or right-click a pond and select Properties from the
shortcut menu.
2. In the Physical section of the Property Editor, select Elevation-Area Curve in the Volume Type field. The
Elevation-Area Curve field becomes available.
3. Click the Ellipses (...) button next to the Elevation-Area Curve field.
4. In the Elevation-Area Curve dialog box, each row in the table represents a point on the Elevation-Area curve. Type
values for Elevation, Area, and Percent Void Space for each row. Click the New button to add a row or press the
Tab key to advance to the next field in the table.
5. Perform the following optional steps:
6. To delete a row from the table, select the row then click Delete.
7. To view a report on the curve, click Report.
8. To view a plot of the curve, click Graph.
9. Click OK to close the dialog box and save your curve data in the Property Editor.

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Elevation-Area Curve Dialog Box
This dialog box allows you to define elevation-area curves.
The dialog box contains the elevation-area table and the following buttons:
New

Creates a new row in the elevationarea table.

Delete

Deletes the currently highlighted row


from the elevation-area table

Report

Opens a print preview window


containing a report that details the
input data for this dialog box.

Graph

Opens a graph window plotting the


area-elevation curve defined by the
points in the table.

The table contains the following columns:


Column

Description

Elevation

The elevation data for the pond.

Area

The plan area at that elevation.

Percent Void Space

The void space volume data for the pond. Void space is
used on any volumes option to adjust the effective storage
volume for rock-filled or other porous media filled basins
or vaults. Set this to 100% if there are no rocks or fill to
reduce the available volume.

Adding Elevation vs. Volume Data to a Pond


You can add an elevation-volume curve to a pond. The area-volume points defined in the curve are used to calculate
pond volumes. The elevation-volume points defined in the table are used to calculate total pond volume. It is important
that this storage relation be single-valued. This means that any volumetric quantity occurs only once in the table only,
as Bentley SewerCAD interpolates linearly between any two values in the table. You define elevation-area curves in the
Elevation-Volume Curve dialog box.
To add an Elevation vs. Volume curve to a pond:
1. Click a pond in your model to display the Property Editor, or right-click a pond and select Properties from the
shortcut menu.
2. In the Physical section of the Property Editor, select Elevation-Volume Curve in the Volume Type field. The
Elevation-Volume Curve field becomes available.
3. Click the Ellipses (...) button next to the Elevation-Volume Curve field.

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4. In the Elevation-Volume Curve dialog box, each row in the table represents a point on the Elevation-Volume curve.
Type values for Elevation, Volume, and Percent Void Space for each row. Click the New button to add a row or
press the Tab key to advance to the next field in the table.
5. Perform the following optional steps:
6. To delete a row from the table, select the row then click Delete.
7. To view a report on the curve, click Report.
8. To view a plot of the curve, click Graph.
9. Click OK to close the dialog box and save your curve data in the Property Editor.
Elevation-Volume Curve Dialog Box
This dialog box allows you to define elevation-volume tables. The dialog box contains the elevation-volume table and
the following buttons:
New

Creates a new row in the elevationvolume table.

Delete

Deletes the currently highlighted row


from the elevation-volume table

Report

Opens a print preview window


containing a report that details the
input data for this dialog box.

Graph

Opens a graph window plotting the


area-volume curve defined by the
points in the table.

The table contains the following columns:


Column

Description

Elevation

The cumulative volume from the bottom of the pond to


that elevation.

Volume

The volume data for the pond.

Void Space

The void space volume data for the pond. Void space is
used on any volumes option to adjust the effective storage
volume for rock-filled or other porous media filled basins
or vaults. Set this to 100% if there are no rocks or fill to
reduce the available volume.

Ponds in StormCAD
Ponds in StormCAD are treated similarly to a manhole node, however there are calculation differences based on how
the pond is set up as follows:
1. If the pond outlet has no control structure(s):

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2. For this pond data type, the pond is treated the same as a manhole node in the flow calculation; all fixed and rational
flow elements pass through the pond without any change and downstream all related flow is calculated as normal,
i.e. you would expect the same flow results if the pond is replaced by a manhole node.
3. For the profile calculation, when the backwater calculated hydraulic grade line at the pond is lower than the user
specified initial pond elevation, the initial pond elevation is used as the pond hydraulic grade line and for backwater
calculation of the upstream elements.
4. If the pond has control structure(s):
The control structures are normally used to reduce the peak flow, so StormCAD calculations on such pond settings
consider the flow reduction through the pond control structures.
You can use the pond initial elevation to control the outflow reduction; the solver uses the specified pond initial
elevation and performs hydraulic calculations for the outlet control structures to determine the pond outflow. Once the
pond outflow is determined it becomes a fixed flow (system additional flow) and all other fixed and rational flow
elements are terminated at the pond outlet and the new fixed outlet flow will carry on to the downstream calculations.
The user-specified pond initial elevation will be the calculated pond hydraulic grade line and is used for upstream
profile calculations, regardless what the downstream backwater profile gives at the pond.

Ponds in SewerCAD
If there is no control structure, a pond in SewerCAD is treated just like a manhole node; the steady flow routing is
passing through the pond the same as passing through a manhole. All flow elements are passed through the pond and
the steady routing calculation is continued downstream.
The outlet control structures are ignored (no control hydraulics are performed). Flow(in) = Flow(out).
If there is no control structure, the HGL is the value calculated by the gradually varied flow profiler and the input pond
initial elevation is ignored.
If there is a control structure and the initial elevation is larger than the one given by the outlet pipe profile calculation
then the initial elevation is set as the pond HGL.
The existing Inflow(Wet Collection) in the pond is kept and you caninput a Fixed load for steady state simulations.
Results are the same as a manhole node in SewerCAD.
There is no head loss or infiltration for a pond.
During Extended Period Simulation:
The engine performs storage routing for a pond when the convex routing comes to the pond node.
The pond initial elevation is the start pond HGL for the storage routing and the inflow hydrograph is determined from
the upstream convex routing.
AE-Q curve is loaded for the pond outlet (the first curve of the EQT curves based on the fundamental GVF assumption
that there are no backwater effects).
Then the Gradually Varied Flow (GVF) engine performs the storage routing to determine the pond outflow hydrograph
and the pond elevations for each hydrologic time step.
This pond outflow hydrograph continues the downstream convex routing.
For the profile, the pond elevation time series determined from the storage routing will be compared with the HGL
calculated by GVF profiler and the larger value will be used as the pond HGL for the time.
In the case where the outlet has no control structures, the outlet conduit data is used to generate an E-Q curve for the
outlet.

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The infiltration calculation assumes the pond has outlet control structures since there is no pond routing without control
structures. The behavior is the as same as the Dynamic Wave engine.
If the pond type is of elevation-volume, there will be an error message for the average type infiltration.
During Steady State Simulation:
This scenario is treated very similarly to the way it is handled in StormCAD (see Ponds in StormCAD (on page 232)).
If there is no control structure, a pond is treated just like a manhole node; the steady flow routing is passed through the
pond the same as it would pass a manhole. All flow elements are passed through the pond and the steady routing
calculation is continued downstream.
During steady state simulation, if there is a control structure:
1. The pond outflow will be determined by an EQT curve using the pond initial elevation and assuming a very low
tailwater.
2. The pond outflow will become a wet weather flow and all system unit flows are set to 0 from this point.
3. The pond HGL will use the user-specified pond initial elevation.

Air Valves

Air valves are placed at high points in piping systems, to bleed air during filling, release air that accumulates over time
and allow inflow of air to prevent negative pressure and possible pipe collapse.
In typical wastewater collection system piping, pressures are positive between the pump station and a high point along
the force main when the pumps are running. When the pump turns off, the force main that was pressurized remains full
while any downward sloping pipes drain. The behavior of air valves becomes very important in force mains with
multiple high points.
No loads can be assigned to air valves. Air valve elements can only be attached to pressure pipes, not on gravity
conduits. They should be attached to two pipes. If they are attached to more than two, an error will be issued. If they are
placed at the end of a dead end pipe, they will not do anything.
In the Bentley storm and sanitary sewer products, the behavior of air valve elements depends on the active solver.
GVF-Convex Solver
The GVF-convex solver uses a true pressure solver where the pipes are generally treated as full. When the hydraulic
grade is above the valve elevation, the valve will remain closed. When the hydraulic grade line drops to the valve
elevation, the air valve prevents the hydraulic grade from dropping below the valve and the pipe acting as a siphon. The
GVF solver enables the user the ability to see which pipes flow partly full as those pipes will have a hydraulic grade
line below the pipe on the downhill side of a high point.
A user can force an air valve to be closed in a model run by setting the "Treat Air Valves as Junction" property to True.
The default setting in sewer models is False. However, only those air valves than may reasonably open during a
simulation need to have that property set to False. This will make the simulations run faster as fewer checks will need
to be made on valve status.

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If an air valve at a high point is closed or treated as a junction and the pressure becomes negative (hydraulic grade
drops below valve), the pipes will behave as a siphon. This is usually undesirable because the pipe may collapse under
the negative pressure or gases may come out of solution and cause excess head loss at the high point. The maximum
that a high point of a pipe can be above the hydraulic grade is 32 ft (9.8 m) or a siphon cannot be formed.
Gravity Solvers -- Implicit (Dynamic Wave), Explicit (SWMM) and GVF rational Solvers
These solvers do not have the unique air valve behavior as in the GVF convex solver since none of these are true
pressure solvers. An air valve, assigned to a model with these solvers, is treated as a manhole with a bolted cover which
is essentially the same as an active air valve. It is not possible to solve for a high point as a siphon with these solvers.

Air Valves in Implicit and Explicit Solver


An Air Valve is the model element used to represent air relief valves, air release valves, vacuum breaker valves and
combination air valves. The underlying behavior of the valves is to be closed when then hydraulic grade is above the
valve elevation and to open to maintain atmospheric pressure when the hydraulic grade would otherwise have dropped
below the valve.
In the implicit and explicit solvers, air valve elements are treated essentially as manholes with a bolted cover which can
let air in and out but do not allow release of water. They do not accurately model air flow through orifices and as such
cannot be used for sizing orifices in the air valves.
While they are useful in normal operation, they are especially important in transient analysis. This is described in "Air
Valves in HAMMER". They are also used in filling and draining of pipelines which can be addressed in the implicit
and explicit solvers in Bentley SewerCAD .
While air valves are often placed on pumps to remove air, their primary use is at high points in pressure piping systems
which are the first locations which can experience negative pressure in pipeline systems and are the most likely places
where air and other gases can accumulate.
In sewer force mains, irrigation systems and raw water transmission systems, pressure can drop when pumps turn off or
head loss becomes excessive and they can often be in the open position and pipes can be partly full, immediately
downstream of the high point. Drinking water distribution systems are designed not to have negative pressures.
If there is no air valve placed at a high point and the pressure drops below zero, the valve will behave as a siphon. This
is generally not recommended as flexible pipes may collapse.
The behavior of air valves can be best viewed using a profile view. With an air valve in place, the valve would prevent
the negative pressure by opening to atmosphere. There may be partially full flow downstream of the high point (where
the hydraulic grade line is below the pipe). The location where the hydraulic grade line rises over the pipe is the
location where full pipe flow is restored.

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In most cases, when the pump is operating, the hydraulic grade line will remain above the pipe and the air valve will be
closed.

When the pump or other source on the upstream side of the high point is shut off or closed, the pipe generally remains
full. The display when the pump is off will look like this. In this example, the fact that the pipe downstream of the high
point is still draining at this time is reflected in the hydraulic grade above the pipe in some places.

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Air Valves in GVF Solver


An Air Valve is the model element used to represent air relief valves, air release valves, vacuum breaker valves and
combination air valves. The underlying behavior of the valves is to be closed when the hydraulic grade is above the
valve elevation and to open to maintain atmospheric pressure when the hydraulic grade would otherwise have dropped
below the valve.
While they are useful in normal operation of pressure pipes, they are especially important in transient analysis. See the
help for air valves in HAMMER. They are also used in filling and draining of pipelines which is best modeled with the
implicit or explicit solvers.
While air valves are often placed on pumps to remove air, their primary use is at high points in pressure piping systems
which are the first locations which can experience negative pressure in pressurized water systems and are the most
likely places where air can accumulate.
In sewer force mains, irrigation systems and raw water transmission systems, pressure can drop when pumps turn off or
head loss becomes excessive and they can often be in the open position and pipes can be partly full, immediately
downstream of the high point.
Because air valves can change status during a model run, they can introduce instability in the run. The more air valves,
the more likely this is to occur. In systems with multiple valves, it is best to focus the analysis on those valves which
are likely to open and close. The valves that are almost certain to be closed in the analysis can have a property "Treat as
Junction?" set to True and the air valve will behave as a junction node in the model run. The "Treat as Junction"
property is the only property in steady and EPS runs that is different between a pressure junction and an air valve. For
transient analysis (available in HAMMER), there are numerous other properties that can come into play.
If there is no air valve at a high point and the pressure drops below zero, the pipeline will behave as a siphon. This is
generally not recommended as flexible pipes may collapse and corrosive gases can build up in the high point.
The behavior of air valves can be best viewed using a profile view. With no air valve, the profile of a siphon would
look like the figure below with the hydraulic grade below the node level.

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With an air valve in place, the valve would prevent the negative pressure by opening to atmosphere. There may be
partially full flow downstream of the high point (where the hydraulic grade line coincides with the pipe). The location
where the hydraulic grade line rises over the pipe is the location where full pipe flow is restored.

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In most cases, when the pump is operating, the hydraulic grade line will remain above the pipe and the air valve will be
closed.

When the pump or other source on the upstream side of the high point is shut off or closed, the pipe generally remains
full. Therefore, the profile will be flat between the pump and the high point. The GVF solver does not account for the
time it takes to fill the downstream section of pipe beyond the air valve once the pump is turned back on based on the
assumption that the time to fill the pipe is small compared with the model time step. If analysis of the filling of a pipe is
critical, the implicit or explicit solver should be used (available in SewerGEMS or CivilStorm).

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SCADA Elements
Define the SCADA element using the following properties:
Target Element: The domain element that the ASCADA Signal targets.
Real-Time Signal: The signal returning realtime values for the selected attribute.
Historical Signal: The signal returning historical value(s) for the selected attributes.
Target Element (Storage Unit): Displays the storage unit used by the target element.
Field: The attribute of the target element that the SCADA signal relates to.

Headwalls
When you click the headwall element on the Layout toolbar, your mouse cursor changes into a headwall symbol.
Clicking in the drawing pane while this tool is active causes a headwall element to be placed at the location of the
mouse cursor.

Headwall Layout
Only a Conduit link can be used to model a Culvert.
A conduit that is declared to be a culvert link may have a Headwall node at either end. The user may model projected or
mitered end treatments on a culvert link with a connection to a cross section or outfall node.

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The following are some examples of valid configurations:

Physical Attributes of Headwalls


The following attributes are used to describe the physical characteristics of a headwall:

Inlet Description: Lets you type or select a description for the inlet. Click the ellipsis button (...) to display the
Culvert Inlet Coefficient Engineering Library, where you can select an existing culvert.
Chart: The inlet chart that this set of coefficients appears on.
Nomograph: The culvert nomograph this set of coefficients belongs to.
Culvert Equation Form: If the conduit is a culvert, define the nomograph form to use in culvert calculations.
Slope Correction Factor: Lets you define the slope correction factor to be used in inlet control calculations.
Normally this factor is -0.5, but for mitered inlets HDS No. 5 suggests +0.7.
C: Lets you define the C equation coefficient that is used in the submerged inlet control equation.
M: Lets you define the M equation coefficient that is used in both forms of the unsubmerged inlet control equation.
K: Lets you define the K equation coefficient that is used in both forms of the unsubmerged inlet control equation.
Y: Lets you define the Y equation coefficient that is used in the submerged inlet control equation.
Ke: Lets you define the entrance loss value for the associated conduit.
Kr: Lets you define the reverse flow loss value for the associated conduit.

Culvert Inlet Coefficient Library


Culvert coefficient data can be specified using Components > Culvert Inlet Coefficients. In this dialog, the user can
create unique culverts, or import culvert coefficients, from an existing library of coefficient values. The data required
for a culvert is shown below. Values for the coefficients and how they can be determined can be found in HDS-5 .

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In most cases, the user will prefer to select a culvert definition from the default library. The user can pick Browse or
Import from library to see the list of existing definitions as shown below:

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The values for Chart, Nomograph and Forms can be found in HDS-5. When importing a culvert definition from the
library, it is best to use the values from the library. The manipulation of these referenced values is not advised, without
justification.

Headwall Connectivity and Function in Model


The Headwall element is a jack-of-all-trades and can act as the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Culvert entrance/exit
Network outfall
Pond Entrance
Pond Outlet
Open channel cross section to closed channel transition

Headwalls and Conduits

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When a headwall is connected to a conduit it represents the transition from an open channel to a closed channel or vice
versa. You can use the headwalls to define inlet/exit structures for a culvert as well.
To do so:
1. On the headwall set the "Inlet Description" to the appropriate set Culvert Inlet Coefficients.
2. On the connecting Conduit set the "Is Culvert?" flag to true.
3. Then specify whether or not to set the culvert inlet coefficient set for upstream and downstream inlets either based
on the adjacent headwall or to simply specify on the conduit itself.
Headwalls and Channels
When a channel link connects to a headwall you can specify the shape of the cross section at the interface of the open
channel and the headwall structure.
To do so:
1. Set "Has Cross Section?" to true.
2. Specify the shape parameters of the cross section.
Headwalls and Ponds
A headwall can represent inflow or outflow structure of a pond.
To make a headwall an inflow structure:
1. Set the "Boundary Condition Type" to "Boundary Element".
2. In the "Boundary Element" field pick "<Select Boundary Element>" option.
3. In the drawing pick the pond that receives the inflow from the headwall.
To make a headwall an outlet structure for a pond:
1. In the "Upstream Pond" field pick the "<Select Upstream Pond>" option.
2. Then select the pond that outflows to headwall.

Property Connections
Property connection elements are used to load sewer models based on data at the level of individual properties. This is
useful when a user has loading data provided for customers/properties based on metering, number of occupants/fixture
units, or simply flow per property.
Property connections can be connected to a downstream gravity network using lateral links. Laterals connect to tap
elements and most gravity nodes such manholes, transitions, and catch basins. Property connections cannot be
connected to pressure elements. Laterals can only make a single connection to a tap or other hydraulic element.
Property connections are used for loading in the Explicit and GVF Convex solvers, but not the Implicit solver. Property
connections support hydrograph inflows, pattern loads, or directly accept runoff as the outlet of a catchment. For the
GVF Rational Solver, flow through a Property Connection must come from a Catchment. (Property Connection
designated as the Outflow Element.)
A Property Connection can be placed manually in a model by selecting Layout, then either Property Connection or
Lateral. There cannot be any hydraulic elements on the upstream side of a Property Connection. (However, a Property
Connection can be the Outflow Element for a catchment.)
A few options exist for assigning loads to Property Connection elements:
1. Manually enter load data on each Property Connection.
2. Create Property Connection elements via ModelBuilder, with the loading data attached to the data source.

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3. Create loads on existing Property Connections using LoadBuilder (see LoadBuilder help) from an external file with
loading data.
Elevation of the ground and the lateral invert can be placed in the attributes of the Property Connection element but are
not used in the hydraulic calculations. It is not possible to construct a profile through a lateral link and up to a Property
Connection.

Hydrograph (Sanitary) Dialog Box


The Hydrograph (Sanitary) dialog box allows you to define a sanitary hydrograph for a property connection.

Click the New button to add a row to the Time vs. Flow table. Click Delete to remove the currently highlighted row.
Click Report to generate a report containing the hydrograph data.

Other Tools
Bentley SewerCAD provides several ways to add elements to your model. They include:

Adding individual elements


Adding elements using the layout tool
Replacing an element with another element

To add individual elements to your model:

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1.
2.
3.
4.

Click an element symbol on the Layout toolbar. The mouse cursor changes to the element symbol you selected.
Click in the drawing pane to add the element to your model.
Click again to add another element of the same type to your model.
To add a different element, click on the desired element symbol in the Layout toolbar, then click in the drawing
pane.
5. To stop adding an element, right-click in the drawing pane to display a shortcut menu, then click Done.
To add elements using the layout tool:
The layout tool lets you quickly add new elements to your model without having to select a new element button on the
Layout toolbar. When the layout tool is active, you can right-click in the drawing pane to select different elements and
pipes to add to the model.

1. Click the Layout tool on the Layout toolbar. A shortcut menu appears.
2. Click the type of pipe you want to use to connect your elements in the model.
3. Right-click in the drawing pane, then select the type of element you want to add from the shortcut menu. The
shortcut menu displays only those element types that are compatible with your pipe selection.
4. Click in the drawing pane to add the element.
5. Click again to add another of the same element type. The elements you add will automatically be connected by the
type of pipe you selected earlier.
6. To change the type of pipe, right-click and select a different type from the shortcut menu.
7. To change the element, right-click and select a different element from the shortcut menu.
8. To stop adding elements using the Layout tool, right-click anywhere in the drawing pane and click Done.
Note: In AutoCAD, you must hold down the mouse button to keep the submenu open while selecting an element
from the layout toolbar. Alternate layout methods include using the right-click menu to select elements or using
the command line.
Related Topic

Modeling Curved Pipes (on page 247)

Adding Elements to Your Model


Bentley SewerGEMS V8i provides several ways to add elements to your model. They include:

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Adding individual elements


Adding elements using the layout tool
Replacing an element with another element

To add individual elements to your model:


1.
2.
3.
4.

Click an element symbol on the Layout toolbar. The mouse cursor changes to the element symbol you selected.
Click in the drawing pane to add the element to your model.
Click again to add another element of the same type to your model.
To add a different element, click on the desired element symbol in the Layout toolbar, then click in the drawing
pane.
5. To stop adding an element, right-click in the drawing pane to display a shortcut menu, then click Done.

To add elements using the layout tool:


The layout tool lets you quickly add new elements to your model without having to select a new element button on the
Layout toolbar. When the layout tool is active, you can right-click in the drawing pane to select different elements and
pipes to add to the model.

1. Click the Layout tool on the Layout toolbar. A shortcut menu appears.
2. Click the type of pipe you want to use to connect your elements in the model.
3. Right-click in the drawing pane, then select the type of element you want to add from the shortcut menu. The
shortcut menu displays only those element types that are compatible with your pipe selection.
4. Click in the drawing pane to add the element.
5. Click again to add another of the same element type. The elements you add will automatically be connected by the
type of pipe you selected earlier.
6. To change the type of pipe, right-click and select a different type from the shortcut menu.
7. To change the element, right-click and select a different element from the shortcut menu.
8. To stop adding elements using the Layout tool, right-click anywhere in the drawing pane and click Done.
Note: In AutoCAD, you must hold down the mouse button to keep the submenu open while selecting an element
from the layout toolbar. Alternate layout methods include using the right-click menu to select elements or using
the command line.
Related Topic

Modeling Curved Pipes (on page 247)

Modeling Curved Pipes


You can model curved pipes in Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT by using the Bend command, which is available by
right-clicking in the Drawing Pane when placing a link element.

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The software does not account for any additional head loss due to the curvature because in most cases the increased
head loss is negligible. If you feel the extra head loss is significant, it is possible to increase the Manning's n value to
account for such losses.
To model a curved pipe:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Select the desired link element using the Layout button on the Layout toolbar.
Place the first segment of the curved pipe in your model, then right click and select Bend from the shortcut menu.
Repeat Step 2 for each segment in the curved pipe. Be sure to insert bends to clearly show the curved alignment.
When the curved pipe is complete, right click and select the next downstream element (for a conduit, this is usually
a manhole).

Connecting Elements
When building your model, you must consider these rules of connectivity:The table below and the help
topic Connectivity Rules for Storm and Sanitary Models (on page 253) describe which elements can be connected to
one another. However, there are cases where even if the layout tool allows elements to be connected, they may not be
able to be calculated depending on the solver. Some of those special cases are listed below. At run time or during
validation, illegal connections for a set of elements in a solver will show up as User Notifications.

A network needs at least one outfall or a pond to end the network. A lone outfall cannot be a boundary element
type unless its draining into a pond.
Cross section nodes need at least one channel connected to it and a channel needs at least one cross section.
Gutters cannot be the only link exiting a catch basin, or the catch basin is considered hydraulically disconnected.
In the GVF-convex solver, a pressure pipe cannot be downstream of a node that is fed from a gravity conduit.
A pump can only be connected to a pressure pipe in the GVF-convex solver.
Air valves and variable speed pump batteries can only be used with the GVF-convex solver.
Low impact development control elements can only be used with SWMM hydrology and have special rules for
connectivity which can be found in

Element Connectivity
Element

Permissible Upstream Elements

Permissible Downstream Elements

Catchment

Catchment

Catch basin, manhole, cross section,


transition, outfall, wet well, pond

Manhole

Via a gutter: None Via a channel:


Cross section Via a conduit: Manhole,
catch basin, cross section, transition,
wet well, pump, outfall, pond outlet
structure, catchment Via a pressure
pipe: Pressure junction, pump

Via a gutter: None Via a channel:


Cross section Via a conduit: Manhole,
catch basin, cross section, transition,
wet well, pump, outfall, pond outlet
structure Via a pressure pipe: Pressure
junction, pump

Catch basin

Via a gutter: Catch basin, cross


section, outfall Via a channel: Cross
section Via a conduit: Manhole, catch
basin, cross section, transition, wet
well, pump, outfall, pond outlet
structure, catchment Via a pressure
pipe: Pressure junction, pump

Via a gutter: Catch basin, cross


section, outfall Via a channel: Cross
section Via a conduit: Manhole, catch
basin, cross section, transition, wet
well, pump, outfall, pond outlet
structure Via a pressure pipe: Pressure
junction, pump

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Element

Permissible Upstream Elements

Permissible Downstream Elements

Cross section

Via a gutter: Catch basin Via a


channel: Manhole, catch basin, cross
section, wet well, outfall, pond outlet
structure Via a conduit: Manhole,
catch basin, cross section, transition,
wet well, pump, outfall, pond outlet
structure, catchment Via a pressure
pipe: Pressure junction, pump

Via a gutter: Catch basin Via a


channel: Manhole, catch basin, cross
section, wet well, outfall, pond outlet
structure Via a conduit: Manhole,
catch basin, cross section, transition,
wet well, pump, outfall, pond outlet
structure Via a pressure pipe: Pressure
junction, pump

Junction chamber

Via a gutter: None Via a channel:


None Via a conduit: Manhole, catch
basin, cross section, transition, wet
well, pump, outfall, pond outlet
structure, catchment Via a pressure
pipe: Pressure junction, pump

Via a gutter: None Via a channel:


None Via a conduit: Manhole, catch
basin, cross section, transition, wet
well, pump, outfall, pond outlet
structure Via a pressure pipe: Pressure
junction, pump

Pressure junction

Via a gutter: None Via a channel:


None Via a conduit: None Via a
pressure pipe: Manhole, catch basin,
cross section, transition, pressure
junction, wet well, pump, outfall,
pond outlet structure

Via a gutter: None Via a channel:


None Via a conduit: None Via a
pressure pipe: Manhole, catch basin,
cross section, transition, pressure
junction, wet well, pump, outfall,
pond outlet structure

Wet well

Via a gutter: None Via a channel:


Cross section Via a conduit: Manhole,
catch basin, cross section, transition,
wet well, pump, outfall, pond outlet
structure, catchment Via a pressure
pipe: Pressure junction, pump

Via a gutter: None Via a channel:


Cross section Via a conduit: Manhole,
catch basin, cross section, transition,
wet well, pump, outfall, pond outlet
structure Via a pressure pipe: Pressure
junction, pump

Pump

Via a gutter: None Via a channel:


None Via a conduit: Manhole, catch
basin, cross section, transition, wet
well, pump, outfall, pond outlet
structure Via a pressure pipe:
Manhole, catch basin, cross section,
transition, pressure junction, wet well,
pump, outfall, pond outlet structure

Via a gutter: None Via a channel:


None Via a conduit: Manhole, catch
basin, cross section, transition, wet
well, pump, outfall, pond outlet
structure Via a pressure pipe:
Manhole, catch basin, cross section,
transition, pressure junction, wet well,
pump, outfall, pond outlet structure

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Element

Permissible Upstream Elements

Permissible Downstream Elements

Outfall

Via a gutter: Catch basin Via a


channel: Cross section Via a conduit:
Manhole, catch basin, cross section,
transition, wet well, pump, pond
outlet structure, catchment Via a
pressure pipe: Pressure junction,
pump

Via a gutter: Catch basin Via a


channel: Cross section Via a conduit:
Manhole, catch basin, cross section,
transition, wet well, pump, pond
outlet structure Via a pressure pipe:
Pressure junction, pump When the
Boundary Condition Type is set to
Boundary Element, the flow coming
into the outfall can be discharged to a
pond, cross section, manhole, or catch
basin

Pond outlet structure

Via a gutter: None Via a channel:


Cross section Via a conduit: Manhole,
catch basin, cross section, transition,
wet well, pump, outfall, pond outlet
structure Via a pressure pipe: Pressure
junction

Via a gutter: None Via a channel:


Cross section Via a conduit: Manhole,
catch basin, cross section, transition,
wet well, pump, outfall, pond outlet
structure Via a pressure pipe: Pressure
junction

Pond

Outfall, catchment

Pond outlet structures, pump. Only


outfalls can drain to a pond. The only
way to drain from a pond is via a
pond outlet structure.

Tap

Lateral

Referenced Link can be set to a


Conduit.

Layout Context Menus


While using a link layout, the following nodes are available in the layout context menu:
Layout Context Menus
Pressure Pipe Layout
Mode

Conduit Layout Mode

Channel Layout Mode Gutter Layout Mode

Lateral Layout Mode

Default: Pressure
Junction

Default: Manhole

Default: Cross
Section

Default: Catch Basin

Default: Catch Basin

Pressure Junction

Catch Basin

Cross Section

Catch Basin

Catch Basin

Pump

Manhole

Catch Basin

Cross Section

Tap

Variable Speed Pump Junction Chamber


Battery

Manhole

Outfall

Manhole

Air Valve

Cross Section

Junction Chamber

Transition

Wet Well

Pond Outlet Entrance

Pond Outlet Entrance

Cross Section

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Pressure Pipe Layout
Mode

Conduit Layout Mode

Channel Layout Mode Gutter Layout Mode

Lateral Layout Mode

Manhole

Pump (Only
recommended for
SewerCAD)

Wet Well

Headwall

Junction Chamber

Wet Well

Outfall

Outfall

Outfall

Available Nodes When Splitting a Link


You can split an existing link with the following nodes:
Allowable Nodes for Splitting Links
Pressure Pipe

Conduit

Channel

Gutter

Lateral

Manhole

Catch Basin

Catch Basin

Catch Basin

Tap

Junction Chamber

Manhole

Manhole

Cross Section

Pump

Junction Chamber

Cross Section

Outfall

Wet Well

Cross Section

Outfall

Pressure Junction

Outfall

Outlet Structure

Variable Speed Pump Outlet Structure


Battery
Air Valve

Wet Well

Wet Well

Note: If you do not want to split a conduit with an access hole type node (i.e. Manhole), then use a tap node
instead. Placing a tap node on a conduit does not split the pipe into two separate hydraulic links.
If you attempt to split a link with an invalid element type you may receive a prompt (similar to the one pictured below)
if the split is going to result in invalid connectivity.

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Answer "Yes" if you would like to continue with the split. You can correct the connectivity at a later time by selecting
Analysis > Validate.

Allowable Node Morphing


When the node to be morphed is connected to a link you may receive a prompt (similar to the one pictured below) if the
morph is going to result in invalid connectivity.
Answer "Yes" if you would like to continue with the morph. You can correct the connectivity at a later time by
selecting Analysis > Validate.

Link Morphing
You can morph a conduit into a pressure pipe and vice versa. Any applicable data associated with the link will be
carried over to the new link after the morph.
When the node to be morphed is connected to a link you may receive a prompt (similar to the one pictured below) if the
morph is going to result in invalid connectivity.
To morph a conduit into a pressure pipe, right-click it and select the Morph Conduit to Pressure Pipe command.

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Connectivity Rules for Storm and Sanitary Models


While there are numerous node elements, there are only four link elements in the Bentley Storm and Sanitary Sewer
models. These include

Conduits
Pressure pipes
Channels
Gutters
Laterals

Not all node elements can be connected to all link types. For example, a pump cannot be expected to take suction from
a gutter.
In the layout tool, in order to protect the user from building model that can't solve, the user is limited in the elements
that can be selected as the next node type. The downstream nodes that are allowed for each link type are listed below:
Conduit

Catch basin
Manhole
Transition
Cross section
Pond outlet entrance
Pump
Wet well
Outfall

Pressure pipe

Pressure junction
Pump
Variable speed pump battery
Air valve
Wet well
Catch basin
Manhole
Transition
Outfall

Channel

Cross section
Catch basin
Manhole
Pond outlet entrance
Wet well
Outfall

Gutter

Catch basin

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Cross section
Outfall

Lateral

Catch Basin
Tap
Manhole
Transition
Cross Section
Headwall

In addition, even if the model allows a user to connect elements, their behavior may depend on the active solver. For
example, while a pump can be hooked to a conduit, it will work in the implicit and explicit solvers but not in the GVF
solvers which expect the pump to be connected to a pressure pipe. For another example, air valve and variable speed
pump battery elements were created for pressure pipes in the GVF-convex solvers and require some considerations
when used with the other solvers.
Polygon elements like catchments and pond outlets must be connected in special ways. Inflows to a pond are modeled
as outfalls where the Boundary Condition Type for the outfall is a Boundary Element and the boundary element is the
pond. Outflow from a pond is modeled as a Pond Outlet Structure. Ponds cannot be connected to one another pond.
Unlike ponds, catchments can be connected in series by making one catchment the Outflow element of an upstream
catchment. Catchments can also have LID (low impact development) elements within them. The LID would then have
the catchment as its Parent Catchment.
Outfall elements cannot be connected downstream to links but must either be the terminal node or associated with a
pond. When using the explicit solver, only one conduit can be connected to an outfall. An outfall cannot be connected
to other elements through a gutter.
Pumps can only have one link on the suction side and one on the discharge side. In the GVF-rational solver, there can
only be a single pump element representing a station, with no pumps in parallel or in loops.

When To Use a Conduit vs. a Channel vs. a Gutter


Gutters are used in Bentley SewerCAD only to model the water which exceeds the capacity of in catch basin inlet and
must flow through a surface gutter to the next catch basin. A Bentley SewerCAD gutter can only receive water from a
catch basin.
A conduit can refer to any prismatic channel or pipe that conveys flow. The cross section of a conduit must remain
constant from one end to the next.
A channel refers to a channel that changes geometry from the upstream cross section to the downstream cross section.
Channels can be used to model natural streams or swales which are not prismatic in cross section. Channels must have
a cross section element at either end and properties are interpolated along the channel.
A uniform trapezoidal channel can either be modeled as a conduit with the shape defined in a conduit element or a
channel with the shape defined as a property of the cross section elements at each end.
A lateral link can be used to model a surface (channel) or piped (conduit) tributary flow into the hydraulic network. The
point at which this flow is injected into the network is modelled with location of a tap node. User should select a lateral
instead of small diameter conduit when it is not important to compute full hydraulic results along the tributary link.
User may option to use a lateral link and tap node to model this injected flow when the connection point is not an
access hole with junction losses, or user does not wish to split the carrier pipe into two distinct hydraulic links.
Related Topics

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Connecting Elements (on page 248)

Virtual Links
A user can specify that a user defined conduit or pressure pipe has a section type of "Virtual" by setting the section type
to "Virtual" in the property grid for conduits or the "Is virtual" property to True in the property grid for pressure
pipes. The behavior of a virtual link depends on the active solver and whether the link is a conduit or pressure pipe.
Gutters and channels cannot be virtual.
Virtual links pass the flow from the upstream node to the downstream nodes but do not always calculate hydraulic
properties such as velocity and head loss. Virtual links usually have length but this is only to assist in plotting the link
in a profile drawing. Depending on the solver, the rise of the virtual link may not be shown in the profile. In some
solvers (e.g. GVF-convex), the "Is virtual = True" setting is ignored and hydraulic properties are calculated. The
behavior of different virtual links is summarized in the table below.
Virtual Link Behavior
Case

Implicit

Explicit

GVF-Convex

GVF-Rational

Pressure Pipe Not At


Pump

No head loss or
velocity calculation

Treated as not virtual

Treated as not virtual

Virtual not allowed

Pump Suction

No head loss or
velocity calculation

No head loss or
velocity calculation

Treated as not virtual

No head loss or
velocity calculation

Pump Discharge

No head loss or
velocity calculation

No head loss or
velocity calculation

Treated as not virtual

No head loss or
velocity calculation

Conduit Not
Diversion

Must have control


structure

Must have start


control structure

Cannot use unless


diversion

Cannot use unless


diversion

Must have start


control structure

No head loss or
velocity calculation

No head loss or
velocity calculation

Conduit As Diversion Ignore as virtual

Virtual links enable the same model file to be used with different solvers even though the solvers have very different
ways of representing different physical facilities. The explicit solver internally represents pumps as links with
essentially no length while the GVF solver represents pumps as points which must be connected to non-virtual pipes at
each end. To make these two solvers compatible, in a model (e.g. SewerGEMS, SewerCAD, CivilStorm or StormCAD)
which represents pumps as points, virtual links must be inserted on the suction and discharge side of pump nodes.
These virtual pipes and the pump node are combined into a single effective link when the model is run in the explicit
solver and the results are later applied to model elements.
Similarly, control structures (e.g. weirs, orifices) are represented as links in the explicit solvers but are properties of
links in the implicit and GVF solvers. The control structures need to be associated with virtual links to work with the
explicit solver.
For details on using virtual links as conduits or pressure pipes, see help topics Virtual Conduits and Virtual Pressure
Pipes

How Do I Get Rainfall from a Catchment Into the Rest of My Model?


To get rainfall to move from a catchment into the rest of your model, you must specify an Outflow Node.
To set the outflow node for a catchment:

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1.
2.
3.
4.

If the Property Editor is not open, click View > Properties (F4) to open it.
Click the catchment for which you want to set an outflow node.
In the Catchment section of the Property Editor, click the Outflow Node field to enable the selection drop-down.
Click Select if you want to select the outflow node from the model, or select the outflow node from the drop-down
list.

For information on how to direct flow from a catchment to a LID control, see LID Control and Parent Catchment
Network Representation (on page 224).

How Do I Model Weirs in Conduits?


Sharp crested weirs can be placed as control structures in conduits. Other control structures include orifices, functional
structures and depth discharge curves.
To insert weirs into the start or stop ends of a conduit:
1. Set Has Start Control Structure? or Has Stop Control Structure? to True in the Physical:Has Control Structure
section of the Property Editor for the conduit.
2. Click the Ellipse (...) button that appears next to the Start Control Structure or Stop Control Structure field. This
opens the Conduit Control Structure dialog box.
3. Select New > Weir.
Weirs can be placed in any shape of conduit but the weir structure itself is treated as being in a rectangular section. The
weir length is the distance across this section measured perpendicular to the flow (for all except side weirs).

Manipulating Elements
You can manipulate elements in your model in any one of the following ways:

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Select elements--manually select individual elements, manually select multiple elements, select all elements, or
select all elements of a single element type
Move elements
Delete elements
Split pipes

To manually select an element:


Click the element. Selected elements appear in red.
Note: You can change the selection color in the Options dialog box, which is accessible by selecting Tools >
Options.
To manually select multiple elements:
Click the first element, then click additional elements while holding down Shift or Ctrl.
To select all elements:
To select all of the elements in your model, select Edit > Select All.
To select all elements of the same type:
To select all elements of the same type (for example, all junction chambers), select Edit > Select by Element, then click
the desired element type.
All elements of the selected type appear in red, including connecting pipes.
To clear selected elements:
Click the Select tool then click any blank space in the drawing pane.

or
Click Edit > Clear Selection.
or
Press the Esc key.
You can also clear a selected element by clicking a different element.
To move an element in the model:
1. Click the Select tool on the Layout toolbar.
2. Select the element(s) you want to move, then drag it to its new location. Pipe connections move with the element.
To delete an element:
Select the element, then press Delete.
or
Select Edit > Delete.
Related Topics

Splitting Pipes (on page 258)

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Splitting Pipes
You may encounter a situation in which you need to add a new element in the middle of an existing pipe. For example,
you may want to insert a new manhole to maintain maximum access hole spacing.
To split an existing pipe:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Select the desired element symbol on the Layout toolbar.


In the drawing pane, place the cursor over the pipe you want to split and click.
You are prompted to confirm that you want to split the pipe.
If you choose to split the pipe, the element will be inserted and two new pipes will be created with the same
characteristics as the original pipe (lengths are split proportionally).
5. If you choose not to split the pipe, the new element will be placed on top of the pipe without connecting to anything.
If you accidentally split a pipe, this action can be undone by selecting Edit > Undo.
You can also split an existing pipe with an existing element:
To do this in the Stand-Alone version, drag the element into position along the pipe to be split, then right-click the node
and select Split <Pipe Label> from the shortcut menu (where <Pipe Label> is the name of the pipe to be split).
To do this in the MicroStation version, drag the element into position along the pipe to be split. Hold down the Shift
key, then right-click the node and select Split <Pipe Label> from the shortcut menu (where <Pipe Label> is the name of
the pipe to be split).

Disconnecting and Reconnecting Pipes


In certain circumstances, you may wish to disconnect a pipe from a node without deleting and redrawing the pipe in
question. For example, if the model was built from a database and the Establish By Spatial Data option was used to
determine pipe connectivity, pipes may have been connected to the wrong nodes.
To disconnect and reconnect a pipe:
1. Right-click the pipe to be disconnected.
2. A context menu will appear. Two reconnect options will be displayed, one for each of the end nodes of the pipe.
Select the node from which you want to disconnect the pipe.
3. A broken line will appear, joining the node from which the pipe is being disconnected and your mouse cursor.
Hover the mouse cursor over the junction to which you would like to connect the pipe and click the left mouse
button. The pipe will now be connected to this junction.
Note: When links that are a part of an existing profile are reconnected such that the previously created profile
does not remain continuous, the profile may no longer show correct results. If you reconnect links that are part
of an existing profile, edit and redefine a valid path to ensure correct results.
If you reconnect the start end of a link to an invalid element type you get the following message:

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If you reconnect the stop end of a link to an invalid element type you get the following message:

Answer "Yes" if you would like to continue with the reconnect. You can correct the connectivity at a later time by
selecting Analysis > Validate.

How Do I Model a Split in a Channel?


If you have a channel with a control structure and you're trying to model a split in that channel, you should put the
control structure on the upstream end of the branching links rather than the downstream end of the main link.

Merge Nodes in Close Proximity


This dialog allows you to merge together nodes that fall within a specified tolerance of one another.

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To access the dialog, right-click one of the nodes to be merged and select the Merge nodes in close proximity
command.
The dialog consists of the following controls:
Node to keep: Displays the node that will be retained after the merge operation.
Tolerance: Allows you to define the tolerance for the merge operation. Nodes that fall within this distance from the
Node to keep will be available in the Nodes to merge pane.
Refresh: Refreshes the nodes displayed in the Nodes to merge pane. Click this button after making a change to the
tolerance value to update the list of nodes available for the merge operation.
Select nodes to merge: Toggle this button on to select the nodes that are selected in the Nodes to merge pane in the
drawing pane.
Nodes to merge: This pane lists the nodes that fall within the specified tolerance of the Node to keep. Nodes whose
associated boxes are checked will be merged with the Node to keep when the Merge operation is initiated.
Merge: Performs the merge operation using the nodes whose boxes are checked in the Nodes to merge list.
Close: Closes the dialog without performing the merge operation.

Batch Pipe Split Dialog Box


The Batch Pipe Split dialog allows you to split pipes with neighboring nodes that are found within the specified
tolerance.

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Choose Features to Process

Allows you to specify which pipes to include in the split


operation. The following options are available: All : All
pipes in the model that have a neighboring node within
the specified tolerance will be split by that junction.
Selection : Only the pipes that are currently selected in the
drawing pane will be split by a neighboring junction that
lies within the specified tolerance. Selection Set : Only
those pipes that are contained within the selection set
specified in the drop down list will be split by a
neighboring junction that lies within the specified
tolerance.

Allow splitting with inactive nodes

When this box is checked, nodes that are marked Inactive


will not be ignored during the split operation.

Tolerance

This value is used to determine how close a pipe must be


to a node in order for the pipe to be split by that junction.

Pipes will be split by every junction that falls within the specified tolerance. To prevent unwanted pipe splits, first use
the Network Navigators Network Review > Pipe Split Candidates query to verify that the tolerance you intend to use
for the Batch Split operation will not include nodes that you do not want involved in the pipe split operation.
To use the Network Navigator to assist in Batch Pipe Split operations
1. Open the Network Navigator.
2. Click the [>] button and select the Network Review...Pipe Split Candidates query.

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3. In the Query Parameters dialog box, type the tolerance you will be using in the pipe split operation and click OK.
4. In the Network Navigator, highlight nodes in the list that you do not want to be included in the pipe split operation
and click the Remove button.
5. Open the Batch Pipe Split dialog.
6. Click the Selection button.
7. Type the tolerance you used in the Network Review query and click OK.

Batch Pipe Split Workflow


We recommend that you thoroughly review and clean up your model to ensure that the results of the batch pipe split
operation are as expected.
Note: Cleaning up your model is something that needs to be done with great care. It is best performed by
someone who has good familiarity with the model, and/or access to additional maps/personnel/information
that will allow you to make the model match the real world system as accurately as possible.
We provide a number of Network Navigator queries that will help you find "potential" problems (see Using the
Network Navigator.
1. Review and clean up your model as much as possible prior to running the "batch split" operation. Run the "duplicate
pipes" and "nodes in close proximity" queries first. (Click the View menu and select Queries. In the Queries dialog
expand the Queries-Predefined tree. The Duplicate Pipes and Nodes in Close Proximity queries are found under the
Network Review folder.)
2. Next, use the network navigator tool to review "pipe split candidates" prior to running batch split.
3. Using the network navigator tool, run the "pipe split candidates" query to get the list of potential batch split
candidate nodes. Take care to choose an appropriate tolerance (feel free to run the query multiple times to settle on a
tolerance that works best; jot down the tolerance that you settle on, you will want to use that same tolerance value
later when you perform the batch split operation.
4. Manually navigate to and review each candidate node and use the "network navigator" remove tool to remove any
nodes that you do not want to process from the list.
5. After reviewing the entire list, use the network navigator "select in drawing" tool to select the elements you would
like to process.
6. Run the batch split tool. Choose the "Selection" radio button to only process the nodes that are selected in the
drawing. Specify the desired tolerance, and press OK to proceed.

Batch Morph
This tool allows you to morph a selected node type into another type of node element as a batch operation.

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First, select the nodes to be morphed from the following choices:

All: All nodes in the model will be morphed to the specified Target Element Type.
Selection: Only the nodes that are currently selected in the drawing pane will be morphed to the specified Target
Element Type.
Selection Set: Only those nodes that are contained within the selection set specified in the drop down list will be
morphed to the specified Target Element Type.

Check the Allow Morphing of Inactive Nodes? box to include nodes set as Inactive in the batch operation.
Finally, select the Target Element Type that the selected nodes will be morphed into.
Note: Users can morph junction elements into Isolation Valves using two steps: First, morph the desired
junctions into TCV's, GPV's, or PBV's. Then use the Skelebrator "Inline Isolation Valve Replacement" operation.

Assign Taps to Links Dialog Box


This tool finds the nearest link for each selected tap, and assign the tap to the link.

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Choose Features to Process

Allows you to specify which taps to include in the


assignment operation. The following options are
available:
All : All taps in the model will be assigned to the link
closest to them.
Selection: Only the taps that are currently selected in the
drawing pane will be assigned to a link.
Selection Set: Only those taps that are contained within
the selection set specified in the drop down list will be
assigned to a link.

Also process taps that already have an associated link

When this box is checked, a tap that has already been


assigned a link will still be eligible for assignment to a
link that is closer than the one already assigned, if one
exists.

Allow assignment to inactive links

When this box is checked taps can be assigned to links


that are inactive.

You can use Network Navigator to find taps that are not assigned to a link using the Network Review > Taps Without
Reference Link query.

Editing Element Attributes


You edit element properties in the Property Editor, one of the dockable managers in Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT.
To edit element properties:

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Double-click the element in the drawing pane. The Property Editor displays the attributes of the selected element.
or
Select the element whose properties you want to edit, then select View > Properties or click the Properties button on the
Analysis toolbar.

Property Editor
The Property Editor is a contextual dialog box that changes depending on the status of other dialog boxes. For example,
when a network element is highlighted in the drawing pane, the Property Editor displays the attributes and values
associated with that element. When one of the manager dialog boxes is active, the Property Editor displays the
properties pertaining to the currently highlighted manager element.
Attributes displayed in the Property Editor are grouped into categories by default. An expanded category can be
collapsed by clicking the plus (+) button next to the category heading. A collapsed category can be expanded by
clicking the minus (-) button next to the category heading.
Note: The available fields will also change depending on the currently active solver. The currently active solver is
determined by the Active Numerical Solver Calculation Option.
You can change the sorting to alphabetical by clicking the Search button and selecting Arrange Alphabetically.
For the most efficient data entry in Text Box style fields, instead of clicking on the Field, click on the label to the left of
the field you want to edit, and start typing. Press Enter to commit the value, then use the Up/Down keyboard arrows to
navigate to the next field you want to edit. You can then edit the field data without clicking the label first; when you are
finished editing the field data, press the Enter key, and proceed to the next field using the arrow keys, and so on.
Find Element
The top section of the Property Editor contains the Find Element tool. The Find Element tool lets you:

Quickly find a recently-created or added element in your model. The Element menu contains a list of the most
recently-created and added elements. Click an element in the Element menu to center the drawing pane around that
element and highlight it.
Find an element in your model by typing the element label or ID in the Element menu then clicking the Find button
or pressing Enter. The drawing pane centers around the highlighted element.
Find all elements of a certain type by using an asterisk (*) as a wild-card character. For example, if you want to find
all of the conduits in your model, you type co* (this is not case-sensitive) then click the Findbutton. The drawing
pane centers around and highlights the first instance of a conduit in your model, and lists all conduits in your model
in the Element menu. Once the Element menu is populated with a list of elements, you can use the Find Next and
Find Previous buttons to quickly navigate to the next or previous element in the list.

Note: See the Using the Like Operator (on page 357) topic for more information about wildcard symbols.
The following controls are included:

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Element

Type an element label or ID in this


field then click the Find button to
quickly locate it in your model. The
element selected in this menu will be
centered in the drawing pane when
the Zoom To command is initiated, at
the magnification level specified by
the Zoom Level menu. The dropdown menu lists recently-created or
added elements, elements that are part
of a selection set, and that are part of
the results from a recent Find
operation.

Find Previous

This button allows you to find the


previous element in the list of results
from a recent Find operation.

Find

Zooms the drawing pane view to the


element typed or selected in the
Element menu at the magnification
level specified in the Zoom Level
menu.

Find Next

This button allows you to find the


next element in the list of results from
a recent Find operation.

Help

Displays online help for the Property


Editor.

Zoom Level

Allows you to specify the


magnification level at which elements
are displayed in the drawing pane
when the Zoom To command is
initiated.

Alphabetic

Displays the attribute fields in the


Property Editor in alphabetical order.

Categorized

Displays the attribute fields in the


Property Editor in categories. This is
the default.

Related Topics

Editing Attributes in the Property Editor (on page 1024)

Property Search

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You can search for a specific attribute by typing the name of the attribute into the search box and clicking the Search
button

.
When you have entered one or more search terms, only those properties containing the search term will be displayed in
the property editor.
When the box contains search terms the Search button turns to a Clear button

. Click this button to clear the terms from the search box.
To match multiple items, enter the desired list of terms separated by semicolon without spaces in between.
A maximum of 12 search terms are stored in the search box. Click the down arrow to view the last 12 search terms that
were used; clicking an entry in this list will make that search term active.

Relabeling Elements
You can relabel elements from within the Property Editor.
To relabel an element:
1. Select the element in the Drawing Pane then, if the Property Editor is not already displayed, select View >
Properties.
2. In the General section of the Property Editor, click in the Label field, then type a new label for the element.

Set Field Options Dialog Box


The Set Field Options dialog box The units for a specific attribute without affecting the units used by other attributes or
globally.
To use the Set Field Options dialog box, right-click any numerical field that has units, then select Units and Formatting.

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Value

Displays the value of the currently selected item.

Unit

Displays the type of measurement. To change the unit,


select the unit you want to use from the drop-down list.
This option also lets you use both U.S. customary and S.I.
units in the same worksheet.

Display Precision

Sets the rounding of numbers and number of digits


displayed after the decimal point. Enter a negative
number for rounding to the nearest power of 10: (-1)
rounds to 10, (-2) rounds to 100, (-3) rounds to 1000, and
so on. Enter a number from 0 to 15 to indicate the number
of digits after the decimal point.

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Format

Lets you select the display format used by the current


field. Choices include: Scientific Converts the entered
value to a string of the form "-d.ddd...E+ddd" or "d.ddd...e+ddd", where each 'd' indicates a digit (0-9). The
string starts with a minus sign if the number is negative.
Fixed Point Abides by the display precision setting, and
automatically enters zeros after the decimal place to do
so. With a display precision of 3, an entered value of 3.5
displays as 3.500. General Truncates any zeros after the
decimal point, regardless of the display precision value.
With a display precision of 3, the value that would appear
as 5.200 in Fixed Point format displays as 5.2 when using
General format. The number is also rounded. So, an
entered value of 5.35 displays as 5.4 regardless of the
display precision. Number Converts the entered value
to a string of the form "-d,ddd,ddd.ddd...", where each 'd'
indicates a digit (0-9). The string starts with a minus sign
if the number is negative. Thousand separators are
inserted between each group of three digits to the left of
the decimal point.

What Length is Used for Conduits, Channels, and Gutters When I Don't Enter a User-defined
Length?
If you do not enter a user-defined length in the attributes for conduits, channels, and gutters, the length used in Bentley
SewerCAD is the plan view distance between the coordinates at each end of the link element. This length is used as the
actual length in hydraulic calculations. However, as the slope increases, the difference between the plan length and the
actual length also increases as shown below.
The table below shows the difference between the actual and plan length as a function of slope. Note that for most
reasonable slopes, the difference between the actual and plan view length is less than one percent. (100% slope is 1:1
slope.) As the slope approaches vertical, you must enter the actual length.
Actual and Plan Length as a Function of Slope
Slope, % *

Actual/Plan Length

1.000

10

1.005

20

1.020

30

1.044

* The models generalized friction formulation is only valid for slopes less than 10%.
If you are not satisfied with the plan view length, you can enter a user-defined length, which you can determine using
the following equation:

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What is the Difference Between a User Defined Unit Hydrograph and a Hydrograph Entered in
the Inflow Collection Editor?
You can enter a hydrograph (in flow units) at any node element (e.g. catch basin, manhole, catchment, cross section,
wet well). You can also enter a unit hydrograph, but only at a catchment node.
To enter a hydrograph (in flow units) using the Inflow Collection Editor:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Select the element in your model.


In the Property Editor, click the Ellipsis button (...) in the Inflow Collection field.
In the Inflow Collection dialog box, click the New button and select Hydrograph Load.
Enter values into the table of flow vs. time, then click OK.

To enter a unit hydrograph at a catchment:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Select a catchment in your model.


In the Property Editor, select Unit Hydrograph as the Runoff Method.
In the Property Editor, select Generic Unit Hydrograph as the Unit Hydrograph Method.
Click the Ellipsis button (...) in the Unit Hydrograph Data field.
In the Unit Hydrograph Data dialog box, enter values into the table of flows (for a unit of rainfall) vs. time, then
click OK.

Changing the Drawing View


You change the drawing view of your model by using the pan tool or one of the zoom tools:

Panning (on page 270)


Zooming (on page 271)

Panning
You can change the position of your model in the drawing pane by using the Pan tool.

To use the Pan tool:


1. Click the Pan button on the Tools toolbar.
2. The mouse cursor changes to the Pan icon.
3. Click anywhere in the drawing, hold down the mouse button and move the mouse to reposition the current view.

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or
If your mouse is equipped with a mousewheel, you can pan by simply holding down the mousewheel and moving the
mouse to reposition the current view.
or
Select View > Pan, then click anywhere in the drawing, hold down the mouse button and move the mouse to reposition
the current view
Related Topics

Zooming (on page 271)


Using the Zoom Center Command (on page 273)

Zooming
You can enlarge or reduce your model in the drawing pane using one of the following zoom tools:
Zoom In and Out
The simple Zoom In and Zoom Out commands allow you to increase or decrease, respectively, the zoom level of the
current view by one step per mouse click.

To use Zoom In or Zoom Out, click the desired button on the Tools toolbar, or select View > Zoom > Zoom In or View
> Zoom > Zoom In.
If your mouse is equipped with a mousewheel, you zoom in or out by simply moving the mousewheel up or down
respectively.
Zoom Window
The Zoom Window command lets you zoom in on an area of your model defined by a window that you draw in the
drawing pane.
To use Zoom Window, select View > Zoom > Zoom Window button, then click and drag the mouse inside the drawing
pane to draw a rectangle. The area of your model inside the rectangle will appear enlarged.
Note: If you use the Zoom Window command frequently, you might find it more convenient to add them to the
Tools toolbar. See Customizing Bentley Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT Toolbar and Buttons for more information.
Zoom Extents

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The Zoom Extents command automatically sets the zoom level such that the entire model is displayed in the drawing
pane.

To use Zoom Extents, click the Zoom Extents button on the Tools toolbar. The entire model is displayed in the drawing
pane.
or
Select View > Zoom > Zoom Extents.
Zoom Realtime
The Zoom Realtime command lets you dynamically scale up and down the zoom level. The zoom level is defined by
the magnitude of mouse movement while the tool is active.

Zoom Previous and Zoom Next

Zoom Previous returns the zoom level to the most recent previous setting. To use Zoom Previous, click the Zoom
Previous button on the Tools toolbar.
or
Select View > Zoom > Zoom Previous.
Zoom Next returns the zoom level to the setting that was active before a Zoom Previous command was executed. To
use Zoom Previous, click View > Zoom > Zoom Next.
Note: If you use the Zoom Next command frequently, you might find it more convenient to add them to the Tools
toolbar. See Customizing Bentley Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT Toolbar and Buttons for more information.
Related Topics

Panning (on page 270)


Using the Zoom Center Command (on page 273)

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Using the Zoom Center Command


The Zoom Center command lets you enter drawing coordinates that will be centered in the drawing pane.
To use the Zoom Center command:
1. Select View > Zoom > Zoom Center. The Zoom Center dialog box appears.
2. Enter the X and Y coordinates.
3. Select the zoom factor from the Zoom drop-down, then click OK.
Zoom Center Dialog Box
X: Defines the X coordinate of the point at which the model will be centered.
Y: Defines the Y coordinate of the point at which the model will be centered.
Zoom Factor: Defines the zoom level that will be applied when the zoom center command is initiated. Available zoom
levels are listed in percentages of 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 200 and 400

Using Selection Sets


Selection sets are user-defined groups of network elements. They allow you to predefine a group of network elements
that you want to manipulate together. You manage selection sets in the Selection Sets Manager (on page 274).
Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT contains powerful features that let you view or analyze subsets of your entire model.
You can find these elements using the Network Navigator (see Using the Network Navigator ). The Network Navigator
lets you choose a selection set, then view the list of elements in the selection set or find individual elements from the
selection set in the drawing.
In order to use the Network Navigator, you must first create a selection set. There are two ways to create a selection set:

From a selection of elements--You create a new selection set in the Selection Sets Manager, then use your mouse to
select the desired elements in the drawing pane.
From a query--Create a query in the Queries Manager, then use the named query to find elements in your model and
place them in the selection set.

The following illustration shows the overall process.

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You can perform the following operations with selection sets:

Viewing Elements in a Selection Sets (on page 277)


Creating a Selection Set from a Selection (on page 277)
Creating a Selection Set from a Query (on page 278)
Adding Elements to a Selection Set (on page 279)
Removing Elements from a Selection Set (on page 279)

Selection Sets Manager


The Selection Sets Manager allows you to create, edit, and navigate to selection sets. The Selection Sets Manager
consists of a toolbar and a list pane, which displays all of the selection sets that are associated with the current project.
The toolbar contains the following buttons:
New

Contains the following commands:


Create from Selection Creates a
new static selection set from elements
you select in your model. Create from
Query Creates a new dynamic
selection set from existing queries.

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Delete

Deletes the selection set that is


currently highlighted in the list pane.
This command is also available from
the short-cut menu, which you can
access by right-clicking an item in the
list pane.

Edit

When a selection-based selection set


is highlighted when you click this
button, opens the Selection Set
Element Removal dialog box, which
lets you edit the selection set. This
command is also available from the
short-cut menu, which you can access
by right-clicking an item in the list
pane. When a query-based selection
set is highlighted when you click this
button, opens the Selection By Query
dialog box, which lets you add or
remove queries from the selection set.
This command is also available from
the short-cut menu, which you can
access by right-clicking an item in the
list pane.

Rename

Lets you rename the selection set that


is currently highlighted in the list
pane. This command is also available
from the short-cut menu, which you
can access by right-clicking an item
in the list pane.

Select In Drawing

Lets you quickly select all the


elements in the drawing pane that are
part of the currently highlighted
selection set. Once you have selected
the elements in a selection set using
Select In Drawing, you can delete
them all at once or create a report on
them. This command is also available
from the short-cut menu, which you
can access by right-clicking an item
in the list pane.

Help

Displays online help for the Selection


Sets Manager.

You can view the properties of a selection in the Property Editor by right-clicking the selection set in the list pane and
selecting Properties from the shortcut menu.
To view elements in a Selection Set

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You use the Network Navigator to view the elements that make up a selection set.
1. Open the Network Navigator by selecting Analysis > Analysis Views > Network Navigator.
2. Select a selection set from the Selection Set drop-down list. The elements in the selection set appear in the Network
Navigator.
Note: You can double-click an element in the Network Navigator to select and center it in the Drawing Pane.
To Create a Selection Set from a Selection
You create a new selection set by selecting elements in your model.
1. Select all of the elements you want in the selection set by either drawing a selection box around them or by holding
down the Ctrl key while clicking each one in turn.
2. When all of the desired elements are highlighted, right-click and select Create Selection Set.
3. Type the name of the selection set you want to create, then click OK to create the new selection set. Click Cancel to
close the dialog box without creating the selection set.
4. Alternatively, you can open the Selection Set manager and click the New button and select Create from Selection.
The software prompts you to select one or more elements.
Create Selection Set Dialog Box
This dialog box opens when you create a new selection set. It contains the following field:
New Selection Set Name: Type the name of the new selection set.
To create a Selection Set from a Query
You create a dynamic selection set by creating a query-based selection set. A query-based selection set can contain one
or more queries, which are valid SQL expressions.
1. In the Selection Sets Manager, click the New button and select Create from Query. The Selection by Query dialog
box opens.
2. Available queries appear in the list pane on the left; queries selected to be part of the selection set appear in the list
pane on the right. Use the arrow buttons in the middle of the dialog to add one or all queries from the Available
Queries list to the Selected Queries list, or to remove queries from the Selected list. You can also double-click
queries on either side of the dialog box to add them to or remove them from the selection set.
To add elements to a Selection Set
You can add a single or multiple elements to a static selection set.
1. Right-click the element to be added, then select Add to Selection Set from the shortcut menu.
2. In the Add to Selection Set dialog box, select the selection set to which you want to add the element.
3. Click OK to close the dialog box and add the element to the selected selection set. Click Cancel to close the dialog
box without creating the selection set.
To add a group of elements to a static selection set all at once
1. Select all of the elements to be added by either drawing a selection box around them, or by holding down the Ctrl
key while clicking each one in turn.
2. When all of the desired elements are highlighted, right-click and select Add to Selection Set.
3. In the Add to Selection Set dialog box, select the selection set to which you want to add the element.
4. Click OK to close the dialog box and add the element to the selected selection set. Click Cancel to close the dialog
box without creating the selection set.
To Add To Selection Set Dialog Box

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This dialog box opens when you select the Add to Selection Set command. It contains the following field:
Add To: Selects the selection set to which the currently highlighted element or elements will be added.
To remove elements from a Selection Set
You can easily remove elements from a static selection set in the Selection Set Element Removal dialog box.
1. Display the Selection Sets Manager by selecting Home > Selection Sets or clicking the Selection Sets button on the
View toolbar.
2. In the Selection Sets Manager, select the desired selection set then click the Edit button.
3. In the Selection Set Element Removal dialog box, find the element you want to remove in the table. Select the
element label or the entire table row, then click the Delete button.
4. Click OK.
Selection Set Element Removal Dialog Box
This dialog opens when you click the edit button from the Selection Sets manager. It is used to remove elements from
the selection set that is highlighted in the Selection Sets Manager when the Edit button is clicked.

Viewing Elements in a Selection Sets


You use the Network Navigator to view the elements that make up a selection set.
To view the elements that make up a selection set:
1. Open the Network Navigator by selecting View > Network Navigator or clicking the Network Navigator button on
the View toolbar.
2. Select a selection set from the Selection Set drop-down list. The elements in the selection set appear in the Network
Navigator.
3. You can double-click an element in the Network Navigator to select and center it in the Drawing Pane.
Related Topics:

Selection Sets Manager (on page 274)


Creating a Selection Set from a Selection (on page 277)
Creating a Selection Set from a Query (on page 278)
Adding Elements to a Selection Set (on page 279)
Removing Elements from a Selection Set (on page 279)
Performing Group-Level Operations on Selection Sets (on page 280)

Creating a Selection Set from a Selection


You can create a new selection set by selecting elements in your model.
To create a new selection set from a selection:
1. Select all of the elements you want in the selection set by either drawing a selection box around them or by holding
down the Ctrl key while clicking each one in turn.
2. When all of the desired elements are highlighted, right-click and select Create Selection Set.
3. Type the name of the selection set you want to create, then click OK to create the new selection set. Click Cancel to
close the dialog box without creating the selection set.
4. Alternatively, you can open the Selection Set Manager and click the New button and select Create from Selection.
Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT prompts you to select one or more elements.

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Create Selection Set Dialog Box
This dialog box appears when you create a new selection set. It contains the following field:
New Selection Set Name: Lets you type the name of the new selection set.

Creating a Selection Set from a Query


You create a dynamic selection set by creating a query-based selection set. A query-based selection set can contain one
or more queries, which are valid SQL expressions.
To create a new selection set from a query:
1. In the Selection Sets Manager, click the New button and select Create from Query. The Selection by Query dialog
box appears.
2. Available queries appear in the list pane on the left; queries selected to be part of the selection set appear in the list
pane on the right. Use the arrow buttons in the middle of the dialog to add one or all queries from the Available
Queries list to the Selected Queries list, or to remove queries from the Selected list.
3. You can also double-click queries on either side of the dialog box to add them to or remove them from the selection
set.
Selection by Query Dialog Box
The Selection by Query dialog box lets you create selection sets from available queries. The dialog box contains the
following controls:
Available Queries

Contains all the queries that are available for your


selection set. The Available Columns list is located on the
left side of the dialog box.

Selected Queries

Contains queries that are part of the selection set. To add


queries to the Selected Queries list, select one or more
queries in the Available Queries list, then click the Add
button [>].

Query Manipulation Buttons

Lets you select or clear queries to be used in the selection


set: [ > ] Adds the selected items from the Available
Queries list to the Selected Queries list. [ >> ] Adds all of
the items in the Available Queries list to the Selected
Queries list. [ < ] Removes the selected items from the
Selected Queries list. [ << ] Removes all items from the
Selected Queries list.
Note: You can select multiple queries in the Available
Queries list by holding down the Shift key or the
Control key while clicking with the mouse. Holding
down the Shift key provides group selection behavior.
Holding down the Control key provides single
element selection behavior.

Related Topics:

Selection Sets Manager (on page 274)

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Viewing Elements in a Selection Sets (on page 277)


Creating a Selection Set from a Selection (on page 277)
Adding Elements to a Selection Set (on page 279)
Removing Elements from a Selection Set (on page 279)
Performing Group-Level Operations on Selection Sets (on page 280)

Adding Elements to a Selection Set


You can add a single or multiple elements to a static selection set.
To add an element to a static selection set:
1. Right-click the element to be added, then select Add to Selection Set from the shortcut menu.
2. In the Add to Selection Set dialog box, select the selection set to which you want to add the element.
3. Click OK to close the dialog box and add the element to the selected selection set. Click Cancel to close the dialog
box without creating the selection set.
To add a group of elements to a static selection set all at once:
1. Select all of the elements to be added by either drawing a selection box around them, or by holding down the Ctrl
key while clicking each one in turn.
2. When all of the desired elements are highlighted, right-click and select Add to Selection Set.
3. In the Add to Selection Set dialog box, select the selection set to which you want to add the element.
4. Click OK to close the dialog box and add the element to the selected selection set. Click Cancel to close the dialog
box without creating the selection set.
Add to Selection Set Dialog Box
This dialog box appears when you select the Add to Selection Set command. It contains the following field:
Add To: Drop-down menu that lets you select the selection set to which the currently highlighted element or elements
will be added.

Removing Elements from a Selection Set


You can easily remove elements from a static selection set in the Selection Set Element Removal dialog box.
To remove an element from a static selection set:
1. Display the Selection Sets Manager by selecting View > Selection Sets or clicking the Selection Sets button on the
View toolbar.
2. In the Selection Sets Manager, select the desired selection set then click the Edit button.
3. In the Selection Set Element Removal dialog box, find the element you want to remove in the table. Select the
element label or the entire table row, then click the Delete button.
4. Click OK.
Selection Set Element Removal Dialog Box
This dialog appears when you click the edit button from the Selection Set Manager. It allows you to remove elements
from the selection set that is highlighted in the Selection Sets Manager when the Edit button is clicked.

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Performing Group-Level Operations on Selection Sets


The software lets you perform group-level deletions on elements in a selection set using the Select In Drawing button in
the Selection Sets Manager.
Note: While it is not possible to directly edit groups of elements in a selection set, you can use the Next button in
the Network Navigator to quickly navigate through each element in the selection set and edit its properties in
the Property Editor.
To delete multiple elements from a selection set:
1. Open the Selection Sets Manager by selecting View > Selection Sets or clicking the Selection Sets button on the
View toolbar.
2. In the Selection Sets Manager, highlight the selection set that contains elements you want to delete.
3. Click the Select In Drawing button in the Selection Sets Manager to highlight all of the selection set's elements in
the drawing pane. If there is only one selection set listed in the Selection Set Manager, you don't have to highlight it
before clicking the Select In Drawing button.
4. Shift-click (hold down the Shift key and click the left mouse button) any selected elements that you do not want to
delete.
5. Right-click and select Delete. The highlighted elements in the selection set are deleted from your model.

Using the Network Navigator


The Network Navigator consists of a toolbar and a table that lists the Label and ID of each of the elements contained
within the current selection. The selection can include elements highlighted manually in the drawing pane, elements
contained within a selection set, or elements returned by a query.
To open the Network Navigator, click the View menu and select the Network Navigator command, press <Ctrl+3>, or
click the Network Navigator button on the View toolbar.

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The following controls are included in Network Navigator:


Query Selection List

Choose the element sets to use in the query. Once a query is selected, it
can be executed when you click the > icon.
If there is already a
Query listed in the list box, it can be run when the Execute icon is
clicked.
Click to run the selected query.

Execute

Previous

Zooms the drawing pane view to the element prior to the currently
selected one in the list.
Zooms the drawing pane view to the selected element in the list.

Zoom To

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Next

Zooms the drawing pane view to the element below the currently selected
element in the list.
Copies the elements to the Windows clipboard.

Copy
Removes the selected element from the list.
Remove
Selects the elements in the drawing pane and performs a zoom extent
based on the selection.
Select In Drawing
When this toggle button is on, elements returned by a query will be
highlighted in the drawing pane to increase their visibility.
Highlight
Refreshes the current selection.
Refresh Drawing
Opens SewerGEMS V8 i Help.
Help
Predefined Queries
The Network Navigator provides access to a number of predefined queries grouped categorically, accessed by clicking
the [>] button. Categories and the queries contained therein include:
Element types - finds all elements of a specified type (e.g. all manholes).
Network review - finds potential problems in the model (e.g. finding disconnected elements). This is a very powerful
tool for model cleanup.
Input - finds elements in model with specified properties (e.g. find elliptical conduits)
Results - finds elements in model with results that meet the query criteria (e.g. manholes that are flooded in this time
step).
Note: The criteria to meet the Near Horizontally Sloped results query is that the slope is:
slope > -.005 AND slope < 0.005
User Defined Queries
In addition to predefined queries, you can create your own queries in the Queries Manager. These queries can be saved
with the project or in a shared file.

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Query Parameters Dialog Box


The Query Parameters dialog appears when you perform a Network Trace > Upstream or a Network Trace >
Downstream query. The network trace query will find all elements that are upstream or downstream of the element
chosen in this dialog.
To perform an Upstream Network Trace:
1. In the Network Navigator, click the Query Selection List button and select Network Trace > Upstream.
2. In the Query Parameters dialog, click the Downstream Node field and choose Select.
3. In the drawing pane, click the downstream element. The trace query will find all elements that are upstream of the
element chosen here.
4. Click OK.
To perform a Downstream Network Trace:
1. In the Network Navigator, click the Query Selection List button and select Network Trace > Downstream.
2. In the Query Parameters dialog, click the Upstream Node field and choose Select.
3. In the drawing pane, click the upstream element. The trace query will find all elements that are downstream of the
element chosen here.
4. Click OK.

Using Prototypes
Prototypes allow you to enter default values for elements in your network. These values are used while laying out the
network. Prototypes can reduce data entry requirements dramatically if a group of network elements share common
data.
For example, if a section of the network contains all three foot-diameter manholes , use the manhole prototype to set the
Diameter field to 3.00 ft. When you create a new manhole in your model, its diameter attribute will default to 3.00 ft.
Note: Changes to the prototypes are not retroactive and will not affect any elements created prior to the change.
If a section of your system has distinctly different characteristics than the rest of the system, adjust your prototypes
before laying out that section. This will save time when you edit the properties later.
For instructions on how to create prototypes, see Creating Prototypes (on page 283).

Creating Prototypes
Prototypes contain default values for Bentley SewerGEMS V8i elements. You create prototypes in the Prototypes
Manager.
To create a prototype:
1. Open your project or start a new project.
2. Select View > Prototypes or press Ctrl+6. The Prototypes Manager opens. All element types are displayed in an
expanding and collapsing list.
3. Select the element type for which you want to create a prototype, then click the New button. The element type in the
list expands to display all the prototypes that exist for that element type. Each element type contains a default
prototype, which is not editable, and any prototypes that you have created. The current set of default values for each
element type is identified by the Make Current icon.

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4. Double-click the prototype you just created. The Property Editor for the element type opens.
5. Edit the attribute values in the Property Editor as required.
6. To make the new prototype the default, click the Make Current button in the Prototypes Manager. The icon next to
the prototype changes to indicate that the values in the prototype will be applied to all instances of that element type
that you add to your current project.
7. Perform the following optional steps: To rename a prototype, select the prototype in the list and click the Rename
button. To delete a prototype, select the prototype in the list and click the Delete button. To view a report of the
default values in the prototype, select the prototype in the list and click the Report button.
Prototypes Manager
The Prototypes Manager allows you to create prototypes, which contain default common data for each element type.
The Prototypes Manager consists of a toolbar and a list pane, which displays all of the available elements.
Note that element types that are not used in the current model are marked with an icon.
The list of elements in the Prototypes Manager list pane is expandable and collapsible. Click on the Plus sign to expand
an element and see its associated prototypes. Click on the Minus sign to collapse the element.
Each element in the list pane contains a default prototype; you cannot edit this default prototype. The default prototypes
contains common values for each element type; if you add elements to your model without creating new prototypes, the
data values in the default prototypes appear in the Property Editor for that element type.
The toolbar contains the following buttons:
New: Creates a new prototype of the selected element.
Delete: Deletes the prototype that is currently highlighted in the list pane.
Rename: Lets you rename the prototype that is currently highlighted in the list pane.
Make Current: Lets you make the prototype that is currently highlighted in the list pane the default for that element
type. When you make the current prototype the default, every element of that type that you add to your model in the
current project will contain the same common data as the prototype.
Report: Lets you view a report of the data associated with the prototype that is currently highlighted in the list pane.
Help: Displays online help for the Prototypes Manager.

Engineering Libraries
Engineering Libraries are powerful and flexible tools that you use to manage specifications of common materials,
objects, or components that are shared across projects. Some examples of objects that are specified through engineering
libraries include pipe materials, Storm Data, and unit sanitary loads. You can modify engineering libraries and the items
they contain by using the Engineering Libraries command in the Components menu, or by clicking the ellipsis (...)
buttons available next to the fields in dialog boxes that make use of engineering libraries.
Note: The data for each engineering library is stored in an XML file in your Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT
program directory. We strongly recommend that you edit these files only using the built-in tools available by
selecting Components > Catalog > Engineering Libraries.
You work with engineering libraries and the items they contain in the Engineering Libraries dialog box, which contains
all of the projects engineering libraries. Individual libraries are compilations of library entries, along with their
attributes. For more information about working with engineering libraries, see Working with Engineering Libraries (on
page 285).

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By default, each project you create in Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT uses the items in the default libraries. In special
circumstances, you may wish to create custom libraries to use with one or more projects. You can do this by copying a
standard library or creating a new library.
When you change the properties for an item in an engineering library, those changes affect all projects that use that
library item. At the time a project is loaded, all of its engineering library items are synchronized to the current library.
Items are synchronized based on their label. If the label is the same, then the items values will be made the same.
The default libraries that are installed with Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT are editable. In addition, you can create a
new library of any type, and can then create new entries of your own definition.

Library types are displayed in the Engineering Library manager in an expanding/collapsing tree view.
Library types can contain categories and subcategories, represented as folders in the tree view.
Individual library entries are contained within the categories, subcategories, and folders in the tree view.
Libraries, categories, folders, and library entries are displayed in the tree view with their own unique icons. You can
right-click these icons to display submenus with different commands.

Working with Engineering Libraries


When you select a library entry in the tree view, the attributes and attribute values associated with the entry are
displayed in the editor pane on the right side of the dialog box.
Working with Libraries
Right-clicking a Library icon in the tree view opens a shortcut menu containing the following commands:
Create Library

Creates a new engineering library of the currently


highlighted type.

Add Existing Library

Lets you add an existing engineering library that has been


stored on your hard drive as an .xml file to the current
project.

Working with Categories


Right-clicking a Category icon in the tree view opens a shortcut menu containing the following commands:
Add Item

Creates a new entry within the current library.

Add Folder

Creates a new folder under the currently highlighted


library.

Save As

Lets you save the currently highlighted category as


an .xml file that can then be used in future projects.

Remove

Deletes the currently highlighted category from the


library.

Working with Folders


Right-clicking a Folder icon in the tree view opens a shortcut menu containing the following commands:

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Add Item

Creates a new entry within the current folder.

Add Folder

Creates a new folder under the currently highlighted


folder.

Rename

Lets you rename the currently highlighted folder.

Delete

Deletes the currently highlighted folder and its contents.

Working with Library Entries


Right-clicking a Library Entry icon in the tree view opens a shortcut menu containing the following commands:
Rename

Lets you rename the currently highlighted entry.

Delete

Deletes the currently highlighted entry from the library.

Engineering Libraries Dialog Box


The Engineering Libraries dialog box contains an explorer tree-view pane on the left, a library entry editor pane on the
right, and the following buttons above the explorer tree view pane:
New

Opens a submenu containing the


following commands: Create Library
Creates a new engineering library.
Add Existing Library Lets you add
an existing engineering library that
has been stored on your hard drive as
an .xml file to the current project.

Save

Opens a submenu containing the


following commands: Save As Lets
you save the current engineering
library under a new name and/or to a
new location. ProjectWise Check Out
Lets you check out an existing
engineering library that has been
stored in ProjectWise.

Remove

Removes the currently highlighted


engineering library from the current
project.

Rename

Lets you rename the currently


highlighted engineering library.

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Sharing Engineering Libraries On a Network


You can share engineering libraries with other users in your organization by storing the engineering libraries on a
network drive. All users who will have access to the shared engineering library should have read-write access to the
network folder in which the library is located.
To share an engineering library on a network, open the Engineering Libraries and create a new library in a network
folder to which all users have read-write access.

Minor Loss Coefficients


The Minor Loss Coefficients dialog box allows you to create, edit, and manage minor loss coefficient definitions.

The following management controls are located above the minor loss coefficient list pane:
Creates a new Minor Loss Coefficient.
New
Creates a copy of the currently highlighted minor loss
coefficient.

Duplicate

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Delete

Deletes the minor loss coefficient that is currently


highlighted in the list pane.

Rename

Renames the minor loss coefficient that is currently


highlighted in the list pane.
Opens a report of the data associated with the minor loss
coefficient that is currently highlighted in the list pane.

Report

Browses the Engineering Library, synchronizes to or from


the library, imports from the library or exports to the
library.

Synchronization Options

The tab section is used to define the settings for the minor loss that is currently highlighted in the minor loss list pane.
The following controls are available:
Minor Loss Tab

This tab consists of input data fields that allow you to


define the minor loss.

Minor Loss Type

General type of fitting or loss element. This field is used


to limit the number of minor loss elements available in
choice lists. For example, the minor loss choice list on the
valve dialog box only includes minor losses of the valve
type. You cannot add or delete types.

Minor Loss Coefficient

Headloss coefficient for the minor loss. This unitless


number represents the ratio of the headloss across the
minor loss element to the velocity head of the flow
through the element.

Library Tab

This tab displays information about the minor loss that is


currently highlighted in the minor loss list pane. If the
minor loss is derived from an engineering library, the
synchronization details can be found here. If the minor
loss was created manually for this project, the
synchronization details will display the message Orphan
(local), indicating that the minor loss was not derived
from a library entry.

Notes Tab

This tab contains a text field that is used to type


descriptive notes that will be associated with the minor
loss that is currently highlighted in the minor loss list
pane.

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Using the Totalizing Flow Meter


Totalizing flow meters allow you to view results of the total volume going through your model for a specific selection
of elements.

Totalizing Flow Meters Manager Dialog


The Totalizing Flow Meter manager consists of the following controls:
New

Create a new totalizing flow meter.

Delete

Delete the selected totalizing flow meter.

Rename

Rename the label for the current totalizing flow meter.

Edit

Open the totalizing flow meter editor.

Refresh

Recompute the volume of the current totalizing flow


meter.

Help

Opens the online help for totalizing flow meter.

To create a new Totalizing Flow Meter


1. Click Compute. (EPS settings must be on in order to utilize this feature.)
2. From the Analysis Menu click Totalizing Flow Meters.

3. Click New which will open up the Select box.

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4. Select the elements to be calculated or click the Query box then click Done.
You can also create a totalizing flow meter by simply right-clicking a pressure pipe and selecting the Totalizing Flow
Meter command from the context menu that appears.

Totalizing Flow Meter Editor Dialog


The Inlet Catalog dialog box allows you to create, edit, and delete inlet definitions that can then be assigned to
catchment elements in your model.
The following inlet types are available from this dialog:

Combination
Curb
Ditch
Grate
Slot
Flow to Inlet vs. Flow Captured
Gutter Depth vs. Captured Flow

You can also import an inlet definition from the Inlet Libraries Engineering Library, and export inlet definitions to the
Engineering Library for later use.
The dialog box contains a list pane on the left and a tabbed input data area on the right, and includes the following
controls:

New: Creates a new inlet defintion in the list pane on the left.

Duplicate: Copies the currently highlighted inlet definition.

Delete: Deletes the currently highlighted inlet definition.

Rename: Lets you rename the currently highlighted inlet definition.

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Report: Lets you generate a preformatted report that contains the input data associated with the currently highlighted
inlet definition.

Synchronization Options: Clicking this button opens a submenu containing the following commands:

Browse Engineering LibraryOpens the Engineering Library manager dialog, allowing you to browse the Inlet
Libraries.
Synchronize From LibraryLets you update a set of inlet defintions previously imported from one of the Inlet
Libraries. The updates reflect changes that have been made to the library since it was imported.
Synchronize To LibraryLets you update one of the existing Inlet Libraries using current inlet definitions that were
initially imported but have since been modified.
Import From LibraryLets you import a inlet defintion from one of the existing Inlet Libraries.
Export To LibraryLets you export the current inlet defintions to one of the existing Inlet Libraries.
Connect to LibraryLets you create a connection between the inlet catalog and the specified engineering library.

The fields and controls that appear in the tabbed area depend on which inlet type is chosen. Not all fields will be
available for all inlet types.
Inlet Tab

Structure Width: Define the width of the inlet structure. This field is available for all inlet types.
Structure Length: Define the length of the inlet structure. This field is available for all inlet types.
Curb Opening Height: Define the height of the curb opening. This field is available for Curb and Combination inlet
types.
Default Curb Opening Length: Define the default length of the curb opening. This field is available for Curb and
Combination inlet types.
Local Depression: Define the depth of the gutter depression at the inlet, if any. This field is available for Curb and
Combination inlet types.
Depression Width: Define the width of the gutter depression at the inlet, if any. This field is available for Curb and
Combination inlet types.
Throat Type: Choose the throat type. The throat type defines the shape of curb opening. This field is available for
Curb and Combination inlet types.
Throat Angle: Define the angle of the inlet throat. This field is only available when the Inclined Throat Type is
chosen. This field is available for Curb and Combination inlet types.
Grate Type: Choose the grating type. This field is available for Combination, Ditch, and Grating inlet types.
Grate Width: Define the width of the grating. This field is available for Combination, Ditch, and Grating inlet types.
Default Grate Length: Define the default length of the grating. This field is available for Combination, Ditch, and
Grating inlet types.
Slot Width: Define the default width of the slot. This field is available for Slot inlet type.
Default Slot Length: Define the default length of the slot. This field is available for Slot inlet type.
Flow to Inlet vs. Flow Captured Table: This table is only available when the Flow to Inlet vs. Flow Captured Inlet
type is selected. It allows you to define the amount of Flow Captured at various Flow to Inlet points. Click the New
button to add a new row to the table. Click the Delete button to remove the currently highlighted row from the table.

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Gutter Depth vs. Captured Flow Table: This table is only available when the Gutter Depth vs. Captured Flow Inlet
type is selected. It allows you to define the amount of Captured Flow at various Gutter Depth values. Click the New
button to add a new row to the table. Click the Delete button to remove the currently highlighted row from the table.
Default Curb Opening Length: Define the opening length.

Design Tab
This tab contains a list of allowable design lengths. When performing a design analysis, the program will only be able
to select inlets of one of lengths specified here. To add a new length to the list click the New button and type in the
length. To remove a length from the list, highlight it and click the Delete button.
Notes Tab
This tab contains a text field that allows you to enter descriptive notes that will be associated with the currently
highlighted inlet definition.
Library Tab
This tab displays information about the inlet definition that is currently highlighted in the list pane. If the inlet
definition is derived from an engineering library, the synchronization details can be found here. If the inlet definition
was created manually for this project, the synchronization details will display the message Orphan (local), indicating
that the inlet definition was not derived from a library entry.
To create a new Inlet:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Click the New button above the list pane.


Type a name for the inlet.
Choose an Inlet Type from the Inlet Type field in the tabbed section to the right.
Type in input data in the input fields in the tabbed section to the right. The available fields will vary according to the
Inlet Type that is chosen.
5. Click Close when you have finished defining the inlet parameters.
To import an inlet from the Engineering Library:
1. Click the Synchronization Options button and select Import From Library from the submenu.
2. Expand the Inlet Libraries node to view all of the existing Inlet Libraries. There will be the default Inlets Library,
along with any additional custom libraries you've created.
3. Expand the desired library to view all of the inlet definitions within that library. Click on the inlet definitions to
view their properties on the right side of the dialog.
4. When you have chosen the desired inlet definition click the Select button. The new inlet will appear in the list pane.
To access the Inlet Catalog
In Stand-Alone and Microstation, click the Components menu and select the Inlet Catalog command.
In AutoCAD mode, click the CivilStorm menu, then select Components > Inlet Catalog.
Default Curb and Grate Lengths
When you assign a catalog inlet to a catch basin, Bentley SewerCAD will assign the default curb and grate length
values for that catalog inlet (as defined in the Default Curb Opening Length and Default Grate Length fields) to the
catch basins curb opening length and grate length respectively. However, you can also manually change the values for
the catch basin so that it the catalog inlet values and catch basin values are not in sync. When you perform an analysis
computation run, the value in the catch basin attribute is used. When you do a design run, the value of the catch basin
attribute is initially used, but then that catch basin attribute can be changed during design to one of the available curb
opening lengths listed in the design tab of the referenced catalog inlet.

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Inlet Catalog Dialog Box


The Inlet Catalog dialog box allows you to create, edit, and delete inlet definitions that can then be assigned to
catchment elements in your model.
The following inlet types are available from this dialog:

Combination
Curb
Ditch
Grate
Slot
Flow to Inlet vs. Flow Captured
Gutter Depth vs. Captured Flow
Kerb (United kingdom)
Grating (United Kingdom)

You can also import an inlet definition from the Inlet Libraries Engineering Library, and export inlet definitions to the
Engineering Library for later use.
The dialog box contains a list pane on the left and a tabbed input data area on the right, and includes the following
controls:

New: Creates a new inlet definition in the list pane on the left.

Duplicate: Copies the currently highlighted inlet definition.

Delete: Deletes the currently highlighted inlet definition.

Rename: Lets you rename the currently highlighted inlet definition.

Report: Lets you generate a preformatted report that contains the input data associated with the currently
highlighted inlet definition.

Synchronization Options: Clicking this button opens a submenu containing the following commands:

Browse Engineering Library--Opens the Engineering Library manager dialog, allowing you to browse the Inlet
Libraries.

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Synchronize From Library--Lets you update a set of inlet defintions previously imported from one of the Inlet
Libraries. The updates reflect changes that have been made to the library since it was imported.
Synchronize To Library--Lets you update one of the existing Inlet Libraries using current inlet definitions that were
initially imported but have since been modified.
Import From Library--Lets you import a inlet defintion from one of the existing Inlet Libraries.
Export To Library--Lets you export the current inlet defintions to one of the existing Inlet Libraries.
Connect to Library--Lets you create a connection between the inlet catalog and the specified engineering library.

The fields and controls that appear in the tabbed area depend on which inlet type is chosen. Not all fields will be
available for all inlet types.
Inlet Tab

Structure Width: Define the width of the inlet structure. This field is available for all inlet types.
Structure Length: Define the length of the inlet structure. This field is available for all inlet types.
Curb Opening Height: Define the height of the curb opening. This field is available for Curb and Combination inlet
types.
Default Curb Opening Length: Define the default length of the curb opening. This field is available for Curb and
Combination inlet types.
Local Depression: Define the depth of the gutter depression at the inlet, if any. This field is available for Curb and
Combination inlet types.
Depression Width: Define the width of the gutter depression at the inlet, if any. This field is available for Curb and
Combination inlet types.
Throat Type: Choose the throat type. The throat type defines the shape of curb opening. This field is available for
Curb and Combination inlet types.
Throat Angle: Define the angle of the inlet throat. This field is only available when the Inclined Throat Type is
chosen. This field is available for Curb and Combination inlet types.
Grate Type: Choose the grating type. This field is available for Combination, Ditch, and Grating inlet types.
Grate Width: Define the width of the grating. This field is available for Combination, Ditch, and Grating inlet types.
Default Grate Length: Define the default length of the grating. This field is available for Combination, Ditch, and
Grating inlet types.
Slot Width: Define the default width of the slot. This field is available for Slot inlet type.
Default Slot Length: Define the default length of the slot. This field is available for Slot inlet type.
Flow to Inlet vs. Flow Captured Table: This table is only available when the Flow to Inlet vs. Flow Captured Inlet
type is selected. It allows you to define the amount of Flow Captured at various Flow to Inlet points. Click the New
button to add a new row to the table. Click the Delete button to remove the currently highlighted row from the table.
Gutter Depth vs. Captured Flow Table: This table is only available when the Gutter Depth vs. Captured Flow Inlet
type is selected. It allows you to define the amount of Captured Flow at various Gutter Depth values. Click the New
button to add a new row to the table. Click the Delete button to remove the currently highlighted row from the table.
Kerb Angle (Alpha): The angle of alpha as in the diagram below.
Kerb Angle (Beta): The angle of beta as in the diagram below.

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Design Tab
This tab contains a list of allowable design lengths. When performing a design analysis, the program will only be able
to select inlets of one of lengths specified here. To add a new length to the list click the New button and type in the
length. To remove a length from the list, highlight it and click the Delete button.
Notes Tab
This tab contains a text field that allows you to enter descriptive notes that will be associated with the currently
highlighted inlet definition.
Library Tab
This tab displays information about the inlet definition that is currently highlighted in the list pane. If the inlet
definition is derived from an engineering library, the synchronization details can be found here. If the inlet definition
was created manually for this project, the synchronization details will display the message Orphan (local), indicating
that the inlet definition was not derived from a library entry.
To create a new Inlet:
1. Click the New button above the list pane.
2. Type a name for the inlet.

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3. Choose an Inlet Type from the Inlet Type field in the tabbed section to the right.
4. Type in input data in the input fields in the tabbed section to the right. The available fields will vary according to the
Inlet Type that is chosen.
5. Click Close when you have finished defining the inlet parameters.
To import an inlet from the Engineering Library:
1. Click the Synchronization Options button and select Import From Library from the submenu.
2. Expand the Inlet Libraries node to view all of the existing Inlet Libraries. There will be the default Inlets Library,
along with any additional custom libraries you've created.
3. Expand the desired library to view all of the inlet definitions within that library. Click on the inlet definitions to
view their properties on the right side of the dialog.
4. When you have chosen the desired inlet definition click the Select button. The new inlet will appear in the list pane.
To access the Inlet Catalog
In Stand-Alone and Microstation, click the Components menu and select the Inlet Catalog command.
In AutoCAD mode, click the CivilStorm menu, then select Components > Inlet Catalog.
Default Curb and Grate Lengths
When you assign a catalog inlet to a catch basin, SewerGEMS V8i will assign the default curb and grate length values
for that catalog inlet (as defined in the Default Curb Opening Length and Default Grate Length fields) to the catch
basins curb opening length and grate length respectively. However, you can also manually change the values for the
catch basin so that it the catalog inlet values and catch basin values are not in sync. When you perform an analysis
computation run, the value in the catch basin attribute is used. When you do a design run, the value of the catch basin
attribute is initially used, but then that catch basin attribute can be changed during design to one of the available curb
opening lengths listed in the design tab of the referenced catalog inlet.

Design Grating Types Dialog Box


This dialog allows you to define the grating type classification(s) for entries in the Inlet Engineering Library.

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The following controls are available:

New: Creates a new row in the table.

Delete: Deletes the currently highlighted row from the table.

Design Lengths Dialog Box


This dialog allows you to define the design lengths for Curb-type inlets in the Inlet Engineering Library.

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The following controls are available:

New: Creates a new row in the table.

Delete: Deletes the currently highlighted row from the table.

Gutter Depth Vs Captured Flow Dialog Box


This dialog allows you to define the gutter depth vs captured flow curve for inlet engineering library entries.
The following controls are available:
New: Creates a new row in the table.
Delete: Deletes the currently highlighted row from the table.

Grating Parameters (United Kingdom) Dialog Box


For Grating inlet types, a numerical value for Grating Parameter (Gd) is associated with each Grating Type. This
parameter is used in computing efficiency of a Grating inlet
This dialog allows you tp specify the grating parameters for each grating type.
The dialog box contains the grating type vs. grating parameter table and the following controls:

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New

This button creates a new row in the


type-parameter table.

Delete

This button deletes the currently


highlighted row from the typeparameter table.

Report

Opens a print preview window


containing a report that details the
input data for this dialog box.

The table contains the following columns:


Column

Description

Grating Type

Select the grating type to be defined.

Grating Parameter

Enter the parameter for the associated grating type.

Typical range of Grating Parameter values, by Grating Type, are given in the following table:
Grating Type

Range if G(s/m2)

< or = 30

30.1 - 45

45.1 - 60

60.1 - 80

80.1 - 110

Design value Gd

30

45

60

80

110

Modeling Neenah Grates


The Neenah Foundry Company (Neenah, Wisconsin - http://www.nfco.com) produces an extensive range of storm
water inlets/catch basins, commonly referred to as 'Neenah grates'.
These Neenah grates are not currently included in the default Bentley SewerCAD Engineering Libraries, but in Bentley
SewerCAD it is quite straightforward for users to add them as required.
To Model a Neenah Grate for On Grade Inlets
1. Click the Components > Catalog> Inlet Catalog.
2. In the Inlets Catalog dialog, click New. Type a name for the new inlet.
Note: We suggest using the Neenah catalog number, and the transverse and longitudinal slopes that the curve
capacity values will correspond too). Unlike the in HEC-22 calculations, there is no general relationship
available for Neenah grate capacity versus longitudinal slope, so each Neenah grate is entered in Bentley
SewerCAD as a Kerb Channel Depth vs. Captured Flow curve which is specific to a particular transverse and
longitudinal slope.
3. Next click Inlet Type and select Kerb Channel Depth vs. Captured Flow. Enter the below ground Structure Width
and Structure Length.
4. Now refer to the Neenah technical information to find the K value associated with this grate (for the appropriate
transverse and longitudinal slopes).

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5. For this example, for a longitudinal slope of 2% and a tranverse slope of 5%, use a K value of 16. Then a depth
versus captured flow relationship can be determined using the equation:

6. Now this relationship can be copied and pasted into the Kerb Channel Depth vs. Captured Flow area of the Inlet
editor. To do this, copy the data to the windows clipboard, then in Bentley SewerCAD , select the top right cell in
Kerb Channel Depth vs. Captured Flow grid and press Ctrl+V to paste.
Note: Make sure the units used in the Inlet editor match the units used in determining the Depth vs. Captured
Flow relationship.
This inlet is now set up and ready to use in the current Bentley SewerCAD project. To make it available for use in other
projects, click on the Synchronization Options button and select Export to Library.
To Model a Neenah Grate for In Sag Inlets
For rectangular grates in sag, it is generally possible to enter a Neenah grate as a standard Grate Inlet Type.
However, please note that the Bentley SewerCAD uses the HEC-22 methodology for computing capacity, which does
not always produce capacities that correspond to capacities given by Neenah Foundary (since some discharge
coefficients are slightly different).
The designer should verify that they are satisfied with the calculated capacity in these cases.
For non-rectangular grates, the designer should compute, or request from Neenah Foundry, a Kerb Channel Depth vs.
Captured Flow relationship for the grate and then enter that in Bentley SewerCAD using a procedure similar to the
procedure outlined for Inlets On Grade above.
Note that the capacities of grate inlets in sag are not a function of the transverse of longitudinal slopes, so one Kerb
Channel Depth vs. Captured Flow curve per grate is sufficient for all transverse and longitudinal slopes.

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Gutter Catalog Dialog Box


The Gutter Catalog dialog box allows you to create, edit, and delete gutter definitions that can then be assigned to gutter
or catchbasin elements in your model.
The following gutter shapes are available from this dialog:

Conventional
Irregular
Parabolic
Trapezoidal
V-Shaped

You can also import a gutter definition from the Gutter Catalogs Engineering Library, and export gutter definitions to
the Engineering Library for later use.
The dialog box contains a list pane on the left and a tabbed input data area on the right, and includes the following
controls:

New: Creates a new gutter definition in the list pane on the left.

Delete: Deletes the currently highlighted gutter definition.

Rename: Lets you rename the currently highlighted gutter definition.

Report: Lets you generate a preformatted report that contains the input data associated with the currently highlighted
gutter definition.

Synchronization Options: Clicking this button opens a submenu containing the following commands:

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Browse Engineering Library--Opens the Engineering Library manager dialog, allowing you to browse the Gutter
Catalogs.
Synchronize From Library--Lets you update a set of gutter defintions previously imported from one of the Gutter
Catalogs. The updates reflect changes that have been made to the library since it was imported.
Synchronize To Library--Lets you update one of the existing Gutter Catalogs using current gutter definitions that
were initially imported but have since been modified.
Import From Library--Lets you import a gutter defintion from one of the existing Gutter Catalogs.
Export To Library--Lets you export the current gutter defintions to one of the existing Gutter Catalogs.
Connect to Library--Lets you create a connection between the gutter catalog and the specified engineering library.

The fields and controls that appear in the tabbed area depend on which gutter shape is chosen. Not all fields will be
available for all gutter types.
Gutter Tab

Gutter Shape: Select the shape of the gutter.


Road Cross Slope: Enter the transverse slope of the road. Applicable to Conventional and V-Shaped gutters.
Gutter Depression?: If this box is checked, the gutter slope differs from the road cross slope. Applicable to
Conventional and V-Shaped gutters.
Gutter Cross Slope: The transverse slope of the gutter. This value is typically equal to or greater than the road cross
slope. Applicable to Conventional and V-Shaped gutters.
Gutter Width: The horizontal width of the gutter. This is equal to the distance from the curb face to the point at
which the road cross slope begins. Applicable to Conventional and V-Shaped gutters.
Material: The material of the gutter.
Mannings n: The Mannings n roughness value for the gutter.
Kutters n: The Kutters n roughness value for the gutter.
Darcy-Weisbach e: The Darcy-Wesibach e roughness value for the gutter.
Hazen Williams C: The Hazen Williams C roughness value for the gutter.
Station/Elevation (Relative) Table: This table allows you to define the shape of an Irregular gutter by entering
Station/Elevation points.
Station: The cross-sectional distance at the current point. You can enter these in any order that defines the gutter
(e.g., from left-to-right, from right-to-left, with an upstream or downstream perspective).
Elevation (Relative): This field allows you to define the height above the gutter invert at that cross section point.
This value can be a negative number. Note that the elevation defined here is used purely to define the shape of the
section, and it is not meant to represent a real elevation. In the calculations, SewerGEMS V8i uses the irregular
section shape defined here, as well as the Invert (Upstream) and Invert (Downstream) properties of the conduit. To
do this, SewerGEMS V8i sets the lowest point on the irregular section equal to the invert elevation at the upstream
and downstream ends of the conduit, and the elevation of other points in the irregular section are adjusted
accordingly.
Height: The height of the parabolic gutter.
Width: The width of the parabolic gutter.
Bottom Width: The width along the bottom of the trapezoidal gutter.
Left Side Slope: The left side slope of the trapezoidal gutter.
Right Side Slope: The right side slope of the trapezoidal gutter.
Curb Cross Slope: The slope of the curb, specific to a V-Shaped gutter. Conventional gutters assume a vertically
sloped curb.

Library Tab
This tab displays information about the gutter definition that is currently highlighted in the list pane. If the gutter
definition is derived from an engineering library, the synchronization details can be found here. If the gutter definition

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was created manually for this project, the synchronization details will display the message Orphan (local), indicating
that the gutter definition was not derived from a library entry.
Notes Tab
This tab contains a text field that allows you to enter descriptive notes that will be associated with the currently
highlighted gutter definition.
To create a new Gutter:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Click the New button above the list pane.


Type a name for the gutter.
Choose a Gutter Shape from the Gutter Shape field in the tabbed section to the right.
Type in input data in the input fields in the tabbed section to the right. The available fields will vary according to the
Gutter Shape that is chosen.
5. Click Close when you have finished defining the gutter parameters.

To import a gutter from the Engineering Library:


1. Click the Synchronization Options button and select Import From Library from the submenu.
2. Expand the Gutter Catalogs node to view all of the existing gutter libraries. There will be the default Gutter
Catalogs, along with any additional custom libraries you've created.
3. Expand the desired library to view all of the gutter definitions within that library. Click on the gutter definitions to
view their properties on the right side of the dialog.
4. When you have chosen the desired gutter definition click the Select button. The new gutter will appear in the list
pane.
To access the Gutter Catalog
In Stand-Alone and Microstation, click the Components menu and select the Gutter Catalog command.
In AutoCAD mode, click the SewerGEMS V8i menu, then select Components > Gutter Catalog.

Conduit Catalog Dialog Box


This dialog box allows you to create, edit, and view catalog conduits. Catalog conduits are an efficient way to reuse
common physical conduit definitions.
The dialog box contains a toolbar, a Conduit Catalog list pane, and two tabs. The toolbar contains the following
buttons:
New

Creates a new entry in the Conduit


Catalog List Pane.

Delete

Deletes the entry that is currently


highlighted in the Conduit Catalog
List Pane.

Rename

Lets you rename the entry that is


currently highlighted in the Conduit
Catalog List Pane.

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Report

Lets you generate a preformatted


report that contains the input data
associated with the entry that is
currently highlighted in the Conduit
Catalog List Pane.

Synchronize

Clicking this button opens a submenu


containing the following commands:
Browse Engineering Library --This
command opens the Engineering
Library manager dialog, allowing you
to browse the Conduit Catalog
Library. Synchronize From Library -This command allows you to update a
Conduit Catalog that was previously
imported from a Conduit Catalog
Engineering Library to reflect
changes that have been made to the
library since it was imported.
Synchronize To Library --This
command allows you to update an
existing Conduit Catalog Engineering
Library using current Conduit Catalog
entries that were initially imported but
have since been modified. Import
From Library --This command allows
you to import catalog entries from an
existing Conduit Catalog Engineering
Library. Export To Library --This
command allows you to export the
current catalog entries to an existing
Conduit Catalog Engineering Library.
Connect To Library --This command
allows you to connect the current
catalog entries to an existing Conduit
Catalog Engineering Library.

The following table describes the rest of the controls in the Conduit Catalog dialog box.
Conduit Catalog List Pane

Located on the left side of the dialog box, displays a list


of all of the catalog pipes that have been defined in the
current project. Highlighting a catalog pipe in this list
causes the Cross Section Shape and Roughness Sections
to display the associated information with the highlighted
pipe.

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Cross Section Shape

Located in the top-right corner of the Conduit Catalog


tab, contains controls that allow you to define the size and
shape of the catalog pipe currently highlighted in the List
Pane. The controls that appear change according to the
Cross Section Type that is selected.

Conduit Shape

Lets you define the type of cross section for the currently
highlighted catalog pipe.

Diameter

Lets you define the diameter of the pipe. This field is only
available for Circular catalog pipes.

Rise

Lets you define the rise (height) of the catalog pipe. This
field is available for all cross section types except
Circular.

Span

Lets you define the span (width) of the catalog pipe.

Power Exponent

Lets you define thepower exponent for Power Channel


conduit shapes.

Bottom Radius (Rectangular-Round)

Lets you define the bottom radius of Rectangular-Round


conduit shapes.

Triangle Height (Rectangular-Triangle)

Lets you define the triangle height of RectangularTriangle conduit shapes.

Bottom Width

The width at the base of the cross section of the conduit.

Left Side Slope

The left slope of the cross section of the conduit.

Right Side Slope

The right slope of the cross section of the conduit.

Channel Weighting Method

Lets you select the channel weighting method to use for


Irregular Channel conduit shapes.

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Irregular Channel Table

This table allows you to define the follwoing attributes


when the Irregular Channel Conduit Shape is selected:
The table contains the following columns: Station - This
field allows you to define the cross-sectional distance at
the current curve point. You can enter these in any order
that defines the channel (e.g., from left-to-right, from
right-to-left, with an upstream or downstream
perspective). Depth - This field allows you to define the
depth for the current curve point for the channel. The
value here is relative, i.e. you can define it based on the
bottom of the channel being 0 feet and the top being 1
foot, and it will perform identically as using the actual
elevation of one endpoint for the bottom of the channel,
and the top sides of the channel being the bottom+1ft.
This value can be a negative number.

Availability

Located in the mid-right corner of the Conduit Catalog


tab, lets you select whether or not the current conduit is
available for automated design.

Available for Design?

When this box is checked, the current conduit will be


available for use during an automated design run.

Roughness

Located in the bottom-right corner of the Conduit Catalog


tab, lets you define the roughness attributes of the catalog
pipe currently highlighted in the List Pane. The controls
that are available change depending on the Roughness
Type selected.

Roughness Type

Lets you specify which of the available roughness


methods to be applied to the catalog pipe currently
highlighted in the List Pane. The other controls available
in section are dependent on the selection made in this box.

Material

Lets you enter a material label. This field is informational


only, and will not affect the roughness properties of the
associated catalog entry.

Mannings n

Lets you define the roughness value for the catalog pipe.
This field is available only when the Roughness Type is
Single Mannings n.

Depth vs. Mannings Table

Lets you define a depth vs. roughness curve for the


catalog pipe. This field is available only when the
Roughness Type is Mannings n-Depth Curve.

Mannings vs. Discharge Table

Lets you define a flow vs. roughness curve for the catalog
pipe. This field is available only when the Roughness
Type is Mannings n-Flow.

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Library Tab

Displays information pertaining to the catalog entry that


is currently highlighted in the List Pane, including: ID
Label Modified Date Library Source Library Modified
Date Synchronization Status

Defining Mannings n vs. Depth Curves


You can define the roughness type for a conduit or a channel by creating a Mannings n vs. Depth curve. You define
the curve for a channel in the Property Editor for the connecting cross section node.
To define a Mannings n vs. Depth curve for a conduit or a channel:
1. Display the Property Editor for the link element:
2. For a conduit, click the conduit in your model, or right-click the conduit and select Properties from the shortcut
menu.
3. For a channel, click the connecting cross-section node in your model, or right-click the channel and select Properties
from the shortcut menu.
4. In the Physical section of the Property Editor, select Mannings n - Depth Curve as the Roughness Type. The
Mannings n-Depth Curve field becomes available.
5. Click the Ellipses (...) button next to the Mannings n - Depth Curve field.
6. In the Mannings n - Depth Curve dialog box, each row in the table represents a depth value and its associated
Mannings n roughness value. For each row in the table, perform the following steps:
7. Type the depth in the Depth column, then press the Tab key to move to the Mannings n column.
8. Type a value in the Mannings n column or click the Ellipses (...) button in the column to display the Material
Libraries in the Engineering Libraries.
9. Click the plus signs to expand the Material Libraries, then select the desired material and click the Select button.
The Mannings n roughness value associated with the selected material appears in the table. You can edit the values
of a minor loss type in the Engineering Libraries in the Editor pane.
10. Click the New button to add a row to the table.
11. Repeat Steps 4 and 5 for each new row of values in the table.
12. Perform the following optional steps:
13. To delete a row from the table, select the row then click Delete.
14. To view a report on the curve, click Report.
15. Click OK to close the dialog box and save the curve data in the Property Editor.
Mannings nDepth Curve Dialog Box
This dialog box lets you define a Mannings n vs. Depth table for conduits and channels. The dialog box contains the
Depth vs. Mannings table and the following buttons:
New

Creates a new row in the table.

Delete

Deletes the currently highlighted row


from the table.

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Report

Opens a print preview window


containing a report that details the
input data for this dialog box.

The table contains the following columns:


Column

Description

Depth

Lets you define the depth of the depth vs. Mannings


curve point.

Manning n

Lets you define the roughness value at the specified depth


in the Depth vs. Mannings table.

Related Topics

Roughness Models-315

Defining Mannings n vs. Flow Curves


You can define the roughness type for a conduit or a channel by creating a Manning's n vs. Flow curve. You define the
curve for a channel in the Property Editor for the connecting cross section node.
To define a Manning's n vs. Flow curve for a conduit or a channel:
1. Display the Property Editor for the link element. For a conduit, click the conduit in your model, or right-click the
conduit and select Properties from the shortcut menu. For a channel, click the connecting cross-section node in your
model, or right-click the channel and select Properties from the shortcut menu.
2. In the Physical section of the Property Editor, select Manning's n - Flow as the Roughness Type. The Manning'sFlow Curve field becomes available.
3. Click the Ellipses (...) button next to the Manning's n - Flow Curve field.
4. In the Manning's n - Flow Curve dialog box, each row in the table represents a depth value and its associated
Manning's n roughness value. For each row in the table, perform the following steps: Type the depth in the Flow
column, then press the Tab key to move to the Manning's n column. Type a value in the Manning's n column or
click the Ellipses (...) button in the column to display the Material Libraries in the Engineering Libraries. Click the
plus signs to expand the Material Libraries, then select the desired material and click the Select button. The
Manning's n roughness value associated with the selected material appears in the table. You can edit the values of a
minor loss type in the Engineering Libraries in the Editor pane.
5. Click the New button to add a row to the table.
6. Repeat Steps 4 and 5 for each new row of values in the table.
7. Perform the following optional steps: To delete a row from the table, select the row then click Delete. To view a
report on the curve, click Report.
8. Click OK to close the dialog box and save the curve data in the Property Editor.
Manning's n-Flow Curve Dialog Box
This dialog box lets you define Flow vs. Manning's n tables for conduits and channels.
The dialog box contains the flow vs. Manning's table and the following buttons:
New: Creates a new row in the table.

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Delete: Deletes the currently highlighted row from the table.
Report: Opens a print preview window containing a report that details the input data for this dialog box.
The table contains the following columns:
Flow: Lets you define the flow of the flow vs. Manning's curve point.
Manning's n: Lets you define the roughness value at the specified flow in the Flow vs. Manning's table.

Vortex Valves
This dialog allows you to define vortex valve elements.
The dialog box contains a toolbar, a list pane, and two tabs. The toolbar contains the following buttons:
New

Creates a new entry in the Vortex


Valve List Pane.

Delete

Deletes the entry that is currently


highlighted in theVortex Valve List
Pane.

Duplicate

Deletes the entry that is currently


highlighted in the Vortex Valve List
Pane.

Rename

Lets you rename the entry that is


currently highlighted in the Vortex
Valve List Pane.

Report

Lets you generate a preformatted


report that contains the input data
associated with the entry that is
currently highlighted in the Vortex
Valve List Pane.

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Synchronize

Clicking this button opens a submenu


containing the following commands:
Browse Engineering Library --This
command opens the Engineering
Library manager dialog, allowing you
to browse the Vortex Valve Library.
Synchronize From Library --This
command allows you to update a
valve library that was previously
imported from a Vortex Valve
Library to reflect changes that have
been made to the library since it was
imported. Synchronize To Library -This command allows you to update
an existing Vortex Valve Library
using current valve entries that were
initially imported but have since been
modified. Import From Library --This
command allows you to import
catalog entries from an existing
Vortex Valve Library. Export To
Library --This command allows you
to export the current catalog entries to
an existing Vortex Valve Library.

Help

Opens the online help documentation.

To define a vortex valve, highlight it in the list pane, then enter points in the Head-Flow table of the Head-Flow Curve
tab. Click the New button to add a row to the table, or Delete to remove the currently highlighted row.
In addition to the Head-Flow Curve tab, the following tabs are also available:
Notes Tab

This tab contains a text field that allows you to enter


descriptive notes that will be associated with the valve
that is currently highlighted in the Vortex Valve List
Pane.

Library Tab

This tab displays information about the valve that is


currently highlighted in the ortex Valve List Pane. If the
valve is derived from an engineering library, the
synchronization details can be found here. If the valve
was created manually for this project, the synchronization
details will display the message Orphan (local), indicating
that the valve was not derived from a library entry.

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Head-Flow Curve Dialog Box


This dialog box lets you define Head vs. Flow tables for vortex valves.
The dialog box contains thehead vs. flow table and the following buttons:
New: Creates a new row in the table.
Delete: Deletes the currently highlighted row from the table.
The table contains the following columns:
Head: Lets you define the head of the head vs. flow curve point.
Flow: Lets you define the flow of the head vs. flow curve point.

Using the SWMM Solver


This section contains the following topics:
Water Quality (on page 311)
SWMM Hydrology (on page 313)
SWMM Snow Packs (SWMM Snow Pack Editor) (on page 315)
Climatology Dialog Box (on page 317)
Aquifers Dialog Box (on page 321)
Control Sets Dialog Box (on page 322)
Pollutants Dialog Box (on page 326)
Adding Pollutographs to a Node (on page 327)
Land Uses Dialog Box (on page 330)
Adding Treatment to a Node (on page 338)
Initial Buildup Collection Dialog Box (on page 340)
Note: Bentley SewerGEMS V8i uses SWMM engine version 5.0.022.

Water Quality
Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT can perform water quality modeling using the SWMM water quality solver. In order to
make a water quality run choose the SWMM5 Explicit Engine from the Analysis > Calculation Options > Engine Type
dialog.
You must then define the pollutant being modeled using the Component > SWMM Extensions > Pollutants dialog
(see Pollutants Dialog Box (on page 326)). In the Pollutants dialog, the enter a name for the pollutant and define the
properties.
If water quality data is present in a scenario, water quality calculations will be performed.
There are two methods for loading pollutants in a water quality simulation.

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1. Point (node) load, which involves assigning a pollutograph (see Adding Pollutographs to a Node (on page 327)) to
a node element (such as a manhole or a cross section). This can be done in the element property grid or under the water
quality alternative of the Alternatives Manager for that element. This method is used for point loads such as industrial
dischargers or normal domestic customers.
2. Catchment runoff, where the pollutant enters the system based on one of several different washoff functions for each
land use assigned to a catchment. Land uses and washoff (and optional buildup/treatment) functions are defined under
Components > SWMM Extensions > Land Use. Then under, Alternatives > Water Quality > Catchments, define what
fraction of the catchment is associated with each land use (see Land Uses Collection Dialog Box (on page 338)) and
the initial buildup of pollutants (see Initial Buildup Collection Dialog Box (on page 340)) at the start of the run. In
long-term runs, you can specify the rate at which pollutants build up on the catchment surface (and are possibly
removed by treatments such as street sweeping).
It is not possible to view the water quality results using the standard graphing. Instead, you must open the property grid
for the element, scroll down to Results > Pollutant and open the collection by clicking on the ellipsis button. This will
display a graph of concentration vs. time. Switching to the Data tab will give tabular results.
An overview of the water quality modeling process is shown below.

Note: When Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT is running calculations using the Implicit Engine Type (this setting is
found in the Calculation Options Manager), SWMM attributes and their associated values are not considered.
Only when the SWMM Engine Type is used will the data contained in these dialog boxes have any effect on the
calculated results.
See also:

Evaporation Dialog Box-343


Aquifers Dialog Box (on page 321)
Control Sets Dialog Box (on page 322)
Pollutants Dialog Box (on page 326)
Adding Pollutographs to a Node (on page 327)
Land Uses Dialog Box (on page 330)

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Adding Treatment to a Node (on page 338)


Initial Buildup Collection Dialog Box (on page 340)

SWMM Hydrology
You can use the Explicit (SWMM 5) engine in Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT to route flows through the system.
However, in order to use SWMM hydraulics, you must load the model through inflows at nodes, or you must select
EPA-SWMM Runoff as the runoff method for a catchment. If you are not familiar with SWMM hydrology, we strongly
recommend that you read SWMM 5 documentation for a detailed discussion of the topic.
The overall process through which precipitation is converted to flow in conduits and channels is summarized in the
following figure.

Conversion of Precipitation to Flow


The parameters used in determining runoff can be divided into two categories:
Parameters that are shared by the SWMM model and the Bentley SewerCAD /SewerGEMS native hydrology
calculations. These include SCS runoff curve number, Horton max and min infiltration rates, etc. You can enter these
parameters in the Property Editor or in the FlexTable for a specific catchment.
Parameters that are unique to the SWMM model. These include evaporation rates, aquifer conductivity, and wilting
point. To enter these parameters, you must select Analysis > SWMM Extensions, then select the appropriate SWMM
dialog.
The SWMM engine allows for two different modes when applying the Horton infiltration method when using the EPA
SWMM runoff method on catchments:
1. Horton - When this method is selected, the precipitation rate is always assumed to exceed the infiltration rate,
regardless of how much rainfall as actually infiltrated. Hence the infiltration rate is purely a function of time.
2. Horton (Modified) - When this method is selected, infiltration rate is a function of the total amount of rainfall which
has infiltrated

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You select which method is applied in the calculation property, "Default Infiltration Method" under the "Calculation
Options (SWMM Hydrology)".
The Groundwater calculation is invoked when the Apply groundwater is set as true in the property of a
Subcatchment. It is used to link a subcatchment to both a parent aquifer and to a node of the conveyance system that
exchanges groundwater with the subcatchment. It also specifies coefficients that determine the rate of groundwater flow
between the aquifer and the node. These coefficients (A1, A2, B1, B2, and A3) appear in the following equation that
computes groundwater flow as a function of groundwater and surface water levels.

In addition to the standard flow equation, the solver allows user to define a custom equation whose results will be
added onto those of the standard equation. Finally, the dialog offers the option to override certain parameters that were
specified for the aquifer to which the subcatchment belongs. The properties listed in the editor are as follows:

Aquifer Name: Name of the aquifer object that describes the subsurface soil properties, thickness, and initial
conditions. Leave this field blank if you want the subcatchment not to generate any groundwater flow.
Receiving Node: Name of the node that receives groundwater from the subcatchment.
Surface Elevation: Elevation of the subcatchment's ground surface (ft or m).
Groundwater Flow Exponent: Value of A1 in the groundwater flow formula.
Surface Water Flow Coefficient: Value of A2 in the groundwater flow formula.
Surface Water Flow Exponent: Value of B2 in the groundwater flow formula.
Surface-GW Interaction Coefficient: Value of A3 in the groundwater flow formula.

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Surface Water Height: Fixed height of surface water at the receiving node above the aquifer bottom (ft or m). Set to
zero if surface water depth will vary as computed by flow routing.
Channel Bottom Height: Water table height above the aquifer bottom that must be reached before any flow occurs
(feet or meters). Leave blank to use the receiving node's invert elevation.
Bottom Elevation: Elevation of the bottom of the aquifer (ft or m). Leave blank to use the value from the parent
aquifer.
Water Table Elevation: Elevation of the water table in the aquifer at the start of the simulation (ft or m). Leave
blank to use the value from the parent aquifer.
Unsaturated Zone Moisture: Moisture content of the unsaturated upper zone of the aquifer at the start of the
simulation (volumetric fraction). Leave blank to use the value from the parent aquifer.
Custom Groundwater Flow Equation: Click the ellipsis button (or press Enter) to launch the Custom Groundwater
Flow Equation editor. The equation supplied by this editor will be used in addition to the standard equation to
compute groundwater outflow from the subcatchment. The coefficients supplied to the groundwater flow equations
must be in units that are consistent with the groundwater flow units, which can either be cfs/acre for US units or
cms/ha for SI units.

SWMM Snow Packs (SWMM Snow Pack Editor)


Snow Pack objects contain parameters that characterize the buildup, removal, and melting of snow over three types of
sub-areas within a catchment:

The Plowable snow pack area consists of a user-defined fraction of the total impervious area. It is meant to
represent such areas as streets and parking lots where plowing and snow removal can be done.
The Impervious snow pack area covers the remaining impervious area of a catchment.
The Pervious snow pack area encompasses the entire pervious area of a catchment.

Each of these three areas is characterized by the following parameters:

minimum and maximum snow melt coefficients


minimum air temperature for snow melt to occur
snow depth above which 100% areal coverage occurs
initial snow depth
initial and maximum free water content in the pack.

In addition, a set of snow removal parameters can be assigned to the Plowable area. These parameters consist of the
depth at which snow removal begins and the fractions of snow moved onto various other areas.
Catchments are assigned a snow pack object through their Snow Pack property. A single snow pack object can be
applied to any number of catchments. Assigning a snow pack to a catchment simply establishes the melt parameters and
initial snow conditions for that catchment. Internally, the SWMM solver creates a "physical" snow pack for each
catchment, which tracks snow accumulation and melting for that particular catchment based on its snow pack
parameters, its amount of pervious and impervious area, and the precipitation history it sees.
The Snow Pack Editor contains a list view for the snow pack's name and two tabbed pages, one for Snow Pack
Parameters and one for Snow Removal Parameters.
Access the Snow Pack Editor by selecting Components > SWMM Extensions > Snow Pack, or by selecting Edit in the
Snow Pack field in the Properties Editor when viewing the properties of a catchment (note: for the Snow Pack field to
be visible, Has Snow Pack? must be set to True).

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Snow Pack Parameters Tab


The Snow Pack Parameters tab of the Snow Pack Editor dialog provides snow melt parameters and initial conditions for
snow that accumulates over three different types of areas: the impervious area that is plowable (i.e., subject to snow
removal), the remaining impervious area, and the entire pervious area. The page contains a data entry grid which has a
column for each type of area and a row for each of the following parameters:
Minimum Melt Coefficient: The degree-day snow melt coefficient that occurs on December 21. Units are either in/hrdeg F or mm/hr-deg C.
Maximum Melt Coefficient: The degree-day snow melt coefficient that occurs on June 21. Units are either in/hr-deg F
or mm/hr-deg C. For a short term simulation of less than a week or so it is acceptable to use a single value for both the
minimum and maximum melt coefficients.
The minimum and maximum snow melt coefficients are used to estimate a melt coefficient that varies by day of the
year. The latter is used in the following degree-day equation to compute the melt rate for any particular day: Melt Rate
= (Melt Coefficient) * (Air Temperature - Base Temperature).
Base Temperature: Temperature at which snow begins to melt (degrees F or C).
Fraction Free Water Capacity: The volume of a snow pack's pore space which must fill with melted snow before liquid
runoff from the pack begins, expressed as a fraction of snow pack depth.
Initial Snow Depth: Depth of snow at the start of the simulation (water equivalent depth in inches or millimeters).
Initial Free Water: Depth of melted water held within the pack at the start of the simulation (inches or mm). This
number should be at or below the product of the initial snow depth and the fraction free water capacity.
Depth at 100% Cover: The depth of snow beyond which the entire area remains completely covered and is not subject
to any areal depletion effect (inches or mm).
Plowable Impervious Area: The fraction of impervious area that is plowable and therefore is not subject to areal
depletion.

Snow Removal Parameters Tab


The Snow Removal Parameters tab of the Snow Pack Editor dialog describes how snow removal occurs within the
Plowable area of a snow pack. The following parameters govern this process:

Depth at which snow removal begins: Depth which must be reached before any snow removal begins.
Fraction transferred out of watershed: The fraction of snow depth that is removed from the system (and does not
become runoff).
Fraction transferred to the impervious area: The fraction of snow depth that is added to snow accumulation on the
pack's impervious area.
Fraction transferred to the pervious area: The fraction of snow depth that is added to snow accumulation on the
pack's pervious area.
Fraction converted to immediate melt: The fraction of snow depth that becomes liquid water which runs onto any
catchment associated with the snow pack.
Snow Transferred Outside Catchment: The fraction of snow depth which is added to the snow accumulation on
some other catchment.
Snow Catchment: The name of the catchment that receives the snow that is transferred outside of the snow pack.

The various removal fractions must add up to 1.0 or less. If less than 1.0, then some remaining fraction of snow depth
will be left on the surface after all of the redistribution options are satisfied.

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Climatology Dialog Box


This dialog box allows you to define climatology conditions, including: temperature; the evaporation that can occur for
standing water on subcatchment surfaces, for subsurface water in groundwater aquifers, and from water held in storage
units; wind speed data; snow melt; and areal depletion.
The dialog is divided into five tabbed pages, where each page provides a separate editor for the following data
categories:

Temperature Tab (on page 317)


Evaporation Tab (on page 317)
Wind Speed Tab (on page 318)
Snowmelt Tab (on page 318)
Areal Depletion Tab (on page 319)

Access this dialog box by selecting Components > SWMM Extensions > Climatology.
The data shown in this dialog box is linked to the active Rainfall-Runoff Alternative, so differently climatology data
can be used in different Scenarios.

Temperature Tab
The Temperature page of the Climatology Editor dialog is used to specify the source of temperature data used for snow
melt computations. There are three choices available:

No Data: Select this choice if snowmelt is not being simulated.


Time Series: Select this choice if the variation in temperature over the simulation period will be described by a time
series. Also enter (or import) the time series data . Enter the data in the Date Time/Temperature table.
Climate File: Select this choice if min/max daily temperatures will be read from an external climate file. Also enter
the name of the file (or click the ellipsis button to search for the file). If you want to start reading the climate file at
a particular date in time that is different than the start date of the simulation (as specified in the Simulation Options),
check the "Specify Climate File Start Date?" box and enter a starting date (month/day/year) in the Climate File
Start Date field below it.

Evaporation Tab
The Evaporation page of the Climatology Editor dialog is used to supply evaporation rates for a study area. There are
six choices for specifying these rates; for all but the No Evaporation option, check the Evaporate Only During Dry
Periods? box to allow evaporation only during periods with no precipitation. You may also define a Monthly Soil
Recovery Pattern to allow the infiltration recovery rate to be adjusted by a fixed amount on a monthly basis to account
for seasonal variation in evaporation rates. The Evaporation Types are as follows:

No Evaporation: Use this choice if there is no evaporation for this scenario.


Constant Evaporation: Use this choice if evaporation remains constant over time. Enter the value in the edit box
provided.
Time Series Evaporation: Select this choice if evaporation rates will be specified in a time series. Note that for each
time specified in the time series, the evaporation rate remains constant at the value supplied for that date until the
next date in the series is reached (i.e., interpolation is not used on the series).
Climate File: This choice indicates that daily evaporation rates will be read from the same climate file that was
specified for temperature. Enter values for monthly pan coefficients in the data grid provided to convert the pan
evaporation data to free water-surface values.

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Climate File - Temperatures: Hargreaves method will be used to compute daily evaporation rates from the daily air
temperature record contained in the external climate file specified on the Temperature page of the dialog. This
method also uses the sites latitude, which can be entered on the Snowmelt page of the dialog even if snow melt is
not being simulated.
Monthly Evaporation: Use this choice to supply an average rate for each month of the year. Enter the value for each
month in the data grid provided. Note that rates remain constant within each month.

Evaporation Loss for Open Channels


If the explicit solver is used, user can include evaporation loss calculation for open channels. The calculation is carried
out if user specifies evaporation data from Components > SWMM extensions > Climatology > Evaporation. The solver
calculates the evaporation flow loss based on the dynamic water area of the open channel and the global evaporation
data.
From the evaporation data editor, the evaporation rates can be stated as:

a single constant value


a set of monthly average values
a user-defined time series of daily values
values computed from the daily temperatures contained in an external climate file
daily values read from an external climate file

Note that these represent potential rates. The actual amount of water evaporated will depend on the amount available.
If rates are read directly from a climate file, then a set of monthly pan coefficients should also be supplied to convert
the pan evaporation data to free water-surface values.
An option is also available to allow evaporation only during periods with no precipitation.

Wind Speed Tab


The Wind Speed page of the Climatology Editor dialog is used to provide average monthly wind speeds. These are used
when computing snowmelt rates under rainfall conditions. Melt rates increase with increasing wind speed. Units of
wind speed are miles/hour for US units and km/hour for metric units. There are two choices for specifying wind speeds:
From Climate File: Wind speeds will be read from the same climate file that was specified for temperature.
Monthly Averages: Wind speed is specified as an average value that remains constant in each month of the year. Enter
a value for each month in the data grid provided. The default values are all zero.

Snowmelt Tab
Snowmelt parameters are climatic variables that apply across the entire study area when simulating snowfall and
snowmelt.
The Snowmelt page of the Climatology Editor dialog is used to supply values for the following parameters related to
snowmelt calculations:

Dividing Temperature Between Snow and Rain: Enter the temperature below which precipitation falls as snow
instead of rain.
Antecedent Temperature Index Weight: This parameter reflects to what degree heat transfer within a snow pack
during non-melt periods is affected by prior air temperatures. Smaller values reflect a thicker surface layer of snow
which result in reduced rates of heat transfer. Values must be between 0 and 1, and the default is 0.5.

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Negative Melt Ratio: This is the ratio of the heat transfer coefficient of a snow pack during non-melt conditions to
the coefficient during melt conditions. It must be a number between 0 and 1. The default value is 0.6.
Elevation Above Mean Sea Level: Enter the average elevation above mean sea level for the study area, in feet or
meters. This value is used to provide a more accurate estimate of atmospheric pressure. The default is 0.0, which
results in a pressure of 29.9 inches Hg. The effect of wind on snow melt rates during rainfall periods is greater at
higher pressures, which occur at lower elevations.
Latitude: Enter the latitude, in degrees North, of the study area. This number is used when computing the hours of
sunrise and sunset, which in turn are used to extend min/max daily temperatures into continuous values. It is also
used to compute daily evaporation rates from daily temperatures. The default is 50 degrees North.
Longitude Correction: This is a correction, in minutes of time, between true solar time and the standard clock time.
It depends on a location's longitude (

) and the standard meridian of its time zone (SM) through the expression 4 (

-SM). This correction is used to adjust the hours of sunrise and sunset when extending daily min/max temperatures
into continuous values. The default value is 0.

Areal Depletion Tab


Areal depletion refers to the tendency of accumulated snow to melt non-uniformly over the surface of a subcatchment.
As the melting process proceeds, the area covered by snow gets reduced. This behavior is described by an Areal
Depletion Curve that plots the fraction of total area that remains snow covered against the ratio of the actual snow depth
to the depth at which there is 100% cover. A typical ADC for a natural area is shown below.

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The Areal Depletion page of the Climatology Editor dialog is used to specify points on the Areal Depletion Curves for
both impervious and pervious surfaces within a project's study area. These curves define the relation between the area
that remains snow covered and snow pack depth. Each curve is defined by 10 equal increments of relative depth ratio
between 0 and 0.9. (Relative depth ratio is the ratio of an area's current snow depth to the depth at which there is 100%
areal coverage).
Enter values in the data grid provided for the fraction of each area that remains snow covered at each specified relative
depth ratio. Valid numbers must be between 0 and 1 (0% and 100%), and be increasing with increasing depth ratio.
Values can be initialized for impervious or pervious area by click on the Initialize Impervious or Initialize Impervious
buttons. Clicking the Natural Area item fills the grid with values that are typical of natural areas. Clicking the No
Depletion item will fill the grid with all 1's (100%), indicating that no areal depletion occurs. This is the default for new
projects.

Adjustments Tab
This tab allows you to define climate adjustments.

Checking the Apply Climate Adjustments box enables the Monthly Adjustments table, where you can define
Temperature Constant, Evaporation Constant, Rainfall Multiplier, and Soil Conductivity Multiplier adjustments by
month.

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Climate Files
CivilStorm can use an external Climate File that contains daily air temperature, evaporation, and wind speed data. The
program currently recognizes the following formats:
A DSI-3200 or DSI-3210 file available from the National Climatic Data Center at www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/ncdc.html.
Canadian climate files available from Environment Canada at www.climate.weatheroffice.ec.gc.ca.
A user-prepared climate file where each line contains a recording station name, the year, month, day, maximum
temperature, minimum temperature, and optionally, evaporation rate, and wind speed. If no data are available for any of
these items on a given date, then an asterisk should be entered as its value.
When a climate file has days with missing values, SWMM will use the value from the most recent previous day with a
recorded value.
For a user-prepared climate file, the data must be in the same units as the project being analyzed. For US units,
temperature is in degrees F, evaporation is in inches/day, and wind speed is in miles/hour. For metric units, temperature
is in degrees C, evaporation is in mm/day, and wind speed is in km/hour.

Aquifers Dialog Box


Aquifers are sub-surface groundwater areas used to model the vertical movement of water infiltrating from the
subcatchments which lie above them. They also permit the infiltration of groundwater into the conveyance system, or
exfiltration of surface water from the conveyance system, depending on the hydraulic gradient that exists.
Access this dialog box by selecting Analysis > SWMM Extensions > Aquifers.
This dialog box contains a toolbar, a list pane on the left that displays all of the aquifers that have been defined in the
current project, and the attribute fields on the right that permit the values to be defined for the aquifer that is currently
highlighted in the list pane. The toolbar contains the following buttons:
New

Creates a new entry in the Aquifer


List Pane.

Delete

Deletes the entry that is currently


highlighted in the Aquifer List Pane.

Rename

Lets you rename the entry that is


currently highlighted in the Aquifer
List Pane.

Report

Lets you generate a preformatted


report that contains the input data
associated with the entry that is
currently highlighted in the Aquifer
List Pane.

The attribute fields along the right side of the dialog box include:

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Porosity

Lets you define the volume of voids / total soil volume for
the currently highlighted aquifer.

Wilting Point

Lets you define soil moisture content at which plants


cannot survive for the currently highlighted aquifer.

Field Capacity

Lets you define soil moisture content after all free water
has drained off for the currently highlighted aquifer.

Aquifer Conductivity

Lets you define the soil's saturated hydraulic conductivity


for the currently highlighted aquifer.

Conductivity Slope

Lets you define the slope of conductivity vs. soil moisture


content curve for the currently highlighted aquifer.

Tension Slope

Lets you define the slope of soil tension vs. soil moisture
content curve for the currently highlighted aquifer.

Upper Evaporation Fraction

Lets you define the fraction of total evaporation available


for evapotranspiration in the upper unsaturated zone for
the currently highlighted aquifer.

Lower Evaporation Depth

Lets you define the maximum depth into the lower


saturated zone over which evapotranspiration can occur
for the currently highlighted aquifer.

Lower Groundwater Loss Rate

Lets you define the rate of percolation from the saturated


zone to deep groundwater when water table is at ground
surface for the currently highlighted aquifer.

Elevation (Bottom)

Lets you define the elevation of the bottom of the aquifer


for the currently highlighted aquifer.

Water Table Elevation

Lets you define the elevation of the water table in the


aquifer at the start of the simulation for the currently
highlighted aquifer.

Unsaturated Zone Moisture

Lets you define the moisture content of the unsaturated


upper zone of the aquifer at the start of the simulation for
the currently highlighted aquifer.

SWMM Control Sets Dialog Box


Using the explicit solver, a user can control the behavior of elements based on the condition in some other element
using control rules set based on the SWMM program. These control rules are based on the syntax rules presented below
and in the Help (Control Set Formats (on page 324)) and are not used by the other solvers.
A user indicates that a control set is to be used in a give scenario by setting "Apply SWMM control set" to True in the
Calculation options for that scenario, then picking the appropriate control set from the drop down list in "SWMM
Control Set". The control set must already have been created.

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It is best to only specify either a SWMM control set or on/off controls for a model but not both as the two types of
controls can conflict.
This dialog box allows you to create, view, and manage SWMM controls. Access it by selecting Components >
SWMM Extensions > Control Sets.
This dialog box contains a toolbar, a list pane on the left that displays all of the controls that have been defined in the
current project, and a control editor pane on the right that allows you to enter and edit the currently highlighted SWMM
control definition. The toolbar contains the following buttons:
New

Creates a new entry in the Control


List Pane.

Delete

Deletes the entry that is currently


highlighted in the Control List Pane.

Rename

Lets you rename the entry that is


currently highlighted in the Control
List Pane.

Report

Lets you generate a preformatted


report that contains the input data
associated with the entry that is
currently highlighted in the Control
List Pane.

The Control Editor Pane allows you to define SWMM controls. Each control rule is a series of statements of the form:
RULE ruleID IF condition_1 AND condition_2 OR condition_3 AND condition_4 Etc. THEN action_1 AND action_2
Etc. ELSE action_3 AND action_4 Etc. PRIORITY value
where keywords are shown in boldface and ruleID is an ID label assigned to the rule, condition_n is a Condition
Clause, action_n is an Action Clause, and value is a priority value (e.g., a number from 1 to 5).
Only the RULE, IF and THEN portions of a rule are required; the other portions are optional.
Blank lines between clauses are permitted and any text to the right of a semicolon is considered a comment.
When mixing AND and OR clauses, the OR operator has higher precedence than AND, i.e.,
IF A or B and C
is equivalent to
IF (A or B) and C
If the interpretation was meant to be
IF A or (B and C)
then this can be expressed using two rules as in
IF A THEN IF B and C THEN
The PRIORITY value is used to determine which rule applies when two or more rules require that conflicting actions
be taken on a link. A rule without a priority value always has a lower priority than one with a value. For two rules with
the same priority value, the rule that appears first is given the higher priority.

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Note: Expected Units for control sets are as follows: Flow: cfs; Length: feet; Time: hours

Control Set Formats


Formats
Each control set consists of a series of statements of the form:
RULE ruleID IF condition_1AND condition_2 OR condition_3 AND condition_4
Etc.
THEN action_1 AND action_2
Etc.
ELSE action_3 AND action_4
Etc.
PRIORITY value
where keywords are shown in boldface and ruleID is an ID label assigned to the rule, condition_n is a Condition
Clause, action_n is an Action Clause, and value is a priority value (e.g., a number from 1 to 5).
Condition Clauses
A Condition Clause of a Control Rule has the following format:
object id attribute relation value
Where:
object = a category of object
id = the object's ID label
attribute = an attribute or property of the object
relation = a relational operator (=, <>, <, <=, >, >=)
value = an attribute value
Some examples of condition clauses are:
NODE N23 DEPTH > 10 PUMP P45 STATUS = OFF SIMULATION CLOCKTIME = 22:45:00
The objects and attributes that can appear in a condition clause are as follows:
Objects and Attributes in Condition Clauses
Object

Attribute

Value

NODE

DEPTHHEADINFLOW

numerical valuenumerical
valuenumerical value

LINK

FLOWDEPTH

numerical valuenumerical value

PUMP

STATUSFLOW

ON or OFFnumerical value

ORIFICEWEIR

SETTING

fraction open

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Object

Attribute

Value

SIMULATION

TIMEDATECLOCKTIME

elapsed time in decimal hours or


hr:min:sec month/day/year time of
day in hr:min:sec

Action Clauses
An Action Clause of a Control Rule can have one of the following formats:
PUMP id STATUS = ON/OFF ORIFICE id SETTING = value WEIR id SETTING = value
Where SETTING is the fractional amount that an orifice is fully open or to the fractional amount of the original height
between the crest and the top of a weir that remains (i.e., weir control is accomplished by moving the crest height up
and down).
Some examples of action clauses are:
PUMP P67 STATUS = OFF ORIFICE O212 SETTING = 0.5
Only the RULE, IF and THEN portions of a rule are required; the other portions are optional.
Blank lines between clauses are allowed, and any text to the right of a semicolon is considered a comment.
When mixing AND and OR clauses, the OR operator has higher precedence than AND, i.e.,
IF A or B and C
is equivalent to
IF (A or B) and C.
If the interpretation was meant to be
IF A or (B and C)
then this can be expressed using two rules as in
IF A THEN ...IF B and C THEN ...
The PRIORITY value is used to determine which rule applies when two or more rules require that conflicting actions
be taken on a link. A rule without a priority value always has a lower priority than one with a value. For two rules with
the same priority value, the rule that appears first is given the higher priority.
Examples
The following are examples of control rules.
Simple time-based pump control
RULE R1 IF SIMULATION TIME > 8 THEN PUMP 12 STATUS = ON ELSE PUMP 12 STATUS = OFF ;
Multi-condition orifice gate control
RULE R2A IF NODE 23 DEPTH > 12 AND LINK 165 FLOW > 100 THEN ORIFICE R55 SETTING = 0.5 RULE
R2B IF NODE 23 DEPTH > 12 AND LINK 165 FLOW > 200 THEN ORIFICE R55 SETTING = 1.0 RULE R2C IF
NODE 23 DEPTH <= 12 OR LINK 165 FLOW <= 100 THEN ORIFICE R55 SETTING = 0 ;
Pump station operation (as in a SWMM4 Type5 pump)
RULE R3A IF NODE N1 DEPTH > 5 THEN PUMP N1A STATUS = ON RULE R3B IF NODE N1 DEPTH > 7
THEN PUMP N1B STATUS = ON RULE R3C IF NODE N1 DEPTH <= 3 THEN PUMP N1A STATUS = OFF AND
PUMP N1B STATUS = OFF

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Note: Expected Units for control sets are as follows: Flow: cfs; Length: feet; Time: hours

Pollutants Dialog Box


This dialog box allows you to track the generation, inflow and fate of any number of user-specified pollutants. In
addition, pollutant X can have a co-pollutant Y, meaning that the runoff concentration of X will have some fixed
fraction of the runoff concentration of Y added to it.
Pollutant buildup and washoff on subcatchment areas are determined by the Land Uses assigned to those areas.
Input loadings of pollutants from external and dry weather inflows are supplied through time series data associated with
particular nodes of the collection system.
Access this dialog box by selecting Analysis > SWMM Extensions > Pollutants.
This dialog box contains a toolbar, a list pane on the left that displays all of the pollutants that have been defined in the
current project, and the attribute fields on the right that permit the values to be defined for the pollutant that is currently
highlighted in the list pane. The toolbar contains the following buttons:
New

Creates a new entry in the Pollutant


List Pane.

Delete

Deletes the entry that is currently


highlighted in the Pollutant List Pane.

Rename

Lets you rename the entry that is


currently highlighted in the Pollutant
List Pane.

Report

Lets you generate a preformatted


report that contains the input data
associated with the entry that is
currently highlighted in the Pollutant
List Pane.

The attribute fields along the right side of the dialog box include:
Rain Concentration

Lets you define the concentration of the pollutant in rain


water for the currently highlighted pollutant.

Groundwater Concentration

Lets you define the concentration of the pollutant in


groundwater for the currently highlighted pollutant.

Decay Coefficient

Lets you define the first-order decay coefficient for the


currently highlighted pollutant.

Co-Pollutant

Lets you define the name of another pollutant runoff


concentration the current pollutant is dependent on for the
currently highlighted pollutant.

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Co-Fraction

Lets you define the fraction of the co-pollutant's runoff


concentration that contributes to the runoff concentration
for the currently highlighted pollutant.

I & I Concentration

Lets you define the concentration of the pollutant in any


Infiltration/Inflow.

Using the SWMM Solver (on page 311)


SWMM Hydrology (on page 313)
Evaporation Dialog Box-343
Aquifers Dialog Box (on page 321)
Control Sets Dialog Box (on page 322)
Adding Pollutographs to a Node (on page 327)
Land Uses Dialog Box (on page 330)
Adding Treatment to a Node (on page 338)
Initial Buildup Collection Dialog Box (on page 340)

Adding Pollutographs to a Node


Pollutographs are plots of time vs. mass rate or time vs. concentration, depending on which constituent inflow type you
choose (mass or concentration). You create pollutographs in the Pollutographs dialog box and add them to individual
manholes in your model using the node's Property Editor.
To add a pollutograph to a node:
1. Change the engine type to Explicit (SWMM 5) by performing these steps:
2. Select Analysis > Calculation Options.
3. In the Calculation Options Manager, double-click Base Calculation Options or any other calculation options profile
you have created.
4. In Calculation Options section of the Property Editor, select Explicit (SWMM 5) as the Engine Type.
5. Define a pollutant by performing these steps:
6. Select Components > SWMM Extensions > Pollutants.
7. In the Pollutants dialog box, click the New button to create a new pollutant, then enter all the data that define the
pollutant.
8. Click Close to close the Pollutants dialog box and save your pollutant(s).
9. Create a pollutograph by performing these steps:
10. Select Components > SWMM Extensions > Pollutographs.
11. In the Pollutographs dialog box, click the New button, then click Mass or Concentration to create a new
pollutograph.
12. Enter all the data that define the pollutograph.
13. For pollutographs based on mass, select a Pollutant, enter a Mass Conversion Factor, then enter Time vs. Mass Rate
data points.
14. For pollutographs based on concentration, select a Pollutant, then enter Time vs. Concentration data points. Bentley
SewerCAD validates your data as you enter it and displays errors and warnings in the status bar at the bottom of the
Pollutographs dialog box. Be sure to check this status bar for any errors or warnings as you enter data.
15. Optionally, view a report or plot of your pollutograph.
16. Click Close to save the pollutograph.

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17. Click the desired manhole in your model. The Property Editor for the manhole appears. (If the Property Editor is not
already displayed, you must double-click the node in your model.)
18. In the SWMM Extended Data section of the Property Editor, click the Pollutographs field, then click the Ellipses
(...) button.
19. In the Pollutograph Collection dialog box, add pollutographs to the pollutograph collection by performing these
steps:
20. Click the New button to add a row to the Pollutograph table.
21. Click the down arrow in the first row then select an existing pollutograph. If there are no pollutographs in your
project, you can click the Ellipses (...) button to display the Pollutographs dialog box, where you can create new
pollutographs.
22. Repeat Steps a and b for every pollutograph you wish to add to the collection.
23. Press OK to close the dialog box and add the collection to the node.
24. Complete your model, then click the Compute button on the Compute toolbar.
25. When the model has been successfully computed, open the Property Editor for the node the contains the
Pollutograph Collection.
26. In the Results section of the Property Editor, click the Ellipses (...) button in the Pollutants field to view pollutant
results.
Pollutograph Dialog Box
This dialog box contains a toolbar, a list pane on the left that displays all of the pollutographs that have been defined in
the current project, and attribute fields on the right that let you enter values for the pollutograph that is currently
highlighted in the list pane.
The toolbar contains the following buttons:
New

Opens a submenu containing the


following options: Mass Lets you
create a plot of time vs. mass rate.
Concentration Lets you create a
plot of time vs. concentration.

Delete

Deletes the currently-highlighted


pollutograph from the list pane.

Rename

Lets you rename the currentlyhighlighted pollutograph.

Report

Lets you generate a preformatted


report that contains the input data
associated with the currentlyhighlighted pollutograph.

The attribute fields along the right side of the dialog box include:

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Pollutant

Lets you select the pollutant for the pollutograph. Select


the pollutant from the drop-down menu or click the
Ellipses (...) button to open the SWMM Pollutants dialog
box, where you can define new pollutants.

New

This button adds a new row to the pollutograph table.

Delete

This button removes the current row from the


pollutograph table.

Report

Displays a report of the data in the pollutograph table.

Graph

Displays a plot of the data in the pollutograph table.

Mass Conversion Factor

Lets you enter a mass conversion factor. . This field is


available only for pollutographs using mass as the
constituent inflow type.

Pollutograph Table

Lets you define the pollutograph by entering Time vs.


Mass Rate points for pollutographs using mass as the
constituent inflow type, or Time vs. Concentration points
for pollutographs using concentration as the constituent
inflow type.

There is also a status bar located at the bottom of the dialog box that displays any errors and warnings that may occur
when you enter data.

Pollutograph Collection Dialog Box


The Pollutograph Collection dialog box lets you add multiple pollutographs to a node in your model. You access this
dialog box from the SWMM Extended Data section of the Property Editor for the selected node.
The dialog box contains the following toolbar buttons:

New: Adds a new row to the Pollutograph table. Click in the row to select a pollutograph from the drop-down
menu, or click the Ellipses (...) button to create new pollutographs.
Delete: Deletes the current row from the table.
Report: Lets you view a report of the collection.

The dialog box also contains the following table:


Pollutograph Table: Displays the pollutographs you have added to the collection. You add a pollutograph to the
collection by clicking the New button, then selecting a pollutograph from the drop-down menu in the table row.

Pollutants Results Dialog Box


The Pollutants Results dialog box displays a plot for each pollutant after you successfully calculate your model. You
access this dialog box by clicking the Ellipses (...) button in the Pollutants field in the Results section of the Property
Editor.

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The Pollutants Results dialog box contains a list pane on the left that displays all the pollutants assigned to the selected
node, and a two tabs on the right:
Time vs. Concentration Tab

Displays a plot of Concentration over Time for each


pollutant displayed in the list pane.

Data Tab

Displays the time (hours by default) vs. concentration


(ppm by default) data points for each pollutant displayed
in the list pane.

Land Uses Dialog Box


Land Uses are categories of activities or land surface characteristics that are assigned to catchment elements. Examples
of land use activities are residential, commercial, industrial, and undeveloped. Land surface characteristics might
include roof tops, lawns, paved roads, undisturbed soils, etc. Land uses are used solely to allow spatial variation in
pollutant buildup and washoff rates.
You have complete freedom in defining land uses and assigning them to catchment elements. One approach is to assign
a mix of land uses to each subcatchment, in which case all land uses in the subcatchment will have the same pervious/
impervious characteristics. If this is not appropriate, the user can create subcatchments that have just a single land use
classification along with a set of pervious/impervious characteristics that reflects the classification.
Access this dialog box by selecting Components > SWMM Extensions > Land Uses.
This dialog box contains a toolbar, a list pane on the left that displays all of the land uses that have been defined in the
current project, and three tabs on the right that together permit the values to be defined for the land use that is currently
highlighted in the list pane.
The toolbar contains the following buttons:
New

Creates a new entry in the Land Use


List Pane.

Delete

Deletes the entry that is currently


highlighted in the Land Use List
Pane.

Rename

Lets you rename the entry that is


currently highlighted in the Land Use
List Pane.

Report

Lets you generate a preformatted


report that contains the input data
associated with the entry that is
currently highlighted in the Land Use
List Pane.

The right side of the dialog contains the following tabs:

Land Use General Tab (on page 331)


Land Use Buildup Tab (on page 331)

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Land Use Washoff Tab (on page 335)

Land Use General Tab


The General tab contains controls related to street cleaning. Street cleaning can be used on each land use category to
periodically reduce the accumulated buildup of particular pollutants. This tab contains the following controls:
Street Cleaning Interval

Amount of time between cleaning.

Availability

The fraction of buildup of all pollutants that is available


for removal by cleaning

Last Cleaned

Amount of time since land use category has last been


cleaned.

Land Use Buildup Tab


Pollutant Buildup that accumulates over a category of land use is described by either a mass per unit of subcatchment
area or per unit of curb length, as specified by the Normalizer field described below.
The buildup is usually given as mass of pollutant per unit area although they may be given as counts (in the case of
coliforms) per unit curb length. Therefore B (and C1 in the functions below) can be given as lbs/acre, kg/hectare,
coliform/acre, lbs/ft curb length, etc. Time in the functions refers to the number of antecedent dry days. Buildup is only
used when the exponential washoff function is used to determine quality of runoff quality from catchments.
Three different functions can be used to describe buildup. The functions are all monotonically increasing. The figure
below gives their relative shape.

Buildup Function Types


The amount of buildup as a function of days of dry weather can be computed using one of the following functions:

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Power Function: Pollutant Buildup (B) accumulates proportional to time (t) raised to some power, until a maximum
limit is achieved.

buildup, mass(count/
area(length)

C1

maximum possible buildup, mass (count)/


area(length)

C2

build-up rate

C3

time exponent

The effect of each coefficient is shown in the figure below.

Effect of Power Function Coefficients

Exponential Function: Buildup follows an exponential growth curve that approaches a maximum limit
asymptotically.

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buildup, mass(count)/
area(length)

C1

maximum possible buildup, mass(count)/


area(length)

C2

build-up rate constant,


1/day

equation_SWMMLandUses_002.eps

The effect of each coefficient is shown in the figure below.

Effect of Exponential Function Coefficients

Saturation Function: Buildup begins at a linear rate which proceeds to decline constantly over time until a saturation
value is reached.

buildup, mass(count)/
area(length)

C1

maximum possible buildup, mass(count)/


area(length)

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B

buildup, mass(count)/
area(length)

C2

build-up rate constant,


1/day

equation_SWMMLandUses_003.eps
The effect of each coefficient is shown in the figure below.

Effect of Saturation Function Coefficients


This tab contains a table with the following attribute columns:
Column

Description

Pollutant

This menu contains all of the pollutants that have been


defined in the Pollutants dialog box for the current
project. Select the one that should be used for the land use
currently highlighted in the list pane.

Max. Buildup

This field allows you to define the value of C 1 in the


above equations.

Rate Constant

This field allows you to define C 2 in the Power and


Exponential equations described above.

Buildup Function

This menu allows you to specify which of the buildup


functions described above will be used for the land use
currently highlighted in the list pane.

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Column

Description

Power Constant

This field allows you to define C 3 in the Power equation


described above.

Half Saturation Constant

This field allows you to define C 2 in the Saturation


equation described above.

Normalizer

Allows you to specify the method by which pollutant


buildup is described for the land use currently highlighted
in the list pane. Choices include Area (mass per unit of
subcatchment area) or Curb (mass per unit of curb
length).

Buildup Time Series

The name of the Time Series that contains buildup rates


(as mass per normalizer per day).

Scaling Factor

A multiplier used to adjust the buildup rates listed in the


time series.

Land Use Washoff Tab


Washoff refers to the amount of pollutants washed off from a catchment during a wet weather period. The user can
select any of the three washoff functions described below:

Exponential Washoff: The washoff load (W) in units of mass per hour is proportional to the product of runoff raised
to some power and to the amount of buildup remaining.

C1

washoff coefficient

C2

washoff exponent

runoff rate per unit area

pollutant build-up in a mass


per unit area or curb length

equation_SWMMLandUses_004.eps

The effect of coefficients on washoff is shown in the following figure:

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Effect of Exponential Function Coefficients on Washoff

Rating Curve Washoff: The rate of washoff W in mass per second is proportional to the runoff rate raised to some
power.

C1

washoff coefficient

C2

washoff exponent

runoff rate, cfs (m 3 /s)

equation_SWMMLandUses_005.eps
Event Mean Concentration (EMC): This is a special case of Rating Curve Washoff where the exponent (C2) is 1.0
and the coefficient C1 represents the concentration of any and all runoff in mass per liter.

The effect of coefficients on washoff is shown in the following figure:

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Effect of Rating Curve Coefficients on Washoff


This tab contains a table with the following attribute columns:
Column

Description

Pollutant

This menu contains all of the pollutants that have been


defined in the Pollutants dialog box for the current
project. Select the one that should be used for the land use
currently highlighted in the list pane.

Washoff Function

This menu allows you to specify which of the buildup


functions described above will be used for the land use
currently highlighted in the list pane.

Washoff Coefficient

This field allows you to define C 1 in the equations


described above.

Washoff Exponent

This field allows you to define C 2 in the Exponential and


Rating Curve equations described above.

Cleaning Efficiency

The fraction of available buildup for each pollutant


removed by cleaning.

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Column

Description

Removal Efficiency

Washoff loads for a given pollutant and land use category


can be reduced by a fixed percentage by specifying a
Removal Efficiency in this field which reflects the
effectiveness of any BMP controls associated with the
land use.

Land Uses Collection Dialog Box


The Land Uses Collection dialog box lets you add multiple land uses as a collection to a catchment. You access the
Land Uses Collection dialog box from the Property Editor for a catchment that uses EPA-SWMM Runoff as the runoff
method.
The dialog box contains the following buttons:
New

Adds a new row to the Land Uses


table. Each row in the table contains a
single land use entry.

Delete

Deletes the current row from the Land


Uses table.

The Land Uses Collection dialog box also contains a table with the following columns:
Column

Description

Catchment Land Use

Lets you select a land use entry to include in the


collection. Click in the row to select a land use entry from
the drop-down menu, or click the Ellipses (...) button to
create new land uses.

Percent of Catchment Area (%)

Lets you specify the percent of the catchment area


affected by the land.

Adding Treatment to a Node


You can model the removal of pollutants from the flow entering any drainage system by assigning treatment functions
to the node. In Bentley SewerCAD , you assign treatment functions to a node by adding a treatment collection, which
contains one or more pollutants and their associated treatment expressions.
A treatment expression involves the pollutant concentration of the mixture of all flow streams entering the node (use
the pollutant name to represent a concentration), or the removal of other pollutants (use R_ prefixed to the pollutant
name to represent removal).
Treatment expressions have the general form:
R = f(P, R_P, V)
or

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C = f(P, R_P, V)
Where:
R = fractional removal
C = outlet concentration
P = one or more pollutant names
R_P = one or more pollutant removals, (add R_ to the front of the pollutant name)
V = one or more of the following process variables:

FLOW for flow rate into node (in user-defined flow units)
DEPTH for water depth above node invert (ft or m)
AREA for node surface area (ft2 or m2)
DT for routing time step (sec)
HRT for hydraulic residence time (hours)

The result of the treatment function can be either a concentration (denoted by the letter C) or a fractional removal
(denoted by R). For example, a first-order decay expression for BOD exiting from a storage node might be expressed
as:
C = BOD * exp(-0.05*HRT)
or the removal of some trace pollutant that is proportional to the removal of total suspended solids (TSS) could be
expressed as:
R = 0.75 * R_TSS
To add a treatment collection to a node:
Note: Make sure you set the Engine Type to Explicit (SWMM 5) in the Calculation Options for your project before
computing results.
1. Add a node to your model or select an existing node, then display the Property Editor for the node (double-click the
node or press F4).
2. In the SWMM Extended Data section of the Property Editor, set Apply Treatment? to True. The Treatment field
becomes available.
3. Click the Ellipses (...) button in the Treatment field (where <Collection: 0 items> is displayed) to display the
Treatment Collection dialog box.
4. The Treatment Collection dialog box displays each pollutant and its associated treatment expression as a row in a
table. Click the New button to add a row to the table.
5. Click in the Pollutant field, then select an existing pollutant from the drop-down menu, or click the Ellipses (...)
button to display the Pollutants dialog box, where you define pollutants in your model.
6. Type a treatment expression in the Treatment column.
7. Repeat Steps 4 - 6 for each pollutant you wish to add to the treatment collection.
8. Click OK to close the dialog box and add the collection to the node.
Treatment Collection Dialog Box
The Treatment Collection dialog box lets you add multiple pollutants and their associated treatment expressions to a
node for the purpose of removing pollutants in your model. You access this dialog box from the SWMM Extended Data
section of the Property Editor for the selected node.
The dialog box contains the following toolbar buttons:

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New

Adds a new row to the Pollutants


table. Click in the row to select an
existing pollutant from the drop-down
menu, or click the Ellipses (...) button
to define new pollutants.

Delete

Deletes the current row from the


table.

Report

Lets you view a report of the


collection.

The dialog box also contains the following controls:


Column

Description

Pollutant

Lets you add a pollutant to the collection. Click the downarrow to select an existing pollutant from the drop-down
menu, or click the Ellipses (...) button to define new
pollutants.

Treatment

Lets you type a valid treatment expression to the


pollutant.

Initial Buildup Collection Dialog Box


Low-Impact Development (LID) is a term used in the US and Canada to describe a more eco-friendly land planning
and design approach to stormwater management. In the United Kingdom, this approach is referred to sustainable urban
drainage systems (SUDS), and in Australia, it's called water-sensitive urban design (WSUD). The US terminology is
used in this software and its documentation.
LID controls help developed watersheds or sites to retain or enhance pre-development hydrologic characteristics
through the use of techniques that conserve natural systems and hydrologic functions.
Some of the goals of LID are to:

Protect natural systems such as drainage ways, vegetation, and soils


Decentralize stormwater management, shifting it to small-scale practices at the source location
Preserve open space
Minimize land disturbance and impervious area
Disconnect impervious surfaces
Increase flow path lengths and travel times
Customize site design to the needs of a particular site, instead of simply relying on traditionally accepted practices

A number of government agencies, universities, and other groups publish educational information, research and design
guidance for implementing LID and LID controls. Places to start include:

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Low Impact Development website and fact sheet on Low Impact
Development (LID) and Other Green Design Strategies

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Low Impact Development Center


Low Impact Development (LID) Urban Design Tools Website

Buildup Time Series Dialog Box


This dialog allows you to define buildup rates (as mass per normalizer per day).

Click New to create a new Buildup Time Series.


Click Delete to remove the currently selected row.

Low Impact Development Controls


Low-Impact Development (LID) is a term used in the US and Canada to describe a more eco-friendly land planning
and design approach to stormwater management. In the United Kingdom, this approach is referred to sustainable urban
drainage systems (SUDS), and in Australia, it's called water-sensitive urban design (WSUD). The US terminology is
used in this software and its documentation.
LID controls help developed watersheds or sites to retain or enhance pre-development hydrologic characteristics
through the use of techniques that conserve natural systems and hydrologic functions.
Some of the goals of LID are to:

Protect natural systems such as drainage ways, vegetation, and soils


Decentralize stormwater management, shifting it to small-scale practices at the source location
Preserve open space

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Minimize land disturbance and impervious area


Disconnect impervious surfaces
Increase flow path lengths and travel times
Customize site design to the needs of a particular site, instead of simply relying on traditionally accepted practices

A number of government agencies, universities, and other groups publish educational information, research and design
guidance for implementing LID and LID controls. Places to start include:

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Low Impact Development website and fact sheet on Low Impact
Development (LID) and Other Green Design Strategies
Low Impact Development Center
Low Impact Development (LID) Urban Design Tools Website

LID Control Modeling Overview


The basic steps to implementing LID controls in a hydrologic model are:
1. Add generic LID controls to the project. This is done in the Low Impact Development Controls Manager (on page
344).
2. Add LID and catchment elements to the network drawing (see Low Impact Development Controls (on page 223)).
3. Enter element-specific LID control and catchment data in the Properties pane. LID control attributes include
designating a Parent Catchment and associating a generic LID (created in step 1). For additional details, see Low
Impact Development Control Attributes.
4. Proceed with the modeling project as you normally would (e.g., enter remaining network and rainfall data,
configure storm data, run the model, review results).
Implementation Notes

Low-Impact Development (LID) controls as implemented in the software are based on the calculation methods used
in EPA SWMM Version 5.0.
LID controls can only be used in conjunction with the EPA-SWMM Runoff Method.
Only the hydrologic performance is modeled-pollutant removal impacts are not considered.
A LID control element must be associated with a Parent Catchment. The Parent Catchment is the source of
stormwater input to the LID control, and also receives discharge from the LID.
The effect of a LID control on runoff is seen in the computed hydrograph for the LID control's Parent Catchment.

LID Control Types


LID controls are intended to intercept stormwater and control it through detention, infiltration and/or
evapotranspiration. The hydrologic performance of five basic LID control types can be modeled in the software:

Bioretention cells include facilities such as rain gardens, planters, and green roofs. They typically consist of surface
storage and vegetation, and an engineered soil layer with a gravel drainage layer beneath it. The gravel layer may
include an underdrain system.
Infiltration trenches are trenches filled with gravel that can store stormwater in void spaces while it infiltrates into
surrounding soils. There may also be an underdrain system.
Porous pavement consists of a surface pavement layer (may be continuous porous pavement or block pavers) over a
layer of gravel. The porous surface allows stormwater to enter and be stored in the gravel layer while it infiltrates
into surrounding soils. The gravel layer may include an underdrain system.
Rain barrels are containers that collect runoff from roofs. The captured stormwater can be released at a controlled
rate later, or used for irrigation. (Cisterns are also modeled using the "rain barrel" LID control type.)

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Vegetative swales are channels or depressions covered with vegetation. They allow time for a portion of intercepted
stormwater to infiltrate the soil.

See Also
Hydrologic Model Representation of LID Controls (on page 343)
Low Impact Development Controls Manager (on page 344)

Hydrologic Model Representation of LID Controls


A LID control (see LID Control Types (on page 342)) is modeled as a combination of vertical layers. The specific
combination of layers present depends on the type of LID control, but in general they are:

Surface Layer (may include vegetation)


Soil Layer or Pavement Layer
Storage Layer (typically gravel)
Underdrain Piping

The model performs a moisture balance that tracks how much water moves between the layers and how much is stored
within each layer. The figure below illustrates the processes considered for a bioretention cell or porous block
pavement system.

The physical and performance characteristics of LID controls are defined in the Low Impact Development Controls
Manager (on page 344) on a per-unit-area basis. Thus, the same LID control design can easily be used in multiple
locations in the network, over differently sized areas.

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Low Impact Development Controls Manager


The Low Impact Development Controls Manager dialog is used to define a Low Impact Development (LID) control
that can be deployed throughout a study area to store, infiltrate, and evaporate subcatchment runoff.

The design of the control is made on a per-unit-area basis so that it can be placed in any number of subcatchments at
different sizes or number of replicates. The editor consists of a list pane on the left that displays all of the LID controls
that have been defined for the project and a tabbed input data area on the right that displays attributes for the selected
LID control.
The buttons in the upper left are as follows:

New: Creates a new inlet definition in the list pane on the left.

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Delete: Deletes the currently highlighted LID control.

Rename: Lets you rename the currently highlighted LID control.

Report: Lets you generate a preformatted report that contains the input data associated with the currently highlighted
LID control.

Synchronization Options: Clicking this button opens a submenu containing the following commands:

Browse Engineering LibraryOpens the Engineering Library manager dialog, allowing you to browse the LID
control libraries.
Synchronize From LibraryLets you update a set of LID control definitions previously imported from one of the
LID control libraries. The updates reflect changes that have been made to the library since it was imported.
Synchronize To LibraryLets you update one of the existing LID control libraries using current data that was
initially imported but have since been modified.
Import From LibraryLets you import a LID control definition from one of the existing LID control libraries.
Export To LibraryLets you export the current LID control definition to one of the existing LID control libraries.
Connect to LibraryLets you create a connection between the LID control definition and the specified engineering
library.

Low Impact Development Controls Tab


The sections and fields that appear on the Low Impact Development Control tab depend on which control type
(see LID Control Types (on page 342)) is chosen. Each section of this tab (e.g., Surface, Storage, etc.) corresponds to
a layer in the LID control (see Hydrologic Model Representation of LID Controls (on page 343)). The table below
summarizes which layers are available for each LID control:
Available Layers by LID Control
Control Type

Layer
Surface

Bioretention
Cell

Porous
Pavement

Pavement

Soil

Storage

Underdrain

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Control Type

Layer

Infiltration
Trench

Rain Barrel
Vegetative
Swale

Green Roof

Rain Garden

Low Impact Development Control Type: Allows you to select the type of LID Control.
Soil Layer Attributes

Soil Thickness: The thickness of the soil layer.


Soil Porosity: The volume of pore space relative to total volume of soil (as a fraction).
Field Capacity: Volume of pore water relative to total volume after the soil has been allowed to drain fully (as a
fraction). Below this level, vertical drainage of water through the soil layer does not occur.
Soil Conductivity: Hydraulic conductivity for the fully saturated soil.
Conductivity Slope: Slope of the curve of log (conductivity) versus soil moisture content (dimensionless). Typical
values range from 5 for sands to 15 for silty clay.
Wilting Point: Volume of pore water relative to total volume for a well dried soil where only bound water remains
(as a fraction). The moisture content of the soil cannot fall below this limit.
Suction Head: The average value of soil capillary suction along the wetting front (inches or mm). This is the same
parameter as used in the Green-Ampt infiltration model. Porosity, field capacity, conductivity and conductivity
slope are the same soil properties used for Aquifer objects when modeling groundwater, while suction head is the
same parameter used for Green-Ampt infiltration. Except here they apply to the special soil mix used in a LID unit
rather than the site's naturally occuring soil.
Pavement Layer Attributes

The pavement layer attributes are only available when the "Porous Pavement" LID Control Type is selected.

Pavement Thickness: The thickness of the pavement layer (inches or mm). Typical values are 4 to 6 inches (100 to
150 mm).
Pavement Void Ratio: The volume of void space relative to the volume of solids in the pavement for continuous
systems or for the fill material used in modular systems. Typical values for pavements are 0.12 to 0.21. Note that
porosity = void ratio / (1 + void ratio).
Impervious Surface Fraction: Ratio of impervious paver material to total area for modular systems; 0 for continuous
porous pavement systems.
Permeability: Permeability of the concrete or asphalt used in continuous systems or hydraulic conductivity of the fill
material (gravel or sand) used in modular systems (in/hr or mm/hr). The permeability of new porous concrete or
asphalt is very high (e.g., hundreds of in/hr) but can drop off over time due to clogging by fine particulates in the
runoff.
Pavement Clogging Factor: Number of pavement layer void volumes of runoff treated it takes to completely clog
the pavement. Use a value of 0 to ignore clogging. Clogging progressively reduces the pavement's permeability in
direct proportion to the cumulative volume of runoff treated.
If one has an estimate of the number of years it takes to fully clog the system (Yclog), the Clogging Factor can be
computed as: Yclog * Pa * CR * (1 + VR) * (1 - ISF) / (T * VR) where Pa is the annual rainfall amount over the

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site, CR is the pavement's capture ratio (area that contributes runoff to the pavement divided by area of the
pavement itself), VR is the system's Void Ratio, ISF is the Impervious Surface Fraction, and T is the pavement layer
Thickness.
As an example, suppose it takes 5 years to clog a continuous porous pavement system that serves an area where the
annual rainfall is 36 inches/year. If the pavement is 6 inches thick, has a void ratio of 0.2 and captures runoff only
from its own surface, then the Clogging Factor is 5 x 36 x (1 + 0.2) / 6 / 0.2 = 180.
Storage Layer Attributes
The storage layer attributes are available for all LID Control Types except Vegetative Swale.
Height: This is the height of a rain barrel or thickness of a gravel layer (inches or mm). Crushed stone and gravel
layers are typically 6 to 18 inches (150 to 450 mm) thick while single family home rain barrels range in height from
24 to 36 inches (600 to 900 mm).
Storage Void Ratio: The volume of void space relative to the volume of solids in the layer. Typical values range
from 0.5 to 0.75 for gravel beds. Note that porosity = void ratio / (1 + void ratio).
Storage Conductivity: Hydraulic conductivity for the fully saturated soil (in/hr or mm/hr).
Storage Clogging Factor: Total volume of treated runoff it takes to completely clog the bottom of the layer divided
by the void volume of the layer. Use a value of 0 to ignore clogging. Clogging progressively reduces the Filtration
Rate in direct proportion to the cumulative volume of runoff treated and may only be of concern for infiltration
trenches with permeable bottoms and no under drains.
Surface Layer Attributes
The surface layer attributes are available for all LID Control Types except Rain Barrel.
Surface Storage Depth: When confining walls or berms are present this is the maximum depth to which water can
pond above the surface of the unit before overflow occurs (in inches or mm). For LID controls that experience
overland flow it is the height of any surface depression storage. For swales, it is the height of its trapezoidal cross
section.
Vegetative Cover Fraction: The fraction of the storage area above the surface that is filled with vegetation (i.e.,
volume occupied by leaves, stems, etc.).
Surface Mannings n: Manning's n for overland flow over the surface of porous pavement or a vegetative swale. Use
0 for other types of LID controls.
Surface Slope: Slope of porous pavement surface or vegetative swale (percent). Use 0 for other types of LID
controls.
Swale Side Slope: Slope (run over rise) of the side walls of a vegetative swale's cross section. This attribute is not
presentfor other types of LID controls. If either Surface Roughness or Surface Slope values are 0 then any ponded
water that exceeds the storage depth is assumed to completely overflow the LID control within a single time step.
Underdrain Attributes
An underdrain is available for all LID control types except Vegetative Swale. It is required for Rain Barrels, and
optional for other LID controls.
Drain Coefficient and Drain Exponent: C and exponent n that determines the rate of flow through the underdrain as
a function of height of stored water above the drain height. The following equation is used to compute this flow rate
(per unit area of the LID unit):

where q is outflow (in/hr or mm/hr), h height of stored water (inches or mm), and Hd is the drain height. If the layer
does not have an underdrain then set C to 0. A typical value for n would be 0.5 (making the drain act like an
orifice). A rough estimate for C can be based on the time T required to drain a depth D of stored water. For n = 0.5,
C = 2D1/2/T.

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Drain Offset Height: Height Hd of any underdrain piping above the bottom of a storage layer or rain barrel.
Drain Delay: The number of dry weather hours that must elapse before the drain line in a rain barrel is opened (the
line is assumed to be closed once rainfall begins). This parameter is only available with Rain Barrels.

Drainage Mat Attributes


Drainage Mat Thickness: The thickness of the mat or plate (inches or mm). It typically ranges between 1 and 2
inches.
Drainage Mat Void Fraction: The ratio of void volume to total volume in the mat. It typically ranges from 0.5 to 0.6.
Drainage Mat Manning's n: This is the Manning's n constant used to compute the horizontal flow rate of drained
water through the mat. It is not a standard product specification provided by the manufacturer and must therefore be
estimated. Previous modeling studies have suggested using a relatively high value such as from 0.1 to 0.4.

Notes Tab
This tab contains a text field that allows you to enter descriptive notes that will be associated with the currently
highlighted LID control.
Library Tab
This tab displays information about the LID control that is currently highlighted in the list pane. If the LID control is
derived from an engineering library, the synchronization details can be found here. If the LID control was created
manually for this project, the synchronization details will display the message Orphan (local), indicating that the LID
control was not derived from a library entry.

LID Validations
If the values set for the following attributes fall outside the specified valid range, an error or user notification will be
generated.

Surface Storage Depth: >= 0


Surface Vegetative Cover: >= 0
Surface Roughness: > 0
Surface Slope: >= 0
Surface Swale Side Slope: >= 0
Soil Thickness: > 0
Soil Porosity: > 0
Soil Field Capacity: > 0 & < Soil Porosity
Soil Wilting Point: > 0 & < Soil Field Capacity
Soil Conductivity: > 0
Soil Conductivity Slope: >= 0
Soil Suction Head: > 0
Storage Height: > 0
Storage Void Ratio: > 0
Surface Vegetative Cover: >= 0
Storage Conductivity: >= 0
Storage Clogging Factor: >= 0
Drain Coefficient: >= 0
Drain Exponent: >= 0
Drain Offset Height: >= 0
Pavement Thickness: > 0
Pavement Void Ratio: > 0

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Pavement Imp Surface Fraction: >= 0


Pavement Permeability: > 0
Pavement Clogging Factor: =0

Adding Hyperlinks to Elements


The Hyperlinks feature lets you associate external files, such as pictures or movie files, with elements. You can perform
the following operations with hyperlinks:

Adding a Hyperlink (on page 350)


Deleting a Hyperlink (on page 351)

To use hyperlinks, select Tools > Hyperlink. The Hyperlink dialog box opens.

The hyperlink tool enables the user to associate a photo, word processing document, spreadsheet or other file with a
given model element. Opening the hyperlink opens the file using its associated program (Picture Manager, Word,
Excel, etc.).
The hyperlink can also be opened from the Property grid by picking the Hyperlink property from the grid and clicking
the ellipse button which will open the hyperlink tool.
If a model file is moved to a different computer, the hyperlink will no longer work unless the associated file is moved
to a comparable path on the same computer.
Hyperlinks Dialog Box
The Hyperlinks dialog contains a toolbar and a tabular view of all your existing hyperlinks.
The toolbar contains the following buttons:

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New

Lets you create a new hyperlink.


Launches the Add Hyperlink dialog
box.

Delete

Deletes the currently highlight


hyperlink.

Edit

Lets you edit the currently highlighted


hyperlink. Launches the Edit
Hyperlink dialog box.

Launch

Launches the external file associated


with the currently highlighted
hyperlink.

The table contains the following columns:


Column

Description

Element Type

Displays the element type of the element associated with


the hyperlink.

Element

Displays the label of the element associated with the


hyperlink.

Link

Displays the complete path of the hyperlink.

Description

Displays a description of the hyperlink, which you can


optionally enter when you create or edit the hyperlink.

Adding a Hyperlink
To add a hyperlink:
Note: You can add more than one associated file to an element using the hyperlink feature, but you must add the
associations one at a time.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Select Tools > Hyperlink. The Hyperlink dialog box opens.


Click Add to add a hyperlink. The Add Hyperlink dialog box opens.
Select the element to which you want to associate an external file.
Browse to the external file you want to use. This might be something like a picture of the element or a movie about
the element.

Add Hyperlink Dialog Box


You create new hyperlinks in the Add Hyperlink dialog box. The dialog box contains the following controls:
Element Type

Lets you select an element type from the drop-down list.

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Element

Lets you select an element from a drop-down list of


specific elements from your model. Only those element
types selected in the Element Type drop-down list are
displayed.

Link

The complete path of the external file you want to


associate with the selected element. You can type the path
yourself or click the Ellipsis (...) button to search your
computer for the file. Once you have selected the file, you
can test the hyperlink by clicking the Launch button.

Description

Lets you type a description of the hyperlink.

Editing a Hyperlink
You can edit existing hyperlinks using the Edit Hyperlink dialog box.
To edit a hyperlink:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Select Tools > Hyperlink. The Hyperlink dialog box opens.


Select the hyperlink you want to edit.
Click Edit to modify a hyperlink. The Edit Hyperlink dialog box opens.
Select the element you want to edit.
Edit the hyperlink by adding or deleting an associated file.

Edit Hyperlink Dialog Box


You edit existing hyperlinks in the Edit Hyperlink dialog box. The dialog box contains the following controls:
Link

Lets you edit the complete path of the external file


associated with the selected hyperlink. You can type the
path yourself or click the Ellipsis (...) button to search
your computer for the file. Once you have selected the
file, you can test the hyperlink by clicking the Launch
button.

Description

Lets you edit an existing description of the hyperlink or


type a new description.

Deleting a Hyperlink
To delete a hyperlink:
1. Select Tools > Hyperlink. The Hyperlink dialog box opens.
2. Select the hyperlink you want to edit.

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3. Click Edit to modify a hyperlink. The Edit Hyperlink dialog box opens.
4. Select the element you want to delete.
5. Click Delete.

Queries Manager
The Queries Manager is a docking manager that displays all queries in the current project, including predefined, shared,
and project queries. You can create, edit, or delete shared and project queries from within the Queries Manager, as well
as use it to select all elements in your model that are part of the selected query.

Note that element types that are not used in the current model are marked with an icon

The Queries Manager consists of a toolbar and a tree view, which displays all of the queries that are associated with the
current project. The toolbar contains the following buttons:

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New

Contains the following commands:


Query Lets you create a new SQL
expression as either a project or
shared query, depending on which
item is highlighted in the tree view.
Folder Creates a folder in the tree
view, allowing you to group queries.
You can right-click a folder and
create queries or folders in that folder.

Delete

Deletes the currently-highlighted


query or folder from the tree view.
When you delete a folder, you also
delete all of its contents (the queries it
contains).

Rename

Lets you rename the query or folder


that is currently highlighted in the tree
view.

Edit

Opens the Query Builder dialog box,


allowing you to edit the SQL
expression that makes up the
currently-highlighted query.

Expand All and Collapse All

Expands or collapses the named


views and folders.

Select in Drawing

Lets you quickly select all the


elements in the drawing pane that are
part of the currently highlighted
query. Once you have selected the
elements in a selection set using
Select In Drawing, you can delete
them all at once.

Help

Displays online help for the Queries


Manager.

Query Parameters Dialog Box


Some predefined queries require that a parameter be defined. When one of these queries is selected, the Query
Parameters dialog box will open, allowing you to type the parameter value that will be used in the query. For example,
when the Pipe Split Candidates query is used the Query Parameters dialog will open, allowing the Tolerance parameter
to be defined.

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Creating Queries
A query is a valid SQL expression that you construct in the Query Builder dialog box. You create and manage queries
in the Queries Manager. You also use queries to filter FlexTables and as the basis for a selection set.
To create a query from the Queries Manager:
1. Open the Queries Manager by selecting View > Queries, clicking the Queries button on the View toolbar, or by
pressing CTRL+5.
2. Perform one of the following steps:
3. To create a new project query, highlight Queries - Project in the list pane, then click the New button and select
Query.
4. To create a new shared query, highlight Queries - Shared in the list pane, then click the New button and select
Query. You can also right-click an existing item or folder in the list pane and select New > Query from the shortcut
menu.
5. In the Select Element Type dialog box, select the desired element type from the drop-down menu. The Query
Builder dialog box appears.
6. All input and results fields for the selected element type appear in the Fields list pane, available SQL operators and
keywords are represented by buttons, and available values for the selected field are listed in the Unique Values list
pane. Perform the following steps to construct your query:
7. Double-click the field you wish to include in your query. The database column name of the selected field appears in
the preview pane.
8. Click the desired operator or keyword button. The SQL operator or keyword is added to the SQL expression in the
preview pane.
9. Click the Refresh button above the Unique Values list pane to see a list of unique values available for the selected
field. Note that the Refresh button is disabled after you use it for a particular field (because the unique values do not
change in a single query-building session).
10. Double-click the unique value you want to add to the query. The value is added to the SQL expression in the
preview pane. You can also manually edit the expression in the preview pane.
11. Check the Validate box above the preview pane to validate your SQL expression when the query is applied.
12. Click the Apply button above the preview pane to execute the query. If the expression is valid, the word
VALIDATED is displayed in the lower right corner of the dialog box.
13. Click OK.

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1. Perform these optional steps in the Queries Manager:

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2. To create a new folder in the tree view, highlight the existing item or folder in which to place the new folder, then
click the New button and select Folder. You can create queries and folders within folders.
3. To delete an existing query or folder, click the Delete button. When you delete a folder, you also delete all of its
contents (the queries it contains).
4. To rename an existing query or folder, click the Rename button, then type a new name.
5. To edit the SQL expression in a query, select the query in the list pane, then click the Edit button. The Query
Builder dialog box appears.
6. To quickly select all the elements in the drawing pane that are part of the currently highlighted query, click the
Select in Drawing button.
Query Builder Dialog Box
You construct the SQL expression that makes up your query in the Query Builder dialog box. The Query Builder dialog
box is accessible from the Queries Manager and from within a FlexTable.
The top part of the dialog box contains all the controls you need to construct your query: a list pane displaying all
available attributes for the selected element type, a SQL control panel containing available SQL keywords and
operators, and list view that displays all the available values for the selected attribute. The bottom part of the dialog box
contains a preview pane that displays your SQL expression as you construct it.
All the dialog box controls are described in the following table.
Fields

Lists all input and results fields


applicable to the selected element
type. This list displays the labels of
the fields, while the underlying
database column names of the fields
become visible in the preview pane
when you add them to the expression.
Double-click a field to add it to your
SQL expression.

SQL Controls

These buttons represent all the SQL


operators and controls that you can
use in your query. They include = , > ,
< , _ , ? , * , <> , >= , <= , [ ] , Like ,
And , and Or . Click the appropriate
button to add the operator or keyword
to the end of your SQL expression,
which is displayed in the preview
pane.

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Unique Values

When you click the Refresh button,


this list displays all the available
unique values selected field. Doubleclick a value in the list to add it to the
end of your SQL expression, which is
displayed in the preview pane. If you
select a different field, you must click
the Refresh button again to update the
list of unique values for the selected
field. When you first open the Query
Builder dialog box, this list is empty.

Refresh

Updates the list of unique values for


the selected field. This button is
disabled after you use it for a
particular field.

Copy

Copies the entire SQL expression


displayed in the preview pane to the
Windows clipboard.

Paste

Pastes the contents of the Windows


clipboard into the preview pane at the
location of the text cursor. For
example, if your cursor is at the end
of the SQL expression in the preview
pane and you click the Paste button,
the contents of your clipboard will be
added to the end of the expression.

Validate

Validates the SQL expression in the


preview pane. If the expression is not
valid, a message appears. When you
click this button and your SQL
expression passes validation, the word
VALIDATED appears in the lower
right corner of the dialog box.

Apply

Executes the query. The results of the


query are displayed at bottom of the
Query Builder dialog box in the form
x of x elements returned.

Preview Pane

Displays the SQL expression as you


add fields, operators and/keywords,
and values to it.

Using the Like Operator


The Like operator compares a string expression to a pattern in an SQL expression.

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Syntax
expression Like pattern
The Like operator syntax has these parts:
Part

Description

expression

SQL expression used in a WHERE clause .

pattern

String or character string literal against which expression


is compared.

You can use the Like operator to find values in a field that match the pattern you specify. For pattern, you can specify
the complete value (for example, Like Smith), or you can use wildcard characters to find a range of values (for
example, Like Sm*).
In an expression, you can use the Like operator to compare a field value to a string expression. For example, if you
enter Like C* in an SQL query, the query returns all field values beginning with the letter C. In a parameter query ,
you can prompt the user for a pattern to search for.
The following example returns data that begins with the letter P followed by any letter between A and F and three
digits:
Like P[A-F]###
To search for a string that contains a symbol that is normally a wildcard (*or #) enclose it in brackets like this: [#].
To search using a user defined date field, enclose the date in # symbols like this:
Conduit_Field_1 > #1/1/2009#
The following table shows how you can use Like to test expressions for different patterns.
Kind of match

Pattern

Match(returns True)

No match(returns False)

Multiple characters

a*a

aa, aBa, aBBBa

aBC

*ab*

abc, AABB, Xab

aZb, bac

Special character

a[*]a

a*a

aaa

Multiple characters

ab*

abcdefg, abc

cab, aab

Single character

a?a

aaa, a3a, aBa

aBBBa

Single digit

a#a

a0a, a1a, a2a

aaa, a10a

Range of characters

[a-z]

f, p, j

2, &

Outside a range

[!a-z]

9, &, %

b, a

Not a digit

[!0-9]

A, a, &, ~

0, 1, 9

Combined

a[!b-m]#

An9, az0, a99

abc, aj0

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Using Queries to Edit/View Results for a Selected Group of Elements


You can use queries to isolate a group of elements that meet specified criteria, and then edit or view the results for only
those elements.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Create a query to isolate the group of objects. (Go to View->Query->Create a New Query under Query- Project)
Query for All Conduits with Diameter>12 inches.
Now go to the Conduit Flex Tables.
Right Click on any Column and Choose Filter By Query.
Choose the Newly Created Query.
The Flex Table will now display only the Group of Conduits with Diameter >12 inches.

Controls
Controls in the GVF Solver give the user a way to specify an action for virtually any element in a pressure subnetwork
based on almost any property of the system. Controls are included in a scenario when the control set they are included
in is specified in the Operational Alternative. The controls become part of an Operational Alternative when you specify
the name of a Control Set to use in a given Operational Alternative. The default control set is All control statements.
The Control Manager is the main work center for controls. The Control Manager manages all controls, conditions,
actions, and control sets in the system. The Control manager allows the user to define controls using advanced IF,
AND, and OR condition logic, which can trigger any number of THEN or optional ELSE actions.
Choose Components > Controls to open the Control Manager.

The Controls manager consists of the following tabs:

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Controls--Manage all controls defined in the system. See Controls Tab (on page 360).
Conditions--Define the condition that must be met prior to taking an action. See Conditions Tab (on page 362).
Actions--Define what should be done to an element in the system in response to an associated control condition. See
Actions Tab (on page 367).

Controls Tab
The Controls tab allows you to manage all controls defined in the system. Controls can be one of two types: simple or
logical. Simple controls are made up of an IF condition and a THEN action statement. Logical controls are made up of
an IF condition, a THEN action, and an optional ELSE action, and can be assigned a priority for resolving potential
conflicts between logical controls.
Controls, Conditions, and Actions are assigned a non-editable application-provided ID (e.g., LC01).
The Controls tab is divided into sections:

The pane in the center of the dialog box is the Controls List. This list displays a list of all Logical Controls defined
in the system.
Located above the Controls List is a toolbar with the following buttons:
NewCreates a new control.
DeleteDeletes the highlighted control.
DuplicateOpens a submenu with the following options:

Duplicate (Full - create new conditions and actions)


Duplicate (Partial - use existing conditions and actions)
Control SetsEdits Control Sets. Click the dropdown for additional options:

Control Sets: Opens the Control Sets Editor dialog box.


Edit Control Sets...: Opens the Control Sets Editor dialog box with the table populated by sets that include the
currently selected control.
Add/Remove Control Sets: Opens the Add/Remove Control Sets dialog box, allowing you to add, remove, and
manage your control sets.

Edit Control Sets for <selected-controls>, and Add/Remove Control Sets.


Control WizardOpens the Control Wizard dialog.
Import ControlsAllows you to select a control file (.ctl) to import.
Export ControlsAllows you to export the current controls to a control file (.ctl).
ReportGenerates a summary of the selected control, listing the ID, conditions, actions, and elements incorporated
into the control.
HelpOpens the online help.
Below the toolbar is a set of filters that allow you to only display controls that meet criteria defined by the filter
settings. The following filters are available:
TypeWhen a Type filter other than <All> is specified, only controls of that type will be displayed in the Controls
list.
PriorityWhen a Priority filter other than <All> is specified, only controls of that priority will be displayed in the
Controls list.
Condition ElementWhen a Condition filter other than <All> is specified, only controls containing the selected
Condition element will be displayed in the Controls list. You can filter the available conditions to include only
conditions that are applicable to the element or elements that are currently selected in the drawing pane by selecting
the <Current Selection> option.

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Action ElementWhen an Action filter other than <All> is specified, only controls containing the selected Action
element will be displayed in the Controls list. You can filter the available actions to include only actions that are
applicable to the element or elements that are currently selected in the drawing pane by selecting the <Current
Selection> option.

Note: You can selected one or more controls in the list, and then right-click to Edit Control Sets for Selected
Controls.
You can edit or create controls consisting of an IF condition, a THEN action, and an optional ELSE action. The lower
pane is split into sections:

Evaluate as Simple ControlTurn on in order to evaluate the condition as a simple control.


IF ConditionThe drop-down list allows you to choose from a list of conditions that have already been created in
the Conditions tab.
THEN ActionThe drop-down list allows you to choose from a list of actions that have already been created in the
Actions tab.
ELSE Action (optional)The ELSE action is used when the conditions for the control are not met. To specify an
ELSE action, click the check box to activate the drop-down list. The drop-down list allows you to choose from a list
of actions that have already been created in the Actions tab.
PriorityThis area of the dialog box is optional. To set a priority for the control being created, turn on to activate
the priority drop-down list. You can set a priority of 1-5, 5 being the highest priority. If multiple controls meet a
certain condition and they have conflicting actions, the control with the highest priority will be used.

Note: At calculation time, the priority is used to determine the logical control to apply when multiple controls
require that conflicting actions be taken. Logical controls with identical priorities will be prioritized based on the
order they appear in the Logical Control Set alternative. A rule without a priority value always has a lower
priority than one with a value. For two rules with the same priority value, the rule that appears first is given the
higher priority.
Relative speed pump patterns take precedence over any controls (simple or logical) that are associated with the
pump.Hovering the mouse cursor over a control in the list will open a tooltip which displays the conditions and actions
that make up that control.When creating a new condition or action for a new control, the condition and action input
fields will be initialized with the data used in the last condition or action that was created. Once created, the Logical
Control will be assigned an application generated ID (e.g., LC04).

DescriptionThis area is preset with a default description. There is an option to change the default description. To
do so, turn on to activate the description field, and enter your description in the text box.
SummaryThis area of the dialog box displays a description of the control.
Status PaneWhen one or more filters are active, the lower left corner of the dialog will show the number of
controls currently displayed out of the number of total controls. Additionally, a FILTERED flag is displayed in the
lower right corner.

Note: Logical Controls are not executed during Steady State analyses.
Logical controls consist of any combination of simple conditions and simple actions. Controls are defined as:
IFCondition 1 AND condition 2 OR condition 3 AND condition 4, etc., where condition X is a a condition
clause.THENAction 1 AND action 2, etc. where action X is an action clause.ELSE (Optional)Action 3 AND action 4,
etc. where action X is an action clause.Priority (Optional)Priority where priority is a priority value (1 to 5, 5 being the
highest priority).
In addition to the high level of flexibility provided by allowing multiple conditions and actions, the functionality of
Logical controls is also enhanced by the range of Condition types that are available. You can activate the stated actions

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based on element loads, element hydraulic grade or pressure, system load, clock time, time from start, tank level, or
time to fill or drain a tank.
The user can also create composite conditions and actions that can cause actions to be performed when multiple
conditions are met simultaneously, or when one or the other conditions are met. The user can also activate multiple
actions when a single condition is met.
To create a logical control in which a pump (PMP-1) is turned on when the level in a Wet Well (WW-1) falls below a
specified value (5 ft.) or when the system loads exceed a certain level (5000 gpm):
ConditionsBecause this control needs to be triggered by multiple conditions, a Composite Condition is chosen. In
this instance, the operator OR is chosen to link the conditions, because the pump should be turned on if either condition
is true.IF condition{WW-1 Level < 5 ft.}OR condition{System Load > 5000 gpm}ActionsBecause this control
has a single desired outcome if one of the conditions is met, a simple action is chosen. The first action in a logical
control is always linked to the conditions by a logical THEN statement. In this instance, an ELSE action will also be
used, to keep the pump off if neither of the conditions is true.THEN action{PMP-1 Status = On}ELSE action
{PMP-1 Status = Off}The finished logical control looks like this:IF {WW-1 Level < 5 ft.} OR {System Load > 5000
gpm} THEN {PMP-1 Status = On} ELSE {PMP-1 Status = Off}Use the optional ELSE field to cause actions to be
performed when the conditions in the control are not being met. For example, if you are creating a control that states,
If the level in WW 1 is less than 5 ft., Then turn Pump 1 On, use an ELSE action to turn the pump off if the tank level
is above 5 ft.
Note: Logical Controls are not executed during Steady State analyses.
When defining a logical control, you have the option to share conditions and/or actions. In other words, more than one
control can reference the same condition or action. Keep in mind that when you change an underlying condition or
action, it will affect all controls that reference that condition or action.

Conditions Tab

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Note: You can filter the available conditions to include only conditions that are applicable to the element or
elements that are currently selected in the drawing pane by selecting the <Current Selection> option.

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Actions Tab
Actions allow you to define what should be done to an element in the system in response to an associated control
condition. The Actions tab provides a list of all actions defined in the system. There are two types of actions: simple
actions and composite actions. Actions have an application-provided non-editable ID (e.g., A01 for simple, AA01 for
composite).
The Actions tab is divided into sections:

The Actions List displays a list of all logical actions defined in the system. The list contains four columns: ID (the
application defined ID, e.g., A01 for simple, AA01 for composite), Type (simple or composite), description, and
references (logical control references).
Located above the Conditions List is a toolbar with the following buttons:
NewOpens the New Logical Action dialog box, where you can create a new logical action.
EditDepending on whether a simple or composite action is highlighted, this button opens the Simple Logical
Action or Composite Logical Action dialog box, which allows you to edit the highlighted action.
DeleteDeletes the highlighted action. You will be prompted to confirm this action.
FindOpens the Find Logical Action dialog box, which allows you to find a particular action based on a variety of
criteria.
ReportGenerates a summary of the highlighted action.
Below the toolbar is a set of filters that allow you to only display controls that meet criteria defined by the filter
settings. The following filters are available:
Control SetWhen a control set is specifed, only actions that are a component of that control set are displayed in
the Actions list.

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TypeWhen a Type filter other than <All> is specified, only actions of that type will be displayed in the Actions
list.
Action ElementWhen an Action Element filter other than <All> is specified, only actions containing the selected
Element will be displayed in the Actions list. You can filter the available actions to include only actions that are
applicable to the element or elements that are currently selected in the drawing pane by selecting the <Current
Selection> option.
The controls used to create or edit an action vary depending on whether the action is simple or composite:

Simple Actions
The following controls are used to define or edit Simple Actions:

ElementThe Element field allows you to specify which element the action will be based upon and provides three
methods of choosing this element. The drop-down list displays elements that have been used in other logical
controls, the Ellipsis () button, which opens the Single Element Selection box, and the Select From Drawing
button, which allows you to select the element using the graphical Drawing view.
AttributeThis field displays the available attributes for the element type specified in the Element field. Not all
attributes are available for all element types. The available attributes include:
Status This attribute is used to change the status of a pipe, pump, or valve when the related conditions are met.
The available choices are dependant on the element type.
SettingThis attribute is used to change the settings of a pump or valve when the related conditions are met. The
setting type varies depending on the type of element.
Pump Head (Target) This attribute is available for variable speed pumps or batteries to modify the target head of
a parallel VSP group (the change can apply to one of the pumps belonging to a parallel VSP group) or of a VSPB.
Pump Pressure (Target) This attribute is available for variable speed pumps or batteries to modify the target
pressure of a parallel VSP group (the change can apply to one of the pumps belonging to a parallel VSP group) or of
a VSPB.

Note: Pipes can only utilize the Status Attribute, Pumps and all Valves except for the GPV can utilize either the
Status or Setting Attribute. GPVs can only use the Status Attribute.
For all valves except for the GPV, there is no explicit Active status with which to base a control uponthe status
choices are Inactive or Closed. After a control sets a valve to Inactive or Closed, to reactivate the valve another control
must be created with a Setting attribute. This is because a valve cannot be set to Active, but must have specific input
data to work with. For GPVs, there is no Inactive setting. GPVs can only be set to Active or Closed. If the GPV is not
closed, the valve will always produce the headlosses associated with it through the Head-Discharge Points table.

OperatorThe operator for logical actions is always EQUAL TO (=).


Attribute ValueThis fields label will change depending on the attribute that is chosen. Depending on the element
type and the attribute that was chosen, the input field may also change to a drop-down list, which contains the
possible settings for that element. Not all settings are available for all element types.

Note: Pipes can be set to Open or Closed, Pumps can be set to On, Off, or have their relative speed factors
increase or decrease. GPVs can be set to Active or Closed. All other valves can be set to Inactive, Closed, or have
their respective settings changed, depending on the Valve type.
DescriptionThis area of the dialog box is preset with a default description. There is an option to change the default
description. To do so, click the check box to activate the description field, and enter your description in the text box.
Additionally, the description field supports the following expandable masks:

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%#

ID

%e

Element

%a

Attribute

%o

Operator

%v

Value (and Unit, if applicable)

Aside from reducing the amount of data input, using these masks provides the additional benefit of automatically
updating the corresponding information when changes are made to the various control components.
Note: Click the description list box to select one of the predefined masks.
SummaryThis area of the dialog displays an automatically updated preview of the expanded description.
Composite Actions
When a Composite Action is being defined or edited, the lower section of the dialog box is comprised of a single
column table and two buttons. The Table contains a list of the Actions to be used. Each row is a drop-down list that
allows you to choose an action that was already created beforehand.
InsertAdds a new row to the Action list
DeleteDeletes the highlighted row from the Action list.
DescriptionThis area of the dialog box is preset with a default description. There is an option to change the default
description. To do so, click the check box to activate the description field, and enter your description in the text box.
Additionally, the description field supports the following expandable masks:
%#

ID

%v

Value

Aside from reducing the amount of data input, using these masks provides the additional benefit of automatically
updating the corresponding information when changes are made to the various control components.
Note: Click the description list box to select one of the predefined masks.
Composite logical actions consist of multiple simple logical actions. These actions are linked with an AND statement.
SummaryThis area of the dialog box displays an automatically updated preview of the expanded description.

Control Sets Tab (GVF-Convex Solver)


The Control Sets tab allows you to create, modify and manage control set associated with the GVF convex solver.
Control sets are a way to organize your controls, and also provide the means to use different controls in different
scenarios.
A Control Set is made up of one or more control statements (called Controls) of the form: If (condition) then (action)
else (action). The actions and conditions are defined under the Conditions or Actions tab under control.
The following options are available in this dialog box:

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NewOpens the Logical Control Set editor dialog box. From this window, you can add previously created logical
controls to the new control set.
EditOpens the Logical Control Set editor dialog box, which allows you to edit the highlighted control set.
DuplicatePrompts for a name, then opens the Logical Control Set editor to allow you to add or remove controls
from the control set.
DeleteDeletes the highlighted control set. You will be prompted to confirm this action.
RenameAllows you to rename the highlighted control set.
ReportGenerates a summary of the highlighted control set, listing the ID, conditions, actions, and elements for all
of the logical controls contained within the control set.

Logical Control Sets Dialog Box


The Logical Control Set Editor is divided into two panes.

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The left pane, labeled Available Items, contains a list of all of the logical controls that have been created in the current
project. To add controls to the Selected Items pane on the right, highlight the desired controls and click the [>] button
under Add. To add all of the controls to your Logical Control set, click the [>>] button under Add. To remove a control
from the Selected Items pane, highlight it and click the [<] button under Remove. To remove all controls from the
Selected Items pane, click the [<<] button under Remove.
Note: Priority is based upon the order that the controls appear in this dialog box. The first control in the control
set has the highest priority, and so on. Any control with a set priority will overrule any control with no set
priority.

Controls in the GVF-Convex Solver


In the GVF-Convex solver, the user can use both logical controls and locally defined on/off controls on the pump's
Properties editor. In cases of a conflict between the two types of control, the locally set on/off controls are ignored by
the solver and a user notification is generated.
Alternatively, the user can set the Ignore On and off Elevation? attribute in the Operational section of the pump
properties grid to True.

User Data Extensions


User data extensions are a set of one or more attribute fields that you can define to hold data to be stored in the model.
User data extensions allow you to add your own data fields to your project. For example, you can add a field for
keeping track of the date of installation for an element, or the type of area serviced by a particular element.
Note: The user data does not affect the hydraulic model calculations. However, their behavior concerning
capabilities like editing, annotating, sorting and database connections is identical to any of the standard predefined attributes.

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User data extensions exhibit the same characteristics as the predefined data used in and produced by the model
calculations. This means that user data extensions can be imported or exported through database and shapefile
connections, viewed and edited in the Property Editor or in FlexTables, included in tabular reports or element detailed
reports, annotated in the drawing, color coded, and reported in the detailed element reports.
Note: The terms user data extension and field are used interchangeably here. In the context of the User Data
Extension feature, these terms mean the same thing.
You define user data extensions in the User Data Extensions dialog box.
To define a user data extension:
1. Click Tools > User Data Extensions.
2. In the list pane on the left, select the element type for which you want to define a new attribute field.
3. Click the New button to create a new user data extension. A user data extension with a default name appears under
the element type. You can rename the new field if you wish.
4. In the Property Editor for the new field, enter the following:
5. Type the name of the new field. This is the unique identifier for the field. The name field in the Property Editor is
the name of the column in the data source.
6. Type the label for the new field. This is the label that will appear next to the field for the user data extension in the
Property Editor for the selected element type. This is also the column heading if the data extension is selected to
appear in a FlexTable.
7. Click the Ellipses (...) button in the Category field, then use the drop-down menu in the Select Category dialog box
to select an existing category in which the new field will appear in the Property Editor. To create a new category,
simply type the category name in the field.
8. Type a number in the Field Order Index field. This is the display order of fields within a particular category in the
Property Editor. This order also controls the order of columns in Alternative tables. An entry of 0 means the new
field will be displayed first within the specified category.
9. Type a description for the field. This description will appear at the bottom of the Property Editor when the field is
selected for an element in your model. You can use this field as a reminder about the purpose of the field.
10. Select an alternative from the drop-down menu in the Alternative field. This is the alternative that you want to
extend with the new field.
11. Select a data type from the drop-down menu in the Data Type field.
12. If you select Enumerated, an Ellipses (...) button appears in the Default Value field. Enumerated user data
extensions are fields that present multiple choices.
13. Enter the default value for the new field. If the data type is Enumerated, click the Ellipses (...) button to display the
Enumeration Editor dialog box, where you define enumerated members.
14. Perform the following optional steps:
15. To import an existing User Data Extension XML File, click the Import button, then select the file you want to
import. User Data Extension XML Files contain the file name extension .xml or .udx.xml.
16. To export existing user data extensions, click the Export to XML button, then type the name of the udx.xml file. All
user data extensions for all element types defined in the current project are exported.
17. To share the new field among two or more element types, select the user data extension in the list pane, then click
the Sharing button or right-click and select Sharing. In the Shared Field Specification dialog box, select the check
box next to the element or elements that will share the user data extension. The icon next to the user data extension
changes to indicate that it is a shared field.
18. To delete an existing user data extension, select the user data extension you want to delete in the list pane, then click
the Delete button, or right-click and select Delete.
19. To rename a the display label of an existing user data extension, select the user data extension in the list pane, click
the Rename button or right-click and select Rename, then type the new display label.

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20. To expand the list of elements and view all user data extensions, click the Expand All button.
21. To collapse the list of elements so that no user data extensions are displayed, click the Collapse All button.
22. Click OK to close the dialog box and save your user data extensions. The new field(s) you created will appear in the
Property Editor for every instance of the specified element type in your model.

User Data Extensions Dialog Box


The User Data Extensions dialog box displays a summary of the user data extensions associated with the current
project. The dialog box contains a toolbar, a list pane displaying all available Bentley SewerCAD element types, and a
property editor.

Note that element types that are not used in the current model are marked with an icon:

The toolbar contains the following controls:

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Import

Lets you merge the user data


extensions in a saved User Data
Extension XML file (.udx.xml
or .xml) into the current project.
Importing a User Data Extension
XML file will not remove any of the
other data extensions defined in your
project. User data extensions that
have the same name as those already
defined in your project will not be
imported.

Export to XML

Lets you save existing user data


extensions for all element types in
your model to a User Data Extension
XML file (.udx.xml) for use in a
different project.

New

Lets you create a new user data


extension for the currently
highlighted element type.

Sharing

Lets you share the current user data


extension with another element type.
When you click this button, the
Shared Field Specification dialog box
opens. For more information, see
Sharing User Data Extensions
Among Element Types-411 (on page
378).

Delete

Deletes the currently highlighted user


data extension

Rename

Lets you rename the display label of


the currently highlighted user data
extension.

Expand All

Expands all of the branches in the


hierarchy displayed in the list pane.

Collapse All

Collapses all of the branches in the


hierarchy displayed in the list pane.

The Property Editor contains the following controls:

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Alphabetized

Displays the attribute fields in the


Property Editor in alphabetical order.

Categorized

Displays the attribute fields in the


Property Editor in categories. This is
the default.

and the following fields, which define your new user data extension:
Attribute

Description

General
Name

The unique identifier for the field. The name field in the
Property Editor is the name of the column in the data
source.

Label

The label that will appear next to the field for the user
data extension in the Property Editor for the selected
element type. This is also the column heading if the data
extension is selected to appear in a FlexTable.

Category

The section in the Property Editor for the selected element


type in which the new field will appear. You can create a
new category or use an existing category. For example,
you can create a new field for manholes and display it in
the Physical section of that elements Property Editor.

Field Order Index

The display order of fields within a particular category in


the Property Editor. This order also controls the order of
columns in Alternative tables. An entry of 0 means the
new field will be displayed first within the specified
category.

Field Description

The description of the field. This description will appear


at the bottom of the Property Editor when the field is
selected for an element in your model. You can use this
field as a reminder about the purpose of the field.

Alternative

Lets you select an existing alternative to extend with the


new field.

Referenced By

Displays all the element types that are using the field. For
example, if you create a field called "Installation Date"
and you set it up to be shared, this field will show the
element types that share this field. So for example, if you
set up a field to be shared by manholes and catch basins,
the Referenced By field would show "Manhole, Catch
Basin".

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Attribute

Description

Units
Data Type

Lets you specify the data type for the user data extension.
Click the down arrow in the field then select one of the
following data types from the drop-down menu: Integer
Any positive or negative whole number. Real Any
fractional decimal number (for example, 3.14). It can also
be unitized with the provided options. Text Any string
(text) value up to 255 characters long. Long Text Any
string (text) up to 65,526 characters long. Date/Time
The current date. The current date appears by default in
the format month/day/year. Click the down arrow to
change the default date. Boolean True or False.
Enumerated When you select this data type, an Ellipses
button appears in the Default Value field. Click the
Ellipses (...) button to display the Enumeration Editor
dialog box, where you can add enumerated members and
their associated values. For more information, see
Enumeration Editor Dialog Box (on page 380). Real
(Formula) Allows you to define a formula to populate
the data value.

Default Value

The default value for the user data extension. The default
value must consistent with the selected data type. If you
chose Enumerated as the data type, click the Ellipses (...)
button to display the Enumeration Editor.

Dimension

Lets you specify the unit type. Click the drop-down arrow
in the field to see a list of all available dimensions. This
field is available only when you select Real as the Data
Type.

Storage Unit

Lets you specify the storage units for the field. Click the
drop-down arrow in the field to see a list of all available
units; the units listed change depending on the Dimension
you select. This field is available only when you select
Real as the Data Type.

Numeric Formatter

Lets you select a number format for the field. Click the
drop-down arrow in the field to see a list of all available
number formats; the number formats listed change
depending on the Dimension you select. For example, if
you select Flow as the Dimension, you can select Flow,
Flow - Pressurized Condition, Flow Tolerance, or Unit
Load as the Numeric Formatter. This field is available
only when you select Real as the Data Type.

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User Data Extensions Import Dialog Box


The Import dialog box opens after you initiate an Import command and choose the xml file to be imported. The Import
dialog displays all of the domain elements contained within the selected xml file. Uncheck the boxes next to a domain
element to ignore them during import.

Formula Dialog Box


This dialog allows you to define formulas for use with the Real (Formula) User Data Extension type.
You construct the formula using the available fields, operators, and functions. All the dialog box controls are described
in the following table.

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Lists all input and results fields applicable to the selected


element type. This list displays the labels of the fields
while the underlying database column names of the fields
become visible in the preview pane when you add them to
the formula. Double-click a field to add it to your
formula.

Fields

Operators

These buttons represent all of the operators that can be


used in the fomula. Click the appropriate button to add the
operator to the end of your formula , which is displayed in
the preview pane. Besides the common options for
options for adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing
values , there are also ( ) which allows for more complex
formulas, and the caret (^) which is used for raising a
value to the power of a value

Available Math Functions

Lists mathematical functions that can be used in the


formula. If you hover over a function it will describe the
number of requied parameters and a brief description of
what the function does.
Copies the entire formula displayed in the preview pane
to the Windows clipboard.

Copy

Pastes the contents of the Windows clipboard into the


preview pane at the location of the text cursor. For
example, if your cursor is at the end of the formula in the
preview pane and you click the Paste button, the contents
of your clipboard will be added to the end of the formula.

Paste

Checks that the forumla is valid.


Validate
Preview Pane

Displays the formula as you add fields, operators, and


functions to it.

Sharing User Data Extensions Among Element Types


You can share user data extensions across multiple element types in Bentley SewerCAD . Shared user data extensions
are displayed in the Property Editor for all elements types that share that field.
The icons displayed next to the user data extensions in the User Data Extensions dialog box change depending on the
status of the field:

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Indicates a new unsaved user data extension.

Indicates a user data extension that has been saved to the data source.

Indicates a user data extension that is shared among multiple element types but has not been applied to the data
source.

Indicates a user data extension that is shared among multiple element types and that has been applied to the data
source. Fields with this icon appear in the Property Editor for any elements of the associated element types that
appear in your model.
Observe the following rules when sharing user data extensions:

You can select any number of element types with which to share the field. The list is limited to element types that
support the Alternative defined for the Field. For example, the Physical Alternative may only apply to five of the
element types. In this case, you will only see these five items listed in the Alternative drop-down menu.
You cannot use the sharing feature to move a field from one element type to another. Validation is in place to
ensure that only one item is selected and if it is the same as the original, default selection. If it is not, a message
appears telling you that when sharing a field, you must select at least two element types, or select the original
element type.
To unshare a field that is shared among multiple element types, right-click the user data extension you want to keep
in the list pane, then select Sharing. Clear all the element types that do not want to share the field with and click
OK. If you leave only one element type checked in the Shared Field Specification dialog box, it must be the original
element type for which you created the user data extension.
The fields that were located under the catch basin and conduit element type root nodes will be removed completely.
You can also unshare a field by using the Delete button or right-clicking and selecting Delete. This will unshare and
delete the field.

To share a user data extension:


1. Open the User Data Extensions dialog box by selecting Tools > User Data Extensions.
2. In the list pane, create a new user data extension to share or select an existing user data extension you want to share,
then click the Sharing button.
3. In the Shared Field Specification dialog box, select the check box next to each element type that will share the user
data extension.
4. Click OK.
5. The icon next to the user data extension in the list pane changes to indicate that it is a shared field.

Shared Field Specification Dialog Box


You select element types to share a user data extension in the Shared Field Specification dialog box. The dialog box
contains a list of all possible element types with check boxes.

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Select element types to share the current user data extension by selecting the check box next to the element type.
Clearing a selection if you no longer want that element type to share the current field.

Enumeration Editor Dialog Box


The Enumeration Editor dialog box appears when you select Enumerated as the Data Type for a user data extension,
then click the Ellipses (...) button in the Default Value field. Enumerated fields are fields that contain multiple
selections - you define these as members in the Enumeration Editor dialog box.
For example, suppose you want to identify conduits in a model of a new subdivision by one of the following states:
Existing, Proposed, Abandoned, Removed, and Retired. You can define a new user data extension with the label "Pipe
Status" for conduits, and select Enumerated as the data type. Click the Ellipses (...) button in the Default Value field in
the Property Editor for the user data extension to display the Enumeration Editor dialog box. Then enter five members
with unique labels (one member for each unique pipe status) and enumeration values in the table. After you close the
User Data Extensions dialog box, the new field and its members will be available in the Property Editor for all conduits
in your model. You will be able to select any of the statuses defined as members in the new Pipe Status field.
You can specify an unlimited number of members for each user data extension, but member labels and values must be
unique. If they are not unique, an error message appears when you try to close the dialog box.
The dialog box contains a table and the following controls.

New: Lets you add a new row to the table. Each row in the table represents a unique enumerated member of the
current user data extension.
Delete: Deletes the current row from the table. The enumerated member defined in that row is deleted from the user
data extension.

You define enumerated members in the table, which contains the following columns:

Enumeration Member Display Label: The label of the member. This is the label you will see in where ever the user
data extension appears (Property Editor, FlexTables, etc.).
Enumeration Value: A unique integer index associated with the member label. The software uses this number when
it performs operations such as queries.

External Tools
Use the External Tool Manager to manage custom menu commands, which are then located in the Tools menu for
quick accessibility.
Click Tools>External Tools to create a custom menu command from any executable file. Executable file types include:

.exe
.com
.pif
.bat
.cmd

The External Tool Manager consists of the following elements:

External Tool List Pane--This pane lists the external tools that have been created. All of the tools listed in this pane
will be displayed in the Tools > External Tools menu.
New--Creates a new external tool in the list pane.
Delete--Deletes the currently highlighted tool.
Rename--Allows you to rename the currently highlighted tool.

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Command--This field allows you to enter the full path to the executable file that the tool will initiate. Click the
ellipsis button to open a Windows Open dialog to allow you to browse to the executable.
Arguments--This optional field allows you to enter command line variables that are passed to the tool or command
when it is activated. Click the > button to open a submenu containing predefined arguments. Arguments containing
spaces must be enclosed in quotes. The available arguments are:
Project Directory--This argument passes the current project directory to the executable upon activation of the tool.
The argument string is %(ProjDir).
Project File Name--This argument passes the current project file name to the executable upon activation of the tool.
The argument string is %(ProjFileName).
Project Store File Name--This argument passes the current project datastore file name to the executable upon
activation of the tool. The argument string is %(ProjStoreFileName).
Working Directory--This argument passes the current working directory to the executable upon activation of the
tool. The argument string is %(ProjWorkDir).
Initial Directory--Specifies the initial or working directory of the tool or command. Click the > button to open a
submenu containing predefined directory variables. The available variables are:
Project Directory--This variable specifies the current project directory as the Initial Directory. The variable string is
%(ProjDir).
Working Directory--This variable specifies the current working directory as the Initial Directory. The variable string
is %(ProjWorkDir).

Test--This button executes the external tool using the specified settings.

Hydraulic Reviewer Tool


This version of SewerGEMS V8i includes a hydraulic reviewer tool to quickly assess the convergence and stability of
the model. To begin using the tool click
Tools > Hydraulic Reviewer.
This opens a dialog which initially looks like this.

The user first selects the name of the scenario for which the hydraulic reviewer will be performed using a drop down
list of scenarios. The calculation of the scenario must already have been run and the output file should not have been
deleted.

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Once the scenario has been selected, the user chooses between two tabs
Storage Element Volume Balance
The Storage Element Volume Balance tab determines the overall balance of flows at any node which can have storage
which can include

Wet Wells
Catch basins
Manholes
Ponds

The user can also use a drop down list of any previously created selection set of node elements on which to perform the
review. The default is All Active Nodes.
Picking the green Go arrow starts the calculation which for each node determines the inflow, outflow and overflow
volumes over the course of the runs and the percent deviation from perfect flow balance as
Flow Deviation (node) = 100% (In - out - over - change in storage)/Duration
Deviation (node) = 100% (In - out - over - change in storage)/In
Deviation (system) = 100% (In - out - over - change in storage)/Total System Inflow
The results are presented in decreasing order based on Error. Any column can be sorted, filtered or have the display
format changed as with any other flex table.

On some occasions the Deviation (node) may appear large but this is primarily due to the inflow volume being very
small. Users may want to discount the importance of any errors at nodes where the inflow rates (and deviations) are on
the order of 0.1 cfs or less.
Pipe Flow Statistics
The Pipe flow statistics tab provides an indication of the change of flow rates from one time step to the next.
To use this tab, the user can chose All Pipes (the default) or any selection set of pipes. The calculation is run by picking
the green Go arrow. It will display a table like the one below, sorted in order of decreasing Maximum Deviation.

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High values for Maximum Deviation do not necessarily indicate that the model contains errors or is unstable. Some
pipe links have very large changes in flow from one time step to another such as in the case of a pump cycling on an
off. In some cases, numerical models can overshoot the calculated flow when the flow rate changes abruptly. This
effect usually dies out after one or two time steps. Nevertheless, the Maximum Deviation can serve as an indicator of
locations with possible stability issues.
Once the calculations have been performed, the user can export the values to a previously created User Defined
Property so that the values can be used in color coding, flex tables, etc. Click on Export to Model to reach the dialog
below and select Export to actually export the numerical values.

If the user defined property doesn't exist, the user can create one by picking the ellipse button and following the
instructions for user data extensions. Note that the user defined property the data will be exported to must use the
following settings
Data Type: Real
Dimension: Percent
Storage Unit: Percent

Using Named Views


The Named View dialog box is where you can store the current views X and Y coordinates. When you set a view in the
drawing pane and add a named view, the current view is saved as the named view. You can then center the drawing
pane on the named view with the Go To View command.
Choose View > Named Views to open the Named View dialog box.

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The toolbar contains the following controls:


New

Contains the following commands: Named View --Opens


a Named View Properties box to create a new named
view. Folder --Opens a Named Views Folder Properties
box to enter a label for the new folder.

Delete

Deletes the named view or folder that is currently


selected.

Rename

Rename the currently selected named view or folder.

Go to View

Centers the drawing pane on the named view.

Shift Up and Shift Down

Moves the selected named view or folder up or down.

Expand All or Collapse All

Expands or collapses the named views and folders.

Help

Displays online help for Named Views.

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TRex Wizard
The TRex Wizard steps you through the process of automatically assigning elevations to specified nodes based on data
from a Digital Elevation Model or a Digital Terrain Model.
Step 1: File Selection
The data source file, the Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT model, and the features to which elevations will be assigned
are specified.

Data Source Type--This menu allows you to choose the type of file that contains the input data you will use.
Supported data source types include: Bentley .tin, Bentley .dtm, Bentley .fil, .dwg point, .dxf point, .dwg
contour, .dxf contour,LandXML .xml, and Esri .shp.
File--This field displays the path where the data source file is located. Use the browse button to find and select the
desired file.
Spatial Reference (ArcGIS Mode Only)--Click the Ellipsis (...) next to this field to open the Spatial Reference
Properties dialog box, allowing you to specify the spatial reference being used by the elevation data file.
Select Elevation Field--Select the elevation unit.
X-Y Units--This menu allows the selection of the measurement unit type associated with the X and Y coordinates of
the elevation data file.
Z Units--This menu allows the selection of the measurement unit type associated with the Z coordinates of the
elevation data file.
Clip Dataset to Model--In some cases, the data source contains elevation data for an area that exceeds the
dimensions of the area being modeled. When this box is checked, TRex will calculate the models bounding box,
find the larger dimension (width or height), calculate the Buffering Percentage of that dimension, and increase both
the width and height of the model bounding box by that amount. Then any data point that falls outside of the new
bounding box will not be used to generate the elevation mesh. If this box isnt checked, all the source data points are
used to generate the elevation mesh. Checking this box should result in faster calculation speed and use less
memory.
Buffering Percentage--This field is only active when the Clip Dataset to Model box is checked. The percentage
entered here is the percentage of the larger dimension (width or height) of the models bounding box that will be
added to both the bounding box width and height to find the area within which the source data points will be used to
build the elevation mesh.
Spatial Reference (ArcGIS Mode Only)--Click the Ellipsis (...) next to this field to open the Spatial Reference
Properties dialog box, allowing you to specify the spatial reference being used by the Bentley SewerCAD
CONNECT model file.
Also update inactive elements--Check this box to include inactive elements in the elevation assignment operation.
When this box is unchecked, elements that are marked Inactive will be ignored by TRex.
All--When this button is selected, TRex will attempt to assign elevations to all nodes within the Bentley SewerCAD
CONNECT model.
Selection--When this button is selected, TRex will attempt to assign elevations to all currently highlighted nodes.
Selection Set--When this is selected, the Selection Set menu is activated. When the Selection Set button is selected,
TRex will assign elevations to all nodes within the selection set that is specified in this menu.

Note: If the Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT model (which may or may not have a spatial reference explicitly
associated with it) is in a different spatial reference than the DEM/DTM (which does have a spatial reference
explicitly associated with it), then the features of the model will be projected from the models spatial reference
to the spatial reference used by the DEM/DTM.
Step 2: Completing the TRex Wizard

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The results of the elevation extraction process are displayed and the results can be applied to a new or existing physical
alternative.

Results Preview Pane--This tabular pane displays the elevations that were calculated by TRex. The table can be
sorted by label by clicking the Label column heading and by elevation by clicking the Elevation column heading.
You can filter the table by right-clicking a column in the table and selecting the Filter...Custom command. You can
also right-click any of the values in the elevation column to change the display options.
Use Existing Alternative--When this is selected, the results will be applied to the physical alternative that is selected
in the Use Existing Alternative menu. This menu allows the selection of the physical alternative to which the results
will be applied.
New Alternative --When this is selected, the results will be applied to a new physical alternative. First, the currently
active physical alternative will be duplicated, then the results generated by TRex will be applied to the newly
created alternative. The name of this new alternative must be supplied in the New Alternative text field.
Parent Alternative--Select an alternative to duplicate from the menu, or select <None> to create a new Base
alternative.
Export Results--This exports the results generated by TRex to a tab or comma-delimited text file (.TXT). These files
can then be re-used by Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT or imported into other programs.
Click Finish when complete, or Cancel to close without making any changes.

Property Grid Customizations


The Property Grid Customizations manager allows you to create customization profiles that define changes to the
default user interface. Customization profiles allow you to turn off the visibility of properties in the Properties Editor.

Customization Profiles can be created for a single project or shared across projects. There are also a number of
predefined profiles.

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The Customization Manager consists of the following controls:
New

This button opens a submenu


containing the following commands:
Folder: This command creates a new
folder under the currently highlighted
node in the list pane. Customization:
This command creates a new
customization profile under the
currently highlighted node in the list
pane.

Delete

This button deletes the currently


highlighted folder or customization
profile.

Rename

This button allows you to rename the


currently highlighted folder or
customization profile.

Duplicate

This button allows you to create a


copy of the currently highlighted
customization profile.

Edit

Opens the Customization Editor


dialog allowing you to edit the
currently highlighted customization
profile.

Help

Opens the online help.

Customization Editor Dialog Box


This dialog box allows you to edit the customization profiles that are created in the Customization Manager. In the
Customization editor you can turn off the visibility of various properties in the Property Grid.
You can turn off any number of properties and/or entire categories of properties in a single customization profile.
Note that element types that are not used in the current model are marked with an icon.
To remove a property from the property grid:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Select the element type from the pulldown menu.


Find the property you want to turn off by expanding the node of the category the property is under.
Uncheck the box next to the property to be turned off.
Click OK.

To turn off all of the properties under a category:


1. Select the element type from the pulldown menu.

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2. Uncheck the box next to the category to be turned off.
3. Click OK.

Element Property Inferencing


In building a model, a user occasionally runs into situations where there are gaps in the modeling data for which it is
difficult to fill in the information. For example elevation data may be missing form a manhole or some property may be
missing from a pipe. In such cases, it is desirable to let the model draw "inferences" about those values from property
values from nearby elements. For example, elevations from upstream and downstream manholes can be used to
interpolate values for manhole elevations between those with known properties or the diameter or material from the
downstream conduit can be used to fill in the diameter and material for conduits for which those properties are missing.
SewerGEMS V8i fills in elevation data such that the slopes of pipes being inferred are constant along a reach and uses
the downstream pipes as the basis for inferring missing values for pipe properties. In the drawing below, the elevations
are interpolated between the known elevations and the physical properties of the downstream pipe are used to fill in the
properties of the missing pipes. However, if the user has manually entered some of the physical properties manually,
these values will not be overridden. Loading information (sanitary load/infiltration rate) and head loss type (AASHTO,
HEC-22) are not inferred but are taken from the manhole prototype.

Where:

Gu = upstream ground
Gd = downstream ground
Zu = upstream invert
Zd = downstream invert
N = number of additional manholes
D = diameter (rise) of downstream pipe

In SewerGEMS V8i, element property inferencing is only available for gravity elements.

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There are two general cases for this tool
1. Layout new manholes - In this case, the user knows the elevations of the manholes at the beginning and end of a run
and the physical properties of the downstream conduit but has not yet placed the intervening manholes and pipes.
The user indicates the number of manholes that will be places in the gap and they will automatically be inserted.
This is useful in laying out new systems.
2. Follow existing path - In this case, the user has laid out the manholes and the conduits between them. The user
employs this tool to assign properties to the elements between the upstream and downstream nodes. This is more
useful in filling in details of the system when the path is already determined whether for a new or existing run of
conduits.

Element Property Inferencing Dialog


To use the inferencing tool, click the Tools menu and select the Element Property Inferencing command.

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The dialog consists of the following controls:

Layout Type: Identify whether the inferencing tool should Layout New Elements or Follow Existing path.
Upstream Node and Downstream node: Pick the upstream and downstream nodes between which element properties
are to be inferred. Click on the Ellipse () button to select the element from the drawing. Picking the element
automatically returns control to this dialog. It is important that all data for the upstream and downstream elements
already be entered when opening this dialog. If for example ground elevations are missing from a node, then the
user should close this dialog and enter that data before opening this dialog.
Downstream pipe: Field is automatically filled in when the user picks the Downstream Node. If the user has
attached more than a single downstream conduit to the downstream node, an error is generated.
Interpolate ground elevations, Interpolate invert elevations and Overwrite pipe properties: If checked, the inference
tool will overwrite default values in the nodes and pipes between the upstream and downstream nodes. However, if
the user has manually assigned properties to these elements, those properties will be retained. These check boxes are
only available when Follow Existing Path has been selected because for new elements (Layout New Elements), the
user has no choice but to accept inferred values. The default elevation is 0 and default pipe size is 12 in. (300 mm).
If the ground elevation has been set to 512 ft (156 m) and the pipe size set to 18 in. (450 mm), then the inference
tool will only interpolate invert elevations for those elements.
Number of New Nodes: This field is only available when the user has selected "Layout New Elements." If the user
sets this value to N, the inference tool will place N nodes and N+1 conduits (of equal length) in a straight line
between the upstream and downstream nodes. For example, if the distance is 1376 ft (419 m) and the user wants 2
new elements, then the inferencing tool will add two manholes and three pipes each 459 ft (140 m) long.
Create new scenario: If the user checks this box, the tool will prompt for the name and the parent scenario for the
scenario being created. If the user does not check this box, then the new elements and properties will be placed in
the current scenario.
When a new scenario is created and the Parent Scenario is set to None, the alternatives that make up the scenario are
selected based on the first scenario listed in the Scenario Manager, usually the Base scenario. After the Element
Property Inferencing tool creates a scenario, ensure that the other alternatives in the new scenario are set up properly
(double-check active topology, inflows, initial setting, etc.).
Parent scenario: Name of parent scenario if new scenario is being created.
New scenario label: Name of new scenario if new scenario is being created.
Override alternative label: When a new scenario is being created, the user can check this box if the user wants to
control the name of the new physical alternative being created. If not, then the default new name is used.
New alternative label: if the "Override alternative label" box is checked, then the user provides the new name here.
Interpolate: Starts the inferencing calculations.
Close: Closes this dialog. Inferencing settings are saved for the project session. Once the project is closed, all
settings are lost. However, the user can open the dialog, setup the reach and close this dialog if additional input
information is required. When the user reopens the dialog (as long as the project was not closed), the settings will be
restored.
Help: Opens this Help.

Note: Note that no new Active Topology alternative is created by this tool. This is not an issue for the Follow
Existing Path option since no new elements are created, but can be for the Layout New Elements options. In the
latter case, the user should consider whether it is more desirable to create a new active topology alternative
before running the inferencing tool.
It is advisable to have all elements created and property data entered before opening this tool. New data cannot be
entered when this dialog is open.
Example

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Given the system below, and the values in the inferencing dialog, two new manholes are created between MH-3 and
MH-5.

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The following summary is displayed after the run.

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The resulting model looks like this:

If on the other hand, the system was already laid out with no elevation data for MH-7 and MH-8 and only default pipe
sizes (12 in., 300 mm) for CO-6, CO-7 and CO-8, the profile would initially look like this.

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After running, Follow Existing Path, the profile looks like this with correct elevations and pipe size set to 20 in. based
on the downstream conduit properties.

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New Element Layout Summary Dialog


This dialog appears after an interpolation operation has completed. After a a successful run the Statistics tab will
display the results of the operation, including how many nodes and pipes were created. The Messages tab displays any
warnings or errors.

Click the Save button to save the summary as a text file.


Click the Copy button to copy the summary to the clipboard.
Click the Help button to open the online help.

Existing Path Interpolation Results Summary Dialog


This dialog appears after a Follow Existing Path interpolation operation has completed. After a a successful run the
Statistics tab will display the results of the operation. The Messages tab displays any warnings or errors.
Click the Save button to save the summary as a text file.
Click the Copy button to copy the summary to the clipboard.
Click the Help button to open the online help.

i-Models
The term i-models is used to describe a type of Bentley file (container) which can be used to share data between
applications. The formal definition of an i-model is:

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An immutable container for rich multi-discipline information published from known sources in a known state at a
known time. It is a published rendition in a secure read-only container. It is a portable, self-describing and semantically
rich data file.
i-models can be thought of as similar to shapefiles in that they provide ways to share data. They are immutable in that
they cannot be modified (they are read-only). They reflect the state of the model file at the time the i-model was
created.
i-model support is built on Bentley technology and is not automatically installed with SewerGEMS V8i or other
hydraulic products. The software to use i-models is installed with Microstation and other Microstation based products
(versions 08.11.07 or later). If a user attempts to create an i-model and the support for i-model creation is not installed,
an error message to download and install the necessary files is issued. The i-model files can be installed from the
Bentley SELECTdownload site.
An i-model can contain all the elements and their properties for a model for a given scenario and time-step or the
information can be filtered so that only a fraction of the elements and their properties are incorporated in the i-model.
An i-model is generally much smaller than the .mdb file for the hydraulic model even though it does contain results.
For details on publishing and viewing i-models, see Publishing an i-model (on page 396) and Viewing an i-model
(on page 398).

Publishing an i-model
To create an i-model, select File > Export > Publish i-model once the desired scenario and time-steps have been
selected.
The following dialog opens with the defaults set so that all elements and properties are included in the i-model.

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The top left pane is a summary of this element types are to be included in the i-model. If a box by the element type is
checked, that element type is included. The Table/Properties column reflects the selections on the right side of the
dialog in terms of which elements and properties are included.
The bottom left portion of the dialog is used to identify which elements are to be included in the i-model. This can be
specified individually for each element type.
If the "Publish a subset of elements based on the Flex Table filters" box is checked, only those elements that are in the
filtered flex table will be included in the i-model.
If the "Exclude topologically inactive elements" box is checked, only active elements (Is active? = True) are included in
the i-model.
The user will usually not need to include all element properties in the i-model. The right side of the dialog is to identify
which properties of the elements are going to be included in the i-model. The default is "all properties". If the user
wants to only include a subset of properties, the user should create a flex table with only those properties and select that
flex table from the drop down list. Because it is possible to have multiple flex tables with the same name (e.g. Pipe
Table can be a predefined table or a Project table), the user can explicitly state the table path (e.g. Tables - Predefined
or Tables - Project). If the flex table is filtered, the filter is displayed in the Filter box and in the left pane, the Is Filtered
column is set to True for that element type. Note that element types that are not used in the current model are marked
with an icon

.
The Properties box on the right side of the dialog shows the properties that are imported for that element type.
If the box for "Publish project elements in 3D" is selected, the elements will be published in 3D.
The main motivation behind allowing publishing geometries in 3D is to enable clash-detection. That feature is expected
to be more important for gravity hydraulic products, but it is included with pressure-based applications as well. The
basic functionality regarding this topic can be summarized as:
Node cells' z-coordinates are assigned according to their elevation values, at their cell's insertion point.

3D node cells in the cell-library are supported.


Pipes are exported as cylinders, with partial toroidal shapes at their vertices.
Pipe cylinder diameters match assigned diameter values.
Pipe elevations in pressure applications are assumed to be at center of cylinders.
Pipe elevations in gravity applications have more details to be aware of (e.g. rim, invert and crown elevations).
References and any extra graphics published (e.g. annotations) are assigned a z-coordinate of 0.0.

When all settings are established for all element types, the user picks OK.
Upon starting the publishing, the user is asked for the file name for the .dgn file that will contain the i-model. The user
names the file and path as with any other Windows application.

Cell Libraries
Two cell libraries are used during i-model publishing, one for 2D and one for 3D.Default cell libraries are installed with
the product and these can be customized by the user. The files are Sewer2D.cel and Sewer3D.cel, and can be found in
the Bentley\SewerGEMS8 directory.
If no cell library is found, default cells are used (e.g. a circle in 2D and a sphere in 3D).

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Seed Files
Users may want to customize the seed-file that will be used for the publishing of an i-model. In that case, one or more
of the following files need to be created in the Bentley\SewerGEMS8 directory:
Seed Files
File Name

Description

hmimodelseed2dsi.dgn

2D / SI Units

hmimodelseed3dsi.dgn

3D / SI Units

hmimodelseed2dus.dgn

2D / US Units

hmimodelseed3dus.dgn

3D / US Units

If the appropriate user-customized seed file is not found, a default one will be used.

Viewing an i-model
It is anticipated that numerous applications will be able to view and use i-models. Initially, i-models can be view using:

Bentley View
ProjectWise Navigator
Microstation

In all of these applications, it is possible to open an i-model by browsing to the i-model when the ap starts and opening
the file.
If the model is not visible, pick the "Fit View" button. This should make the model visible. From this view, it is
possible to use other commands such as zooming and panning to navigate around the drawing.
To view the properties of individual elements, pick the Element Information button or pick Edit > Information in
Bentley View or Review > Information in ProjectWise Navigator. The user can then select and element and its
properties will be displayed.
The user can collapse or expand any category in the window.
In Microstation and Navigator, it is also possible to view tabular element data for each element type by selecting File >
Item browser. This opens the Items browser for element types as shown below:
Double clicking on one of the element types or picking the "Show Details" button from the top of the dialog, opens a
table for that element type.
If the tree is expanded before selecting Show Details and an individual element is selected, the user will see properties
for the selected element.

Automatic Design
StormCAD allows you to design many parts of the sewer network, including gravity piping and structures. The design
is flexible enough to allow you to specify the elements to be designed, from a single pipe size to the entire system.

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Pipes and structures are designed to consider several constraints, such as allowable ranges of slope, velocity, and cover.
In general, the design algorithm attempts to minimize excavation, which is typically the most expensive part of
installing sewer piping and structures.
Changes suggested to the model by an automatic design calculation will be saved to the Physical Alternative that you
specify. This Physical Alternative should be uniquely created just for the automatic design to avoid overwriting the data
in your other Physical Alternatives.

Using Automatic Constraint Based Design


Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT
Bentley SewerCAD CONNECT can automatically size conduits, set node invert elevations and determine the size of
inlets to pass a design storm while meeting user-specified constraints. To use this feature: set up the model for analysis,
specify which elements are to be sized and the sizes available for use in the design, indicate the constraints to be met,
and set the scenario's Calculation Type (found in the calculation options) to Design as opposed to Analysis.
Note: Automated conduit sizing only relates to closed conduits such as circular and elliptical pipes and box
conduits, not open channels.
The detailed steps are provided below:
1. Create a Bentley SewerCAD model with all the elements to be designed. Make initial estimates of the decision
variables such as conduit size and invert elevations. Run the model to make sure that it is complete and will
calculate without fatal errors.
2. Create a list of candidate conduit section sizes in the Conduit Catalog (click the Components menu and select
Conduit Catalog). These candidate conduits should have the same conduit shape and material as the pipe in the
original model. There must be at least one conduit in the Conduit Catalog with the same shape (e.g. circular) and
material (e.g. PVC) as the conduit being designed. While the user can construct this list manually, it is generally
recommended to build it using the Import from Library command and then picking the shape and material from the
list in the library, then deleting those sizes that should not be considered in design.
3. In the case of inlet sizing for catch basins, Bentley SewerCAD can automatically design the inlet opening length for
the inlet at any catch basin element in the network. However, there are three different Inlet Types in Bentley
SewerCAD : Percent Capture, Maximum Capacity and Catalog Inlet. Of these, only Catalog Inlets have a
configurable opening length, therefore, in order for Bentley SewerCAD to design opening length, the Inlet Type
must be set to Catalog Inlet, and an Inlet must be selected. It may be necessary to add a new inlet to Inlet Catalog
(click the Component menu and select Inlet Catalog), or import one or more from the Engineering Libraries.
Bentley SewerCAD will select an opening length for a particular inlet from the list of Design Lengths associated
with that inlet in the Inlet Catalog. The Design Lengths may be viewed or edited by clicking on the Design tab in
the Inlet Catalog. The design algorithm will determine the minimum available inlet length that meets the design
constraints. Bentley SewerCAD will not select a different Catalog Inlet during the design run, it will only select a
different opening length for the inlet specified.
4. Go to the Design Alternative (click the Analysis menu and select Alternatives) and set up the options for the run.
There are three decisions that need to be made for conduits in terms of which properties should be adjusted during
design: Design Conduit?, Design Start Invert?, and Design End Invert?. Checking any of these boxes means that
these properties will be adjusted during design. ("Design Conduits" means the software should determine the size of
the conduit.) Unchecking them means that the values set in the initial model will be maintained. For nodes, the
choices are: Design Structure Elevations? and Allow Drop Structure?. If you do not want to the Start (Upstream)
and/or Stop (Downstream) invert elevations to change during the design, you must set the Design Start Invert?
and/or Design Stop Invert? property to False. For catch basin inlets, the choice is Design Inlet Opening?
5. Next set up the design constraints. For conduits, if you pick Simple as the type, the Minimum and Maximum
Velocity need to be specified (or the de