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Penyebab Kerusakan Gulungan Short ke Ground :

1 . Gulungan lembab atau basah yang menyebabkan material insulasi kehilangan daya
insulasinya.
2 . Beban motor yg berlebih dalam jangka waktu lama, factor umur insulasi, insulasi
retak
3. Stator dan rotor bergesekan, yang menyebabkan lapisan insulasi sobek atau terbakar.
5. Ujung kumparan pada kutub lepas/rusak.
Factors of vibration and noise caused by improper assembly of bearing and
motor
(1) bearing radial clearance size.
(2) the end cover and frame stiffness. Motor stator and rotor and the end cover is
composed of a vibration system, poor axial rigidity of bearing and an end cover will be
with the vibration of the motor system occurred "tuning", causing large amplitude axial
vibration is through a bearing reached the end cover and the motor and resonance noise,
also electromagnetic noise of motor will through a bearing reached the end cap and the
motor.
(3) axial movement. Due to the effects of electromagnetic force between the stator and
rotor, chute more axial electromagnetic force components as well as the axial dimension
is processing, assembly of the accumulating error, when the motor runs total some axial
movement. Such measures properly, there will be a "buzz" sound, low frequency and big
and small. In the axial spring element (such as waveform spring), can reduce the "buzz"
sound, the sound level of stability. It can obviously reduce the vibration. But it is
necessary to point out that only in the bearing, the other assembly condition is correct
and the elastic element elastic stability can achieve the desired effect. (4) bearing
assembly. Bearing assembling quality of the motor noise impact is very big, the
difference of assembly 5-10dB. to select the appropriate size of the grease; pay attention
to assembly the purity of the can not be mixed with iron powder, fine sand, dust and
other debris; the filling amount of grease to the right; bearing into the bearing chamber
to hand push, avoid hammer hit. In addition, to ensure motor coaxial degree of the
mouth of the accuracy and installation must be correct, otherwise a skewed rotor will
affect the bearing clearance.

Analysis of starting performance of motor


Motor starting, including the motor access to the power from the rotor to reach the full
speed of the whole process. Motor should be with a sufficiently large locked rotor torque
and minimum torque and to drive mechanical load quickly starting, and reaches the
rated speed and normal work; at the same time should have sufficient for the maximum
torque, to ensure certain overload capacity. And for blocking the current (or blocking to
the power), should be limited, so as to avoid the power supply has a large voltage drop
and affect the normal operation of other electrical equipment connected to the same
power supply. In addition, the starting current is too large, it will cause the motor winding
overheating and subjected to too large electromagnetic force impact. Starting

requirements motor is allowed in cold continuous starting twice (between the two starts
the motor should be natural stop), or in rated operation in hot state starting once, and
the provisions of the driven load inertia value.
Cause of winding short circuit
(1) long-term motor over load operation, winding current long-term and excessive, make
insulation aging Jiaocui, loss of insulating effect or shaken and crack and fall off.
(2) the winding insulation is affected with damp, without drying, direct access to the
power supply, the power supply voltage causes insulation breakdown.
(3) the insulation of the coil group of the stator winding or lead wire is broken or
damaged, or when the connection is careless, one or a few coils are short.
(4) for embedded operating line accidentally, electromagnetic line outer layer of
insulating material chafed or welding wire, high temperature, touch the end cover, form a
short circuit.
(5) because of the assembly operation is not careful, the insulating layer Pengpo
electromagnetic wire layer, a short circuit.
(6) in the slot of the winding end or in the slot of the double layer winding, there is no
cushion, or the breakdown is damaged.
(7) the end of the winding is too long, touching the end cover, constitute a short circuit.
(8) the electric motor has the elastic pad and the balance pad, which constitute the turn
to turn short circuit.
An important index to measure the performance of motor
1, starting current should be as small as possible, because of the large starting current
is unfavorable, the main damage is:
2, starting torque should be as far as possible to generate enough starting torque. The
starting current of the asynchronous motor is very big, but the starting torque is not too
large. Because when starting, s=1, although I2 is very large, because the cos 2 is very
low, so they don't have a large starting torque.
3, starting at the start of the process, the speed should be as smooth as possible.
4, starting method and equipment starting method should be simple and reliable;
starting equipment should be simple, economical, easy to maintain.
5, reduce the consumption of the power consumption of the starting process should be
as small as possible.
One of the most important is the first two, the main problem of the asynchronous
motor starting is the starting current is too large and the starting torque is not big
enough. In order to limit the starting current, and get the appropriate starting torque,
different starting methods for different capacity and different types of motors should be
used.
The reason of electromagnetic
The electromagnetic noise is one of the main noise source of motor, in the multipolar
motor or ventilation noise lower motor, electromagnetic noise is more prominent, under
normal circumstances it with the motor power is increased and increased and load to
increase the noise source. The noise and motor electromagnetic design parameters are
closely related, such as improper design, electromagnetic noise will be very obvious,
there may become more than the main noise source to the other noise (ventilation and
mechanical noise).
Definition and type of motor work system

The definition of the work system: the motor is subjected to a series of load conditions,
including starting, no-load, stopping and breaking energy and its duration and sequence
of order. Where the no-load: refers to the motor at zero power output of the rotating
state. Full load: refers to the state of the motor at its quota of running. Stop and break:
refers to the motor in no movement, no electricity or mechanical energy input state.
The main noise sources of the motor
The noise is a combination of various frequencies and different intensity of the noise,
and this annoying sound is well known to human harm. The noise tends to vibrate with
vibration, and too much vibration can damage other equipments. The vibration noise
level reflects the level of product design and manufacturing, and is an important index of
product quality.. It is now generally recognized that the importance of reducing noise. As
service staff should be clear how motor noise is generated, and what factors, at the same
time to know how to reduce the noise and other methods.
The main noise sources of the motor are electromagnetic noise, mechanical noise and
ventilation noise..
Small motors used grease
(1) calcium sodium based grease. (2) composite calcium based grease. (3)
molybdenum disulfide compound calcium-based grease. (4) lithium grease. (5) HP-R
grease.
Bearings on both sides of the bearing cap, on the one hand protect the bearings, so
that dust does not enter the run, the other is the local storage of grease, the grease in
the cover of the requirements can not be too much or too little, usually cover internal
volume of 1 / 2 ~ 1/3. Bearing grease is generally added to the bearing outer ring gap of
1/3 ~ 1/2.
Grease performance is mainly two quality indicators
The first drop point: that the grease is heated to a certain extent began to drop the
first drops of temperature, it marks the grease heat capacity, maximum working
temperature of various lubricating grease should be 20~300C. lower than the drop
point
Second cone penetration: at a certain temperature, certain weight with conical
hammer into the grease inside 5S for cone penetration depth, the lubricating grease. It
said grease sticky degree. Cone penetration of lubricating grease is too small, that is too
hard, and not easy to completely fill the friction surface; cone penetration through the
large, illustrate the grease is too soft, and prone to leakage.
Cause when the motor is running the sound is not normal
Cause when the motor is running the sound is not normal are the following:
1, the stator and rotor rub;
2 touch shell, rotor blades;
3, rotor rub insulating paper;
4, a serious lack of oil bearing;
5, motor with debris;
6, the motor phase operation hum.
The relationship between temperature and feel

Often the client advisory motor surface temperature, in the absence of accurate
measurement conditions, can by hand to sense temperature, now we will share this
correspondence is as follows, to facilitate the estimation of temperature.
1 detected part temperature at 0 degrees, finger feeling cold, if long time continuous
touch, will produce a piercing pain;
2 when the detected parts temperature at 10 degrees, feel is cool, but generally can
endure. When the detected parts temperature is around 20 degrees, feeling a little cold,
with time, can feel Chien wen;
3 when the detected parts temperature is around 30 degrees, feel lukewarm comfort;
4 when the detected parts temperature at 40 degrees, such as touching the high fever
patients;
5 when the detected parts temperature is around 50 degrees, feel more hot, long time
exposure may have a sense of sweat;
6 when the detected parts temperature is around 60 degrees, feel very hot, the general
can endure 10 seconds;
7 when the detected parts temperature is around 70 degrees, finger endurance were
only about 3 seconds, the emergence of burning, and the contact part soon turn red;
8 when the detected parts temperature above 80 degrees, only momentary contact, and
increased pain (spicy fire),
if the touch time is too long, will burn.We should pay attention to check the method,
avoid hand burn: the right hand index finger, middle finger and ring finger close together,
with their finger in section dorsal with method of elastic touch the touch of a measured
surface, concluded that no damage to the skin, can use the finger belly to determine
temperature.
Why not start three phase asynchronous motor
Reasons for not starting of three-phase asynchronous motor are the following:
1, the power is not switched on;
2, fuse;
3, the stator or rotor winding circuit;
4, the stator winding ground fault;
5, the stator winding phase short circuit;
Error
6, stator winding;
7, overload or mechanical transmission is jammed;
8, the rotor copper bar loosening;
No lubricating oil
9, bearings, shaft due to thermal expansion, obstruct the rotary in bearings;
10, control equipment wiring error or damage;
11, the over current breaker too small
12, bearing damage.
Motor with load runtime reasons for the slow speed
Reasons for the slow speed of the motor with a load operation are the following:
1, the power supply voltage is too low;
2, broken rotor bars;
3, there is a short circuit coil or coil set point;
4, coil or coil group reversed Department;
5, reverse phase winding;
6, the overload.

The motor itself caused by overheat


(1) the motor winding open circuit, resulting in unbalanced three-phase current, the
motor overheating;
(2) the motor winding short circuit, short circuit current is much larger than the
normal operating current, the winding copper loss increase, leading to
overheating winding, even burning;
(3) the motor connection errors, when a delta connected motor wrongly into the
star shaped, motor still with full load, the stator winding current flowing to exceed
the rated current, eventually lead to motor bicycle, if stopped for a long time and
has not cut off power supply, winding is not only a serious overheating, will also
be burned. When the motor is the wrong star connection into a triangle, the
winding and core overheating, will be seriously burned winding;
(4) the motor windings reversed, will lead to serious unbalance of three-phase
current, and the heating winding.
(5) the mechanical failures of motor, when the motor shaft bending, the assembly
is not good, is there anything wrong with the bearing and so on, all can make the
motor current increases, increasing the copper loss and mechanical friction loss,
the motor overheating.
(2) Ventilation adverse causes motor overheating
(3) (1) the electrical environment temperature is too high, the air inlet temperature is
high;
(2) into the air with debris blocked, so that the poor into the wind, causing air flow
into the small;
(3) the internal dust motor too much, the impact of heat;
(4) fan is damaged or is reversed, resulting in no wind or small air volume;
(5) not installed wind cover or the motor end cover not installed wind deflector,
resulting in motor without wind path of;
(6) enclosed motor fin defect too, radiating area decreased
(4) The reason for the power motor overheating
(5) (1) the power supply voltage is too high;
(2) the power supply voltage is too low;
(3) the voltage unbalance;
(4) the three-phase unbalanced power.
(6) The cause of excessive load current
(7) (1) the air gap between the stator and rotor exceeds the specified value;
(2) the motor rotor axial displacement of rotor end; refers to shrink to the stator
core, the flux increases in reluctance ends meet, resulting in the no-load current is
too large.
(3) ball bearing wear and shaft bending caused by stator, rotor rub. Although the
Department at the motor no-load, such as load, so that the no-load current is too
large.
(4) each phase winding is not enough.
three-phase current imbalance reasons
(1) the three-phase power supply voltage unbalance.
(2) a motor phase winding part of the coil assembly or wrong.
(3) the motor windings are short-circuit. If a short circuit, the motor not only fever,
accompanied by a special noise.
(4) motor stator winding open circuit.
Most of the user the power problems, specific detection method usingphase

inversion.
Motor, three-phase current unbalance
Method for improving starting performance
The common squirrel cage asynchronous motor has many advantages, but its direct
larger starting current, the starting torque is not large. Using the method of step-down
start to reduce the starting current, but also significantly reduce the starting torque. In
order to improve the performance of the starting motor, can begin from the rotor slot,
using the "skin effect", the rotor resistance increases when starting, in order to increase
the starting torque and reduce the starting current, during normal operation of the rotor
resistance and can automatically reduce, rotor copper loss is not big, does not affect the
efficiency of the runtime. Starting performance of the rotor with deep groove type and
double squirrel cage asynchronous motor to improve.
Motor temperature is too high or smoking causes
1,
2,
3,
4,
5,
6,
7,
8,

the power supply voltage is too high or too low;


overload;
operation of single phase motor;
the stator winding ground fault;
damage of bearing or bearing too tight;
stator winding or phase to phase short circuit;
the ambient temperature is too high;
the motor is not smooth or fan duct damage.

Wire selection
The stator slot size is determined, be sure to put the number of turns of wire in the
groove, each turn to several strands of parallel, how much is the share of the gauge. Wire
winding of the three-phase induction motor stator is often used to reduce the number of
shares and wound, skin effect, of course, and around the number can not be too much,
so as not to cause the difficulty on the process. And when the gauge can be the same
around the wire gauge, can also be a two gauge adjacent. To pay on the way that the first
slot line selection, selection of gauge is relatively easy, as long as according to the
current density and the size of the current can choose the winding wire gauge.
The method to determine the motor overload
1, the drive belt removing, rotary machine spindle is driven by hand, look at the
spindle rotation is flexible. If the driven machine damage part or dirty institutions
hinder spindle rotate flexibly, namely overload.
2, the current meter and power series, running motor, if the meter readings greater
than the motor nameplate ratings, that motor overload.
Variable speed control
When changing the connection of one stator winding, magnetic pole rotating magnetic
field generated is changed. This method of variable pole speed only applies to threephase cage induction motor, does not apply to the wound rotor asynchronous motor.
Because the number of poles of cage rotor of the motor can be changed with the stator
pole number changes, while the rotor winding rotor motor in rotor winding has been
determined the number of pole pairs, in general it is difficult to change the number of

pole pairs.
The advantages of variable pole adjustable speed is the required equipment is simple,
the disadvantage is the motor winding head more, speed too few. In order to avoid the
difficulties of rotor winding pole changing wound rotor asynchronous motor, without the
use of variable pole speed, variable speed control for cage asynchronous motor.
Hazard circuit of three phase unbalanced (Continued)
Influence on power distribution panel and low voltage lines
(1) the three-phase unbalanced load will increase the loss of line:
Three-phase four wire power supply line, the load average assigned tothree
phase, with current per phase is I, the neutral line current is zero,the power loss is: P1
= 3I2 The maximum unbalance, namely, a phase of 3I, the other two are zero,the neutral
line current is 3I, the power loss is: P2 = 2 (3I) 2R = 18I2R = 6 (3I2R) The
maximum unbalance power loss is 6 times the balance, in other words, if the
maximum unbalance monthly loss of 1200 kWh, theequilibrium when the loss is only
200 kWh, thus adjusting the three-phase load loss reduction potential.
(2) the three-phase unbalanced load may cause serious consequencesto burn off the
circuit, burned switch equipment:
The imbalance of heavy phase current is too large (by 3 times), the
overload multiple. The heat generated by the Q = 0.24I2Rt, the currentincreased to 3
times, then heat for 9 times, may cause the phaseconductor temperature rise, so
that burning. And because the neutral conductor section in general should be
a line section 50%, but in the choice, some are too small, plus the joint quality is not
good, so that thewire resistance increases. Risk neutral line broken higher.
Similarly in the power distribution panel switch, causing heavy
loadphase burned, contactor heavy-duty phase burn out, so the damage and other
serious consequences.
The motor housing charged reason
1, power line and ground mistake;
2, the motor winding damp, insulation aging insulating propertiesdecrease;
3, lead wires and wiring box touch shell;
4, local damage to winding insulation wire touch shell;
5, core relaxation wound wire;
6, ground failure;
7, the wiring board is damaged or surface too much oil.
Assembly and the requirements of the motor

1, the two bearing load bearing rotor gear, when loaded by heat or cold pressing method.
Regardless of which method to use, should be added to the inner ring of the bearing
force. Heat sets when the temperature is not too high, generally at 100~105
2, the rear cover into the rear bearing, and tighten the rear bearing cover screws.
3, with a rear end cover into the stator rotor.
4, tighten the rear cover bolt, install the front end cover, a front bearing cover, and
tighten the firmware.
5, fan, fan cover, and tighten the firmware.
6, the assembly is completed, the rotary shaft by hand, if the rotation is flexible and no
noise, said assembly end.
Requirements of rolling bearing assembly technology
(1) the end of rolling bearing with designation shall be mounted in the
visible direction, so that the replacement check.
(2) bearings mounted on a shaft or a bearing chamber, askewphenomenon is
not allowed.
(3) two bearing coaxial, must have a bearing with axial moving scope in the axial thermal
expansion.
(4) when the bearing is assembled, the pressure (or impact) should bedirectly added to
the ferrule end face to be matched, not allowed to pass through the rolling pressure.
(5) should be kept clean to prevent the entry of foreign matter in the process of
assembling, bearing.
(6) the bearing assembly shall be flexible operation, small noise,temperature does not
exceed 500C
The structure and advantages of rolling bearings
Rolling bearing frame is composed of an outer ring, inner ring, generally keep rolling
body and. The inner ring and the shaft neck is the basic hole system (basic deviation of a
hole tolerance zone, with different basic deviation tolerance zone of the shaft to form a
system of various matching), outer ring and bearing chamber hole Weiji shaft system
(basic deviation of a certain tolerance zone of the shaft, the hole with different basic
deviations the tolerance zone formed a kind of system with various matched). When
working, the rolling body, the outer ring raceway rolling, rolling friction. Rolling bearing
has the advantages of small friction, small axial size, convenient replacement and easy
maintenance and so on, so in the small induction motor, widely use rolling bearing.
Small motor winding mould size determination method
1 double winding: core double winding winding mode as shown in. (Note: thecalculation
results)
1. The length of the edge (mm): L=LFe+2L1
Type: L -- length of core linear part, mm;

LFe -- the length of the stator core, mm;


L1 -- coil linear portion extending core side length, mm; for the motor center height
of 160mm and below, 15mm; center height of 180 225mm, is 20mm; motor center
high above 250mm, 25mm.
PI (Di1+h+r1)
. Width: By= -- -- -- y (mm)
Z1
Type: winding Y -- to slot number distance;
Di1, h, R1 see.
The hypotenuse length: Lx=K1*By
Type: K1 -- empirical coefficient, can be selected from the list below.
The number of poles
2
4
6
8
K1
0.62
0.6
0.58
0.58
The 2 single-layer concentric winding: (Note: the calculation results)
PI (Di1+h+r1)
. Width: By= K2 * -- -- -- y (mm)
Z1
Type: K2 -- empirical coefficient, concentric windings, the q=4 0.745;concentric
windings of q=5, 0.678.
. Radius: R1=By1/2 (mm); R2=By2/2 (mm) R3=By3/2 (mm);

. Straight edge length: L=LFe+2L1 (mm)


3 single cross winding: (Note: the calculation does not match)
PI (Di1+h+r1)
. Width: By1= -- -- -- * (Y1x1) (mm)
Z1
PI (Di1+h+r1)
. Width: By2= -- -- -- * (Y2x2) (mm)
Z1
Type: Y1, Y2 -- small circle, circle respectively to slot numberrepresentation of pitch;
Empirical data of x1, X2, press the table:
The number of poles
2
4
(small coil) x1
1.85
0.85
(large coil) x2
2.1
1.1
1. The length of the edge (mm): L=LFe+L1
. Radius: R1=0.53*By1 (mm) R2=.055*By2 (mm)
4 single chain winding: (Note: the calculation does not match)
PI (Di1+h+r1)
. Width: By= -- -- -- * (Yx3) (mm)
Z1
Type: X3 -- empirical data from 0.85, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 0.55.

The radius: R=0.625*By (mm)


. Straight edge length: L=LFe+L1 (mm)
5 core thickness:
B=1.1ndi (mm)
Type: n -- each layer of wire root number, if a plurality of winding, N and around the root
number per layer by turns;
Di -- a single insulated wires diameter (mm).
The motor power is small, b=8 ~ 10mm, the large power motor, b=10 ~ 15mm.
The 6 clamping plate size:
The same shape and mold core plywood, each side than the core release is about the
length of the coil thickness e+ (5~10) mm, e coil thickness can be calculated as follows:
E=W1*nc*di/0.86b (mm)
Type in:
W1 -- the stator coils;
NC -- the stator coil and winding number;
B -- core thickness, (mm).
7 when winding of wire tension:
Should be adjusted according to the winding speed, wire diameter, the general should be
controlled in the range of 21~31N/mm2. Winding machine for the general rate
of 150~200r/min.
In the winding process, wire joint should be in the end edge part.
Method for reducing the surface vibration of the motor
(1) increase the exciting force wave (wave number of pole pairs).Increasing
the radial force produced by the harmonic magnetic field wavenumber, mainly rely on
the reasonable selection of the rotor slot set.
(2) the natural vibration frequency stagger frequency of excitation forceand motor
structure is important, so to determine the natural frequency of the stator structure, the
rotor system and the end cover, and thenatural frequency and
main vibration frequency were compared.
(3) increase the stator yoke thickness, in order to improve the stiffness.

(4) adding damping material, in order to increase the dampingperformance of the


motor structure. Varnish or epoxy resin to the stator laminations completely glued
together, and filling the gap between thecore and the base
of the motor, can increase the structural damping.
(5) connected between core stator lamination and base of
the machinery,the minimum base vibration. This method is only applicable to large and
medium-sized motor, the inner core and the outer base of motor in this case by elastic
elements.
Slot type selecting principle
Choose what kind of groove, depends on the specific situation...
Efficient, the stator slot dumpy, in order to reduce leakage, improve operational
efficiency, rotor slot is as large as possible, but since the start of the restrictions, but also
have to choose the knife shaped, convex shaped groove, to start the current limit of
rapidly rising...
Frequency conversion, with large slot, supports the maximum torque, does not take
into account the starting performance, rotor slot selection smooth straight side area...
Material saving, low cost, small trough as the principle, performance can speak in the
past, but also can greatly reduce the material consumption, asaccepted by the general
customers
The cause of the motor winding to ground
(1) asynchronous motor overload, long-term, fixed rotor rub (sweeping).
(2) winding insulation, the insulation performance is reduced, leading to the
ground (commonly known as "touch shell") fault.
(3) in the replacement of stator winding insulation, slot without pad or damage.
(4) the end winding is too long and the end cover together
Hazard circuit of three-phase unbalance
Effects of high voltage line
(1) increase the high voltage line loss:
Low voltage three-phase load balance, 6 ~ 10K high voltage side Vbalance, a high
voltage line the current in each phase is I, the power loss is: P1 = 3I2 Low
voltage three-phase unbalanced load will be reflected in the high side,the maximum
unbalance, voltage corresponding to 1.5I, the other two are 0.75 I, power loss: The P2
= 2 (0.75I) 2R + (1.5I) 2R = 3.375I2R =1.125 (3I2R) The high-pressure line energy
loss increased by 12.5%.
(2) increase the high line tripping, reduce the number of switchingequipment service
life:
We know that the high voltage line overcurrent fault accounted for a considerable
proportion, the reason is that the current is too large. Low voltage three-phase
load imbalance may cause pressure a phase currentis too large, resulting in high voltage
line overcurrent trip blackout, caused widespread blackouts, and substation
switching equipment will reduce the service life of frequent trip.

Bearing assembly
Rolling bearing assembly method used should be the size and the amount of
interference to choose. General bearing assembly methods are hammering method,
using screw or lever presses pressed into France and thermal loading method. But in any
case, can not knock the bearing ring, cage, rolling bodies or the sealing member.
Deep groove ball bearing assembly methods are hammering common law and pressed
into law. Small motors are generally used push method, using a direct bearing mounting
pressed into the bearing journal and the bearing chamber; while hammering method to
use when hammering copper pad in special units, with a hammer onto the bearing inner
ring journal or hammering method will load bearing outer ring cap bearing chamber. If a
large amount of interference journal size is also larger, in order to facilitate the assembly
of hot charging method used, is about bearing heating, and then, and the state of the
shaft with the room temperature.
Unbalanced three-phase circuit hazards
Impact on distribution transformers
( A ) three-phase unbalanced load will increase transformer losses :
Transformer load loss and load loss including loss . Under normal circumstances the
operating voltage transformer basically unchanged, ie no-load loss is a constant. While
the load loss of the operation of the transformer with the load change, and the square of
the load current
Proportional . When the three-phase unbalanced load operation, the transformer load
loss can be viewed as three single-phase transformer load loss of .
We know from mathematical theorem : Suppose that a, b, c 3 numbers are greater than
or equal to zero , then a + b + c 33 abc.
When a = b = c , the algebraic sum a + b + c to obtain the minimum of : a + b + c = 33
abc.
Therefore, we can assume that the three-phase transformer losses were : Qa = Ia2 R,
Qb = Ib2 R, Qc = Ic2 R, the formula Ia, Ib, Ic , respectively, the phase current transformer
secondary load , R is the phase resistance of the transformer . The loss of expression of
the transformer
Following formula:
Qa + Qb + Qc 33 [ (Ia2 R) (Ib2 R) (Ic2 R) ]
It can be seen , the transformer in the case of constant load , when Ia = Ib = Ic , i.e.,
balanced three-phase load , the transformer loss is minimized .
The transformer loss:
When the transformer three phase operation, ie Ia = Ib = Ic = I when , Qa + Qb + Qc =
3I2R;
When the transformer is operating at maximum unbalance , i.e. Ia = 3I, Ib = Ic = 0 , Qa
= (3I) 2R = 9I2R = 3 (3I2R);
I.e., the maximum variation of unbalance to balance the loss of three times .
( 2 ) three-phase unbalanced load may cause serious consequences transformer
burned :
The heavy phase current imbalance is too large ( increased to three times ) , excessive
overloading may cause overheating of windings and transformer oil . Winding
overheating, insulation aging accelerate ; transformer oil overheating, resulting in
deterioration of oil quality , quickly lower the transformer insulation

Performance and reduce the transformer life ( the temperature is increased 8 , life
will be reduced by half ) , and even burned windings.
( 3 ) three-phase unbalanced load operation will result in zero sequence current
transformer is too large , the local metal temperature increased:
Under the three-phase unbalanced load operation of the transformer, would have a zerosequence current, while internal transformer zero sequence current exists, zero-sequence
generated in the core flux , these zero- sequence flux in the transformer tank wall will or
other metal member constituting the
Loop. But does not consider the distribution transformer design elements for the
magnetic component of these metals , the resulting hysteresis and eddy current heating
of these components , resulting in partial metal transformer abnormal temperature rise ,
transformer operation will lead to serious accident
Direction of rotation of the rotating magnetic field
Uvw in positive sequence phase AC motor clockwise access u-phase, v-phase, w-phase
winding, a magnetic field generated thereby is turning clockwise (ie, winding by the
current phase advance current phase shift backward winding ), if any exchange
connected to the motor winding two-phase alternating current phase sequence, such as
the u-phase alternating current winding is still connected to the u-phase, v-phase winding
is connected to the w-phase AC, w-phase winding connected v-phase alternating current,
when the phase sequence of the three current counterclockwise, then the resulting shift
is counterclockwise rotating magnetic field (the one winding of the current phase
advance current phase shift backward winding).
It can be concluded: a steering motor is a rotating magnetic field, i.e., the steering
motor rotor is connected three-phase winding current phase sequence determined by the
three-phase alternating current corresponding to the positive-sequence uvw uvw motor
windings connected in , the motor rotates in the clockwise direction, and as long as any
two of the motor phase windings exchange connected to an electrical phase sequence,
the rotating magnetic field, the reverse rotation of the motor is subsequently reversed.
Motor insulation class
The use of electrical insulation products to a variety of factors (such as temperature,
electrical and mechanical stress, vibration, harmful gases, chemicals, moisture, dust, and
irradiation, etc.) effects, and the temperature usually is the aging of insulation materials
and dominant factor. A practical result has been recognized worldwide as the heat
resistance classification method, that is, the heat resistance of the electrical insulation is
divided into several heat levels. Motor insulation class depends on its use of heat
insulating material grades. The insulating material under normal conditions in
accordance with the allowable limit temperature can be divided into Y, A, E, B, F, C, H
seven levels, the limit temperatures of Y 90 , A 105 , E 120 , B 130 , F 155
, H 180 , C> 180 .
Variable frequency motor pumps, fans load application
Pumps, fans, class load, the frequency can be adjusted to control the motor's power
output to achieve energy-saving systems.Pump operating point is determined by the
pump head curve and line resistance characteristic curve intersection. P = QH (P power,
Q flow, H pressure head) (as A ') 3, the power of the operating point of the area enclosed
by the curve.

The traditional water flow through the valve to adjust. This method is by increasing the
pipeline resistance characteristics. Although the regulating valve Q reduced, but H
increases, and efficiency. Thus the energy saving effect is very limited.
Changing the speed that changes the operation of the pump characteristic curve
without changing the pipeline resistance properties. Based on the similarity principle,
head H to the square of decline, while decreasing power P places cubic relationship
(Figure A "point), but also to maintain the original high efficiency, so this method is an
effective way to save energy when the flow rate is reduced to the original 80%, the
power consumption is only 51% of the original, saving 49% but with the regulating valve,
only about 5% of the energy saving.
Use the inverter can effectively improve the power factor, the data from the table, the
use of reactive power reduction after conversion of 21.3%. Meanwhile, the converter with
the inlet and outlet of the dual filter device, eliminating the motor starter and
electromagnetic interference impact on power. The use of inverter motor speed is
adjusted according to the load: load is low, the motor speed governor reduced; load
increases, the motor speed increases accordingly. Protect the pump motor will not appear
low speed high load conditions, nor will there be higher than the rated current frequency
overdrive situation. Motor at low speed, since the current low frequency coil enameled
less heat, temperature less conducive to extend the service life of the motor coil. Other
mechanical parts as low speed, also help to extend the service life.
Inverter system with soft start function for pump and motor mechanical connection
provides a flexible, gentle, non-jumping course starts and stops, to avoid mechanical
shock, you can extend the mechanical connection of motor and pump service life of
components.
In summary, fan, pump load conditions, the use of variable frequency motor will produce
better economic benefits, while the smoothness of the frequency conversion of the entire
fan, water pump system, vibration, noise better inhibition.
Bearing noise causes
A bearing, the outer bearing ring, during which the rolling elements such as balls or
rollers and other parts of the holder, relative movement between them, the relative
movement between elements of the impact on irregular Noises. So bearing sound often
distributed over a wide frequency band, low-frequency portion of the inner and outer
eccentric or irregular, or rolling elements arranged in irregular spots and other precision
rotation effect, causing the rotation frequency or frequency noise and vibration. High
frequency portion by a rolling contact bearing raceway and the rolling surface, that the
surface of the road and surface damage caused corrugated, often in the range of 1 ~
5KHz frequency, peak at 2kHz or more in the frequency 3kHz, this bearing sound
frequency speed has little to do, but the size was increased with the speed. Described
above are related to the quality of the bearing itself, the noise generated.
Often find the same quality in a different batch of bearings mounted on the motor, the
measured bearing noise varies widely, indicating that the motor bearing noise and the
structure and assembly process itself, a great relationship. First, file size precision rotor
bearing and end caps bearing chamber size will affect the accuracy of the bearing with
precision, thereby changing the size of the bearing radial clearance, the radial clearance
is too small or too Metropolitan adverse noise and vibration. Rotor bearing profiles and
precision bearing chamber cover lower tolerance band wide, and bearing the original
clearance associated upper and lower limits larger motor noise will cause instability. In
addition, the impact of the bearing assembly process is also great, should be kept clean
bearings, bearings installed Euparagonimus process should pay attention, not mixed with

debris and grease fill quantity to the right. Poor motor cover also cause stiffness bearing
noise increased.
The concept of sampling and characteristics (continued)
Property values by inspection characteristics can be divided into sampling Sampling
Inspection and measurement sampling two categories. Counting the piece also includes
sampling and sampling point count sampling, sampling is based on the piece in the
sample being tested several substandard products, infer whether the entire batch of
products received; whereas interest point sampling is based on the sample was seized
the product contains the number of unqualified inferred entire batch of products received
or not. Sampling inspection is detected by measuring a sample of the product quality and
characteristics of the specific values to compare with the standard, and then infer the
reception or the entire batch. Press the sampling frequency that is the number of
samples (not referring to the number of unit product extracted, ie sample size), sampling
can be divided into a sampling, the second sampling, multiple sampling and sequential
sampling . A sampling inspection lot is only collected from a sample batch of products
made on whether to accept the judgment; secondary sampling is a sampling of the
extension, which requires a number of products being drawn up to make a batch of two
samples receiving the conclusion whether or not, when the sample can not be
determined from a batch or when received, pulls out the second sample, and the results
of the two samples to determine whether the batch is received. Subsampling multiple
sampling is to further promote, for example, five sampling, allows a maximum of five
samples taken before ultimately determine whether to receive approval. Unlimited
number of sequential sampling, each taking one unit of product until approved by the
rules to make the judgment whether to receive so far.
The correct selection of the basic principles of motor
Mechanical characteristics of the motor, start, braking, speed and control
performance should meet the requirements of the mechanical properties and production
process, the impact the motor course of their work on the quality of power supply (such
as voltage fluctuations, Xie wave interference), should be within the limits of;
Cooling method according to a predetermined operating system, Kiev circumstances
as determined by the motor power, the temperature rise of the motor should be limited
within the range;
According to the environmental conditions, operating conditions, the installation
method, the transmission mode, the selected motor structure, installation PROTECTION
form, to ensure that the motor work reliably;
Considering an investment in a few operating costs, the economy of the entire drive
system, energy saving, reasonable, reliable and safet
Motor energy saving
With the shortage of resources, countries are looking for energy-efficient way to tap
the energy-saving potential of the motor, saving way to find effective is an effective way.
There are a variety of motor energy saving methods, such as improving the efficiency of
the motor, improve the power factor of the motor speed control and energy saving, VVVF
control. Now to discuss the motor power factor energy saving.
Asynchronous motor power factor varies with the load, rated load power factor, low
power factor at light loads, generally in the range of 0.2 to 0.85. Asynchronous motor
during operation in the power grid to draw a lot of emotional reactive power, the
deterioration of the grid power factor, system efficiency decline. Reactive power

compensation can be taken to be adjusted. Induction motor reactive power


compensation, compensation under the premise of ensuring the proper working of the
motor to improve the power factor of the electricity lines, while reducing the loss of
power lines and transformers.
Reactive power compensation methods are: (1) parallel capacitor. Usually in the outlet
side of the motor and junction capacitors. Capacitance compensation, the line current
lags the voltage electrical angle, compensate the line current lags the voltage angle
relative reduction. Thus improving the power factor of the line. (2) Installation
complement static power factor, the apparatus can be stepless adjusted continuously the
inductive reactive device, can be the slow run mainly by the the AC filter device and
capacity. Grid power factor improvement, under the premise of the active power constant
is guaranteed, so that the view of the system in the current decreases, reducing the loss
of the power supply system in order to effectively achieve energy.
The day-to-day maintenance of the motor
Routine maintenance is very important to reduce and avoid motor failure in the
operation of one of the most important aspects of the inspection tour and promptly
remove any irregularities lead to the root cause. Serious accident analysis in the event of
an accident, take measures to reduce the stop when the number of accidents and repair
essential technical work to improve the efficiency of the motor is running the day-to-day
maintenance of the motor run its normal course, very important, but running motors
often encounter many unexpected situations, such as short-circuit, overload, broken
equal to the motor will not be damaged under these conditions, we must take some
running protection.
To keep the motor clean the inside of the motor not allowed to enter the drops of
water, oil, dust, and periodically clear the dust from inside and outside the motor.
Note Do not exceed the load current rating.
The check bearing heating, oil spills, etc., especially in accordance with the provisions
refueling.
The temperature rise of the motor can not exceed the rating.
How to properly select the motor power?
The power of the motor. To select the required power should be based on production
machinery, try to keep the motor running at rated load. Options, should pay attention to
the following points:
(1> If the motor power is selected too small. Appears small horse cart "phenomenon,
caused by the motor overload long-term to insulate heat damage. Even the motor is
burned.
(2) If the motor power option too. There will be a "big horse car" phenomenon. The
output mechanical power can not be fully utilized, power factor and efficiency is not high,
not only for users and grid. But can also cause energy waste.
To select the correct motor power must go through the following calculation or
comparison:
For constant load continuous work, if you know the load power (ie, the production of
mechanical shaft power) PL (kw). Can be calculated as the required motor power P (kW):
(P = P1/n1n2)
Wherein n1 is the efficiency of the production machinery; n2 is the efficiency of the
motor. That transmission efficiency. Power obtained by the above formula, not
necessarily with the same power. Therefore. The selected rated power of the motor
should be equal to or slightly greater than the calculated power.

Example: a production of mechanical power 3.95kw. The mechanical efficiency of 70%,


if the selection efficiency of a motor of 0.8 Determine the motor power should kW?
Solution: P = P1 / n1n2 = 3.95/0.7 * 0.8 = 7.1kw
7.1kw - Specifications. So choose 7.5kw motor.
Introduction to efficient motor
Efficient motor is a generic standard type motor having a high efficiency motor.
Efficient motor design, materials and workmanship to take measures, such as the use
of reasonable stator and rotor slot number, the fan parameters and sinusoidal winding
measures to reduce losses, the efficiency can be increased by 2% - 8%, an average of
4%. In 2002, the Chinese motor total capacity of approximately 400 GW, of which almost
80% for small and medium 660TW ?h of the annual electricity consumption. 87% of the
average efficiency of small and medium-sized motor, the international advanced level of
92% of China's small and medium-sized motor energy-saving potential of approximately
12TW ?h.
Save energy, protect the environment departure, high efficiency motor current
international trends, the United States, Canada, Europe, promulgated relevant laws and
regulations. Europe according to the motor running time, develop CEMEP standard
efficiency is divided into EFF1 (highest), eff2 eff3 (minimum) three levels, from 2003 to
2006 points step by step. The latest introduction of the IEC 60034-30 standard motor
efficiency into the the IE1 (corresponding eff2), four levels the IE2 (corresponding EFF1),
IE3, IE4 (highest). Our commitment to the implementation of of IE2 and above standard
with effect from July 1, 2011.
With China's accession to WTO, China's motor industry faced huge competitive
pressures and challenges of the international community is increasing. Judging from the
international and domestic trends, the promotion of China's high-efficiency motors is very
necessary, This is product development requirements, so that our motor products to keep
up with the trend of international development, but also conducive to promoting the
needs of the industry, technological advancement and product exports . According to
statistics, in 2002 China's motor power accounted for more than 60% of the country's
electricity consumption, which the small three asynchronous motor power consumption
accounts for about 35%, is a big power, so the development of efficient motor is to
improve the energy efficiency measures one, in line with the needs of the development
of our country, it is very necessary.
Explosion levels division
First, explosion-proof electrical equipment is divided into two categories: I class coal
mine electrical equipment; electrical equipment used by the II place outside the mine.
Class II electrical equipment is divided into three categories: IIA.IIB.IIC.
Second, to understand the division of the explosion-proof grade, first look at the
explosive gas mixture at the ignition temperature of the grouping: group with
T1.T2.T3.T4.T5.T6 that the ignition temperature t ( C), the ignition temperature of the T1
group:; 450 C <t; T2 as follows: 300 C <t 450 C; T3 as follows: 200 C <t 300
C; T4 to: 135 C <t 200 C; T5 : 100 C <t 135 C; the T6 for: 85 C <t 100 C.
Third, we must understand the type of explosion-proof electrical explosion-proof type
is divided into: flameproof, mark d; increased safety, signs for: e; positive pressure, signs
for P; intrinsically safe, marked as i;: oil-filled sand filled encapsulation.
Understanding of these points, a good understanding of the division of the explosionproof grade, explosion-proof electrical equipment is used by the device category;
explosive gas mixture temperature group; divided by the type of protection of explosion-

proof electrical equipment, such as: proof mark dIIBT4, on behalf of, the type of
explosion-proof electrical products for explosion-proof place in the class II category IIB
(class) do not, the ignition temperature of the explosive gas T4 group.
Motor noise analysis
Motor noise generated in different ways, can be broadly divided into electromagnetic
noise, mechanical noise and aerodynamic noise.
Determine the various categories of noise of an electric motor, usually requires a
combination of several methods to achieve. Analysis of the mechanical noise of the
motor used to cut off the power supply method, the noise generated by the motor by the
inertia continue to operate after power outage for the main part of the mechanical noise;
electromagnetic noise characteristics change with the current size by changing the
voltage method to determine the voltage rapidly to a certain limit, as the voltage is
decreased, significantly reduce the noise of electromagnetic noise; aerodynamic noise
generated in the factory production, the most simple identification method is to remove
the fan contrast before and after the change in the noise, or replace the type the
diameter and type of the fan motor with two mutually drag method, at different speeds
to distinguish the difference of the noise, this method can more accurately identify the
aerodynamic noise.
The centrifugal cast aluminum defect analysis
Thin strips: a cross-section of this guidance bar thinner. Causes of centrifuge speed is
too high, the centrifugal force is too large, resulting in the groove bottom guide bar did
not cast full (short-selling); core wrong piece, slot slash is not a straight line, impede the
flow of molten aluminum; core preheating temperature is low, excessive temperature
drop of the liquid aluminum, the fluidity deteriorates.
Centrifuge speed is too low poured dissatisfaction with the cold compartment: Cause
low temperature of liquid aluminum, differential mobility; casting too slow or stop the
phenomenon; core and the mold preheating temperature is low; insufficient amount of
leakage of aluminum or aluminum; centrifugal force is too small, molten aluminum can
not be filled to the top of the blades.
Rotor resistance is too large: The reason there the groove slope is greater than the
specified value, the guide bar resistance increases; improper the Thanh Hoa treatment of
liquid aluminum, contains a lot of impurities; pore shrinkage and cracks in the guide bar.
Stray loss: Causes groove slope is too; contact resistance between the guide bar and
the core is too small, common pressure-cast aluminum rotor.
At the top of the blades pouring a small amount of dissatisfaction or cold shuts, no
significant effect on motor performance; broken rotor bars so that the motor can not be
started; porosity, shrinkage, shrinkage, thin strips and cracks, etc. rotor resistance and
loss will increase efficiency and minimum torque reduction, increased slip and
temperature rise.
CE certification and CE certification common sense
First, what is the CE mark?
In recent years, the European Economic Area (the European Union, the European Free
Trade Association member countries, except Switzerland) the goods on the market, CE
mark to use more and more, the CE mark affixed to goods that meet the safety, health,
environmental and consumer protection, and a series of European directives to express
requirements.
Second, the letters CE mean?

In the past, European countries on the import and sale of products requirements vary
according to the standards of a country-made goods to other countries may not be listed
as part of the efforts to eliminate trade barriers, CE came into being. Therefore, CE behalf
of the European unification (CONFORMITE Europeenne). In fact, CE the EC languages in
many countries in the "EC" abbreviation of the phrase, the original phrase in English
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY abbreviated as EC, because EC to COMMUNATE EUROPEIA
French, Italian COMUNITA Europea , Portuguese the Comunidade EUROPEIA Spanish the
Comunidade EUROPE, so the EC for CE. Of course, it may wish to CE as CONFORMITY
WITH EUROPEAN (DEMAND) (in line with European (required)).
Third, CE Marking What is the significance?
The meaning of CE marking: CE acronym for the symbol CE mark affixed to the
product complies with the relevant provisions of European Directive Requirements
(Essential Requirements), and to confirm that the product has passed the appropriate
conformity assessment procedures and / or manufacturing suppliers declaration of
conformity, and truly become the products were allowed to pass into the European
market. Instructions to the relevant CE mark affixed to industrial products without the CE
mark shall not be listed for sale, affix the CE mark to market the product found not to
meet the safety requirements should be ordered to withdraw from the market,
continuous violation of the CE mark , will be restricted or prohibited from entering the EU
market or be forced out of the market.
Fourth, CE mark meaning there is no proof of acceptable quality?
Constitute the core of the European Directive requirements "in the EC on May 7, 1985
(85/C136/01)" technical coordination and standards for new resolution on the need for
the development and implementation of instruction purposes " The main requirement
"has a specific meaning, that is only limited to products that do not endanger the basic
safety requirements of the safety of humans, animals and goods, rather than general
quality requirements, coordination of the main requirements of the Directive only
provides general instructions to the standard task. The product complies with the
relevant directives of the main requirements, you can attach the CE mark, and not in
accordance with the relevant standards found ability to use the provisions of the general
quality of the CE mark. Therefore, the exact meaning: CE logo is safety approval mark
rather than quality mark.
Introduction of the induction generator
Permanent magnet generator is a the ordinary synchronous generator rotor change
permanent magnet generator structure, commonly used permanent magnet materials
ferrite (BaFeO), samarium cobalt 5 (SmCo) permanent magnet generator for general use
small wind turbine. Asynchronous generator asynchronous motor is in the working state
of power generation, grid power excitation power (excited) and shunt capacitance of selfexcitation power (self-motivation) two cases from the incentives.
First. The MAINS excitation power: asynchronous motor to the power line, the motor
stator windings produce a rotating magnetic field rotating at synchronous speed, and
then drag the original motif, so that the rotor speed is greater than the synchronous
speed, the direction of the magnetic moment of the grid is certainly and the speed in the
opposite direction, while the direction of the mechanical torque and speed in the same
direction when the prime mover mechanical energy into electrical energy. In this case,
the asynchronous motor issued by the active power to the grid transmission; while
reactive power consumption of the grid for the excitation of the supply of reactive power
consumed by the stator and rotor magnetic flux leakage, the asynchronous generator
and grid General requirements plus reactive power compensation device, usually with a
parallel capacitor compensation.

Second. The shunt capacitor self-excitation power generation: capacitors in parallel


connection is divided into two kinds of star and delta. Excitation capacitor access in the
the generator itself remanence power process, the generator periodically to charge the
capacitor; the same time, the capacitor is periodically discharged through the stator
winding of the asynchronous motor. This capacitor winding alternately charging and
discharging process, and continue to play the role of the excitation, so that the normal
power generation of the generator. Excitation capacitor divided into the main excitation
capacitor and auxiliary excitation capacitors, the capacitance of the main exciter is to
ensure that under no load voltage capacitor, the auxiliary capacitor to prevent voltage
collapse in order to ensure access to the load voltage constant. Through the above
analysis, the start of the induction generator and the network is very convenient and
easy automatic control, low price, reliable operation, convenient maintenance, higher
operating efficiency, grid-connected wind power units are basically using asynchronous
power machine, synchronous generator is commonly used to run independently.
Basic knowledge of the frequency conversion motor
The VVVF motor generally choose four motor base frequency and dot design in the 50100Hz 50Hz 0-50Hz (speed 0-1480r/min) motor for constant torque operation, the
frequency (speed 1480-2800r/min ) within the scope of the motor for constant power
operation, the entire speed range (0-2800r/min) basically meet the general requirements
of the driven equipment, the operating characteristics of the DC drive motor, speed
smooth. If constant torque machine, but the volume of the motor is relatively large.
Electromagnetic frequency conversion motor design using a flexible CAD design
software, the fundamental frequency of the motor design point can be adjusted on the
computer, we can accurately simulate the operating characteristics of the motor base
frequency, this also means that expand the constant torque speed range of the motor,
according to the the motor actual use conditions, we can in the same frame size motor
power greater, you can also use the same inverter on the basis of motor the output
torque mentioning higher to meet the design and manufacture of the motor under a
variety of working conditions in the best condition. Frequency conversion motor can
additionally optional additional speed encoder can achieve high-precision speed and
position control, the advantages of fast dynamic response characteristics. Also be
accompanied by a dedicated DC motor (or AC) brake motor to achieve fast, effective,
safe and reliable braking performance. Frequency conversion motor base frequency
adjustable design, we can also produce a variety of high-speed motor to maintain a
constant torque characteristics at high speeds, to some extent replaced the original IF
motor, and low prices. Frequency conversion motor to three-phase AC synchronous or
asynchronous motors, three-phase 380V or three-phase 220V according to the output
power of the inverter, motor power difference of three-phase 380V or three-phase 220V,
4KW inverter only phase 220V can be divided into different area of constant power speed
and constant torque speed zone inverter motor is based on the fundamental frequency of
the motor point (or inflection point), so the base frequency of the frequency converter
and inverter motor base frequency settings are very important.
Reason of the vibrations and noise of the motor
A general assessment of the quality of motor in addition to the characteristics of the
operation to the five senses to judge more motor vibration motor vibration noise
situation. Motor vibration motor vibration and noise generated by the motor, are:
1, the mechanical motor vibration motor vibration and noise, the weight of the rotor
unbalance, resulting in a considerable number of revolutions of the motor vibration.

2, the rotation of the motor shaft bearing, the normal situation is generated outside
the natural tone, precision small motor or the situation of the high speed motor, there is
no problem. Bearing the natural vibration motor and the motor constitute a portion
material resonance, bearing the axial direction of the spring constant in the axial
direction of the rotor vibration motor, poor lubrication friction sound problems.
3, the brush sliding brush DC motor or commutator motor, wiper motor vibration and
noise generated.
4, caused by the vibration and noise of the fan or the rotor of the fluid motor the hood
motor vibration and noise of the motor is difficult to avoid, motor vibration and noise of
the motor as a whole in many cases about, in addition to the fan blades or the teeth of
the core cause gas beep is also necessary to pay attention to the ventilation resonance.
Electromagnetic motor vibration and noise arising imbalances or imbalances magnetic
and electromagnetic force of the air gap of the magnetic circuit wave motor vibration and
noise, and the saturation magnetic flux density or magnetic air gap eccentricity caused
motor vibration noise.
Maintenance of motor vibration and noise
Firstly, Causes and countermeasures of the mechanical vibration motor rotor
unbalance motor vibration A Cause: manufacturing residual imbalance. Long period of
operation to produce a lot of dust adhesion. Operation caused by thermal stress axis
bending. Accessories thermal displacement of the rotor caused by unbalanced load.
Deformation caused by the centrifugal force of the rotor accessories or eccentric. Caused
by external force (belt, gear, Direct bad) shaft bending. Poor bearing device (axis
accuracy or locking) caused by the deformation of the shaft bending or bearing internal.
B, responses: inhibition of the amount of rotor imbalance. Maintenance to allow the
amount of unbalance within. Excessive tight fit on the shaft and the core to improve.
Anisotropic thermal expansion, design improvement. ? Strength improvement of the
design or assembly. Amendment to change the type of shaft coupling shaft strength
design and straight junction towards the center of correction. End bearings and shaft
attached segment or in the lock nut to prevent biased against. 2, the bearing of
abnormal motor vibration motor vibration noise A Cause: Bearing internal injuries.
Abnormal motor vibration in the axial direction of the bearing, shaft direction of the
spring constant and the mass of the rotor the motor vibration excitation of the system.
Fricative: cylindrical roller bearing or large-diameter high-speed ball bearings poor
lubrication and cause of the bearing clearance. B, responses: the replacement of the
bearings. The appropriate axis direction spring preload to the bearing clearance changes.
Select soft grease or excellent low temperature grease, residual gap (should be noted
that the problem of temperature rise). 3, brush sliding sound A Cause: The commutator
and brushes sliding vibration motor brush holder excitation generated B, responses: grip
brush elastic support, select the material and shape of the brush, curb side pressure
caused by The brush motor vibration and to improve the commutator accuracy.
Second, The fluid motor vibration noise generation and Countermeasures motor fluid
motor vibration noise, mainly caused by the cooling fan motor vibration noise. In
addition, part of the groove opening portion of the rotor core close to the stationary side,
becomes significant gas beep Furthermore the ventilation path, such as a resonance
space, and produce significant resonance. 1, the size of the vibration and noise of the fan
motor: the motor is generally seeking rotation in two directions, fan blades for radial
straight blade, poor efficiency, and motor vibration noise. Motor vibration and noise
values approximately by the following formula requirements. But the determination of
the motor shaft center height from 1m situation. The motor vibration noise dB (A) = 70
log D +50 Log N + D: outer diameter of the blade (m), N: DPS of the number of

revolutions: at constant 32 to 36, by the above formula, reduced motor vibration and
noise level, more important to reduce the outer diameter of the fan. Spit out the air
volume and air pressure is low, these complexes becomes important. Fan in the inside of
the frame, the effect of the noise reduction or sound insulation. 2, the frequency of the
vibration and noise of the fan motor depending on the different types of differences.
Pressure motor vibration and noise, the fan blades air under pressure shock. The spoiler
noise, as the the blade surrounding air flow disturbance causes of radial linear blade fan,
can be said on the use of the motor is inevitable. The fan with the remaining part of the
interference caused by the gas beep turning vane, in order to close the presence of other
parts such as air flow, generating intense gas beep.
Three, electromagnetic motor vibration noise (induction motor) about electromagnetic
motor vibration noise, vibration noise of the electromagnetic motor by ear sense of
hearing sense of the degree of good frequency more than 100HZ frequency with a
domain, a single or plural specific frequency tone composition, especially with the stator
resonance become a significant motor vibration and noise. The induction motor than the
DC motor often electromagnetic motor vibration and noise problems, induction motor
instructions. The electromagnetic motor vibration and noise induction motor known as
"magnetic tone" of such research, we must first understand the the electromagnetic
motor vibration and noise of the sinusoidal current. 1, the sine wave current of the
electromagnetic motor vibration noise: the magnetic flux generated due to the sine-wave
current, the magnetic flux generated by the air gap of the induction motor, and torque of
the basic (primary), the presence of the high harmonic flux. Electromagnetic force waves
these magnetic flux of the stator and the rotor core to attract each other, the stator core
is deformed into a polygonal shaft bending displacement generating motor vibration.
High harmonic flux, by reason mainly generate electromagnetic noise of the air gap, A,
the winding distribution caused by the magnetic force of the higher harmonics. B, the
stator or the rotor iron trough grooves generated higher harmonics. C, core saturation
saturated high harmonics. D, caused by eccentric eccentric harmonic E, voltage coil, the
magnetic circuit imbalance caused by the high harmonics. F, slot the high permeability
harmonic. G, with high harmonics, the air gap in the amount of time a lot of space
harmonic magnetic power waveform distortion caused by high harmonic flux.
Electromagnetic motor vibration noise prevention measures: A. by the appropriate
combination of the number of slots in the motor design using the special slot chute select
the coil pitch sine wave winding fractional slot winding air gap, teeth, yoke flux density
by the mechanical design, the appropriateness of the Ministry of rotor slot pole thickness
equalization magnetic air gap wedge expansion B. eliminate static eccentricity, and
improve the accuracy of processing and assembly. The external force to improve the
flexural rigidity of the shaft assembly precision. Fully closed slot type to eliminate the
thickness of the tooth tip, to improve the manufacturing technology. The magnetic circuit
so as not to cause the cross-sectional shape of the unbalanced structure and the
manufacturing the special rotor resistance of the conductor, an insulating or shaft. A
stator, a rotor to avoid the resonance of the motor constituting part materials. To avoid
resonance with motor assembly. The stator core or the elasticity of the bearing
supporting portion, the vibration isolating support. By the exterior of the motor sound
insulation or sound-proof structure. C. In use, the supply voltage to eliminate the
imbalance. Electromagnetic motor vibration and noise reasons into electromagnetic
excitation force, these high harmonic flux due to mutual interference caused by
electromagnetic force generated wave. But not all motor vibration motor noise problem
by the electromagnetic force wave caused. Some of which are consistent with the stator
or the rotor of the natural vibration motor or close the case to form a resonance state.
Electromagnetic motor vibration and noise factors, not solely because of the frequency of

the electromagnetic force waves, we also need to understand the motor part of the the
motor vibrating body natural motor vibration frequency.
The maintenance of the three-phase asynchronous motor is running
First, steady rise of the motor during normal operation should not exceed the allowable
limit, the run should always pay attention to monitor the temperature rise for each part.
Second, monitoring the motor load current. The motor failure Metropolitan nail Current
surge, causing the motor heat. The larger power motor should be fitted with the ammeter
monitors the load current of the motor. The load current of the motor should not exceed
the nameplate rated current value, or to identify the cause and take measures to
eliminate adverse situation to continue to run.
Third, monitor the supply voltage, frequency changes and voltage unbalance.
Fourth, note smell, vibration and noise of the motor. Winding will be issued due to high
temperature insulation burning smell. Some failures, especially mechanical failure, will
soon be reflected as vibration and noise, smell the burnt smell or found abnormal
vibration or grazing sound, King buzzing or other noises, you should immediately power
failure check.
Always check bearing heating, oil spills, oil change on a regular basis.
The wound rotor induction motor, check the contact between the brush and slip ring,
brush wear and sparks. If the spark is serious, you must promptly clean up the surface of
the collector ring and correction brush spring pressure.
To keep the cleaning of the interior of the motor, do not allow water droplets, oil and
other debris falling into the interior of the motor. Air inlet and outlet of the motor must be
kept free from obstruction.
Bearing selection and use of
Along with social progress and development, mechanization in production and life are
widely used. Bearing as an indispensable part of the machinery, the scope of its use will
become more and more widely because of the rotation to be used in the bearing.
Mainly from the support and reduce friction bearings in machinery, so the accuracy of
the bearing noise, are all directly related to the use and life of the machine. But business
people are always often met with a number of customers that use the best bearings or
imported bearings and its efficiency is not high, which related to the use and choice of
bearings. Perhaps someone will say the bearings use and selection of that user, I just
what the user what I sell ". However, as a qualified sales personnel in addition to
proficient in their product knowledge but also proficient in the use of the product, of the
doctor-sales, according to the performance of ancillary products, conditions of use to
select the best supporting bearings. This is the current the popular specialized
manufacturing and sales by major companies in the world, this way the Group operates
has also achieved good results.
A wide range of many types of bearings, the following will mainly use and selection of
the most widely used deep groove ball bearings for some analysis. Bearing less
understanding to deepen the understanding of the bearing.
A bearing selection
1, the choice of bearing models: Bearing Model by the user's technical staff in
accordance with the conditions of use of complementary products and the load bearing
selection. Business people to understand the user's actual load is consistent with the
selected bearing, bearing up less than the requirements as soon as possible to advise
clients to re-election model, but unless special products in the selection model is
generally not a problem.

2, the choice of the bearing clearance: buy bearings usually only told what type,
grade, rarely interested in the bearing clearance request, the business must ask the
bearing conditions of use, which bearing speed, temperature with tolerances are directly
related to the choice of the bearing clearance. The general rotational speed of 3500 rev /
min motor they use the CM clearance, such as high temperature speed motor requires a
relatively large clearance. Bearing clearance after assembly because of the narrowing of
the large and cylindrical bore up and lead to a reduction in clearance interference
reduction = 60% (bearing housing with the exception of aluminum). Such as bearings
before assembly clearance is 0.01mm, the amount of interference in the assembly of
0.01mm, the bearing clearance after assembly to 0.004mm. Zero clearance bearing
noise and life will achieve the best state in theory, but in the actual operation taking into
account the temperature rise and other problems, the bearing clearance after assembly
is preferably 0.002mm-0.004mm.
3, the grease of choice: the choice of grease bearing speed, temperature, noise
requirements and starting torque requirements of business people know much about the
performance of a variety of oils and fats.
4, bearing seal type choice: bearing lubrication can be divided into oil lubrication and
grease lubrication. Oil-lubricated bearings are generally used form of bearings, grease
lubricated bearings generally used shields or rubber seals seal. Dust cover suitable for
high or use the good parts, seals sub-contact seal and non-contact seals two the contact
seal dustproof performance is good but starting torque, a non-sealed small starting
torque, but the sealing performance There is no contact.
The people bearing bearing in the motor vehicle, home appliance motor bearings,
motorcycle bearings, health motor bearings and other sectors of the specialized
manufacturing of the bearing noise and life to achieve the best.
Second, the bearing should be used with precautions
1, the chamber tolerances of shaft and bearing choice and control: the bearings are
pressed into flexible rotation block. If any signs of rotation is not flexible, it indicates that
the shaft size is too large, and tolerance should be lowered. Such as bearings pressed
into the shaft turned by hand with a sense of "imperfections", it may be too much
tolerance of the shaft or shaft roundness is not good. So also in the control shaft and the
bearing housing tolerances control the roundness, many domestic manufacturers only
tolerance control, no control roundness.
2, the bearing assembly: because the bearings are high-precision products, such as
improper assembly of the bearing channel damage, resulting in damage to the bearings.
Bearing in the assembly should have a dedicated mold and can not beat the force only a
small circle, the pressure large circle only large circle force when pressed into the shaft.
Assembly requires the use of pneumatic or hydraulic press-fit upper and lower mold
outside state level, if inclined bearing channel cause damage due to power, leaving the
bearing guide ring.
3, the assembly foreign body to prevent: the bearing is very easy to do balancing
mounted to the rotor balancing the iron filings into the inside of the bearing, therefore
preferably mounted bearings do balancing. Some manufacturers in order to facilitate the
assembly, the assembly in the bearing chamber coated with oil or grease from the
lubricating effect, but often the operator is difficult to control, if the oil or grease in the
bearing chamber accumulates more in the bearing rotation is easily along the shaft into
the bearing. The bearing housing is preferably not coated with oil or grease, such as noncoated not have to control not in the bearing chamber accumulates.
4, the paint rust prevention: the characteristics of the paint rust-prone in the sealedtype motor, the motor sounds good in the assembly, but put some time in the
warehouse, motor becomes abnormal sound, remove the bearing serious rusting. Many
manufacturers will be considered bearing, through our continuous publicity, motor plant

has been realized insulating paint. The main problem is the formation of corrosive
substances, because the insulating paint out of the volatile acidic substance in a certain
temperature, humidity, corrosion of the bearing channel leading to bearing damage. The
problem only is the choice of a good insulating paint, assembly and ventilation for a
period of time after drying.
Bearing life is closely related to the manufacturing, assembly, use, must do a good job in
every aspect, in order to make the bearings in the best operating condition, thus
extending the service life of the bearing.
Significance of the power factor
In AC circuits, the cosine of the phase difference between the voltage and current (phi)
is called power factor, with symbolic power factor means that, numerically, the power
factor is the ratio of active power and apparent power, cos = P / S
The power factor of the size and nature of the load circuit, such as incandescent bulbs,
power factor of 1 of the resistive load resistance furnace, generally having inductive or
capacitive load circuit power factor less than 1. The power factor is an important
technical data of the power system. The power factor is a measure of the level of a
coefficient of efficiency of electrical equipment. The power factor is low, the circuit is
used to convert an alternating magnetic field of reactive power, thereby reducing the
utilization of the device, increasing the loss of line-powered. Therefore, the electricity
sector is the power factor of the power units have a certain standard requirements.
(1) basic: take the equipment for example. For example: the device power is 100 units,
that is, 100 units of power delivered to the device. However, the inherent reactive power
loss due to most of the electrical system, can only use the power of the 70 units.
Unfortunately, although only 70 units, 100 units are required to pay fees. (Our day-to-day
user METER active power, without measurement of reactive power, did not say 70 units
and 100 units are required to pay the cost of the claim, the active power of 70 units, you
pay consumption is 70 units) In this example, the power factor is 0.7 (most of the
equipment the power factor of less than 0.9 will be fine), this reactive power loss is
mainly present in electrical equipment (such as blower, pumps , compressors, etc.), also
known as inductive load. Power factor is the motor efficiency standards for measurement.
(2) Fundamental Analysis: each motor system are two major power consumption are
real useful work (called kW) and electric resistance exercise in futility. The power factor is
the ratio between the useful work and the total power. The higher the power factor, the
higher will be the ratio between the useful work and total power, the system runs more
efficiently.
(3) Analysis: In the inductive load circuit, the current waveform peak occurs after the
voltage waveform peak. Two waveforms separated peak power factor available. The
lower the power factor, two the waveform peaks separated bigger. Paul two peaks can reclose together, thereby enhancing the efficiency of the system.
The difference between synchronous inverter with asynchronous frequency conversion
motor
Asynchronous frequency conversion motor is derived by ordinary induction motor, to
adapt to the characteristics of the inverter output power, the motor rotor groove,
insulation technology, electromagnetic design check, made a lot of changes, especially
the ventilation of the motor cooling, it is in the general case plus an independent forced
cooling fan, to adapt the cooling efficiency when the motor is running at low speed and
to reduce the motor running at high speed when the wind abrasion. The output of the
inverter is generally the output frequency of the power, speed output shows the

calculated value of the number of poles of the motor and the power supply output
frequency, there is a big difference between the actual speed of the induction motor the
general asynchronous variable frequency motor, induction motor turn error rate is
decided by the motor manufacturing process, discrete, and load changes directly affect
the speed of the motor to precisely control the speed of the motor can only use the
optical encoder for closed-loop control, precision speed when the stand-alone control is
determined by the number of pulses of the encoder, when the multi-machine control
multiple motor speed is not strictly synchronous. This asynchronous motor innate.
Lined with permanent magnet synchronous frequency conversion motor rotor, motor
instantly start after, to the normal operation of the motor, the stator rotating magnetic
field driven set with permanent magnet rotor synchronous operation, the motor speed
according to the number of poles of the motor a strict correspondence between the
speed is independent of the load and other factors influence the frequency of input
power and motor. The same synchronization frequency conversion motor attached to a
stand-alone forced cooling fan, to adapt to the motor at low speed high
Efficiency heat dissipation and reduce the motor running at high speed wind abrasion.
Strict correspondence between the motor speed and power frequency, making the motor
speed accuracy depends on the accuracy of the inverter output power frequency, the
control system is simple, more than one motor speed control multiple motors on one
inverter, does not require expensive optical encoder for closed-loop control.
Analysis of the cause of the overheating in the motor during use
(A) the supply voltage is too high
1 when the supply voltage is too high, the motor counter electromotive force, the
magnetic flux and the magnetic flux density increases. Due to the size of the iron loss
and magnetic flux density is proportional to the square of the iron loss increases,
resulting in overheating of the core. While the magnetic flux increases, but also increased
dramatically, resulting in the excitation current component caused by the copper loss of
the stator winding increases, so that overheating of the windings. Therefore, the power
supply voltage exceeds the rated voltage of the motor, cause the motor to overheat.
2, the power supply voltage is too low
When the power supply voltage is too low, when the electromagnetic torque of the
motor is kept constant, the magnetic flux is reduced, a corresponding increase in the
rotor current, the power component of the stator current load increases, causing the
winding copper loss increases, resulting in the set, the rotor winding overheating.
3, the supply voltage asymmetry
When the circuit in the power cord, fuse fuse, or the the knife starting equipment
angular head burns resulting in a barrier, will result in the three-phase motor to go singlephase, two-phase windings resulting in running large current and overheating, but when
we had burned.
4, three-phase power imbalance
When the three-phase power imbalance, will make the motor phase current imbalance,
caused by overheating of the windings.
Be seen from the above, when the motor overheating, you should first consider the
reasons of power. Make sure the power aspect of problem, they go to consider other
factors.
(B) the load of the motor overheating
The loading of the motor overheating reasons are the following:
1, motor overload operation,
When the equipment is not complete, the motor load power is greater than the rated
power of the motor, the motor long-term overload operation (ie, a small horse-drawn

carts), will cause the motor to overheat.


2 drag the mechanical load is not working properly.
Equipment supporting, but the drag of the mechanical load is not normal, run-time
load big, sometimes small, such as thresher feed excessive, the motor overload fever.
3, drag mechanical failure
When being dragged mechanical failure, rotation is not flexible or jammed, will cause
the motor overload caused by overheating of the motor windings.
Silicon steel sheet of the Company Syria
The silicon steel sheet is a low carbon ferro-silicon soft magnetic alloy, ships silicon
content of 0.5 to 4.5%. Silicon added to improve the resistivity and the maximum
magnetic permeability of the iron, reducing the coercive force, core loss (iron loss) and
magnetic aging. It is mainly used to produce all kinds of transformers, motors and
generators core. World silicon steel production accounted for about 1% of the total steel.
Sheet Steel: low iron loss, which is the most important indicator of the quality of the
silicon steel. The countries are divided into grades according to the iron loss value, the
lower the iron loss, the higher grades. 2. Strong magnetic field of magnetic flux density
(magnetic induction) is high, which makes the volume and weight of the motor and
transformer core is reduced, saving silicon steel, copper and insulating materials. The
surface is smooth, flat and uniform thickness, can increase the fill factor of the core.
Punching, more importantly, for the manufacture of micro, small motor. The surface of
the insulating film adhesion, and good weldability, corrosion prevention, and to improve
the punching resistance. 6. Almost no magnetic aging.
Improve silicon steel with silicon content, iron loss, punching and lower magnetic
induction, increased hardness. The higher the frequency, the greater the eddy current
loss, the optional silicon steel should be more thin.
Silicon with oxygen smelting (also available EAF), with the molten steel vacuum
treatment and AOD (see refining, molding or casting process to change according to
different purposes, smelting silicon (0.5 to 4.5%) and the content of aluminum (0.2% to
0.5%) to meet the requirements of the type of magnetic silicon steel of high grade silicon
and the corresponding increase in the amount of aluminum to minimize the carbon,
sulfur and inclusions.
Cold-rolled silicon steel magnetic surface quality, fill factor, and the punching of better
than hot-rolled silicon steel sheet, and into volume production in some countries since
the 1960s has stopped the production of hot-rolled silicon steel sheet. China low
temperature of about 900 C a quick hot and the protection of hydrogen into the
manufacture of hot-rolled silicon steel sheet pile annealing method, finished product rate
is high, the quality of the finished surface and magnetic properties are better.
Cold-rolled non-oriented silicon steel slab or billet hot rolled to a thickness of
approximately 2.3mm Tape & Reel. The manufacture of low silicon products, cold-rolled,
hot-rolled coil pickling time to 0.5mm thick. The manufacture of high-silicon products,
hot-rolled pickling (or by the normalization after pickling 800 to 850 C), cold rolled to
0.55 or 0.37mm thick, hydrogen and nitrogen mixed atmosphere of continuous furnace
annealed at 850 , and then 0.50 or 0.35mm thick cold-rolled to a small reduction rate
by 6 to 10%. This small reduction ratio of cold-rolled annealing allows grain growth, lower
iron loss. Both cold rolled sheet in 20% hydrogen and nitrogen mixed atmosphere of
continuous furnace to 850 C final annealing, and then coated with an insulating film of
phosphate chromate. Grain oriented silicon steel with Si3% generally require steel oxide
mixed content is low, and must contain C0.03 to 0.05% and inhibitors (the second phase
of the dispersion particle or grain boundary segregation elements). Inhibitors prevent the
primary recrystallization grain growth and promoting the development of the secondary

recrystallization, thereby obtaining a high orientation. The inhibitor itself harmful to the
magnetic, so after the completion of inhibition, subject to the purification of the hightemperature annealing. Second phase inhibitor, slab heating temperature must be
increased to the original coarse second phase particles solid solution, and then hot-rolled
or normalization of fine particle precipitation, in order to enhance the inhibition. Coldrolled finished thickness of 0.28,0.30 or 0.35mm. Thin cold rolled grain oriented silicon
steel strip is 0.30 or 0.35mm thick oriented silicon steel strip, made by pickling, cold
rolling and annealing.
The countries are divided into grades according to the iron loss value, the lower the
iron loss, the higher grades.
The principle of three-phase asynchronous motor
Three-phase induction motor rotor speed is lower than the speed of the rotating
magnetic field, the rotor winding there is relative motion between the magnetic field
induced emf and current and the magnetic field generated by the interaction of
electromagnetic torque, and energy conversion. Compared with the single-phase
induction motor, three-phase asynchronous motor is running good, and save a variety of
materials. Different rotor structure, the three-phase asynchronous motors can be divided
into the cage and the two wound. Cage rotor induction motor, simple structure, reliable
operation, light weight, cheap, and has been widely used, its main drawback is speed
control difficult. Wound three-phase induction motor rotor and stator as well as set up the
three-phase windings connected through slip rings, brushes and external rheostat. Can
improve the starting performance of the motor and adjust the motor speed regulating
rheostat resistance.
Generated when the symmetrical three-phase alternating current to the three-phase
stator windings by the rotation of the rotating magnetic field at synchronous speed n1 in
the clockwise direction along the inner circle of the stator and the rotor space. Due to the
rotating magnetic field rotational speed n1, the rotor conductor is stationary, the rotor
conductors will cut the stator rotating field and generate an induced electromotive force
(the direction of the induced electromotive force is determined using the right-hand rule).
The shorting ring guide sub-conductor is short-circuited at both ends, the induced
electromotive force under the action of the rotor conductors will be substantially
consistent with the direction of the induced electromotive force induced current. The
current carrying conductor of the rotor by the electromagnetic force in the stator
magnetic field (the direction of the force with the left hand determination). The
electromagnetic force of the electromagnetic torque on the rotor shaft, drive the rotation
of the rotor along the rotational direction of the magnetic field.
Through the above analysis can be summed motor working principle: When the threephase stator windings of the motor (each, a difference of 120 electrical degrees), which
leads to the three-phase alternating current will produce a rotating magnetic field, the
rotating magnetic field cutting rotor windings, the rotor induction current is generated in
the winding (rotor winding passage is closed), the current-carrying conductor of the rotor
in the stator rotating magnetic field will produce an electromagnetic force, thereby
forming the electromagnetic torque on the motor shaft to drive rotation of the motor, and
the motor rotation direction and the rotating magnetic field same direction.
National standards with international standards
National standards (code GB):
General requirements and technical requirements; motor GB755-65 motor basic
technical requirements: the requirements of all types of motor technology, nameplates,

line-side flag; GB760-65 motor mounting dimensions and dimensions of the Code require
the installation of all types of motor and shape size Code.
Ministerial standard (Code JB):
The technical requirements of the particular type of motor rated data, conditions of
use; JB742-66 J2 the JO2 series three-phase asynchronous motor technical conditions;
JB1104-68 Z2 series of small DC motor technology conditions.
Various types of motor test methods:
GB1032-68 small and medium-sized three-phase asynchronous motor test.
International standards:
Refers to the relevant standards established by the International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). IEC Technical
Committee (TC2) is specifically formulated rotary motor standard bodies, it has six subtechnical committee, in charge of the turbine generator, size, and power levels, brush,
brush holders, commutators and collector ring, test methods and procedures, shell
protection, cooling and installation as well as motor insulation classification.
Winding fault and its treatment
Winding short-circuit consist primarily of inter-turn short circuit, coil and coil short
circuit, the electrode group a short circuit, phase-to-phase short-circuit.
Winding short-circuit fault causes and treatment:
Reasons: 1, improper embedded line, magnet wire film damage. 2 winding is damp,
the motor power supply voltage is insulation breakdown. 3, long-term overload current
exceeds the rated current, the insulation aging, loses its insulating effect. 4, white or
interlayer insulation pad. 5, improper handling or lack of apparatus, the end winding
insulation damage.
Approach: 1, the insulating material separated by a short-circuit, re-dressing, replace
the coil.
Winding circuit is divided into the coil connection at the circuit, the lead wire break at
the cage rotor bars and end rings junction circuit.
Reasons: 1, by mechanical force, joints, poor welding, the end winding banding is not
strong, insulation wear
Approach: 1, the circuit at the weld repair insulation, replace the windings.
Motor model introduced
1, Y, Y2, YPT, YB, a series of small motors.
YZ, YZR Series Crane and Metallurgical motor.
3, JS, JR, JR2, frame size.
4, Y, YR YKK, YRKK, frame size 355-800,380 V, 60KV 10KV various types of large and
medium-sized high and low motor.
5, Z2, Z3, Z4, ZZJ, ZZY, ZYZ, and derived series DC motor.
6, SF, SFW, TF, ZYS generator.
Y series full of totally enclosed fan-cooled three-phase squirrel cage induction motor.
The use is very common.
YS series three-phase asynchronous motor, less power for small machine tools, pumps,
compressors driven junction box in the top of the motor.
YSF, YT series is not much different, are dedicated fan three-phase asynchronous
motor, is based on the matching requirements of the fan industry, the motor structure to
take a series of noise reduction, vibration reduction measures. The series motor with high
efficiency, low noise, good starting performance, reliable operation, easy installation and
so on. Apply to the installation and use of a fan, the fan ideal accessory products.

YD multi-speed three-phase asynchronous motor, generally 4/2 pole 8/6-pole 8/4/2


pole 6/4 pole 12/6 poles 8/6/4 pole 8/4 pole 6/4/2 pole 12 / 8/6/4 pole
YL series two-value capacitor single-phase induction motor, that is, two capacitors.
YC series single-phase capacitor start induction motor.
YY series single-phase capacitor run induction motor.
Motor model of Y, YS, YSF, YT, YD, YL, YC What does it mean?
SG Series is a high degree of protection three-phase asynchronous motor Y series
interchangeable, but the performance has strengthened (such as the adjustment and
optimization of the electromagnetic program, some of the specifications using cold-rolled
silicon steel sheet, etc.), so that the series motor vibration and noise load (especially
noise) was significantly lower than the Y series motor. Experiments show that the noise of
the motor series I-class standard of motor vibration to a lower priority than the Y series
standard. Shaft end bearing oiling device, without dismantling the motor can be oil
bearing and simple maintenance.
YCT series electromagnetic governor motor, is to change the method of magnetizing
current size to adjust the torque and rotational speed of the output shaft speed motor. It
can be used in constant torque load speed adjustment and tension control occasions,
more suitable for the occasion of the blower and pump load. High starting torque, the
inertia of the load buffer starting at the same time to prevent overload protective effect.
Simple 2500 Series 6
The series YP2 VVVF three-phase asynchronous motor, the inverter power supply VVVF
three-phase asynchronous motor. By changing the frequency of the power smoothly
adjust the motor speed to achieve the purpose of energy conservation and control
automation. Series YP2 motor, high efficiency, wide speed range, high precision, stable
running, easy operation and maintenance, mounting dimensions conform to standards of
the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), divided into self-fan cooling and an
external fan-cooled two.
CXT series of rare earth permanent magnet three-phase synchronous motor, new rare
earth permanent magnet materials and other high quality materials, the structural
design of the rotor and the electromagnetic parameters of selected aspects of
innovation, the motor has a high efficiency, power factor, while ( power factor reaches
95% or more), which has a high starting performance, high led into the synchronizing
torque and high overload capacity, and the motor efficiency curve is relatively flat, low
load with high efficiency, it is possible to widely used in petroleum, chemical, metallurgy,
mining, textile and other long-term load operation of the equipment.
A YLZC series of cooling tower motor, motor housing protection class IP45 (or IP55),
the series motor - series of noise reduction, vibration, waterproof, moisture-proof
measures taken in the structure with low noise, high efficiency, waterproof, moisture and
so little.
YZS series injection molding machine dedicated motor, which in addition to the basic
features of the Y series motor, but also has strong overload capacity, low noise,
especially the rated load and overload, low noise characteristics.
YXF series of high-temperature exhaust fan fire dedicated motor, the motor housing
and the flue gas is completely isolated, built-in independent cooling path, with the
extraordinary ability of the continuous conveyor 300C high temperature flue gas 30MIN.
Motor magnet wire performance
The main properties of the magnet wire, including:
Mechanical properties: the wire insulation should be appropriate flexibility, softness
and elongation, the film should be uniform, smooth, resistant hanging around the
insulation resistance drag mill, in order to ensure that the insulation of the conductors in

the winding production process exposed to a variety of mechanical stress effects.


2, the electrical properties: the coating of the insulating layer to completely winding
insulation can not leak package film pinhole less, high breakdown voltage, high
frequency, high voltage when the loss tangent is small, tolerance and resistivity of the
wire size shall comply with the requirements of the national standard.
3, the thermal performance: Requires an insulating layer to meet the temperature
requirements for heat-resistant grade, higher softening breakdown strength, thermal
aging and thermal shock performance is better.
And chemical properties: the insulating layer should be able to acid, alkali, salt and
fog, organic solvents or refrigerant chemicals such as erosion, the film should have a
strong anti-benzene solvent corrosion.
Motor loss of power brake with DC solenoid
Electromagnetic Power brake yoke, the armature, the connecting plate, coil springs,
friction plates, gear sets, manual release mechanism and other major components, yoke
mounting screws installed on the base unit or connecting plate adjustment 6 to the
predetermined value of the air gap is fixed fixed coil spring mounted on the yoke, the
armature can move axially inner toothing gear sleeve and the friction disc, when the coil
is de-energized, under the force of the spring, friction for rent and an armature, the
cradle or the interconnector frictional force is generated through the gear sets to the
drive shaft brake, under the action of electromagnetic force when the coil is energized,
the armature is attracted toward the yoke, to release the friction disc, the drive shaft The
brake is released, in a free state.
Brake can work reliably under the following conditions:
1 brake installation site altitude over 2000 meters
2 ambient temperature -5 C-40 C
3 surrounding medium is no danger of explosion, and not enough to corrode metal and
damage the insulation of gas and conductive dust
4 brake coil voltage fluctuations do not exceed the rated voltage of +5% and -15%
5 in dry conditions
Brake coil supply are DC power supply, its capacity should be greater than the
corresponding specifications of the brake coil power (PH) and ensure that both ends of
the brake coil voltage corresponding specifications of the rated voltage (VH), motor
brakes are generally in the motor terminal box with dedicated rectifier.
The correct wiring of the three-phase asynchronous motor
Most electricians know, three-phase motor three-phase stator windings of each phase
winding has two lead the first. One is called the head-end, the other end is called the
end. Provisions of the first end of the first phase winding which means that the end D1
D4; second phase windings of the first end which means that the end with the third
phase windings of the first end of D3 and D6 to D5; D2. D1 to D6 mark the six lead the
first terminal into the terminal box, terminal marked accordingly. The six ends of the
three-phase stator winding three-phase stator windings may be connected in star or
delta, star connection is the end of the three-phase windings connected in parallel,
coming D4, D5, D6 three terminals copper Quick together, and the first end of the threephase windings respectively connected to three-phase AC power the upcoming D1, D2,
D5, respectively, access to the A, B, C phase power supply. While the the delta
connection sucked first phase winding first end of D1 and the third phase winding
terminal D6 is connected, and then connected in a phase supply; the first end of the
second phase winding D2 with the terminal D1 of the first phase winding is connected

to , then access to the second-phase power supply; third phase windings of the first end
of D5 is connected with the end of the second phase winding D6, and then access the
third-phase power supply. Terminal board terminals D1 and D6, D2 and D1, D5 and D6,
respectively, connected by copper, then respectively connected three-phase power. An
electric motor is connected in star or connected into a triangle, as specified by the
manufacturer and can be found on the motor nameplate. A first end of the three-phase
stator winding is the manufacturer prior Preferences good, never can optionally be
reversed, but may be reversed with a first end of the three-phase windings, for example,
the end of the three-phase winding D1, D5, D6, upside down as the headend , D1, D2, D5
as the end, but can not separate one phase winding terminal upside down, otherwise it
will have a wiring error. Faulty wiring junction box, or the winding end made a mistake,
ranging from motor does not start normally, long power caused by the start-up current is
too large, the motor heat is serious, affect life expectancy, while burning motor windings,
or short out power. Here's winding connection errors that are specific analysis.
1 wrong should be connected as a star running asynchronous motor connected as the
adverse consequences of running the triangle.
Should be connected as a star-shaped movable line motor, the stator winding per
phase withstand voltage (phase voltage) is the rated motor voltage (power supply line
voltage) of the root of 1/3 times (i.e., 0.58 times). Misconnection run into a triangle, each
phase stator winding is exposed to the phase voltage equal to the rated voltage of the
motor, the stator the bear phase voltage of each phase winding rises to 1.732 times the
voltage specified by the manufacturer. For example, the supply voltage is 380V, motor
connected in star running winding voltage for 22 0V. If you pick the wrong run into a
triangle, winding voltage will be increased to 380V. Winding phase voltage is increased,
the core will be highly saturated the core flux magnetizing current will increase
dramatically, up to several times of the rated motor current. Plus load current, such
stator loop current, winding copper losses will increase dramatically, the motor stator
windings due to severe overheating and burning.
2 wrong will be connected into a triangle running asynchronous motor connected as
star running adverse consequences.
Mistakenly triangle-run motor connected into a star running, the phase voltage on the
stator windings of each phase will fall to the original voltage root of 1/3 (i.e., 0.58 times).
For example, the power supply voltage is 380V, delta connection, the stator winding
voltage of 380V. The wrong connected into a star, per-phase stator winding phase
voltage is reduced to 0.58 multiplied by 380 is equal to 220V. Therefore, the motor
torque will be reduced to the rated torque (root 1/3) 2 = 1/3 times (0.33 times). At this
time, the torque should still bring the operation of the rated load, in order to overcome
the moment of resistance of the load requirements star connection and delta connection
of the same size, so will force the stator circuit current increase in torque to try to The
load balancing moment of resistance, resulting in overload fever, a long time will make
the motor temperature rise over charge and Xu value. In the same time, also causes the
motor power factor and efficiency decline. In another case, that is, when the load is less
than 40% of the rated power (such as the big horse car), intends to delta connection
method to the running of the star connection is good. Because when the load is light
(generally less than 40% of rated power), does not require a large load current torque to
overcome the load resistance moment. But the low voltage winding, the magnetizing
current is reduced more, and the total stator current or decreasing the motor power
factor and efficiency are improved, the temperature rise will also decline.
Knowledge of explosion-proof motor

1 explosion-proof electrical equipment: under specified conditions, will not cause the
explosive surroundings lit electrical equipment.
2 explosive mixture: between the lower flammable gas, vapor, mist, dust or fibers and
air mixture explosion.
3 Maximum surface temperature: around electrical equipment for explosive
atmospheres ignite any parts or electrical equipment electrical equipment within the
specified range to work under the most adverse operating conditions may cause any
surface maximum temperature reached.
4 Temperature class: explosive environment with electrical equipment at its maximum
surface temperature by groups.
5 Ignition temperature: combustible material formed from the gas or vapor and air
mixture, under specified conditions, the lowest temperature of the hot surface ignition.
6 Fp: the liquid in a certain standard conditions to release a certain amount of vapor
can form ignitable vapor, the lowest temperature of the air-liquid mixture.
Minimum ignition current: minimum current of the mixture can ignite under specified
conditions the provisions of the spark test apparatus.
8 explosion limit: air flammable gas, vapor or mist concentration higher than the
concentration can not form explosive gas atmospheres.
9 Lower Explosive Limit: air flammable gas, vapor or mist concentration below the
concentration can not form explosive gas atmospheres.
10 explosion hazardous areas: a large number of explosive gas atmospheres appear or
may be expected to be large numbers of that area requirements on the structure of the
electrical equipment, installation and use of special measures.
11 temperature limit: the maximum allowable temperature of electrical equipment or
its components. It is determined by the following factors:
An explosive gas mixture is ignited dangerous temperature.
2 Structure of thermal stability.
Note: when taking into account the temperature limit, whichever is the lower
temperature.
12 t E time: maximum ambient temperature, the stability of the rated operating
temperature after AC winding, from the beginning through the starting current IA of the
time required to limit temperature rise up to.
13 Pressurized electrical devices: a pressurized enclosures for electrical equipment.
Pressurized enclosure: to keep the internal gas pressure is higher than the pressure
of the surrounding explosive atmosphere, to prevent the the external mixture into shell.
14 dust explosion-proof electrical equipment: according to the provisions of the
conditions of design and manufacturing electrical equipment does not cause the
explosion of an explosive mixture of dust around.
The maintenance of electric motors
Maintenance is quite important for reducing and avoiding failure when motors are
running, Thereinto, the most important link is patrol inspection and clearing the roots
caused by any abnormal phenomenon. That is absolutely necessary to analyse the
accident and adopt countermeasure for reducing accidents and raising efficiency when
repairing resting table. Althouth the maintenance is very important, there are still many
emergencies, such as short-circuit, overloading and lossing of phase. In those
situations, it is necessary to adopt some safeguards against damage when motors
running.

1.

Keep the motors clean. Prevent the entry of bead, greasy dirt and dust into motors
inside, and dust out at fixed term.

2.

Notice that overload current does not exceed rated value.

3.

Notice to inspect for bearing heating and leakage of oil, especially a ppl y
l ubri can t accordi ng to the rule s.

4.
Temperature rise does not exceed rated value.
The basic principles for selecting motor
Motor mechanical properties, start, brake, speed control and other control
performance should meet the mechanical properties and production process
requirements ,when the motor power supply quality (such as voltage fluctuations, Xie
interference, etc.), should be in the extent permitted.
Work as scheduled system, the cooling method of Kiev in the case identified by the
motor power, motor temperature rise should be limited to the framework.
According to the environmental conditions, operating conditions, installation,
transmission mode, the selected motor structure, installation, protection form, and
ensure reliable electrical work.
Considering an investment of several operating costs, the entire drive system of
economic, energy-efficient, reasonable, reliable and secure.
The components for the type of product and the provisions of their contents
The type of product were composed of four parts .There are the product code, the
specifications code, the special circumstances code and supplementary code. They are
arranged in the following order: the products code - the specifications code - the special
circumstances code - supplementary code.
Product Code: were composed of four components of the orderThere are the type of
electric motor code, the characteristics code of electric motor, serial number of the
design, and the code of exciting magnetic way.
1The type of code which characterise various types of electric motors are Chinese phonetic
alphabet
For example: Asynchronous motor
Y
Synchronous motor T
Synchronous generator TF
Direct current Motor Z
Direct current generator ZF
2Both the characteristics code characterise and Chinese phonetic alphabet characterise
motor performance, structure or use.
3For example, The type of prevention bursting
YB
Used on the Axial flow fans
YT
The type of electromagnetic brake
YEJ
Frequency conversion adjust speed motor
YVP
Variable-speed multi-polar
YD
Used on the Chain block
YZD etc.
3Design serial were indicated in Arabic numerals refers to the order of the electric motor
design.For the first time the design of the product design does not mark the serial
number,.Series of derivative products based on the design of the order mark. For example: Y2
YB2.
4Exciting way code expressed respectively by letter,S express third harmonic,J express
thyristor,X express rehabilitation phase excitation.
The specifications code are mainly indicated by the center heightframe length Core
length and pole.
1
Center height is the height from axis to bottom surface for the feet of the frame .
Electric motor can be divided into four kinds according to the difference of the center
height.There are large, medium, smal and micro.
H, the center height, between 45mm and 71mm belong to micro electric motors.
H between 80mm and 315mm belong to small electric motors.

H between 355mm and 630mm belong to medium electric motors.


H more than 630 belong to large electric motors.
2The length of the frame in international letters:
Sshort frame
Mmedium frame
Llong frame
3The Core length are indicated in Arabic numerals 1,2,3,4,etc respectively from long to
short.
4Poles contains 2 pole4pole6pole8pole etc.
The special circumstances code have the provisions as follow:
the special circumstances
Code
used on the altiplano
G
used on the ship(sea)
H
outdoor use
W
Chemical corrosion use
F
used in the tropical
T
used in the humid tropics
TH
used in the dry Tropical
TA
The supplementary code only applies to the electric motor which need the supplementary
requirement.For example,The meaning of the code for the type of electric motor is YB2-132S4 H as follow:
Y is the type of the product.It means asynchronous motor.
B is characteristics code of the product.It means type of prevention bursting.
2 is the code of the product design.It means the second design.
132 is the center of the motor.It means the distance from the axis to the ground is 132
mm.
S is the length of the motor. It means the short frame of the electric motor
4 means 4 pole motor.
H is the code of special circumstances.It means marine motor.
The protection class and the code of the electric motorsframe
1. Able to prevent from touching or approaching to the electriferous or rotating parts
inside(with the exception of the smooth rotatable axletree and other similar parts),as well
as to prevent the entry of foreign solid to motors.
2. Prevent the entry of water to avoid the harmful effects caused by it.
Second, the regulation of the protection class
The sign for the protection class: composed by the token letters IP and two token
numbers followed. Thereinto, IP is the acronym of the International Protection in
English.
1. The first token number shows the protection class of human and the inside parts, and
this is the number one in the request of the protection class. The specific meanings are
showed as follows:
the first
the specific meaning
the description
number
0
no specific protection
motors without protections
1
Able to prevent the human
motors with the protection
body from touching or
of solid larger than 50mm
approaching to the
electriferous and rotating parts
inside by accident, as well as to
prevent the entry of foreign
solid whose diameter is larger
than 1mm to motors.
2
Able to prevent fingers and
motors with the protection
similar objects no longer than
of solid larger than 12mm
80mm from touching or
approaching to the

electriferous and rotating parts


inside, as well as to prevent the
entry of foreign solid whose
diameter is larger than 12mm
to motors.
Able to prevent the tools or
lead whose diameter is no
longer than 2.5mm from
touching or approaching to the
electriferous and rotating parts
inside, as well as to prevent the
entry of foreign solid whose
diameter is larger than 2.5mm
to motors.
Able to prevent the lead or slip
whose diameter or thickness is
no longer than 1mm from
touching or approaching to the
electriferous and rotating parts
inside, as well as to prevent the
entry of foreign solid whose
diameter is larger than 1mm to
motors.
Able to prevent the touching or
approaching to the
electriferous and rotating parts,
though not able to prevent the
entry of dust totally.

motors with the protection


of solid larger than 2.5mm

motors with the protection


of solid larger than 2.5mm

dustproof motors

2. The second token number shows the protection class of the harmful effects caused by
the entry of water, and that is the number two of the protection class . The specific
meanings are showed as follows:
the second
the specific meaning
the description
number
0
no specific protection
motors without
protections
1
There is no harmful effect when water
anti-dripping motors
drips vertically
2
There should be no harmful effect
15anti-dripping motors
when water drips along the direction
that has an angle within 15to the
vertical
3
There should be no harmful effect
anti-watering motors
when water flows along the direction
that has an angle within 60to the
vertical
4
There should be no harmful effect
anti-splashing motors
when water splashs in any direction
5
There should be no harmful effect
anti-spraying motors
when water sprays in any direction
6
Water coming into the motor should
anti-wave motors
not be able to cause harmful effects
when the motor suffers heavy waves
or strong spray.
7
Water coming into the motor should
anti-founder motors
not be able to cause harmful effects
when the motor is immerged in water
with the providing pressure during the
providing time.

long time diving

diving motors

Through this study, you should be able to know the meaning of the several protection
classes often used in our company , IP23IP44IP54IP55IP56 for example ,and so
on.
About the maintenance and the use of bearings
The bearing is the most fragile part when a small or a medium-sized electric motor is
running. If the bearing is damaged, circses as followed will happen: the increasing of the
noise and the vibration, the rising of the working temperature, the decline of the
matched equipmentsprecision, and it may even lead to the burning of the electric
motors. So in order to extend the useful life by maintaining the bearings of electric
motors, pay attention to the following factors in the course of the installing and using of
motors:
1. The installing of the coupling
When the motors are connected to the matched equipments by couplings, the breakage
of the bearing caused by the axial force generated by the installing of the coupling
should be avoided. Regarding interference fit size, suggest adopting shrink fit or stand up
to the side surface of non-driving end to install. This will help to effectively prevent the
bearings from the larger axial force, and protect bearings
2. Lubrication for bearing
A current research about the bearings-broken found that 36 persent of the cases caused
by the bad lubrication for bearing or failed to apply the lubricant. Changing bearings is a
tremendous hard work and many problems caused by bearings working too long. So it is
the time to apply lubricant to bearings when electric motor continuously working for 6
months in normal circumstances.
Attentions:
A. the colour of lubricant turns dark
B. covered by beads and dust
C. the lubricant becoming hard and going bad
D. the temperature of the bearing above 95
In all above conditions means the lubricant must be changed immediately. Changing
steps shown below:
- clear up the lubricant presently, and wash the bearings and bearing cap
- apply new lubricant to the bearings(It is better that 2/3 of the bearing house is filled
with lubricant )
3. Contaminated lubricant

Bearings are so delicacy that failure to work will caused by contaminated lubricant. For
this reason, the running environment of the electric motors have to conform to the
requirement of protection class.See IEC 60034-5 for the specific requirements
4Fatigue
The corollary equipment, overloading and maintained in unsuitable measures will
damage the bearing. A research found that primary reason of bearings earlier broken is
fatigued. And 34% of the cases of earlier broken are caused by this reason. For this
reason, electric motors must run in the rated conditions and avoid overloading.
Saving energy and reducing consumption on electric motor
With the shortage of resources, all countries are looking for the way to save energy
and develop the potential of electric energy-saving. The only way is reduce the
consumption.There are many ways for motor energy saving, such as improving motor
efficiency, improving power factor, adjusting speed energy saving, Frequency Controlling
speed. Now we discuss lowering energy consumption on the motor power factor.
Asynchronous motor power factor changes with the load. Rated load power factor is
higher at rated load, and lowrer and light-load, generally between 0.2 ~ 0.85.
Asynchronous motor will draw many emotional reactive power during operation at power
grid, so that the grid power factor deteriorate operation efficiency of system. Reactive
power compensation can be taken to adjust. Induction motor reactive power
compensation is defined to ensure the normal work of the motor under the premise of
power lines through the compensation improve power factor, while reducing power lines
and transformer losses.
Reactive power compensation has: (1) parallel connection capacitor. Motors are usually
connected with capacitor at the terminal end of motor. Before no capacitance
compensation, the electrical angle of the line electric current lags behind the voltage is
larger. After compensate, the electrical angle of the line electric current lags behind the
voltage is less, then improve the line power factor. (2) to install power factor static fill
device, which mainly combined by the filtering device and a capacity for stepless
adjustment of reactive power equipment. After improving the power factor of the grid , at
the guarantee of a constant active power, to make the current system decreased,
reducing the loss of power supply system, thereby realize energy saving.
The reasons for why ordinary three-phase induction motors cannot adapt to the
frequency conversion
Ordinary three-phase induction motors are all designed with Constant Voltage Constant
Frequency,so it is impossible for them to adapt to the frequency conversion
completely.The influences that the frequency converter produces to ordinary three-phase
induction motors are showed as follows:
1.the efficiency and the temperature rising of motors Frequency converters of all kinds
generate sinusoidal voltage and current of different levels during the operation,which
makes motors running at non-sinusoidal voltage.According to the datum,for example
PWN frequency converter is widely used at sinusoidal voltage,and its low-level harmonic
is nearly zero,while the frequency of the remaining high-level harmonic is 2u+1(u stands
for the modulation ratio),about twice of the frequency of the carrier. High-level harmonics
will lead to the risng of the consumption of the stator copperthe rotor/aluminum
copperthe iron and the others,of which the consumption of the rotor/aluminum copper
is the most notable.Because the induction motor goes round at the synchronous rotating

speed close to the fundamental frequency.So,after it is cut by the high-level harmonic


with a large disparity between rotating speed,the consumption of rotor is very big.In
addition,the rising of the consumption of copper due to the skin effect should also be
taken into account.These consumption will all cause the additional heatinglow
efficiency and low output power of motors.If the ordinary three-phase induction motor is
running at non--sinusoidal voltage output by frequency converter,the rising of the
temperature will increase 10%~20%
2.the strength of the motors insulation At present,many small and medium-sized
frequency converters use the PWM control mode.Its carrier frequency is about a few
thousand to more than a dozen KHZ,which makes the motors stator windings have to
bear very high ratio of the voltages rising ,and this is equal to add a impactive voltage
with great gradient to motors which leads motors inter-turn nisulation to bear a austere
test.In addition,if the rectanglar impulse voltage generated by the PWN frequency
conversions is added to the voltage that the motor is running at,it will be minatory for the
motors insulation to the ground which will aging faster under the repeated impact of the
high voltage.
3.the harmonic electromagnetic noise and the vibration When the ordinary induction
motors power is supplied by the frequency conversion,the vibration and the noise
generated by the electromagnetic,machines,ventilation and so on will become more
complex.The various time harmonics in the inverter power and the inherent space
harmonics of the motors electromagnetic interfere mutal ,which lead to the formation of
a variety of the electromagnetic excitation force.When the frequency of the
electromagnetic is close or equal to the motors inherent frequency,the resonance
phenomenon will emerge.Because the range of the motors working frequency is large
and the range of the speeds changing is large,it is hard for varietious of
electromagenetic waves frequency to avoid the inherent frequency of the motors
every components.
4.the motors adaptability to the frequent starting and braking
Because of the use of the frequency conversion to supply power,the motor can start at
very low frequency and voltage without impact current,and brake rapidly in any way
provided by the frequency conversion.This creates the conditions of realizing the starting
and braking frequently,so the motors mechanical and electromagnetic systems are
under a cycle of alternating force,and this will lead to the fatigue and fast aging problem
of the mechanical structures and the insulations.
5.the cooling problem at low speed First of all,the impedanceof the induction motor is
not ideal.When the frequency of the power supply is low,the consumption caused by the
high frequency harmonics of power supply is large.Secondly,when the ordinary induction
motors rotating speed is reducing,the volume of the cooling air will reduce in proportion
of the rotating speeds cube.This will lead to the condition of the motors cooling at low
speed turning bad,the sharp increasing of the temperature rising and hard to achieve the
constant torque output.
Motor knowledge
1 A symbol of protection levels is by the characterization of the letters "IP" and
additional representation in the latter two numbers
Which the "IP" is the English international protection (International Protection) of the
acronym.
The first
digital
0

Specific meaning

Brief

No special protection

No protective

motor
To prevent accidental or accidental human touch
1

on or near the shell of charged or rotating parts,


diameter greater than 50mm to prevent the entry
of foreign matter into the solid motor

Solid protection of
the motor is
greater than 50mm

To prevent the fingers or length 80mm super hit


2

or a similar object closer to the shell of charged

Solid protection of

or rotating parts, diameter greater than 12mm to

the motor is

prevent the entry of foreign matter into the solid

greater than 12mm

motor

Greater than 2.5mm in diameter to prevent the

Solid protection of

tools or wires touching or near the shell of

the motor is

charged or rotating parts, to prevent greater than

greater than

2.5mm diameter solid motor

2.5mm

To prevent the diameter or thickness greater than


1mm slice of the wire or touching or near the
4

shell of charged or rotating parts is greater than

Solid protection of
the motor is
greater than 1mm

1mm in diameter to prevent the entry of foreign

matter into the solid motor


To prevent the touching or near the shell of
charged or rotating parts, although not
completely prevent the entry of dust,
Can completely prevent the entry of dust

Dust-proof motor

Dust density
electrical

2 Characterization of the number of second shell water because the harmful effects
caused by the protective level, that is, the protection we have said before in the second
grade, and its specific meaning is as follows
SecondSpecific meaning
digit
Brief
0
1
2
3

4
5

No special protection
Water without the harmful effects of vertical
With the vertical line into a 15 degree angle
should be no harmful effects of water
With the vertical line into a 60-degree angle
should be no harmful effects
Subject to any direction without the harmful
effects of water splashing
Subject to any direction of the jetting water
should have no harmful effects

No protective motor
Anti-drip motor
15 degrees anti-drip
motor
Protection against
water
Splash water
Jetting water

6
7

Subject to severe shocks or strong water


waves, the motor does not reach into the
water, the harmful effects should be
Provisions of the electrical pressure of the
water immersion, after a specified time after
the motor into the water should not reach the
level of harmful
Long-term diving

Anti-wave motor
Protection flooding
water
Submersible Motor

The correct installation, use and maintenance of the motor


The correct installation, use and maintenance of the motor, can avoid accident and
extend the using life.
Inspection
1,Check the nameplate data Carefully, and confirm the motor is correspond with the
requirements.
2, Using the 500V megohm to measuring the motor insulation resistance between
winding and shell, insulation resistance should be larger than 0.5M
Installation
1Motor usually works in the clean and dry place, the surrounding should be wellventilated, and the highest ambient air temperature does not exceed 40 , the
minimum temperature not lower than -15 , and motor should be prevent the strong
heat radiation
2, Then according to wiring diagram to connect the power wires, and connection should
be tight. The motor with cables leads and electrical wires, the power lines can be directly
connected and joint sealing should be insulated.
3, when the power line, phase sequence and electrical rough wiring connection
correspond to the mark, the motor should rotate on clockwise from the axis end. When
need to change the rotation, change the location of 2 power wires.
4YD series motors using change the out wires to control the speed of change. To
ensure the reliability of the multi-speed motor ,please pay attention to operation and
operation of control devices .When change high-speed to low speed, must cut off the
power and at the same time cut off 2Y wires, in order to avoid short circuit in low-speed.
When change high-speed to low speed, connect low speed power after the motor stop
running in order to reduce the impact of motor and load. When change motor speed,
please pay attention motors rotation direction.
5Motor can be connected to load machines by shaft coupling, gears and belts .Motors
which 2 pole powers more than 4KW and 4 pole power more than 30kw should not be
connected by a belt, the second axis of biaxial motor can only be used by shaft coupling.
Space between couplings, belts and motor axis should be appropriate, when installing,
please dont use a heavy hammer to pound. When using coupling, the center of the
motor shaft and center of the load mechanical axis should coincide.
Please keep 1 ~ 3mm gap between axial couplings. When using moving belt, the center
of the motor shaft should be parallel to the center of the load mechanical axis, the
centerline of the belt should be vertical with the axis centerline.
Earth
Motor earth must be reliable, method and grounding resistance should be consistent
with the provisions of the management of electrical safety such as industrial and
earthing of electrical installations in civil design specification" "power plant design
technical specifications", and grounding resistance should be less than 4
Start
1When switch , the motor should start up to normal speed and smooth operation, or

cut off power immediately, inspect and expel the faults.


2After start-up ,observe the motor gear, load machinery, voltage meter and ammeter.
If any anomalies happens, should stop the motor immediately
3Motor no-load start-up are generally not more than four times ,when run down after
hot start-up , consecutive start not more than 2 times, or cause motor burned.
4According to grid capacity, load size and motor power and so on, choose a
reasonable start-up mode, the larger power motor should be taken using a triangular or
step-down power starting.
Operation
1 The deviation between power voltage and rated voltage should not exceed 5%, the
unbalance of three-phase voltage should not exceed 1.5%.
2, Motor operating current shall not exceed the rated nameplate current, unbalance of
three-phase current should not exceed 80%, or result in motor burned
3Temperature of motor casing surface should not exceed 80 , the temperature of
bearings should not exceed 95 .
4Motor should be kept clean, dry, well-ventilated, the air access lane should remain
open.
5When motor running ,any smoke appeared, severe vibration, abnormal noise, special
smell, decreased speed or load equipment failure or personal electric shock, please cut
off power immediately.
Bearing Lubrication
1Motor bearing lubrication should be good. In general, after 3000-5000 hours, please
stop motor and add or replaced new grease. The grease grade is ZL - 3 lithium base
grease.
2When the motor storage more than two years ,before use of the motor, please
inspect the motor bearing lubrication ,if necessary, please add or replace the grease.
3, The motor which height of the motor center is equal to or below 132 have sealed
bearing; The motor which height of the motor center is equal to or more than 160 have
non-sealed bearing .Motors using sealed bearings dont no need to replace the grease.
Non-sealed bearings should be replaced clean grease regularly. Add grease should be
moderate; generally fill 1/3-1/2 of bearing housing. When motor have a injection devices,
add lubrication 3-4 using the gun. Before adding grease, open the hole or cover at the
bottom of bearing caps, and then close the hole or cover after motor running 20 minutes.
When open the hole or cover, please cut off the power.
Transport and storage
Motor during transport should not be damp, not stretching axis, and other parts are not
damaged. Storage places should be kept clean, dry, ventilated, non-corrosive gases and
avoid environment temperature dramatic changes.
Quality Assurance
1,When user proper use and storage in accordance the user manual ,and the motor
from the date of purchase within one year or from the date of self-produced no more than
1 year, motors does not work due to manufacturing defects or quality problems, we
responsible for repairing, exchanging and returning.
2, When motor failure due to user-self, our company can provide maintenance services,
and take a certain amount of costs normally include the following: motor burned due to
motor voltage exceeding than rated voltage 5% or overload operation; a phase or twophase motor stator windings burned due to three-phase power supply failure; equipment
accidents caused by improper installation,; user un-authorization to demolish and repair
motors.
Maintenance Repair
Motor repair should pay attention to environmental protection, make to pollution-free.
Please dont burn to remove the motor coil. If motor use more than one year or longer,

when maintenance, pay attention to the motor end cover oil seal, seal ring, sealing ring
of terminal box seat, and lid whether are cracking, deformation, wear and tear, when
they can not be sealed to meet the requirements , please replace the parts timely.
The simple calculated of the using of motors
A known three-phase motor capacity, and its rated current Formula (c): kilovolt capacity
divided by the number of points to take factor 76.Description:
(1) formula applies to any of the three-phase voltage calculation of motor rated current.
By the formula and that formula may be the same voltage capacity , rated current of
different motor is not the same,that is not the same as a few kV voltage,removal of the
same capacity,from "quotient" is clearly not the same as, Quotient is not the same by the
same coefficient to 0.76, from the current value is not the same
If the above formula is called generic formula, the calculation can be derived
220,380,660,3.6 kV voltage motor rated current special calculation formula, the special
calculation formula calculated by a dedicated three-phase motor on one rated current,
Kilowatt of capacity with the current multiple of amperes of direct relations, save as
capacity divided by the number of kilovolt , the number of quotient take by factor 0.76 .
220 three-phase motor, kW 3.5 amps. Commonly used 380 motor, 2 amps one kilowatts.
660 low-voltage motors, kW 1.2 amps. 3000 V high voltage motors, 1 Amps 4 kilowatts.
6000 V high voltage motors, 1 amps 8 kilowatts.
(2)the use of formula c, the capacity of units is kW, voltage units is kV, current units is
A, must take note of this point.
(3) factor of 0.76 in c formula is to consider the motor power factor and efficiency of the
integrated value calculated. Power factor is 0.85, efficiency is not 0.9, this comparison for
two values of more than tens of kW motor, the motor frequently used the following
seems to 10kW greater. This was calculated using the formula c motor nameplate rated
motor current and the numerical mark a margin of error, the error on the following 10kW
motor rated current in accordance with the first switch, contactors, such as the impact of
small wires.
(4) the use of formula calculation skills. 380V calculation formula used by the motor
rated current, the first motor with a few 0.38kV then remove 0.76, 2 to take the quotient
of capacity (kW) number. In case of 6kV larger capacity motor, the capacity of several kW
is also just a few multiples of 6kV, the capacity divided by the number of kilovolt,
quotient multiplied by the coefficient 0.76.
(5) error. In the coefficient c by the formula 0.76 in which the motor power factor to 0.85,
while the calculated efficiency of 0.9, so that different power factor, efficiency of the
motor rated current on the existence of error. C derived from the formula of the five
special formula, capacity (kW) and current (A) the multiplier is the voltage (kV) to remove
the number of coefficients to 0.76. Simple and easy-specific mental arithmetic formula, it
should be noted that the error will increase. Generally the larger the number of kilowatts,
calculated on the nameplate current slightly larger than some; and a few smaller kW,
calculated current is slightly smaller than those on the nameplate. In this regard, in the
calculation of current, when the current of a few dozen to more than a security or safety,
then do not count after the decimal point. Four and five homes can be nothing, just take
an integer, it is simple and without affecting the utility. For as long as the smaller current
is also considered to be a decimal.
Second, Order to the capacity of current demand without a nameplate capacity of noload motor current estimate of its rated capacity
Formula:NO nameplate motor capacity, measured no-load current value,take by ten,
divided by eight, near by the number of kilowatt-level
Description:formula is not the three-phase asynchronous motor nameplate

, do not know the number of kilowatt capacity may be by measuring the motor no-load
current value, to estimate the number of motor kW capacity method.
Third, the known cage motor capacity, operators seek stars - Delta starter (QX3, QX4
series) of the action of time and heat setting current formula components: Star Delta
motor starter, setting a good start-up time; capacity multiplied by the second
prescription, plus four units plot a few seconds. Star Delta starter motor, thermal
overload protection device; tuning current phase current capacity taked by eight,divided
by seven.
Note: (1) QX3, QX4 series automatic star - triangle starter from 3 AC contactor, a relay
and a three-phase thermal time relay of the outside with a start-up button and a stop
button. before use of starter, to deal with time relay and thermal relay adjustment, these
two tasks are installed in the start-up scene. Electrical capacity of most electric motors
only, and do not know the normal start-up time motor, motor rated current. Time relay
time is the action of the motor start-up time (from start to achieve the rated speed of the
time), this time to operator numerical formula available.
2) time relay adjustment, not to access the motor to operate, test time relay time of the
action with the motor under the control of the start-up time line. If not, it should be time
to fine-tune the action of time relay, and then test. However, the interval between two
tests of at least more than in the 90s in order to ensure bi-metallic relay automatically
reset the time.
(3) the adjustment of thermal relay, as the QX Series starter in the heat of hot electrical
components in series in the motor phase current circuit, while the motor is then run into
a triangle, then the motor running current is the phase line current (that is, rated current)
of 1 / 3 times. Therefore, the thermal relay of thermal components of the whole
application will be current formula of "capacity by 8 divided by 7" basis. According to the
calculated value of heat relay current setting of the adjustment knob to the appropriate
scale - scale about the center line. If the calculated value of thermal relay thermal
component is not rated current range, that is greater than or less than the regulation of
body marking scale high-limit or low limit values should be appropriate to replace the
thermal relay, or select the appropriate components of the heat.
Four known asynchronous motor capacity, and its no-load current operator
Formula: Motor no-load current, with a capacity of about discount for each purchase
order; new tickets a few very large, very old small number of multi-kilowatt.
Description: (1) induction motor no-load run-time, will be a three-phase winding by the
current, known as the no-load current. Most of the no-load current used to generate the
rotating magnetic field, known as the no-load excitation current, is the no-load reactive
current component. There are a small fraction of no-load no-load motor current for the
production of a variety of run-time power loss (such as friction, wear and tear, Core loss
and so on), this part is no-load current of the active component, the percentage is very
small, negligible. Therefore, the no-load current can be considered that are reactive
current. From this point of view, it is the smaller the better, so that the motor power
factor increased, the power supply is good. If the no-load current, If the no-load current,
and stator windings of the wire because it is a certain area , Current is a certain .then
allowed to flow through wire active current can only be reduced, the motor can drive the
load will be reduced, efforts to reduce motor with the load is too large, winding, it is easy
to heat. However, the no-load current can not be too small, or to affect the motor
performance of the other. Generally small motor rated current no-load current of about
30% to 70%, large and medium-sized motor rated current no-load current of about 20%
~ 40%. Specific to a certain Motors is the number of no-load current in the motor
nameplate or product brochure, there is generally no mark. Electrician often need to
know how much this value is as a value to determine the quality of motor repair, can use
or not.

(2) formula is the calculation of the fast motor no-load current value of specific formula,
which is derived from a large number of test data. It is consistent with the "no-load
current of motor rated current is usually 1 / 3." At the same time, it is consistent with the
practical experience: "The no-load motor current, no more than a few kilowatts of
capacity to use" principle (referring to old-fashioned maintenance, small-capacity motor).
Formula "about the capacity of discount for each purchase order" refers to the general
no-load motor current value is the number of motor kW rated capacity of 0.8 times.
Medium, 4 or 6 pole motors of no-load current, motor capacity is 0.8 times the number of
kilowatt; new series, high-capacity, very few of the two small electric motors, the no-load
current calculation by the "new big six very few discount "; on the old, old series, a
smaller capacity, very few large motor of more than 8 poles, and its no-load current, by"
a very small number of multi-kilowatt ", that is similar to no-load current equivalent to
the capacity of a few kW , but is generally less than a few kilowatts. Calculated using
formula of no-load motor current, motor specification count value of the mark, measured
values have a certain margin of error, but the count value formula can meet the electrical
needs of day-to-day work.
The transformation, speed regulation and energy saving of motors
When the load of the asynchronous motor is not heavy, we can achieve energy saving
by reducing the outside power. If the asynchronous motor runs normally and do not take
no-load torque into thinking, the electromagnetic torque must be equal to the load
torque. After the power is reduced, the main flux will decrease. At this moment the
motors torque will decrease and the motors rotate speed will be reduced. Although this
can increase the rotor current, however, when the load of the motor is light, the
increasing of the rotor current will be reduced. By the electromagnetic theory, we can see
that, the stator current should equal to the magnetization current and the rotor current of
the motor. There into, the motors magnetization current will reduce as the main
magnetic reduces. Under a certain load, only if the reducing of the motors magnetization
current can play a leading role, then the reducing of the stator current will equal to the
rotor current vector and the motors magnetization current vector. As a result, the stator
copper loss will decrease and the motors efficiency will rise.
In practice, when the load is lower than 50%, the connection of the asynchronous
motors of triangular connection can be replaced by the star-shaped connection. At this
time, the phase voltage of the motor is of the original voltage, so as to achieve the
energy saving effect.
How to choose the power of motor
Motor power should be based on the requirement of eqipment and make the motor
run at rated load. pay attention to the following two points:
If the motor power is too small. It will result in long-term motor overload. The
insulation damage due to fever. Even the motor were destroyed.
If the motor power is too high. The output mechanical power can not be fully utilized,
the power factor and efficiency are not high, not only detrimental to users and power
grids. But also result in wasted energy.
In order to choose a suitable motor power , must be calculated as:
For Constant load, If you know the load of the power Pl (kw). Motor can be determined
using the following equation
P=P1/n1n2
Where n1 is the efficiency of production machinery; n2 for is the motor efficiency. That
the transmission efficiency. Calculated according to the type of power,maybe not to the

same power of products. Rated power of motor should be equal to or slightly larger than
the calculated power.
For example: the power of a production machinery is 3.95kw. Mechanical efficiency is
70%, if choose the motor with efficiency 0.8, what about the power of the motor?
Answer: P = P1 / n1n2 = 3.95/0.7 * 0.8 = 7.1kw There is no motor of 7.1kw so we choose
7.5kw motor.
Regular maintenance of the motor
In order to ensure electrical work, in addition to normal use in accordance with
procedures, normal operation of the process of monitoring and maintenance of attention,
but also should carry out regular inspection, maintenance electrical work to do a good
job. This can eliminate some problems in time to prevent the failure to ensure safe and
reliable operation of motors. Regular maintenance intervals can be considered in
accordance with the form of electrical use of environmental decisions.
Regular maintenance is as follows.
1, the electrical brush clearance. Block timely removal of the electrical machine and
external dust, sludge. More dust, such as the use of the environment, the best time every
day cleaning.
2, inspection and brush clearance motor terminals. Checking whether the junction box
screws loose wiring, burn.
3, inspection of the fixed part of screws, including screws and feet, cover screws, cap
screws, such as bearings. Loosening of the nut will be tightened.
4, gear check, check whether the drive pulley or coupling, damage, whether the
installation of a solid; belt buckle is in good condition and its link.
5, motor start-up equipment, but also external dust wipe clearance in time, you are,
clean contact to check whether there are parts of the wiring burns is a good grounding
line.
6, bearing the inspection and maintenance. In the use of bearings should be cleaned
after a period of time, the replacement of grease or oil. Time cleaning and oil changes,
should work with the motor, working environment, cleanliness, lubricant type, half of
every 3-6 months, it should be washed once, re-grease for. High oil temperature, or poor
environmental conditions, dust to be more frequent cleansing of the motor, the oil.
7, insulation inspection. Insulating materials due to drying of the degree of insulation
vary, so check the motor windings of the drying is very important. Motor humid working
environment, workplace factors such as corrosive gases exist, would destroy the
electrical insulation. The most common is the winding earth fault, or insulation damage,
so that live parts with the chassis and other metal parts should not be charged
encounter, the occurrence of such failure, not only affect the normal work of the
electrical, but also endanger their personal safety. Therefore, the motor in use, should
always check the insulation resistance, but also pay attention to check the reliability of
the electrical chassis ground.
8, in addition to the above content by regular maintenance of the motor, the operation to
repair a year later. The purpose of overhaul of the motor to conduct a thorough and
comprehensive inspection, maintenance, and added to the lack of electrical wear of
components, both within and outside the total elimination of the electrical dust, dirt,
insulation inspection, the cleaning and inspection of the bearing wear. Identify problems
to tackle them promptly.
Generally speaking, as long as the correct, proper maintenance and found fault in time,
the electrical work is a very long life.
Motor knowledge 2
1. The frequency of the three-phase asynchronous motor 60HZ, 50HZ, if then in
power use, what kind of phenomenon will occur?
n = 60f / p f is the frequency n is the speedP is on the number of Poles
60 to 50, speed will be slow to increase iron consumption, the current increases,
power reduced, the electrical heating, do not use a full load.

2. Driven three-phase asynchronous motor rated load of work, if the power supply
voltage drops too much, tend to heat or electrical burn, and why?
Driven three-phase asynchronous motor rated load of work, if the power supply
voltage drop and current increase, not because the same motor power, but
because the result of reducing the armature reaction; at this time of the motor
power is usually a slightly smaller, the torque is also slightly smaller than the
points. As a result of lower terminal voltage, its potential is bound to reduce the
resistance, the current increased, reached a new point of balance. If the voltage
drop in the more general will increase the number of current, resulting in burning
motor.
3. How is the three-phase asynchronous motor angle to connect the star thing,
what are the advantages and disadvantages?
Triangle: both three-phase winding, followed by three-phase power supply, the
property a triangular shape winding schematic;
Astrocytoma: three windings with the first access point as a neutral, three rear
three-phase power supply then. Winding was "Y" shape.
Triangle big advantage is the output power, high starting torque, starting current
major shortcomings. Winding specifications for the needs of the larger wire.
Advantage of current star start small, but power and torque is also small.
The same motor output power: then into then into a star-shaped angular is 3
times
4. Three-phase asynchronous motor running at rated voltage, the load increases,
that is, increased resistance to torque, speed will be reduced accordingly, but very
subtle, so that the motor stator rotor speed than the speed difference between
the rotating magnetic field to increase the system impedance decline in threephase stator current increases, the corresponding induced current in the rotor also
increases. Of course, the increase in load power load is also increased.
5. Three-phase asynchronous motor has two categories, one is the rotor cage, and
the other is the rotor winding. Three-phase asynchronous motor current is rated
current of 4-7 times more power 10KW motor can not directly start, to be used in
step-down start of Wound Rotor resistance starting string, FM starting
deceleration. three-phase asynchronous motor speed are as follows: speed
regulator, rotor speed control loop resistor string, Frequency Control, weak
magnetic governor, is the value according to the functions of sub-torque value for
power and speed governor.
6.Speed regulator for small power motor, because its output torque and the stator
voltage is proportional to the square, speed regulator, the motor threshold of the
same slip. Rotor speed control loop resistor string is a very speed , you can get
the maximum starting torque and braking torque, so commonly used in the cable
car system, in the heavy lifting to get the most when the starting torque, heavy
decentralization can be better when the braking torque. Frequency speed there
are two types of pressure-frequency than the speed value, which value speed
torque, output torque in the same circumstances can change the speed, the
speed in the more ideal way, is now general industrial. Another stator voltage is
the same, but the frequency above the nominal frequency adjusted at the motor
or speed (higher than the rated speed), but its smaller output torque, the method
used to load air pumps are value - Power Control.
Three-phase asynchronous motor fault analysis and processing methods (one)
Winding short-circuit due to excessive electrical current, supply voltage change is too
large, single-phase operation, mechanical bumps which break the insulation. There are

four types, inter-turnshort circuit, winding short-circuit, winding pole short-circuit and
winding phase short circuit.
1. Fault phenomenon
As the three-phase current imbalance caused by uneven distribution of the stator
magnetic field, so that the motor run-time increased vibration and noise, seriously motor
could not be started, and in the short-circuit coil generated a big short-circuit current,
resulting in rapid heating and the motor burned.
2. Cause
Long-term operation of motor overload caused loss of insulation
inlay line insulation damage insulation
damage insulation caused by damp
layers insulation damaged
cable insulation damaged
insulation damaged by lightning
damage caused by friction between stator and rotor
foreign bodies falling into the motor
3. Examination
one, external observation. Judging by if the terminal box ,end winding, winding
overheating left dark brown and a bad smell.
Two,Bridge inspection. DC winding resistance should not exceed more than 5%, the
phase with small resistance may be short-circuit fault.
Three,Megohm meter or multimeter. if the arbitrary two-phase winding insulation
resistance is verysmall or zero, indicating that the two-phase windings are short-circuit
phase.
4. Short-circuit approach
One,Short-circuit in the end. Insulating materials can be used to separate short-circuit
point, packets may also be re-insulated wire, and then re-drying paint.
Two,Short-cut occerd in line bed. After softening to identify short-circuit point ,repair it
and put it in line bed , and then drying paint.
Three-phase asynchronous motor fault analysis and processing methods (two)
Winding is an important part of motor, moisture, heat, corrosion, invasion, the impact
of external forces can cause damage to the windings.Electrical overload, under-voltage,
over-voltage, lack of running also can cause winding failure. Generally wingding fault
have winding ground fault, short circuit, open circuit, wiring error. Now introduce failure
phenomenon, the causes and inspection methods respectively.
oneWinding Grounding
Means grounding between winding and iron core or frame caused by insulation
damage
1.Fault phenomenon
Frame charged case, the control line out of control, short-circuit winding heating, lead
motors can not operate normaly.
2.Cause
Winding insulation resistance cause of damp ; long-term overload;rusty by harmful
gases; winding insulation damage cause of metal junk; winding insulation damage when
winding; winding insulation damage cause of winding end tuching the frame or rhe cap;
winding insulation damage cause of the friction between stator and rotor;wiring friction
cause of the tuch of the frame; over-voltage (eg lightning) damage the insulation.
3.Examination
(1)Observation Winding through the visual and the trough in the end of insulation and
charred observe any signs of injury, if it is ,the location is just the point.

(2)Multimeter Test Low profile to check with a multimeter, the reading is very small, it
is grounding.
(3)Megohm table. Selected according to different levels and different forms ,measure
megohm insulation resistance of each resistor, if the reading is zero, then the winding
grounding, but damp or electrical insulation breakdown due to accident, to be
determined based on experience, generally speaking pointer in the "0" swing,
department from time to time, that it has a certain degree of resistance
(4)Test lamp method.If the test lights on, winding grounded.If accompanied by sparks
or smoke somewhere, then the ground is for the winding point of failure. If the light
micro-light ,there is grounding insulation breakdown. If the light does not shine, but
testing grounding rods also spark, that is not yet been winding breakdown, but a serious
damp. Hardwood can also be used to knock the edge of the frame, when a light
sparking,that means the current pass off, then there is the grounding point.
(5) Current law to wear burnRegulator with a transformer, connect the power , the
grounding point will get heat soon, the grounding point is where smoke take place.
Should pay particular attention to that the small motor is no more than twice of the rated
current, time is no more than half a minute ;big motor rated current is for 20% -50% of
the rated current or gradually increase the current, to take place just as soon as it smoke.
(6) Packet out methods.Where the grounding point happens,it burnt in the core,
burning of copper wire together with the core melt. The method is to separate one phase
of grounding winding, and so on, then find out the location of the final.
In addition, there are high-pressure test, explore the needle method, such as frequency
vibration method, we couldnt introduce one by one here.
4.Approach
(1)Winding ground caused by damp should to dry first, when cooled to 60 - 70 , pour
the insulated paint, and then dry.
(2)End-winding insulation damage ,at the ground point to deal with re-insulation,
painting, and then dry.
(3)Winding at the tank, then rewinding or replacement the part of winding.
Finally, measure with megohm to make sure it to meet the technical requirements
Demolition of motor steps and requirements
1,Demolition drive pulley (coupling) to drive pulley (coupling) on the set screws loose,
and pull out a drive pulley (coupling). If the song does not pull dynamic, you need to set
screws in the hole by adding lubricants; If not pulling, kerosene or alcohol lamp can be
used in the drive pulley (coupling) cylindrical sleeve around the heating and then pulling.
Attention should be paid to control the heating temperature, and motor shaft sleeve to
prevent stretching deformation.
2,the demolition of the rotor bearing caps and bearing caps before removal of the wind
and after the end caps cover bolts, screws, back cover and then use the mallet axis
direction stretch out side, so that after the seat cover and away from the sewing
machine, and then hand or rotor with the balance suspended with after taking the cover.
3, the front cover to remove the rotor winding in the demolition of prior filed or remove
brush, brush wire racks and primers, and then to remove the front cover.4, Dismantling,
cleaning and inspection of bearings: (1) the demolition, with suitable living closely with
the pull bearing bearing inner ring will be pulled out. (2) cleaning (in addition to bearing
the entire closed outside), hand-bearing outer ring rotation, so that rotating bearings in
gasoline, residual oil washed, and then with a dry cloth to oil, water, dry. (3) check to see
the bearing raceway and the balls or rollers between the surface of any rust, trace, and

then hand-bearing outer ring rotation, whether to observe the rotational flexibility,
bearing a final decision on whether to continue to use, the user can not be replaced .
The motor assembly and the requirements
1, the two bearings into the rotor-bearing file can be loaded when the hot pack or coldpress method. Regardless of which method to use, force should be added to the bearing
inner ring. Heat when the temperature can not be set too high, the general control of the
100 ~ 105 .
2,motor will be loaded after the cover after the bearings, and tighten the screws after the
bearing caps.
3,push a back end cover to stator
4, tightening bolts after the cover, put the front cover, the former bearing caps, and
screw tightly firmware
5, mounted fans, air cover, and screw tightly firmware.
6, after assembling parts, rotating shaft by hand, if the rotational flexibility without hum,
then the end of the assembly
Note: All parts, especially with the surface in the assembly prior to clean-up and rust
The Working system of the motor fixed and ratings
working system
1, the working system definition: that exposure to a range of motor load conditions,
including starting, no load, parking and off to its duration and sequencing.
One no-load: means the electric power output in a zero spin state.
Full load: means the motor running in its fixed state.
Be able to stop and break: refers to neither electrical in movement, nor electricity or
mechanical energy input state.
2, the working system of the type: working system can be divided into continuous, shortterm, periodic or nonperiodic several types.
Periodic working system includes one or more of the provisions of the duration of
constant load, and the electrical load during operation does not meet the thermal
stability; aperiodic work system in the load and speed are usually allowed to run in the
range.
Work system, code-named general use S1 ~ S10 to indicate the following a brief few, we
compare the system of the type commonly used in the work.
3, S1 working system: continuous work system; to keep running at a constant load to the
thermal stability.
4, S2 working system: short-term work system; at a constant load according to the
given time to run the motor at the time, not enough to achieve thermal stability, with the
attendant parking and off energy, their time enough to cool the motor again.
S2, after-work system should be marked with the duration should be given priority
10,30,60, or 90 minutes.
As shown above.
5, S3 working system: intermittent-cycle-work system; by a series of the same work
cycle of operation, with each cycle including a constant-load running time and a period of

time to stop and break, and the electrical load during operation failed to meet the
thermal stability.
S3 should be marked with the load after the sustained rate of tP / (tP + tR).
2, fixed and ratings
1, fixed refers to a group rating and operating conditions.
Fixed categories are: the amount of continuous work to develop the work of the system
corresponding to the S1
Short-time working to develop a corresponding amount of work in the S2 system
Cycle of work to develop the amount corresponding to S3 ~ S8 working system
The amount of non-periodic working to develop the work of the system corresponds to
S9
Discrete constant-load work to develop a corresponding amount of work on the S10
system
2 rating means a motor running condition characterized by a variety of values, such as
we have seen in the nameplate power, voltage, current, frequency, speed and so called
rating. (Can be brief frequency, voltage, speed, etc. with the provisions and terms)
3, operating conditions
Field conditions:
(1) not more than 1000m above sea level
(2) Maximum ambient air temperature of not greater than 40 degrees
(3) Minimum ambient air temperature is higher than 15 degrees below zero
(4) Cooling medium temperature is greater than 5 degrees less than 25 degrees
Electrical conditions:
(5) power supplies comply with standard requirements
(6) The voltage and current waveforms required symmetry
(7) changes during the operation voltage of < 5%, frequency changes < 1%.
The Cleaning and Installation of Electric Motors Bearings
Before installing bearings, quality inspection must be carried out in accordance with
relative technical conditions. For ordinary bearings(deep groove ball bearings without
seal ring and short cylindrical roller bearings), the cleaning and installing bearings right
or not will have a direct impact on the noise of the motors bearing.
Before cleaning normal bearings, you must first wipe off the antirust used for bearings
encapsulation. For antirust grease, you can put the bearing into a oil tank filled with
100~120 of spindle oil and take it out after 10~15 minute. Use antirust for the holding
frame and oiliness antirust grease for other parts, and soak the bearings in 2% ~ 3%
aqueous solution of sodium oleate soap or 664 cleaning agent solution at heating
temperature (the aqueous solution of sodium oleate soaps heating temperature is
80~90 and the 664 cleaning agent solutions heating temperature is 75~80) and at
room temperature for 2~3 minutes in turns. And then rinse the bearings with clean water
and put them in petrol or kerosene to clean them and dehydrate them at last.
The structure of three-phase asynchronous motor
In short, three-phase asynchronous motor stator and rotor mainly by the two major
components, while the air gap between stator and rotor is generally 0.25 ~ 2mm,
because the gap is also a part of the motor magnetic circuit, when the gap is large,
reluctance on the big, exciting current is also large, so the air gap can not be too large,
while the smaller the process more difficult, but also easy to wipe Heart.
A stator part.
Stator: the motor fixed and called the static part of the stator. It includes the stator

core, stator windings and machine seat and other parts.


stator core: It is part of the motor magnetic circuit, in order to reduce the stator iron
loss in mind, the thickness of core material tends to be used for 0.35 ~ 0.5mm, the
surface insulation layer with a stacked silicon steel lamination formed. Core punching red
circle with uniformly distributed within the slot, slot to put embedded stator windings.
Slots are open, semi-open type and semi-closed-type three kinds.
Semi-closed-type tank generally used for small electric motors, the efficiency
advantages of electric motors and power factor higher drawback is winding wire and
insulation are embedding more difficult; semi-open-groove can be embedded in place
forming windings are used for large and medium-sized motors; openings groove can be
embedded in place through the winding insulation treatment, mainly for high-voltage
motor.
stator windings: It is part of the motor circuit, is to pass into the symmetrical threephase alternating current rotating magnetic field generated by the composition of threephase symmetrical windings, we use u1, v1, w1, representing the first end of the three
windings in order to u2, v2 , w2 represent the end of the three windings, so the motor
stator core at the embedded end line, out of the line after the end of the general had six
qualifying u1, v1, w1, u2, v2, w2, motor assembly, we must these three windings of the
six outlet side diverted to the motor wiring box, we can according to need access into a
star or triangle, the general 3KW following are connected into a star, other power
connected as triangles.
Stator windings is the most important part of the motor in order to ensure normal
working winding, winding insulation are reliable, general insulation are:
Slot Insulation: To prevent winding of the core (prefecture) and short-circuit - with the
insulating paper;
Inter-turn insulation: To prevent winding inter-turn short circuit - with the wire itself, the
insulating layer;
Interlayer insulation: For double-layer winding, the same as the insulating materials
and tank.
Insulation End-white Insulation: white pad of paper insulated triangle, and the nose
with a cloth bandage.
Base: the role of a fixed stator core, and rotor supported by two end caps, while
protecting the whole Motors section and dissemination of the electromagnetic motor is
running in the heat, so the machine seat enclosed motor heat sink out there to increase
the cooling area, In order to facilitate the motor transport, motor machines are equipped
with seat rings.
Its materials are mainly cast iron (small motor), steel (CZ, CBZ, large-scale highvoltage motors), aluminum (1AL series).
Part of the Rotor
Rotor: The rotating part of the motor is called the rotor, mainly by the rotor core, rotor
winding and rotor so on.
1. rotor core: is also a part of the motor magnetic circuit, generally with a thickness of
0.5mm with each other insulation layers made of silicon steel punching, punching a
uniform distribution of red cylindrical tank, built to accommodate the rotor winding.
2.rotor windings: the role of induced electromotive force and current generated, and
under the influence of rotating magnetic field of electromagnetic torque Ershi rotor
rotation. Rotor windings according to the structure can be divided into two kinds of cage
type and Wound.
(1) cage type rotor: there are single-cage type rotor cage type, double-cage and deeptrough structure. The single-cage-type according to different materials, there can be
divided into two types, one is to the rotor conductor, both ends of the short-circuit liquid
ring and a cast aluminum fan made (cast aluminum rotor); the other is at the core of

each of the rotor a tank inserted a copper strips, and each end of the core with a copper
for the copper strips welded to each of the root (High Voltage) .
(2) Wound Rotor: refers to the wire trough embedded in the rotor and the stator
windings have the same number of pole three-phase symmetrical windings, generally are
connected into a star, that is the end are connected together, and the first side through
the slip ring and brushdevice and the external circuit connected to. (YZR)
axis: the role of supporting the rotor core and winding, and deliver motor output
mechanical torque, while ensuring that the stator and rotor air gap between the have a
certain uniformity.
Other accessories
1. cover: installed in the aircraft seat on both sides, bearing interior placed bearings,
to play a supportive role in the rotor and to maintain the stator and rotor concentricity
between the requirements.
2. bearings and bearing caps: Bearing support shaft rotation, Y160 more plus bearing
cap.
3. fan and fan cover: shaft driven fan with rotation, since the role of cooling the motor,
the wind shield to protect fan.
4. outlet and the outlet box lid seat: installed on the machine pedestal, protect
qualifying section.
5. plate: mark the main technical data, model, serial number, rated power, voltage,
current, frequency, speed, protection class, noise levels, working system, insulation
levels, access method, weight and date.
The characteristics of motor operating under the control of Inverter
Inverter is mainly constituted by RectifierAC Variable DC filteringRerectificationDC Variable ACBraking Unit.driving unitDetection unit as well as
microprocessing unit.
Why is the motor rotation speed can be freely changed?
Motor rotation speed unitr/min the number of rotations per minuteit can be
expressed as rpm.
Example 2 poles motor 50Hz 3000 [r/min]
4 poles motor 50Hz 1500 [r/min]
ConclusionThe motor rotation speed is proportional to the frequency.
AC Induction motors rotation speed is indeed approximately decision on the number
of the motor pole and frequency . The working principle of electric motor is fixed, As the
number of the pole is not a continuous numerical ,(it is a multiple of 2. such as the
number of poles is 2,4,6) ,so It is generally not appropriate to adjust the speed of the
motor by changing the numerical.
Other, The frequency can be adjusted outside of the motor and supply the motor, that
the motor rotation speed can be freely controlled. Therefore, the converter for the
purpose of controlling is the preferred equipment for motor speed control .
n = 60f/p
n:Sync speed
f:Power Frequency
p:Number of motor pole pairs
ConclusionTo change the frequency and voltage is the optimal method of motor
control
If only changing the frequency instead of changing the voltageover-voltage will occur
when The frequency reduceThis leads to motor may be burned. Therefore, changing
the frequency converter at the same time must also change voltage. And the Voltage can
not continue to increase, it Can utmost only be equal to the rated voltage of the motor.

such as:In order to halve the motor rotation speed, The inverter output frequency will
change from 50Hz to 25Hz, Then the output voltage of inverter is required to change
from 400V to about 200V.
When the motor rotation speed (frequency) changes, how will the output torque?
when Inverter driven, starting torque and maximum torque is less than the direct
labor-frequency power-driven.
A big impact for starting and speeding up will occur when supplying the power, When
using the inverter supply the power , these shocks must weaker, Direct starting
frequency will produce a great start starting current, and When using the inverter, the
output voltage and frequency of Inverter is gradually added to the motor. Therefore, the
shock and starting current of motor will be smaller.
Usually , the torque of motor will be reduced with the frequency decreasesthe
decreases actual data in some converter manual will give instructions.
Through useing magnetic flux vector control inverterit will improve the lack of torque
in low speed situation.
When the speed control of inverter is greater than 50Hz, The motor output torque will
be reduced.
Usually the motor is designed and manufactured according to 50Hz Voltage, its rated
torque is within the scope of this given voltage. Therefore the rated speed under the
frequency .
when output frequency Inverter is greater than 50Hz, inversely proportional to the
linear drop relationship will be between the motor torque and frequency.
when the motors running above 50Hz frequency, The size of the motor load must be
taken into account in order to prevent deficiencies of the output torque.
For example, the motor torque on 100hz will be reduced to the 1/2 of torque on 50hz.
Therefore the rated speed above the frequency is called constant power speed.
The application of inverter above 50hz frequency.
As everyone know, for a particular motor, its rated voltage and rated current is
constant.
The inverter and motor ratings are15kW/380V/30A, Motor can operate above
50Hz.When the speed is 50Hz, the inverter output voltage is 380V, current is 30AThen
if the output frequency is increased to 60Hz, the maximum output voltage and current of
Inverteris also only for 380V/30A. Obviously the output power is fixed, So we called the
constant power speed.
So how about the torque
Because P=wTW: angular velocityT: torque as P is fixed w is increased, So
the torque can be correspond reduced.
We can also find another point of view.
The voltage motor stator is U = E + I*R(I:current R: Electronic Resistance E: inductive
kick)
As can be seen, U and I are fixedE is also fixed.
And E = k*f*X K: constant, f: frequency, X: magnetic flux, So when the f from 50 to
60HzX will be a corresponding decrease.
For the motorT=K*I*X, K: constant,I: electric current, X: magnetic flux, Therefore,
the decrease of torque will be reduced along with the magnetic
flux.Simultaneouswhen frequency is under 50HZ, because I*R is smallso U/f=E/f is
fixedmagnetic flux is constantTorque is proportional to the current. This is why
usually the inverter over-current ability to describe their overload (torque) capacity,it is
called constant torque speed.Conclusion; When the output frequency of inverter is
increased from 50Hz, The output torque will decrease.
Other relevant factors about the output torque.
Heating and cooling ability decide frequency converter output current capacity, which

affect the output torque converter.


Carrier frequency: generally the rated current of inverter is the highest carrier
frequency, the maximum ambient temperature can ensure continuous output values,
Reduceing the carrier frequency, motor current will not be affected, but the fever of
components will reduce.
Ambient temperature: it would not because of the low ambient temperature that
increased in the value of inverter current protection.
Altitude: Altitude increased,these will be an impact on thermal and insulating
properties, it will not take into account below 1000m, above 1000m, 5% can let down
every 1000m.
Electrical failure analysis diagram

Noise Analysis of motor


According to the different ways of electrical noise, can be divided roughly
electromagnetic noise, mechanical noise and air dynamic noise. Judge various kinds of
noise from a motor, usually takes on some methods to achieve. Using the method of cut
off power supply to analyze mechanical noisenoise,After outage motor continue running

through the noise produced for the main part of the mechanical noiseAccording to the
characteristic of electromagnetic noise change with the currentJudging by changing
voltage method, the voltage quickly to some extent, as the voltage drop greatly reduced
and the main part of noise is electromagnetic noise For air dynamic noise, in the factory
the simple method is to compare noise changes before and after taking down the fan. Or
to change of different diameter types of fans, with the method to drive two motor each,To
distinguish the difference noise in different speeds, this method can accurately identify
air dynamic noise.
Electrical Test Project Profile
All the motor (including the high-voltage motors) in the factory prior to go through the
type testing and performance testing, full production before it can meet the technical
requirements or to continue production. These tests or test data, including the motor
voltage, current, speed, power, slip, frequency, efficiency, temperature, resistance, etc.
These parameters are to meet the GB1032-phase asynchronous motor test methods for
the accuracy of the relevant national standards and security requirements based on the
adoption of no-load test, load test, temperature test, torque test, etc. to obtain a variety
of tests, and this article describes the smart high-voltage electrical test system with
automatic test function, by measuring the data can be well reflected in motor
performance and quality.
1.1 Motor type test Introduction
Electrical testing is the use of instruments, meters and related equipment, in
accordance with the provisions of relevant standards, the motor manufacturing process
semi-finished and finished products, or ancillary products as the main motors for
electrical properties, mechanical properties, security, performance and reliability and
other technical indicators a test. Through these tests, which can totally or in part, reflect
the subjects were related to motor performance data, using these data, were tested to
determine whether a product can meet the design requirements, quality of the strengths
and weaknesses and to improve the objectives and direction. <br>The so-called type
test is a comprehensive performance test, has been able to get a more precise test of
motor performance parameters relating to the pilot, the purpose is to determine the
electrical and mechanical parameters of the motor is fully met the technical
requirements for various types of motors required the passing of This test can be put into
operation or continue to produce. International standards and United Kingdom, the Soviet
Union, Germany and other countries regarded as a type test the performance tests used
to check the motor characteristics and parameters. Such trials generally only for a
variety of motor patterns in the first or the first of several prototypes, so called type
testing. <br>Necessary, testing can include all the items specified in the standard, it can
be a part of the project.
according to national standard provides that, in the
following circumstances, should be carried out type test:
1. The new design prototype of the product;
2. Identification is formed by a small group of trial production of the product;
3. That the change in design or willful enough to cause the motor to change certain
characteristics and parameters of the product;
4. Check the test structure, the structure of the previous tests can not be permitted
deviation;
5. Product put into production since the shape of regular sampling.
1.1.1 No-load test and load test.
A lot of motor test items, such as the no-load test, load test, locked rotor test,
temperature tests, etc., in this system design introduced and designed only no-load and
load tests. It is necessary to clarify the purpose of their tests and testing process

1. No-load characteristic test


(1) Test Objective:
Three-phase asynchronous motor no-load test was applied to the stator rated voltage of
rated frequency, purpose of the experiment:a. Check the flexible operation of the motor
case, with or without abnormal noise and strong vibrations;b. obtained by testing the
motor at rated voltage of the core loss and the rated speed when the mechanical loss;c.
experimentally derived load current and load voltage curve. This curve is actually a
magnetization curve. It reflects the work of the motor magnetic circuit, for example, the
performance of core material, the rotor air gap and choice is reasonable.
(2) Testing process
The motor starts to maintain rated voltage and rated frequency of no-load running into
the mechanical wear and tear stability. To determine the stability criteria for mechanical
wear and tear are: the input power of the two readings separated by a half-hour
difference is not greater than the previous 3% of input power, in practical applications,
the general rule of thumb to determine, for 1KW following general operation of the motor
15 ~ 30min, on the 1 ~ 10KW motor generally runs 30 ~ 60min, right greater than 10KW
motor should be 60 ~ 90min.Test, imposed on the stator windings on the voltage from
1.1 ~ 1.3Un began gradually reduced to reach the lowest possible voltage value, so that
until the current began to rise, during which measurements to take 7 to 9 points, each
point should take the following values measured : Three-phase voltage (for example, to
determine the three balanced, it can measure only one phase), three-phase current,
input power P0.
2. Load Test
(1) Test Objective
The purpose of the load test is to measure actually take the motor operating
characteristics curve, consider the efficiency and power factor is qualified to obtain the
necessary analysis of data on the performance of motor is running.
(2) Testing process
Test should be close to thermal conditions were tested under the motor, at rated power
and rated frequency, the change in the load, in the 1.25 to 0.25 times the rated power
range from 6 to 8:00 Neice take readings every point simultaneous measurements:
three-phase voltage, three phase current, input power, power factor, slip, the output
torque. Actually slip through the measured speed of the rotor calculated.
1.1.2 Electrical testing standards
he test system is designed to achieve must first meet the GB1032-phase induction motor
test methods for the relevant national standards of accuracy and safety requirements:
1. Test Power
1) Test power supply sinusoidal voltage waveform distortion rate (voltage waveform
contained in addition to fundamental harmonic component of those outside the square
and the root of the RMS value of fundamental component and the percentage of the ratio
of rms) should not exceed 5%, conducting temperature rise tests shall be no more than
2.5%.
2) Test the power supply voltage of symmetrical three-phase system should meet the
following requirements:Voltage, negative sequence components and zero sequence
components is less than 1% of the positive-sequence components; conducting
temperature tests, the negative sequence component does not exceed 0.5% of the
positive-sequence components and zero sequence components of the impact to be
eliminated.Test the power supply frequency and the rated frequency difference should be
rated frequency 1% range.
2. Meters
Test, used in the accuracy of electrical measuring instruments shall not be less than 0.5,
three-phase watt meter accuracy shall be not less than 1.0, the accuracy of the

transformer shall not be less than 0.2, the exact power transmitter degree shall not be
less than the 0.5% level (check the test should be not less than 1%), digital speed
measuring instrument and slip the accuracy of the measuring instrument shall not be
less than 0.1% 1 word, torque measuring instrument and the the accuracy of the
dynamometer shall not be less than 1% (measured efficiency should not be less than
0.5%).Select instrument should enable measurement instrument in the range 20% -95%
range.
3. Measurement requirements
For the electrical measurements, the following requirements to be followed.
1) Three-phase current with the three current transformer (or two transformers);
2) Use of current transformer, the access side to pay the total loop impedance
instrument;
3) Test, the meter readings at the same time to read. In the measurement of threephase voltage or three-phase current, three-phase readings shall be taken as a measure
of the average of the actual value.
1.2 Electrical characteristics of automated testing and the current status of electrical
test
The previous motor tests are often the ordinary pointer meter readings by hand, manual
record, then manually compile the data and describe the curve or the preparation of
experimental reports. For some reason, such as power supply fluctuations, frequency
fluctuations, load fluctuations and other factors affecting the meter pointer swings, in
order to more accurately read out a certain moment of the measured parameters, it often
requires several people to simultaneously read the table, work efficiency low. Not only
that, due to the non-simultaneity meter reading, and reading, recording, calculation of
various man-made errors also make large dispersion of experimental data to test the
accuracy through the low, repeatability is poor, now the test method basically been
eliminated. Another measurement is to use a variety of electronic measuring
instruments, such as multi-functional electrical parameter measuring instrument can
measure the motor in a variety of state of the torque, rotational speed, output power,
etc., such instruments are generally single-chip computer, high measurement accuracy,
digital display, function relatively complete, the increased degree of automation, but for
data processing, test readings in the process of synchronization and other issues, still
less than ideal.
In the digital instrument developed on the basis of the digital automatic test system
can control the measurement process, processing test data, record and display
measurement results.
Microcomputer automatic test system of motor function in the test, measurement
precision of various indicators is far better than the traditional experimental methods.
Testing the motor into a new era.
In recent years, due to the computer's functions are being constantly powerful, all
kinds of human-machine interface software continue to emerge, this has provided a
visual motor test monitor screen. This in turn makes a big step forward motor tests.
Defect analysis of centrifugal casting aluminum
Shred barsthere are some causes such as high speed centrifuge,large
centrifugal,so that the groove bottom is not casted fully,there are some wrong rotor plate
in core,so that which prevent aluminum fluid flowing, Core preheat temperature is low,
Temperature of molten aluminum drop too much, liquidity deteriorated.
Dissatisfaction and Condensation: it is caused by The low temperature of molten
aluminum, Poor liquidity, Casting speed is too slow or flow, the core and mould
preheating temperature is too low, Leakage aluminum or aluminum is not enough, Low

speed centrifuge, the centrifugal force is too small, as well as Liquid aluminum cannot fill
to wind leaf.
The rotor resistance is so big:there are some causes,such as the Groove Angle is
greater than the specified value, so that increased resistance of conductor, there are so
large amounts of impurities in liquid aluminum, and so many pores and cracks
conductor.
large Stray loss: there are some causes, such as Slot Angle is too big, the Contact
resistance between conductor and core is so small, This situation is common in Pressure
cast aluminum, Dissatisfaction and Condensation, there is no significant effect on motor
performance;when occurred Broken rotor bars,so Motor can not start, Pores,
shrinkage,shred and crack and so on will increase the resistance and loss of rotor,reduce
the efficiency and min torque, Elevate the temperature rise and slip ratio
The common motor burned phenomenon and judgments
The common motor burned, there are three: phase loss, overload, short-circuit.
(1) missing: open the motor to see the burning part of the winding distribution of very
regular, symmetrical distribution, burning two-phase star connection, delta connection
burn phase. Such a situation is not a quality problem.
(2) Overload: open motor observation, the entire winding line package color darker
black ends of straps crack, serious and white and notch insulation due to overheating
and melting take the white foam. The main reason is due to to serious motor overload
ultra-current heat insulation damage caused by a short circuit burned. Such a situation
does not belong to quality problems.
(3) Short: Open motor observed line package was factory fresh color, but at some
point cause electrical short-circuit due to bad insulation. Such a quality problem.
Note: open to motor winding of the motor observed two end caps are open, so observe
them more clearly, it will be easier to judge when the motor burned.
The motor energy efficiency knowledge
The motor energy efficiency standards turnover, national standards are not uniform,
most of the countries relevant IEC standards, now some of the basics of efficient motor
summarized Share:
1 EFF1 and EFF2 energy efficiency:
The motor energy efficiency the of EFF1 EFF2 on EU motor energy efficiency rating: In
1999, the EU and the European motor and power electronics manufacturers Association
(CEMEP) developed motor energy efficiency standards (EU-the CEMEP protocol). EUCEMEP the products covered by the agreement is fully enclosed fan cooled (IP54 and
IP55) three-phase AC cage induction motor, power range from 1.1 to 90kw, the number
of poles 2-pole and 4-pole voltage to 400V, 50Hz, S1 work (continuous rating), standard
design (ie the starting performance of the N design the technical requirements in
accordance with IEC60034-12), the agreement required for each specification motor high
the low two tranches efficiency indicators product efficiency value is lower than the low
The indicators called Eff3 motor, between the low index and high index between said Eff2
of motor above the the high targets said Eff1 of motor.
EFF1 and EFF2 eliminated and the EU energy efficiency trend:
EU motor eco-design new directive EC No 640/2009 on July 22, 2009 formally
introduced, the directive specific implementation is divided into three-step plan, the
planned schedule is as follows:
From June 16, 2011, shall not be less than the level of motor energy efficiency IE2;
From January 1, 2015, the rated output power of 7.5-375 kW electric motor energy

efficiency level shall not be less than IE3, or at least meet the IE2;
From January 1, 2017, all motor (rated output power of 0.75-375 kW) electric motor
efficiency levels shall not be less than IE3, or at least meet the IE2 efficiency level;
The new standard EN 60034-30:2009 defines the power in the range of 0.75-375 kW
low-voltage three-phase asynchronous motor energy efficiency rating, the following
specific provisions:
IE1 = Standard efficiency (similar EFF2)
IE2 = energy-efficient (similar EFF1)
IE3 = quality and efficient
Since June 16, 2010, the motor should be level IE1, IE2, IE3 production and sales. The
new energy efficiency rating of the motor must be determined by a new measurement
method. The the old European Code EFF2, EFF1 will no longer effective, and will gradually
withdraw from the market. Belong to the directive EC No. 640/2009 regulation electrical
products exports to the EU market through the EU energy efficiency certification must
take pathway.
Energy efficiency measures in the new method:
EN60034-2-1: 2007 standard revision low voltage three-phase asynchronous motor
energy efficiency measurement methods.
The new standards greatly improved the accuracy of the test under specified laboratory
conditions. The new standard will replace the old standard EN 60034-2:1996, and has
already begun to implement.
Of energy efficiency Instructions:
State Council [2008] No. 23 issued by the State Council on 1 August, 2008, the notice
of the State Council on Further Strengthening the fuel-efficient and energy-saving work.
China has released energy efficiency standards GB18613-2002, GB18613-2006,
GB18613-2012.
GB18613-2002: provides energy efficiency of limited value, evaluating values of energy,
power factor.
Range :0.55-315kW.
Test Method: limit value loss analysis, stray loss of 0.5%; evaluating values of energy
measurement method (112B).
GB18613-2006: provides energy efficiency rating, energy efficiency limit, the target limit
value of energy efficiency and evaluating values of energy, power factor.
Range: 3,2-level 0.55-315KW; 1 level 3KW-315KW.
Test method: loss analysis, stray loss of 0.5%.
The motor energy efficiency limit of not less than three energy efficiency at rated output
power and 75% load efficiency. Target energy efficiency of 100%, 75% load efficiency is
not less than 2, the target value of energy efficiency in the commencement of 20110701.
GB18613-2012: provides energy efficiency rating, energy efficiency limit, the target limit
value of energy efficiency, energy conservation evaluation values.
Range :0.75-375kW.
Test method: measuring the input and output power loss analysis.
The motor energy efficiency limit the efficiency of the rated output power of not less than
three energy efficiency (2006 version 2, which is equivalent IE2). Target energy efficiency
is not less than two (equivalent to IE3), 7.5KW to 375KW target energy efficiency value of
the standard implementation of the four years after the entry into force five years after
the entry into force of the 7.5KW below the target value of energy efficiency in the
implementation of this standard. This standard 20,120,901 effective.
The motor is running in the maintenance

(1) The temperature rise of the motor during normal operation should not exceed the
permissible limits should always pay attention to the run to monitor the temperature rise
for each part.
(2) monitoring the motor load current. Motor failure, the Metropolitan of the stator
current surge, the motor from overheating. The larger power motor should be fitted with
the ammeter monitors the load current of the motor. The motor load should not exceed
the nameplate rated current value, or to identify the cause and take measures to
eliminate adverse situation to continue to run.
(3) monitors the supply voltage, the frequency change and the voltage unbalance. The
supply voltage and frequency is too high or too low, the current imbalance of the threephase voltage imbalance can cause motor overheating or other irregularities.
(4) Note that the odor of the motor, vibration and noise. Winding will be issued due to
high temperature insulation burning smell. Some failures, especially mechanical failure,
will soon be reflected as vibration and noise, smell the burnt smell or found abnormal
vibration or grazing sound King buzzing or other noises, power outage inspection .
(5) always check the bearing heating, oil spills, oil change on a regular basis. General
replacement of oil, the bearings and bearing cover cleaning with kerosene, then wash
with gasoline. For rolling bearings, the grease should not exceed 70% of the bearing
chamber volume.
(6) wound rotor induction motor, check the contact between the brush and slip ring
brush wear and sparks. If the spark is serious, you must promptly clean up the surface of
the collector ring and the correction brush spring pressure.
(7) pay attention to maintaining the cleaning of the interior of the motor, do not allow
water droplets, oil and other debris from falling into the interior of the motor. Air inlet and
outlet of the motor must be kept free from obstruction.
Small asynchronous motor of choice points
1, according to the nature of the load and production processes of machinery, motor
starting, brake, reverse, speed requirements, a reasonable choice of the type of motor.
2, according to the requirements of the load torque, speed range and start frequently,
consider the limit of the temperature rise of the motor, overload capacity and starting
torque, a reasonable choice of motor power, reasonable power matching, and strive to
safe, reliable and economic.
3, according to the environmental conditions of the use of premises, such as
temperature, humidity, dust, rain, gas, corrosive and flammable gas content, etc., to
consider the necessary protection mode, and select the motor protection structure type.
4, according to the the enterprise grid voltage standards and the requirements of the
power factor, determine the voltage rating of the motor.
5, according to the maximum speed of the production machinery and electric drive
speed control system and mechanical reduction of the complexity of, select the rated
speed of the motor.
6, the choice of motor, to consider the price of the product, construction and operating
costs, and strive to overall economic efficiency of the best. In a dry, clean place, you
should try to IP23 series motor; For continuous operation, the load of the load is high,
should adopt the high-efficiency motor, in order to save energy and improve the overall
economic benefits.
7, the choice of motor, to consider the affect the installation, operation and
maintenance factors, and strive to install and easy maintenance, reliable operation.
8, to implement the country's technical and economic policies, and actively state
explicitly promote new products, do not be out of the product.

Classification of three-phase asynchronous motor


Classification of three-phase asynchronous motor
1, according to the three-phase asynchronous motor rotor structure
Can be divided into squirrel-cage motors and wound motor.
2, according to the three-phase asynchronous motor protection type
Can be divided into open type (IP11) three-phase asynchronous motors, protective
three-phase asynchronous motors (IP22 and IP23) enclosed three-phase asynchronous
motors (IP44), explosion-proof three-phase asynchronous motor.
Open type (IP11): the price is cheap, best cooling conditions, since the rotor and the
winding is exposed to the air, can only be used for drying, little dust nor corrosive and
explosive gas environment.
Protection (IP22 and IP23): ventilation conditions are better, to prevent water droplets,
iron and other outside debris falling into the interior of the motor, applies only to the
drier and small dust nor corrosive and explosive gas environment.
Closed (IP44): suitable for wet, dusty, vulnerable to wind and rain erosion, corrosive
gases, such as poor working conditions, the most common application.
3, according to the three-phase asynchronous motor ventilation cooling method
Can be divided into self-cooled three-phase asynchronous motors, fan-cooled threephase asynchronous motors, fan-cooled three-phase asynchronous motor, pipe-ventilated
three-phase asynchronous motor.
4, according to the three-phase asynchronous motor mounting structure
Can be divided into horizontal three-phase asynchronous motors, vertical three-phase
asynchronous motor with foot three-phase asynchronous motor, flanged three-phase
asynchronous motor.
5, three-phase asynchronous motor insulation class
Can be divided into the E-Class, B, F, H three-phase asynchronous motor.
6, quota of work
Can be divided into continuous three-phase asynchronous motors, intermittent phase
asynchronous motors, intermittent three-phase asynchronous motor.
Experimental method and comparison of the efficiency of the motor
In order to improve the accuracy and repeatability of the test motor efficiency for
small and medium-sized asynchronous motor by measuring each loss component so as
to strike a loss of efficiency analysis. But the specific methods used in the international
are not uniform. Motor efficiency test method standards used in different countries and
regions, their main difference lies in the treatment of stray load loss. IEEE-112b
provisions of stray load losses determined by the input and output method, IEEE-112e
provisions of stray load loss inversion method for the determination of the provisions of
IEC34-2 stray load losses of 0.5% of the input power, Japan JEC provides load stray loss is
O, and in fact, stray load losses of the motor varies with the motor design, manufacturing
process and the type of power, speed ships in the range of 1.5% to 3.5% of the input
power.
The domestic Y and Y2 two low-voltage asynchronous motor series in the production
and use of. Y series is the product of the early 1980s, the national unified design, the
power range of 0.55 kW ~ 250kW base center height of 80 mm ~ 315mm, a total of 12
base, annual production of about 20 million kW. Y2 series is a new generation of products
developed in the mid-1990s by the Shanghai Electrical Apparatus Research Institute and
Beijing Motor Plant, Shanghai Electric (Group) Corporation, Dalian Motor Factory
sponsoring organizations. Its power from 0.12 kW ~ 315KW, frame size from 63 mm ...
355mm of 15 base. Also designed in order to adapt to the different load ratio and the

running time Occasion design, while in the Y2, Y2-E series, the former for ships drive
occasions, the latter can be used for higher load rates and longer running time Occasion.
The main dimensions of the motor
A lot of the geometry of the motor core size, winding size, dimensions, mounting
dimensions, the size of a variety of other structural components. But what kinds of main
dimensions: the motor electromagnetic process is mainly carried out in the air gap, the
form of energy conversion is carried out through the main air gap flux. The main
dimensions must be closely related to the air gap. Practice has proved that, near the
airgap armature diameter (D) and the the core effective length (LEF) is the main
dimensions of the motor, while the air gap can be said that the third size. From the
geometric point of view, these dimensions has been determined, other dimensions
largely determine the and many electromagnetic properties will basically around them or
a slight change.
Maintenance and repair of explosion-proof motor bearings
Storage period of more than six months or shut down more than 2 months after the
use of explosion-proof motor, you should check the condition of the bearing device. If
there is serious pollution, oil, oil dry, parts, corrosion and other conditions, explosionproof motor bearing device disintegrated, thoroughly clean the bearings and bearing
parts (filling pipe, bearing cover, bearing cover, block oil ring, oil drain boxes, etc.), and
then re-lubrication. Rolling internal should be filled grease filling amount of grease filling
a cavity formed with the bearing outer cover for the bearing cover 1/3-1/2 of the entire
cavity.
Grease after a period of time of use, the characteristics will deteriorate, will reduce the
lubrication function, so to replenish the grease. Grease replenishing interval and the
number of supplementary playing in the explosion-proof motor oiling board should be in
accordance with the oiling card data replenish grease, in order to ensure reliable
operation of the rolling bearing.
Oiling board refueling cycle and the number of 70 C and working condition for
bearing, bearing temperature exceeds 70 C, the bearing temperature increased every
15 , grease supplement interval is reduced by half.
Regular maintenance of the equipment, to the reliable operation of explosion-proof
motor within the next maintenance cycle should be dismantling the bearing device, if
necessary, replace bearings.
Motor energy efficiency standards
At present, the international development of motor efficiency standards in the United
States, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Australia and New Zealand. China was in the beginning of
this year issued a motor energy efficiency standards, and will officially take effect on
August 1, 2002. Agreement on the EU-wide European motors and power electronics
manufacturers Association (CEMEP) indicators, although not as a European directive, but
the EU environmental and energy-saving programs have been included in the Agreement
indicators are a EU unified standards compliance.
U.S. motor EPACT efficiency indicators are developed according to the standard of
Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) 90 NEMA12-10 (NEMA12-6C). Provisions.
Canadian motor standard (CSA-390), the same as with the United States EPACT efficiency
indicators, Mexico, Brazil motor standards of efficiency indicators efficient motor
standards developed by the United States NEMA 1989 NEMA12-9 (NEMA12-6B), and its

efficiency compared to the United States The EPACT indicators 0.6 to 1.5 percentage
points lower. The four countries on motor efficiency test method using the test method
specified by the United States EPACT of Electrical and Electronics Engineers standard
IEEE112-B.
China, Australia and New Zealand efficiency indicators is basically the same as the EU
CEMEP indicators, test methods and the International Electrotechnical Commission
standard IEC34-2. Thus, the current international motor energy efficiency standards, the
United States and the European Union standards with some representative below for
further information on the progress of these two aspects.
1. American Standard
American NEMA efficiency criteria NEMA12-10 formulation, taking into account the
demand for higher levels of efficiency, but also to formulate a NEMA E design criteria, i.e.
NEMA12-11 standard, and its efficiency indicators representing NEMA12-10 increased
from 1 to 4 percentage points , but its starting performance is decreased. In recent years,
due to the tense of the U.S. electricity supply, by the U.S. State power company mainly
composed of the Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE) developed jointly with the United
States NEMA starting performance and EPACT consistent with the requirements of ultrahigh efficiency motor (Premium Efficiency) indicators, efficiency levels close to NEMA E
design, compared with the the EPACT index 1 to 3 percentage points, loss decreased by
about 20% compared with EPACT.
2. EU standards
CEMEP standards of the EU for each specification motor provides the level of the two
tranches efficiency indicators, the value of the product efficiency is lower than the low
index called eff3 motor, between the low index and high index between the called eff2
motor, higher than the high index of said for eff1 motor.
Of power frequency, power and size measurement of the standard as well as the motor
power grade and installation size of relations with Europe, at the same time of the motor
basic technical requirements and test methods such as standard also and Europe in line
with IEC standards, taking into account the the volume of exports of China's motor has
reached a considerable number of which 3/4 is sold in Europe and the Asia-Pacific region,
only 1/4 sold in North America, so our motor energy efficiency standards to the European
CEMEP low-grade value as the minimum energy efficiency limit, ie To achieve this target
in domestic production and imports of motor CEMEP high-end value as evaluating values
of energy, which meet or exceed the motor of this indicator can be referred to as highefficiency motor or energy-saving motor.
CEMEP-EU slightly different, our standards appropriate to increase the power range
and number of poles, according to the domestic situation and evaluating values of
energy assessment of products, an increase of stray load loss assessment requirements.
Thread type
Depending on the thread for different purposes can be divided into:
1 metric standard thread (International Metric Thread System): China's national
standard CNS using threads. Crests of the plane, easy turning, compared with arc-shaped
teeth at the end, in order to increase the thread strength. The thread angle of 60
degrees, M represents specifications. Metric thread can be divided into Coarse and fine
pitch. Notation such as M8x1.25. (M: Code 8: nominal diameter, 1.25: pitch).
2 standard thread (American Standard Thread): the top and the root of the thread are
flat, better strength. The thread angle is also 60 degrees, specifications, said a few teeth
per inch. Such a thread can be divided into Coarse (NC); fine pitch (NF); special fine tooth
(NEF) three. Notation such as 1/2-10NC. (1/2: OD; 10: every inch of the number of teeth;
NC Code).

Unified thread (Unified Thread): developed jointly by the United States, Britain,
Canada, the three countries for inch thread. The thread angle is also 60 degrees,
specifications, said a few teeth per inch. Such a thread can be divided into coarse thread
(UNC); fine pitch (UNF); special fine tooth (UNEF). Notation such as 1/2-10UNC. (1/2: OD;
10: every inch of the number of teeth; UNC Code).
A 4.V shaped thread (Sharp V Thread): top roots tip shape, intensity is weak, also bad
infrequently used. The thread angle of 60 degrees.
5 Hui-style threads (Whitworth Thread): British Standard thread. Thread angle of 55
degrees, which means that the symbol for the "W". Suitable for the manufacture of
rolling method. Notation such as W1/2-10. (1/2: OD; 10: the number of teeth per inch; W
Code).
6 round thread Knuckle Thread: German DIN standard thread. Apply to light bulbs,
rubber tubing connection. Symbol for "RD".
7 the tubular threaded (Pipe Thread): To prevent the leakage threaded, often used for
gas or liquid, the tube member Quick. Thread angle of 55 degrees and can be divided
into straight pipe thread, code-named "PS, NPS and inclined pipe thread Code for" NPT
taper 1:16, feet 3/4 inch.
8 square thread (Square Thread): transmission efficiency, second only to the ball
screw, and can not wear nut to adjust its shortcomings. Generally used for the vise screw
and the thread of the crane.
Trapezoidal thread (Trapezoidal Thread): also known as ACME thread. Transmission
efficiency than the square thread is somewhat smaller, but wear available nut tune
Whole. Metric thread angle of 30 degrees, the inch thread angle of 29 degrees. Generally
used for the lead screw of the lathe. Symbol for "TR".
10 serrated thread (Buttress, Thread): also known as buttress thread is only suitable
for one direction of transmission. Such as screw jack, pressurized machine. Symbol for
"BU".
11 ball screw: the best thread of the transmission efficiency of its manufacturing
difficulties and high costs, are used in precision machinery. Such as CNC machine tools
lead screw.
Rolling selection of high-pressure explosion-proof motor
To do a good job of rolling bearings of the high-pressure explosion-proof motor
selection, we must first understand the explosion-proof motor field use conditions,
including load driven by the motor (pumps, fans, compressors, etc.), work system,
frequent start, load fluctuations; followed by the full analysis of site conditions based on
the selected type of rolling bearings, and to determine the configuration of the front and
rear bearings; Finally, based on a bearing life calculation to determine the size of the
selection of rolling bearings.
Rolling in the high-pressure explosion-proof motor: deep groove ball bearings, angular
contact ball bearings, four point contact ball bearings, cylindrical roller bearings, various
bearing characteristics and performance parameters refer to the bearing manufacturer's
selection of samples .
Commonly used in high-pressure explosion-proof motor bearing arrangement: threebearing structure and the bearing structure, "a column of a ball and two goals in the twobearing structure configuration; three-bearing structure bearing columns bearing ball
bearings or bearing column four-point contact ball bearings, rear bearing column
bearings.
Rolling bearing life calculation formula can be based on the standard ISO281-1990:
L10h = (106/60N) X (C / P) F (1)
L10h - basic rating life (90% reliability), h

C - basic dynamic load, kN


P - equivalent dynamic load, kN
N - rotational speed, r / min
F - the index ball bearings in the life of formula 3; roller bearings 10/3
High-pressure explosion-proof motor rolling bearing calculation of life is generally not
less than 4000h. But not the calculated life is the bigger the better, because the
calculation of the value of life is too large, resulting in bearing selection is too large to
meet the minimum load requirements not rolling in the operation of a rolling element
harmful sliding, leading to premature bearing damage. Therefore, the calculated life of
the rolling bearing can be controlled in an appropriate range. Rolling selection should be
noted that the operating speed of the rolling bearing, bearing manufacturer's selection of
samples provides the specifications of different models bearing allows the use of speed.
Exceeds the bearing allows the use of working speed will result in a sharp decrease of
the lifetime of the rolling bearing. In order to make the good running of the bearing,
radial bearing clearance select is very important. General guideline, ball bearings
clearance should be zero, or a slight preload. In practical applications, it is recommended
that a large selection of clearance C3 group, a large selection of clearance of the rolling
bearing, bearing noise, but is conducive to reduce the operating temperature of the
rolling bearing, improve the service life of the bearing.
Electromagnetic Design Considerations
1, do not design too slim or flat motor
Motor design and strive to get the best performance with a minimum of materials and
costs. In general, flat motor with less iron, copper more, more structural materials.
Elongated motor with iron more with less copper, less structural material, but poor
stiffness of the structure.
Therefore, the diameter and length of the ratio of the motor there is an optimum
value. The inner circle and the length of the core ratio of about 1:1. The design motor to
optimize the design according to the motor performance requirements and market
effective materials, structural materials prices, in addition to considering the series,
common parts as well as the structure of the process, tool and die cost.
2, the motor coil current density should not be too big or too small
The motor coil has a certain resistance, the loss generated when the current through
the coil, so that the motor efficiency is reduced, the winding temperature rise. Want to
reduce the resistance in order to reduce the loss, reduce the temperature rise, improve
efficiency motor design. To reduce the current density, increase the wire cross-sectional
area can reduce the resistance, but will lead to increased use of coil material. Due to the
increase of the groove area, causing the core flux density increases, the motor excitation
current and iron loss increases. Therefore, the choice of the current density to take full
account of motor performance. The current density is generally used to 7A/mm2. Take a
small value for large motor and closed motor. Whichever is greater for small motor and
open motor.
3, the motor core flux density should not be too high or too low
When the core material, frequency and silicon steel sheet thickness is constant. The
iron loss depends on the size of the magnetic flux density. The magnetic flux density is
too high. To increase the iron loss. Reduce the efficiency of the motor. Core fever
increased motor temperature rise. And due to the increase in excitation ampere-turns.
Motor power factor reduction. Therefore, the magnetic flux density of the core is not too
high, try to avoid using over-saturation of the magnetization curve segment. Small
motors generally not more than 155T. Magnetic flux density is too low, the motor
material consumption increased costs.

4, the design of the motor geometry possible use of parallel teeth trapezoidal groove
The silicon steel work in the saturation magnetization curve segment, the unit length
of the excitation ampere-turns consumed with the increase of the magnetic flux density
and a substantial increase. In order to rationally make full use of the space inside the
motor, motor design is always the silicon steel is saturated. If trapezoidal tooth, tooth
narrow portion due to the magnetic flux density is large, a large number of excitation
ampere-turns increases, the motor power factor reduction. If the parallel teeth. Along a
uniform magnetic flux density in the tooth length of the ampere-turns of the excitation
consumption is greatly reduced.
5, the edge of the trough has no sharp edges
The trough should be designed to facilitate the manufacture of die. Die quenching. The
grooves sharp corners often due to stress concentration and cracks. Rounded corners
also helps extend die life. Slotted design their edges should be rounded corner radius
shall be not less than 1 mm.
6, try to use round-bottomed groove instead of the flat-bottomed groove
Round-bottomed groove advantages: round-bottomed grooves can improve the filling
of the wire. Slot insulation is not damaged, in the case of the same slot fill factor, roundbottomed groove embedded line easier than the flat-bottomed groove. The rotor cast
aluminum, round-bottomed groove than the flat-bottomed aluminum tank water filling.
Round-bottomed groove than the flat-bottomed groove easy to mold manufacturing.
7, the motor core slot width is not too large
Motor notch is too small, offline difficult. Motor notch too. The air gap magnetic flux
distribution uneven tooth harmonics increases. Additional losses increase. Notch width is
generally semi-closed grooves 2-3 wires of diameter approximately 3.5mm. Low pressure
forming the slot structure of the coil using the semi-section of the opening of the four
components of the tank, so that the notch width is reduced by half the groove width.
8, the number of stator slots not too much or too little
Asynchronous motor stator slots, magnetic force, EMF waveform. Additional loss is
small, the high efficiency of the motor. Number of slots, but also increases the contact
area of the coil and the core, coil cooling, low temperature rise. Number of slots, core
Ministry of teeth too narrow, stamping deformation process is poor. Slot number of the
mold manufacturing cost increase, motor design, coil manufacturing and offline working
hours in general. Number of stator slots, motor performance. But the cost is high.
9, asynchronous motor to avoid using too large or too small air gap
The air gap is the gap between the motor stator and rotor. The size of the air gap of
the motor performance and manufacturing processes have a great impact. Air gap.
Reluctance excitation ampere turns the motor excitation current increases. Motor power
factor reduction. But the air gap Ambassador harmonic field weakening, the additional
loss of the motor is reduced. The air gap is large, the motor parts the concentricity and
assembling accuracy required to reduce; air gap is too small, easy to cause the stator
and rotor sweep chamber, and leaving the motor efficiency is reduced due to the
increase in additional loss.
The role of motor energy saving
The motors are widely used in industrial, commercial, utilities and household
appliances, and other fields, as fans, pumps, compressors, machine tools and other
equipment, power. In general, the industrialized countries and developing countries, the
power consumption of the motor in the total electricity consumption accounts for a
sizeable proportion. Since the 1970s, the first energy crisis, the United States on an
extensive survey of the motor electricity consumption. According to the U.S. Department
of Energy statistics, the motor power consumption accounted for industrial electricity use

2/3 of its total electricity use 1/2; motor energy transferred 20% of its total primary
energy consumption. EU statistics show that in 1992, the year the EU's total electricity
consumption of 1.7 trillion kWh, which motor electricity consumption was 719 billion
kWh, 42% of the total electricity consumption.
At present, most of the country's electricity production is still the main thermal power,
a substantial portion of the Earth's greenhouse gas emission of CO2 and other gases in
its production process, have a great impact on the climate and environment. The expert
estimates, the total electricity consumption of the motor of the United Kingdom in 1995
to 130 billion kWh, carbon emissions into the air to produce these energy of 24 million
tons, equivalent to 17% of the total carbon emissions of all energy in the UK. According
to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, countries have to reduce greenhouse gas emissions: 8%
reduction in the emission levels of the European Union from 2008 to 2012 than in 1990,
which the United Kingdom decreased by 12.5%. As the largest developing country, China
is also actively take measures to control and reduce CO2 emissions. The motor energy
efficiency energy savings brought about by raising the level of greenhouse gas emissions
can be greatly reduced, the motor energy conservation for climate and environment
protection and conservation of natural resources will play an important role.
Maintenance and inspection of the motor
1. see: daily inspections to see the motor, the current size and changes, look around
there are no leaks, dripping, it will cause the motor insulation low breakdown and burn.
Depends on whether the motor peripheral influential objects of ventilation environment?
See the fan cover, the need to clean the outside of the blades and the motor is too dirty?
To ensure that its cooling fin effect.
2.Listen: listen carefully to the operation of the motor sound is abnormal, by means of
a screwdriver or listen to stick aids affixed to both ends of the pro-motor listen, if you
frequently listen to, not only find undesirable vibration of the motor and its driven
equipment, and even the number of internal bearing oil can judge, so as to make timely
Add bearing oil, or replaced with new bearings and other appropriate measures to deal
with, to avoid motor bearings in oil dry grinding stall, take the outer sweep chamber
burn.
3.touch: mold temperature around the motor with the back of the probe. In the case of
bearings in good condition, generally at both ends of the temperature will be lower than
the temperature of the intermediate winding segment. If both ends of the bearing at high
temperature, it is necessary to check the bearing combined with the measured bearing
sound. If the overall temperature of the motor is high, it is necessary to combine work
check the motor load current, equipment and ventilation dealt with accordingly.
Knowledge of the wind turbine
Blowing in the wind, the wind wheel rotation by wind thrust, when the speed reaches a
certain level, the generator start generating electricity (generation only effective power
generation, will begin charging), with the changes in the size of the wind power
generation will respond to changes, our wind turbine design standards started about an
average of 2.5 m / s, 9M / S to reach the rated power, began to control the motor running
about about 13-15M / S, our wind turbine rated power 300W maximum power of 500W.
Wind wheel works: proportional to the density of the wind wheel power with air.
Proportional to the square of the power generated by the wind wheel wind wheel
diameter; wind wheel power is proportional to the cube of the wind speed; proportional
to the efficiency of the the wind wheel power generated by the wind wheel. The
efficiency of the wind turbine wind wheel is generally between 0.35 and 0.45 (theoretical

maximum value of 0.593). At present our products in about 0.41.


The fan rotation wind power generation, generator controller internal rectifier threephase alternating current into direct current to charge the battery. When the battery is
full, the controller will automatically disconnect the generator line, stopping to recharge
the battery, as well as the prevent generator coaster (ultra-high-speed or abnormal
operation), the controller will give generator and a load, a process called unloading .
When battery power when you need to add, the controller will stop unloading restore the
state of charge. In addition, when the wind is too large, the controller will generator
control in the unloading state, unloading, fans slow or stop turning. According to the
different, and some need to configure the AC output function, we can provide a variety of
parameters sine wave inverter. With a step-by-step product development, the
specifications will be more and more various specifications can also be customized
according to customer requirements.
Types, characteristics and working principle of the servo motor
The servo motor, also known as the motor in the automatic control system, for the
implementation of components of the received electrical signal into an angular
displacement or angular velocity of the output of the motor shaft. Divided into two major
categories of DC and AC servo motor, its main feature is that when the signal voltage is
zero, no rotation, speed and uniform decline with increasing torque.
Inside of the servo motor rotor is a permanent magnet, the drive control of the U / V /
W three-phase electric forming electromagnetic field, the rotor is rotated under the
action of this magnetic field, the feedback signal to a drive device at the same time the
motor carrying the coding device, the drive according to the feedback value and the
target compare values, adjust the angle of rotation of the rotor. The accuracy of the servo
motor is determined by the accuracy of the encoder (number of lines).
Comparison of soft-start and traditional decompression start
Cage motor decompression start-up mode with a star - delta starter, auto start under
reduced pressure, the reactor start. These start-up mode are all level decompression
hard start, there are obvious shortcomings, that you start the process of secondary
impacts current. Soft-start with the traditional decompression start-up mode with the
following differences.
1.1 no impact on current
Soft starter when starting the motor, by gradually increasing the thyristor conduction
angle, the motor starting current is increased linearly from zero to the set value.
1.2 Constant Current start
The soft starter can be introduced current closed-loop control of the motor at constant
current during start-up, to ensure the smooth start of the motor.
1.3 Starting current regulation
Selected according to the load and relay protection characteristics can be freely
stepless adjustment to the best start-up current.
1.4 soft stop
The motor is stopped, the traditional control method by momentary power failure, but
in many applications, the motor is not allowed instant shutdown. Such as the building of
high-rise building water supply pump system, instant shutdown will have a huge "water
hammer" effect to make the pipe or pump damaged. To reduce and prevent "water
hammer" effect, motor gradually slow stop, soft stop. In the pumping station, the soft
starter can meet this requirement, the application soft stop technology to avoid the
damage of the pump station "knock on the door, reduce maintenance costs and

maintenance work.
The soft starter soft stop function is gradually reduced from full conduction thyristor
stop command. Conduction angle, the process of transition to full closed after a certain
time. Stopping time according to actual needs can be adjusted between 0 ~ 120s.
1.5 light-load energy-saving
Cage induction motor inductive load current lags the voltage in the run. Such as the
operating voltage of the motor constant, in the light load power factor is low; is
overloaded, the power factor. The soft start can be realized by lowering the motor
terminal voltage at light loads, to improve power factor, to reduce the copper loss of the
motor, the iron loss, to achieve the purpose of energy saving light load; automatically
increase when the load is heavy, the terminal voltage of the motor to ensure that the
motor is normal operation.
2 soft-start protection function
The soft-start protection function is much better than traditional hard starter
protection function.
2.1 overload protection
The soft starter introduction of the current control loop, which can keep track of the
changes in position of the detected motor current. Turn-off thyristor through increased
overload current settings and inverse-time control mode, overload protection, motor
overload, and an alarm signal.
2.2 lack of protection
Work, the soft-start at any time to detect changes in the three-phase line current, the
event of drying up, the reaction can be made phase protection.
2.3 overheat protection
Thyristor heatsink temperature through the soft-start internal thermal relay, once the
heat sink temperature exceeds the allowable value automatically turn-off thyristor and
an alarm signal.
2.4 Other Functions
Soft starter combination with other protection components, you can achieve the stall
protection function. In addition, by the combination of an electronic circuit, but also in the
system to achieve various other interlock protection.
Parts manufacturing processes and materials performance fluctuations on
motor performance
1 A rotor core diameter size is too small or the stator core diameter size is too large,
and the stator, the rotor core axial offset the low magnetic properties of electrical steel
sheet, will result in no-load current increases, the power factor is reduced.
2 stator, the rotor core press-fit of poor quality, the net core length, caused by the noload current and iron loss increases, power factor and efficiency.
3 The chute of the rotor 3 is too large, The rotor cores stacked unevenness, the notch
size is reduced, will result in the rotor slot leakage reactance increases, the reactance of
the current increases, the power factor, the maximum torque and the starting torque is
reduced.
4 stator punching burr is too large, the stator lamination surface insulation of poor
quality or press-fit pressure is too large, the unit of electrical steel sheet loss on the high
side, it will cause the iron loss increases, the efficiency decreases, temperature
increased.
5 when the winding tension is too large, so that the diameter of the wire is thinner, the
stator winding resistance increases, the rotor consumption of aluminum is increased,
reduced efficiency, increased temperature.

Disassembly of the three-phase AC induction motor


First, the operation of technical points
1, demolition asynchronous motor
(1) before removing the motor must be removed, the connection of the motor and the
external electrical connection, and good phase marker.
(2) removal procedure
a pulley or coupling; b, the front bearing outer cover; c, the front cover; d hood; e fan;
f rear bearing cover; g rear end cover; removal of the rotor; i The front bearing; j front
bearing cover; k, the rear bearing; l rear bearing cover.
(3) the demolition of the pulley or coupling
Prior to demolition, the pulley or coupling shaft extension end well positioned marked
with the pulley or coupling bit slowly, with a special bit. To pull the pulley or coupling
force make sure that the direction of the force along the axis of the items end puller not
damage the rotor shaft center hole.
(4) Remove the end cap, rotor pumping
Before the demolition of the seams in the chassis and cover (lasts the mouth) and
tagged in order to reset. Uniform removal of the bearing cap and the end cap bolt won
the bearing cap, and then the two bolts screwed in the two wire holes in the end cap, two
bolts evenly forced to turn (the larger end cap will sling the end cap hang up) the end
cap to win. (No top screw hole available Tongbang symmetrical beat, remove the end
cap, but to avoid too heavy percussion, so as not to damage the cover) for a small motor
out of the rotor is * manually, to prevent the hand sliding or uneven force touch wound
winding cardboard pad in the end winding.
(5) bearing disassembly, cleaning
Remove the bearing puller should be appropriate dedicated. Rally should focus on the
bearing inner ring, can not pull the outer ring, the top puller not damage the rotor shaft
center hole (which can add some grease). The bearing before the demolition, the
bearings should be washed with a cleaning agent, inspect it for damage and need
replacement.
2 assembly asynchronous motor
(1) net motors use compressed air to blow dust inside, check the integrity of the other
part, cleaning oil.
(2) assembly asynchronous motor steps to reverse the removal. Before assembly to
check the stator dirt, rust is clear, only the mouth for damage injury, various components
of the assembly should be reset by pressing Mark, and check with the bearing cap is
appropriate.
(3) bearing assembly can be hot the cuff and cold assembly method.
Second, pay attention
1, or removed the motor, the motor base gasket in accordance with the in situ placed
fixed, so as not to increase the fitter on the workload.
Demolition, when the rotor is installed, must comply with the requirements of point not
to damage the windings before demolition should test the winding insulation and winding
path, installed.
3, demolition, not installed by hand hammer percussion parts, should be the pad
copper, aluminum rod or hardwood, symmetric knock.
4, the end cap is installed before the application of thick copper wire, inserted into the
the hook bearing cap, bearing mounting holes to facilitate the assembly outer bearing
cap.
The heat sets mounted bearings, as long as the temperature is over 100 degrees,
stop heating, job site 1211 fire extinguishers should be placed.
Cleaning agents to clean the motor and bearings (gasoline, kerosene) are not allowed

with the fly-tips must be poured into the sewage wells.


7, repair sites need to be cleaned.
The basic knowledge of the explosion-proof motor
Explosion-proof motor explosion-proof principle can be divided into flameproof motors,
increased safety motors, positive pressure motor, no spark motor and dust explosionproof motor. This paper describes the five categories of motor product line and its
characteristics, YB2 series flameproof three phase asynchronous motor will replace the
YB series three-phase asynchronous motor YA2 series increased safety will replace the YA
series, also introduced TAKW4000 of- / 2600 4000kW increased safety brushless
excitation of synchronous machine. Concluded that the trend of the development of the
mining and petrochemical explosion-proof motor.
Explosion-proof motor is mainly used for coal, oil and gas, petrochemical and chemical
industry. In addition, textile, metallurgy, city gas, transportation, grain and oil processing,
paper making, medicine and other departments are also widely used. Explosion-proof
motor as the main power equipment, typically used to drive pumps, fans, compressors
and other transmission machinery.
With the development of science and technology, production of explosion has also
increased. For example, edible oil production in the past with the traditional press law
process, after the 1970s, China began to introduce advanced foreign oil extraction
process, but the process to be used in chemical solvents containing hexane, hexane is
flammable and explosive substances; oil extraction plant became explosion danger,
requires the use of explosion-proof motor and other explosion-proof electrical products.
Another example, in recent years, China's highway rapid development of a large number
of fuel filling stations, but also to the explosion-proof motor provides a new market.
Product Category
1. The motor principle can be divided into explosion-proof induction motor, explosionproof synchronous motor and explosion-proof DC motor.
2. Use of premises can be divided into the coal mine explosion-proof motor and factory
explosion-proof motor.
3. Can be divided into flameproof motors, increased safety motors, positive pressure
motor, no spark motor and dust explosion-proof motor, explosion-proof principle.
4. Supporting host can be divided into coal transport aircraft with explosion-proof
motor, mine winch with explosion-proof motor, rock loader with explosion-proof motor,
coal
Local fan with explosion-proof motors, valves explosion-proof motors, fans, explosionproof motor, marine explosion-proof motor, lifting metallurgical explosion-proof motor
and hydrogenation unit supporting increased safety brushless excitation synchronous
motor.
In addition, you can press the rated voltage, efficiency and other technical indicators
to points, such as high pressure explosion-proof motor, high efficiency explosion-proof
motor, the high slip explosion-proof motor and high starting torque explosion-proof
motor.
Code:
d flameproof e increased safety o oil-filled type q filling sand n i p positive pressure
type of intrinsically safe non-sparking
m Encapsulation NR limit simple positive pressure breathing type NZ s Special
China will explosive substances into three categories:
The class : mine methane
Class II: explosive gases and vapors
Class III: explosive dust and fibers

Class II explosive gases and vapors, its major experimental safe gap (MESG) or the
minimum ignition current can be divided into A, B, C levels: II A, II B, II C (MICR). C-class
is most likely to explode.
A proof mark naming rules:
If you use more than one type of composite type, you must mark the subject (note the
main first) explosion-proof type, listed after the other explosion-proof type.
EEx dm II B T4, class II main flameproof and attach Encapsulation, Class B, T4 group.
Customer requirements EEX dm II B T4, class II main flameproof and additional
Encapsulation, Class B, T4.
Requirements for motor protection (motor protection)
Practice has proved that, combined with the needs of users in the design of the motor
protection (motor protection) should meet the following requirements:
1, using the current sampling
This will not only take into account the different characteristics of the flow and phase
failure protection, but also fully reflect no matter where phase failure should be reflected
in the fact that in the current of the power supply line; avoid the shortcomings and
limitations of the sampling program. Use of voltage sampling is low cost, but only to
protect the power supply to the sampling access at between off, can not protect
sampling access at the motor phase failure. Neutral point or artificial neutral point
current or voltage of the zero line sampling, the single-phase load on or off, is bound to
make the neutral point voltage or current change of the zero line, which will enable the
protection setting value is difficult to determine.
2, the choice of the responsive electronic protection program
Ensure that off phase starting refused to switch on, run-off phase instantaneous trip.
As for the implementation of delay off protection and overheating protection point of
view is stale, one-sided.
3, with the the protection normally closed contact action to protect the
This is claimed in the main circuit does not work and the normal working hours to
perform the relay does not operate when a fault occurs in the motor starter and Actions.
This protector is suitable for group control circuit with the computer output and logic
multi-speed and reversing motor, as well as with the main switch interface, use
limitations.
4, there is a wide range of current adaptation
Motor no-load current is approximately 0.3 times the rated current, seven times the
starting current of the rated current. For motor protection (motor protection) should be
from low to high at least 20 times or 30 times the current allowable range for singlephase protection, the current adaptation range should be even greater.
5, do not use the required power supply motor protection (motor protection)
Does not need power supply, making it common to any occasion. Supply voltage from
the world is not the same, at the same time prevents the motor from the power failure
will result in motor protection (motor protector) is no electricity, causing the relay does
not operate, would not achieve the protective effect
6, motor protection (motor protection) off phase and overcurrent should be controlled
so as not to involve each other refuse to move or malfunction.
Motor sound reasons and solutions
The motor noises nothing more than for two reasons: mechanical and electrical.
1 mechanical
Such as damage or scratch the motor cooling fan motor housing, motor fixed unstable.

The situation in this regard is a good deal, if I could find the source of the noise, generally
a good deal.
2 electrical
(1) the carrier frequency of the inverter is set too low
Appropriate carrier frequency is set higher, but this time will cause some problems if
the carrier frequency is so high that they cause interference to other equipment,
especially when the the PLC communication mode. Therefore, according to the actual
situation in the field to set the carrier frequency.
(2) Motor resonance
Sometimes, when the motor is running a particular band will produce a mechanical
resonance. Then you can use the method of the inverter frequency hopping set. General
inverter has a "frequency hopping" set, whose role is to: Set the resonance frequency of
the motor, When inverter operation this band, skip this paragraph frequency to avoid the
motor resonance.
(3) motor with a load capacity reduced
Sometimes the motor after prolonged use, or poor quality motor, with a load capacity
will be reduced. Motor noise than normal.
(4) high harmonics of the inverter
Inverter high-order harmonic components, likely to cause motor vibration increases,
the speed to produce jitter, unstable, and increased motor noise. Installation of AC (the
input side) and DC (output side) of the reactor.
Motor starting current of the reasons
When the induction motor is in a stopped state, from the electromagnetic point of view
to see, like a transformer, received power to the stator winding is equivalent to the
primary coil of the transformer into a closed circuit of the rotor winding is equivalent to
the secondary coil of the transformer is short-circuited; stator windingand no electrical
contact between the rotor winding, the only contact of the magnetic flux through the
stator, air gap, the rotor core into a closed circuit. When the closing moments of the rotor
is not turned up, due to inertia rotating magnetic field with maximum cutting speed synchronous speed cutting rotor windings, the rotor winding inductive the highest
possible potential, thus the rotor conductor flowing the current that generate offset of the
stator magnetic field of the magnetic energy, as the transformer secondary magnetic flux
to offset a flux.
The stator in order to maintain the original flux when the supply voltage to adapt, then
automatically increase the current. Because the rotor current, stator current is increased
very large, even up to the rated current of 4 to 7 times, this is the start current reason.
Why small start current: As the motor speed is increased, the cutting speed of the
rotor conductor of the stator magnetic field is reduced to reduce the electric potential
induced in the rotor conductors, the current in the rotor conductor is also reduced, so the
stator current is used to offset the rotor currents arising the flux that part of the current is
also reduced, so the stator current Sorted until normal.
Protection of three-phase asynchronous motor
Protection technology generally used for three-phase asynchronous motor stator
windings burned, overheat protection, over-current protection and phase failure
protection.
1, overheat protection part of the view that no matter what the cause of failure will
eventually lead to the stator windings of the motor overheating and burning. Therefore,
as long as to prevent overheating of the motor windings, also the protection of the motor.

But in fact, the motor itself, there is the difference of the thermal insulation level. Class A
105 C, and E grade 120 C, Grade B 130 C, Grade F 155 C, a level H 180 C, in the
same ambient temperature, the working conditions, the temperature rise of the case,
and some electrical opportunity to damage the maximum allowable temperature rise, but
some will not be damaged. Bearing damage caused by overheating of the motor causes
the stator and rotor rubs, poor ventilation, such as the case of electrical periodic
inspection and inspection checks must be found to solve, in the case of the scope of
protection technology. In addition, the motor temperature, cooling is a slow process of
change, we believe that only work for large and medium-sized, important positions
installation of motor temperature rise monitoring and overheating protection device is
necessary. And should be based on different heat levels set in the interior of the motor
ultra-temperature alarm and then tripping device. As for the small motor overheating
protection device is not necessarily cost-effective.
2, overcurrent protection for almost constant motor load, over-current protection is not
necessary. However, some motor load changes frequently, often overload, stall and even
burning motor windings. Overcurrent protection devices must be installed and running
motor. Although the three-phase asynchronous motor strong overload capacity, but the
implementation of the inverse-time characteristics of motor overload protection is
necessary, and it is recognized by the public.
3, phase failure protection motor damage, mostly caused by phase Running awareness
of the harm caused to the motor run off, so the implementation of the motor phase
failure protection are two different views: that the loss of phase the overheating damage
caused to the motor point of view to the implementation of the motor overheating
protection or overcurrent inverse-time characteristics of protection, the resulting thermal
relay solutions, the thermistor programs, off delay overcurrent protection program and
other programs; think off phase to the motor windings caused by the high voltage back
EMF breakdown point of view, off the action instantaneous protection program, so the
advent of electronic protection.
CE certification of knowledge
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CE certification mark accepted for EC Member States national regulatory authorities
responsible for the implementation of market and product safety control, rather than the
customer, when a product has attached CE mark certification, the member responsible
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free circulation in the EC market.
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Manufacturer or its representative, or the importer of the EU member states must be
responsible for the correctness of the CE certification mark.
CE certification mark is available for advertising?
CE certification mark is the official marketing product safety control design, not produced
for consumers, nor is it a marketing tool, and is therefore not suitable as an advertising.
However, in the production of your product catalog, do not forget in the directory printed
on legally obtained the CE certification mark.
CE certification Conformance Statement whether the standard format?
The directive does not provide for a fixed format, but many agencies are designed to
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Thermal protection for motors
1Brief

Common thermal protection components for medium-small size motor include PTC
thermistor, PT100 temperature sensor and bimetallic temperature relay. Also include
damp-proofing heater, for heating inside of motor in damp environment. These
components are buried inside of motor, like windings, or bearings caps at DE and NDE
sides.
If windings and bearings are caused higher temperature when motor is in higher voltage,
lower voltage, over current, lack of phase or overload, this signal can be transferred to
temperature control instrument of motor, then immediately the power supply is shut
down, to protect the motor.
2 PTC thermistor
It is a kind of resistance with Positive Temperature Coefficient. When the temperature
is higher than the specified temperature (Curie temperature), the resistance will step rise
as the rising temperature, it can reach 101000 times. It will also let relay act, together
with the detecting of electronic circuit.
PTC has small size, small thermal capacity, rapid reaction. Put PTC inside of windings
when making motor. Three phases motor select three series PTC, put them into the
windings for phase UVWvanished with windings after binding, lead the cables into
t-box.
3 Pt100 temperature sensor
Pt100 is platinic resistance sensor, the resistance is 0-100 ohms. It has simulated
signal. It can detect the temperature of corresponding part through the relations between
resistance and temperature. It can have high precision detect.
When detecting the temperature of windings, bind it on the end windings, varnish and
dry it together with windings, lead the cables into the T/Box.
When detecting the temperature of bearings, drill and thread a hole on bearing house,
then mount it, let the end surface of Pt100 touch outer ring of bearing, lead the cables
into T/Box.
4bimetallic temperature relay
It can be directly buried into the windings. When motor is overloaded the winding
temperature reach close to the limited value, the bimetallic plates with two contactors
bend because of heating, then shut down the circuit as the contactors are broken, to
protect motor.
5damp-proofing heater
In the damp environment, the heater starts to work when the motor is stopped, to heat
the windings, to avoid the windings dampened. That can guarantee motor work in dampproofing environment. Lead out of cables of heater together with cables of motor. The
heater works when the motor stops working, the motor works when the heater stops
working.
The generation of corona

Generation of corona is formed because of the the smooth conductor to produce a


non-uniform electric field, when the voltage rises to a certain value in the vicinity of the
unevenness of the electrode with a small radius of curvature of the electric field around
the discharge occurs due to an air free, corona. Not occur because of the weak electric
field in the periphery of the corona collision free, corona peripheral electrically charged
particles are basically ions, these ions will form a corona discharge current. Briefly, the
small radius of curvature of the conductor electrode of the discharge air, they produce a
corona.
High voltage stator winding in the ventilation slots and straight out of the notch, and
the winding end portion of the electric field is concentrated when the the local location
field strength reaches a certain value, the gas partial ionization occurs, a blue
fluorescence at the ionization, i.e. corona phenomenon. . The corona generating thermal
effects and ozone, helium oxide, the coil within the local temperature rise, resulting in
deterioration of adhesives, carbonized strand insulation and white mica, thereby enabling
the strands loose, short circuit, insulation aging.
Trapped in the ventilation slots and a notch at the high-voltage motor stator insulation
surface electric field distribution is very uneven. When the local field strength reaches a
certain value, the gas generating local free, light blue halo appears in the electrical fossa,
generating corona. The occurrence of corona accompanied by hot, Austria, oxygen,
nitrogen oxides generated, these are extremely harmful to the motor insulation.
Moreover, due to the thermosetting insulating surfaces of the groove wall poor contact or
unstable, the in electromagnetic vibration role, will cause the slot gap spark discharge.
This spark discharge caused by local heating insulating surface will be severely eroded.
All this will cause great damage to motor insulation.
Order to effectively eliminate this corona phenomenon, correctly determine the the
antihalation structure parameters and antihalation good choice of materials is very
important.