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Patented Oct. 5, 1937.




William Hale Charch', Buffalo, and Albert Hersh
berger, Kenmore, N. Y., assignors, by mesne as

signments, to E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Com- I

pany, Wilmington, Del., a corporation of Del


No Drawing. Application February 24, 1934

Serial No. 712,793

(Cl. 134-79)
(4) Wax, cellulose derivativaresin or blend
This invention relates to moistureproof ma
terials and more particularly to a. composition ing agent, andsolvent.
As the- wax, a para?in wax having a melting
which will deposit a glass-clear, ?exible and
point between 50 C. and 60 C., and preferably
1 Claim.

moistureproof coating.

Prior to this invention, in order to produce

over 60 C., is preferred. Other waxes, such as

glass-clear andmoistureproof regenerated cellu beeswax, candelilla wax, bayberry, spermaceti

lose sheeting, the base regenerated cellulose and Montan wax may also be used. In some in
sheeting was coated with compositions containing
a minor portion' of a wax or waxy substance.

When a lacquer containing nitrocellulose wasl

. employed for the moistureproo?ng, the wax was

present in an amount less than 10% of the total

solids. According to the prior art, if the wax
in nitrocellulose lacquers were p' ssent in amounts
greater than 10% of the total solids, the coating
would have an undesirable wax blush or haze

which impaired the glass-clear transparency of

the coated ?lm.


Contrary to, the teachings of the prior art, we

20 have found that we can prepare glass-clear, trans

stances two or more waxes may be used in the

combination. For instance, when candelilla wax

is used conjointly with para?in wax, there results 10

a surface which is less susceptible to ?nger marks.
In other words, candelilla wax serves to impart a

hardness to the ultimate coating. Spermaceti

wax acts as a blending agent for paraf?nywith
pyroxylin. Certain synthetic waxes or wax-like 15
materials or esters obtained. chemically from
higher valcohols and acids, such as montanic acid
ester of lauryl alcohol, may be used.

As the cellulose derivative, a pyroxylin having

a high viscosity, such as 200 to 400 seconds and

20 .

- speci?cally of the order of 300 seconds, is pre- '

parent, moistureproof coatings from nitrocellu

lose lacquers, the solids of which contain wax in

ferred. -However, a pyroxylin of di?erent vis

cosity, such' as from one-half second up to one

excess of the cellulose nitrate and/or 50% or ' thousand seconds or more, may be used. It is ad
more of wax.

It is, therefore, an object of this invention to

provide a nitrocellulose lacquer, the solids of
which contain wax in excess of the cellulose

nitrate and/or 50% or more of wax, which will

deposit glass-clear, moistureproof, ?exible ?lms

30 or coatings upon the evaporation of'the solvent

at a temperature at least equal to the melting

\ point of the wax in the composition.

Another object of this invention is to provide

a moistureproof material, preferably glass-clear

vantageousto use a soluble pyroxylin of moder

ately high viscosity to give the coating composi

tion suf?cient body for satisfactory coating. 'In
so far as the nitrogen content of the nitrocellulose

is concerned it may be that which is ordinarily

used in lacquer grade nitrocelluloses. Though I
pyroxylin of the type above mentioned is pre
ferred, it is also possible to use other cellulose
derivatives such as higher cellulose esters, cellu- .

lose ethers or. mixed esters.

'In those compositions including a plasticizer, it

is possible to use 2~methyl-hexa-hydro-benzyl
comprising a transparent base thinly coated with phthalate or most of the common pyroxylin plas
a lacquer composition, the solids of which contain
ticizers, such as dibutyl phthalate, tricresyl phos
wax in_ excess of cellulose nitrate and/or 50% phate, etc. Certain plasticizers may function both
or more of wax.
as plasticizer and blending agent for the wax and 40
Other objects will appear from the following the
cellulose derivative. Dixylylethane isillus
and suitable'for use as a wrapping tissue, and

_ description and appended claim.

As is apparent from the foregoing objects, the

instant invention in one of its speci?c phases
relates 'to a composition, hereafter 'more fully
explained, the solids of which contain wax and
cellulose nitrate, the wax being in excess of the

quantity of the nitrocellulose present and/ or 50%

or more of said solidsand which will deposit a

moistureproof, glass-clear coating or film upon

the evaporation of the solvent at an-velevated


In general, the compositions to which the in

stant invention relate may be classified into .four
classes, the constituents of which consist of the

, .

.,.-. (l), Wax, cellulose derivative and solvent; .

(2)Wax, cellulose derivative, plastlcizer and


(3,),QWa'X, cellulose derivative, plasticizer, resin

60 or bike, 'ding agent, and solvent;

trative of such a material which so functions

when the cellulose derivative is ethyl cellulose.

When the composition is of the type which
includes them, any resin or blending agent com 45
patible with the cellulose derivativeand the wax
may be used. Those resins which act as blend
ing agents for the wax and the cellulose deriva
tive and which impart a hard, non-greasy sur
face to the coating are especially desirable. As 50

several illustrative examples of the especially suit

ed resins may bementioned rosin and its esters,v

hydrogenated rosin, esters of hydrogenated rosin

and also synthetic resins, such as are sold under
the trade names Albertols and Amberols. .

The solvent employed in the composition is very

important, since it determines whether the coat

ing or ?lm will be clear or hazy. As the solvent,
a solvent for' pyroxylin, which is also at once an

active solvent for the wax, is preferred. Prefer



ably, the solvent is one which boils at 80 C. or

100 C. or higher. This solvent is further gen

hereafter in any suitable and convenient man

ner, such as dipping, spraying, etc. i' The excess

' erally characterized by being completely miscible ' composition is removed in any suitable manner,

in all proportions with the waxy constituent of

the solids at a temperature higher than the melt
ing point of the wax in the composition. In ad
dition, such solvent should possess the property
of dissolving considerable amounts of wax even

at temperatures appreciably lower than the melt

10 ing point of the wax, such as 10 C. or 20 C. lower,
or, in- certain cases, still lower.- Av convenient

criterion for classifying the pyroxylin solvent

"femployed is as follows:


A 2% solution of para?in wax melting at ap

15 proximately 60" C. to 62 C. is prepared in the

solvent at a temperature above the melting point

such as by means of scraper rods, doctor knives

or doctor rolls, and preferably, either heated doc

tor rods or heated doctor knives. The coated
sheets are then transferred to a drier, the tem

perature of which'is held at approximately

80 C.-120 C. After drying, the coated material
may be given a humidifylng treatment, whereby
the residual solvents are removed, and also a suit


able amount of moisture is introduced into the

base sheet.

The compositions are to be ap', Led to the base

in a relatively thin coating. The total coating

thickness on both sides of the base ?lm may 15

of the wax. This solution is then allowed to cool ' range from approximately 0.00001 to 0.00010 of

gradually and the temperature at which the wax an inch, although, in certain special instances,
begins to crystallize is noted. If the tempera -it may be possible to use coatings of somewhat
20 ture at which the wax begins to crystallize lies greater thickness. When the solids oi the com
above 50 C. and solvent, in general will not be _ position consist of a mixture of wax and nitro 20
suitable for the herein described purpose. 0n cellulose, the coating thickness should generally
the other hand, if the temperature of crystalliza
be less than the coating thickness used when the
tion lies under 50 C. the solvent in general will composition also contains a blending agent and
be found to be suitable. By the same test it should generally approach the lower limits of
has also been found that the lower the tempera
the thickness range above set forth.
ture of crystallization of the wax from such a
The compositions herein described are particu
solution, the more e?ective will be the solvent for larly suitable for application to a transparent
the herein described purpose. For instance, cer
sheeting base, such'as regenerated cellulose,-gly
30 tain very effective solvents when submitted to the
col cellulose, casein, gelatin, cellulose acetate, etc. 30
above test retain the wax in solution at tempera
They may also be used onpapers, such as glass
tures as low as 40C. or even lower.
ine or other smooth, semi-transparent papers.
Several illustrative solvents which have given It is to be understood that the solvents of the

satisfactory results'are the higher boiling sol

applied composition will be selected so as not to

butyl butyrate, acetone oil, monobutyl ether of

deleteriously affect the base to which it is applied. 35

35 vents, such as amyl acetate or higher amtates,

ethylene glycol, methyl butyl ketone, beta ethoxy

ethyl acetate and cyclohexanone.
As above explained, the aforementioned sol
310 vents may be'used alone, that is, without the

addition of any other solvent material or diluent.

When the process is carried out as hereinbe

fore described, the product is moistureproof,

?exible, non-tacky, odorless and, when the base
is transparent, the ?nal product is also trans

For the purposes of this speci?cation and '

However, they may be used with other suitable .claim, we de?ne moistureproof materials as those
solvents 'of similar nature or they may be used which, in the form of continuous, unbroken
with hydrocarbon diluents, such as toluol, benzol,
45 etc., provided such diluents are not present in ' sheets or ?lms, permit the passage of not more
than 690 grams of water vapor per 100 square 45
such large quantities as would cause the precipi
meters per hour, over a period of 24 hours, at
tation of thenitrocellulose during the'evapora
approximately 39.5" C.i0.5 C., the relative hu
tion of the solvent. In general, the use in any midity of the atmosphere at one side of the ?lm
solvent mixture of appreciable quantities of sol
being maintained at least at 98% and the rela
vents which are not active para?in solvents. such tive humidity of the atmosphere at the other side
as alcohol, acetone, etc., is to be avoided. Small being maintained at such a value as to give a
quantities of these materials, however, may be humidity differential of at least 95%.
> .
present without deleterious e?ect. For example,
Moistureproo?ng-coating compositions are de
alcohol should not'bepr'esent in an amount of
55 more than 15%. Generally, if alcohol is used, it ?ned as those which, when laid down in the form
a thin, continuous? unbroken ?lm applied uni
should be present in an amount less than 10%, of
formly as a coating with a total coating thick
and preferably 1% or less. A preferred solvent ness not exceeding 0.0005" to both sides of a
-mixture consists of pyroxylin solvent of the type sheet of regenerated cellulose of thickness ap
described, with or without small quantities of
60 alcohol, and a hydrocarbon diluent, preferably an proximately 0'.0009", will produce a coated prod
uct which is moistureproof.
aromatic hydrocarbon diluent or chlorinated ali
For the purposes of experimental tests, espe
phatic hydrocarbon solvent, and the said diluent cially
for those materials adaptable as coating
being present in quantities insu?lcient to cause compositions,
moistureproof materials include
the precipitation of the nitrocellulose during those substances,
compounds or compositions
evaporation of the solvent.
In- all cases the ingredients of the solvent are
of such a nature as to. maintain all the solid
. ingredients in solution until substantially all the


solvents have been evaporated.

The solids content of the coating composition
may vary between 2% and 20% by weight. How
ever, 5% to 10% solids content gives very good


The composition hereinbefore described is ap

75 plied to a'base of the type more fully explained

' which, when laid down in the form of a continu

ous, unbroken ?lm applied uniformly as a coat

ing, with a total coating thickness not exceeding

0.0005" to both sides of a sheet of regenerated

vcellulose of thickness approximately 0.0009", will

produce a coated sheet which will permit the pas 70
sage therethrough of not more than 690 grams of
water vapor per'100 square meters per hour over
a period of approximately 24 hours, at a tempera

ture of 39.5 0.10.5 C. (preferably 39.5 C.:0.25

6.), with a water vapor pressure di?eren

tial of 50455 mm. (preferably 534:0.7 mm.) of
mercury. For convenience, the number of grams
of water vapor passed under these conditions may
be referred to as the permeability value." An
uncoated sheet of regenerated cellulose having a
thickness of approximately 0.0009" will show a

permeability valuaof the order of 6900.

coating composition is the same as that described

under 1(a) .

The coating thickness is about

0.00001 0! an inch. The coated sheet is ?exible,

non-tacky, and glass-clear. The coating has the

same surface properties as Example 1(a). \_\J 5


Parts by weight

(c) Parafiln wax (M. P. 48,C.-50 C.) _____


From the foregoing, it is apparent that under

Pyroxylin (283 seconds) _'_, ________ __


the conditions set forth, a moistureproofed re

. generated cellulose sheet is capable of resisting

Amyl acetate ______ __'.._-_ ____ _'_ _____ __


Alcohol __________ _; ____ ____ ________ __


Toluol ____________________ __. ______ __


the passage of moisture 'orwater vapor there

through at least ten times as eifectively as the

uncoated regenerated cellulose sheet.

In order to more clearly explain the nature of
the invention, the following speci?c examples are
set forth:

The process for application and the properties

of the sheet are the same as those described in
Example 1(a).



The method oi application and the properties

Parts by weight
(a) Paramn wax (M. P. so" C.-62 c.)__-___ 7.5
Pyroxylin (283 seconds) .. ___________ __




alcohol....___\________________ __

?n wax of Example I(e).

Example I'-Wax'-pyro:nylin composition

Acetic acid esters of high molecular _

weight synthetic alcohols (B. P.


v p (J!) White beeswaxis substitutedfor the paraf

of the ?nished sheet are approximately the same

as those described under Example1(a) .


(g) Candelilla wax is substituted for the paraf

fin wax of Formula 1(e) .

This sheet is glossy, clear and non-smearing.

(h) Montan wax is substituted for the paraf

?n wax of Formula 1(a).

I The sheet is glossy, clear and non-smearing.

140 C.-180 C.) __________ .._' _____ __._189.0


A sheet of regenerated cellulose, or other trans

Parts by weight
parentumaterial, is dipped into this solution and - (i) Paramn wax (M. P. 60_ (3.432 C.) ____ 7.5
the excess coating composition removed by any .
Pyroxylin (283 seconds) ____ __' ______ .4 4 2.5
suitable means, such as by means of scraper rods,
doctor knives, or doctor rolls. The coated sheets
are transferred to a drier, the temperature of

Iloiuol ________ _-i __________________ __

which is held at approximately 100 C. to 120 C.

After the .sheet is thoroughly dry, which may re
quire anywhere from 30 secondslto 3 minutes, it
vi may either be removed or it may be subjected to
a humidifying step. The humidifying step re

Example II-Wax-pyro:cylin-resin
. Parts by weight 40
(a) Paramn; wax (M. P. 60 C.-62 C.)_...._ . 7.5

The'total coating on both sides of the sheet

- should preferably not exceed 0.00004-0.00005 of
,an inch. The coated sheet is glass-clear, ?exi


' 2.5.


Alcohol _____________ __-____. ________ __


The method 01' applying the coating composition


and drying the coated sheet are the same as de


scribed under 1(a) . The coated and dried sheet

Low ?ash naphtha____.'. ___________ __-___..\ 47.5

is ?exible, non-tacky and glass-clear. The coat

ing thickness (both sides) may be about

The method lofapplying the coating and dry

ing is the same as in I(a). The properties of the
coated sheet are also the same as given in 1(a).

0.00005-000006 of an inch.


(0) Para?in wax (M. P. 60 C.62 c.)____ _ 7.5

(b) Amberol, grade 38-1, is substituted for

the hydrogenated rosin in Example 11(a). The
resulting coated sheet is transparent, ?exible and


Parts by weight
Spermaceti wax ______ -1 ___________ __


Pyroxylin (283 seconds) ___________ ____

2.5 I


(Note: Spermaceti is used here as a blending

(d) Para?in wax (M. P. 60 (L-62 C.)'____


Pyroxylin (283 seconds) ______ _..'_____



~ The coating composition is applied and dried

as previously described. The coating thickness
is approximately about. 0.00001 of an inch. The

the same as those described under 1(a). ~


Methyl butyl ketone'__'_-.. ___________ __ 195.0

Low ?ash naphtha ________________ __ 50.0

Parts byweight

4.0 60

W Rosin


The process for applying the coating composi

tion and the properties of the ?nished sheets are

Parts by weight

(c) Para?ln wax (M. P. 60 C.-62 C.)____


140 C.-180 C.) _____- ____________ __ 125.0

does not smear when handled.

Parts by weight

(d) Paraffin wax (M. P. 60 C.-62 C.)____




W rosin ______________ _,____-______

Amyl acetate ____________ ..; ________ __ 123.5

Low ?ash naphtha ________________ __






VI ' The method of application and drying of the


coated sheet is non-tacky, ?exible, glass-clear and

Amyl acetate______ .._- ______________ __ 123.5



Acetic acid esters of high molecular

weight synthetic alcohols (B. P.
Alcohol __________________ _.. _______ __


Toluol ____________________________ ___. v4.7.5

Parts by weight

Alcohol ____________________ _._'_________ __


rosin _______________ __

Amyl acetate7 _________________ _'..___ 123.5

(b) The above solids may be used with the fol

m1 acetate



ble, non-taclw and moistureproof.



The spermaceti wax in this formula acts in the

capacity of a blending agent. The coating thick 35
ness is about 0.00001 of an inch. The resulting
sheet is ?exible, non-tacky and vglass-clear. '

' "

lowing solvent composition:


Alcohol ____________________________ __

moves traces of residual solvents and also incor

porates a suitable amount of moisture into the
base sheet.

2.0 30

Spermaceti wax ______________ _;____..

Ethcxy ethylacetate _______________ __ 117.0





47.5 75



The coating composition is applied and dried

Example IV-Waz-mroxylimresin-plasticizer

gn'pgigigilsgndescribed. The properties are the




Parts by weight

Pyroxylin (283 seconds) ____________ __




Tricresyl phosphatef -------- -/.---2-O

Methyl butyl ketone_.__' _______ __'__-_ 200.0






Alcohol; _____________________ -__--.-_


The coating is applied and dried as previously

Low ?ash naphtha ________________ __


described. The product is ?exible, non-tacky

The coating composition is applied. and dried

as previously described. The coating thickness

be from 0.00005 to 0.00006 of an inch. The
15 properties are the same as 11(a) . '

and glass-clear, and the surface'is substantially



to abrasion.



Since it is obvious that various changes and

modi?cations may be made in the above descrip


Pyroxylin (283 seconds).7 __________ __ g

Dixylyl ethane ________ ____ _____ _;___-

Formula IV(a) with the result that a slightly

harder coat is obtained which is more resistant

Parts by weight

(a) Para?lnwax (M. P. 60 C.62 C.) _..__

(b) 2 grams or candelilla wax are added to

Example IIIWa:c-py'ro:cylin-plasticizer

tion without departing from the nature or spirit

Butyl acetate"; __________ __' ____ __'__ 117.0

thereof, this invention is not restricted thereto

Toluol ____________________________ __


except as set forth in the appended claim.

A1Coh01-__r______________ __'________ .._.


The coating composition is applied and dried

as previously described. The coating thickness
is of the order of 0.00001 to 0.00004 of an inch.


Parts by weight
(b) Paramn wax (M. P. 60 C.-62 C.) ___


Pyroxylin (283 seconds) ___________ __


2 ~ Methyl - hexa - hydro - benzyl -


phthalate ________ ..._ _____________ __


Acetic acid esters of.high molecular

weight synthetic alcohols (B. P.
140 C.-l80 C.) _________________ ..- 123.5
Alcohol _____________________ __' ____ __


Low ?ash naphtha....__e ___________ -4 v


The coating and drying is the same as pre

viously described.

The ultimate sheet is ?ex

ible, non-tacky and transparent.






A liquid coating composition consisting essen

tially of the.following ingredients and approxi

mate proportions by weight:
. .-

The properties are the same as II(a) .




Amyl acetate



Pymxylm ---------------- -,,-----

(e) Para?ln wax (M. P. 60 C.-62 c.)____

Hydrogenated rosin ________________ __
.Candemla wax ____________________ __


Parts by weight

(a) Para?ln wax (M. P. 60 Chi-62 C.) ____


Parts by weight

Parailin (M. P. 60 C.-62 C.) _..;__' ____ __

- 7.5

Pyroxylin _____________________ __ ______ _-



_/ 1.0

acetate ____ _'_ ____________ _.'. _____ __


Alcohol _______ __



rosin ________ __' ____ ..v___..__



V 47.5

said composition depositing a glass-clear, ?ex

ible, moistureproof coating uponvthe evapora
tion of the solvent at a temperature at least equal
to the melting point of the wax in the composi