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In this laboratory exercise, we will measure the partial molar volumes of NaCl and Water for

Aqueous NaCl solutions of varying concentrations. We will use these quantities to determine the

Volume of Mixing for these substances. Deviation of this quantity from the Ideal of zero

indicates the presence of strong solution non-idealities.

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The volume of a solution is dependent on its temperature (T), pressure (P) and the amount of

each component (n1, n2, ...) used to form the mixture; V(T, P, n1, n2, ...). For a binary system

held at constant temperature and pressure, the differential volume change upon an incremental

addition or removal of either component is determined by:

dV =

(Eq. 1)

=

allows us to write this differential volume change for the solution as:

(Eq. 2)

Page |2

dV =

(Eq. 3)

Importantly, integration of the differential volume expression above (Castellan, 1983) yields an

"additivity rule" which allows us to determine the solutions volume, given the amount of each

component used to prepare it and each component's partial molar volume:

V

(Eq. 4)

Beyond being useful in its own right, this determination is useful because many other

thermodynamic quantities depend on system volume measurements.

For any extensive property like V, or U, H, S, etc., of a solution, generally denoted as , the

partial molar quantity of that property, for each component, is defined as:

=

At constant T and P, then adheres to an Additivity Rule:

=

It must be emphasized, the partial molar volume of a substance in a solution is not equal to the

Molar Volume of the substance when pure; .

Point of Illustration

The molar volumes of Water and Ethanol at 20oC are:

= 18.0 mL/mole

= 58.0 mL/mole

Parenthetically, the molar volume of a pure substance is related to

its density via its molar mass (M i);

= Mi/i. For Water, we

have:

= (18.0 g/mole) / (1.0 g/mL) = 18.0 mL/mole

If the molar volumes of Ethanol and Water did not change upon mixing, we would predict an

Aqueous Ethanol solution prepared from 2 moles of each of these components would have a total

volume of:

V

But these molar volumes do change. At a mole fraction of xEtOH = 0.5, the partial molar volumes

of Ethanol and Water are measured to be:

Page |3

= 16.9 mL/mole

= 57.4 mL/mole

Thus, for our example solution, we instead have a total volume of:

V

In other words, the system experiences a 3.4 mL contraction when the components are mixed.

This situation should not be unexpected. Liquid Water has a fairly open structure; not being too

different from that of Ice. The voids in its structure can be filled with the non-polar

hydrocarbon portion of the Ethanol molecule (CH3CH2OH).

Thus, the volume of the mixture will be less that the volume of the components separately.

It is observed partial molar volumes typically vary with concentration. This is illustrated below

for the Water-Ethanol system (Moore, 1972):

Page |4

represent the molar volume of the solute i in a state of infinite dilution

in the solvent. The molecular situation is as illustrated below:

We should not get too carried-away with our discussion, however. As noted by Adamson, Water

is anomalous:

Page |5

For most ordinary organic liquids the average molar volume V/n varies almost

linearly with composition. In the acetone-chloroform system, for example, the

volume change on mixing amounts to a few tenths of a percent at the most. The

molar volume of acetone is 72.740 cm3 mole-1 at 25oC and the partial molal

volume increases slightly on dilution with chloroform to a limiting dilute

solution value of 73.993 cm3 mole-1. Solutions involving water are often

anomalous; there is almost a 3% volume change when a water-methanol

solution is made up, and an actual shrinkage in total volume may occur when an

electrolyte is dissolved in water. The explanation for this last is that ions attract

water molecules so strongly that the resulting compaction more than

compensates for the added volume of the ions themselves.

A Textbook of Physical Chemisty

Arthur W. Adamson

It is relatively easy to show that solution density () measurements are sufficient to determine

the partial molar volumes of the components in a binary liquid solution.

For the Aqueous NaCl solutions we wish to examine, we can write the total solution volume in

terms of the partial molar volumes as:

V

(Eq. 5)

V

) according to:

(Eq. 6)

This quantity represents the apparent volume of NaCl required to bring the Waters volume up

to the solution volume.

Example

For the 50:50 Ethanol-Water mixture of the example above, we have:

V

Or,

148.6 mL = (2 mole) (18.0 mL/mole) + (2 mole)

Giving us an apparent molar volume of:

= 56.3 mL/mole

(Note: This compares to Ethanols molar volume of 58.0 mL/mole and its partial molar volume in

this mixture of 57.4 mL/mole.)

Page |6

The partial molar volumes for H2O and NaCl can now be written it terms of the apparent molar

volume:

=

(Eq. 7)

=

To relate

(Eq. 8)

=

(Eq. 9)

(Eq. 10)

The solutions mole numbers ni can be written in terms of the solution's molality:

=

(Eq. 11)

= m x 1 kg

(Eq. 12)

=

(Eq. 13)

is:

(Eq. 14)

Further details concerning these derivations can be found at (Crockford et al, 1975).

Now we have come to it. Density measurements at various concentrations m will yield

via

Equation 14. This determination can then be used in Equations 7 and 8 to obtain our desired

results,

and

.

Finally, the Volume of Mixing is defined as:

Page |7

(Eq. 15)

Example

Again, for our 50:50 Ethanol-Water solution, we have:

=

= -0.85 mL/mole

=

(Eq. 16)

By definition

= 0 for an Ideal Solution. Hence, the Excess Volume of the solution, the

volume of mixing in excess of the Ideal case, is:

=

(Eq. 17)

is a measure of the magnitude of the non-idealities inherent in the solution. When a solution

forms, solvent-solute interactions may be different in quality when compared with the solventsolvent or solute-solute interactions. This difference will lead to non-ideal solution behavior.

For Ethanol-Water mixtures, non-idealities are significant because of Ethanols non-polar

hydrocarbon tail. However, mixtures of Benzene (C6H6) and Toluene (C7H8) are relatively Ideal

because of the similarity in their chemical structures. Hence

will be approximately zero over

the entire concentration range for these mixtures.

Benzene

Toluene

We will determine

for NaCl/H2O mixtures over a range of concentrations. The results can

then be interpreted in terms of the strong ion-dipole interactions which exist within the solution.

Page |8

Procedure

We will be making the required density measurements using a pycnometer:

The pycnometer is first calibrated against Water. The pycnometer is cleaned, dried and weighed

empty. Then it is filled with Water. Using the density of Water at the measuring temperature

and the mass of the Water required to fill the pycnometer, the volume of the pycnometer can be

calculated. The pycnometer is then filled with the solution whose density is to be determined

and weighed. This mass, along with the calibration volume, gives us the desired density

measurement.

Week 1

Dry Primary Standard grade NaCl overnight in a drying oven at 110oC. Allow the salt to cool in

a desiccator before weighing it out.

Prepare sufficient 3.0 molar NaCl stock solution to make the needed dilutions for this

experiment. Dilute this in half successively for a total of five dilutions. These dilutions will be

your samples.

Pre-Lab Preparation

1. Determine how much stock solution will be required. Assume each

pycnometer holds between 25 50 mL of liquid.

2. Prepare a scheme for making the stock solution.

Week 2

It is critical that the mass measurements of the pycnomters be very accurate. Even minute

errors in the mass measurement will cascade through to give very large errors in the

partial molar volume results.

Page |9

After you remove the pycnometer from the water bath, it should be rinsed and dried with a

Kimwipe. Because small variations in the handling of the pycnomter can result in

unacceptable variations in the mass measurement, the pycnometer should be handled by

the same person for all measurements. And it should be handled identically for each

measurement.

You will be provided with two pycnometers. Prepare and calibrate each pycnometer. After the

pycnometer is clean, do not handle it directly. For the calibration, use Distilled Water and

calibrate the pycnometer in a 25oC water bath. Allow the pycnometer to equilibrate for 15

minutes in the water bath using the copper baskets provided. (Be sure to read the actual

temperature of the bath.)

After the system has equilibrated, draw off the bead of Water that has formed at the top of the

pycnometers bore with a Kimwipe. (It is critical that you do this consistently.)

P a g e | 10

Carefully wash and dry the outside of the pycnometer after you remove it from the water bath.

Allow the pycnomter to equilibrate in the balance room for 20 - 30 minutes (always use the same

waiting period) before making a mass measurement. Use the 5-place analytical balance in the

Instrument Room in Jones Annex to make all mass measurements. All measurements

should be made in duplicate and should agree to within 0.01%.

The calibration should be made in triplicate in order to determine V.

Once each pycnometer has been calibrated, fill them with the solutions whose density is to be

measured, equilibrate them in a 25oC water bath, draw off the bead at the top of the pycnometers'

bore, and then remove, wash and dry the pycnometers. Allow the pycnometers to equilibrate in

the balance room and then make the needed mass measurements.

P a g e | 11

Data Analysis

All results must be accompanied by an appropriate error estimate.

1.

2.

m

3.

Calculate

for each solution using Eq. 14 and then plot

vs. m1/2; empirically it

is found this plot is linear for aqueous ionic solutions of reasonably low concentration.

Include appropriate error bars. Perform a linear least squares fit to the data. Determine the

slope of the line, along with an appropriate error estimate. This slope can be used to

determine:

=

measured concentration:

(plot slope)

at each

4.

=

can be used to show that

of Eq. 8 and

of Eq. 7 can be written in terms of the

solution molality m, instead of nH2O and nNaCl (Sime, 1990).. This allows us to determine

and

as:

=

and:

=

Using this modification, determine

and

for each solution. Include an

appropriate error estimate for each quantity determined. Prepare a plot of each quantity;

.

P a g e | 12

5.

estimate.

vs. m to determine

6.

Determine

for each solution using Eq. 16. Plot these values as

Interpret and discuss the results.

vs. m.

P a g e | 13

Glossary

Symbol

Meaning

ni

Partial Molar Volume of component i

Molar Volume of Pure of component i

Molar Volume of Pure of component I at Infinite Dilution

Mi

P a g e | 14

References

Adamson, Arthur W. (1979). A Textbook of Physical Chemistry, 2nd Ed. Academic Press,

New York.

Castellan, Gilbert W. (1983). Physical Chemistry, 3rd Ed. Addison-Wesley.

Crockford, Horace D., Nowell, John W., Baird, H. Wallace, Getzen, Forrest W. Laboratory

Manual of Physical Chemistry, 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Garland, Carl W., Nibler, Joseph W., Shoemaker, David P. Experiments in Physical

Chemistry, 8th Ed. McGraw-Hiil, Boston.

Levine, Ira N. (2009) Physical Chemistry, 6th Ed. McGraw-Hill, Boston.

Millero, Frank J. The Apparent and Partial Molo Volume of Aqueous Sodium Chloride

Solutions at Various Temperatures J. Phys. Chem. 74 356 (1970).

Moore, Walter J. (1972). Physical Chemistry, 4th Ed. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.

Sime, Rodney J. (1990). Physical Chemistry: Methods, Techniques and Experiments.

Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia.

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