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Laboratory and Diagnostic Worksheet

Test

Normal
Adult Range

Clients
Range

List all possible causes for abnormal values

White Blood Cell:


WBC- Primary effector cell against
Infection and tissue damage
Red Blood Cell:
RBC Primary function
Is to carry 02
Hemoglobin:
Hgb Iron containing pigment
Or RBC which carries 02 from lungs
Hematocrit:
Hct: Volume of RBCs in a given
Volume of blood

5,000-10,000

n/a

Infection, leukemic cancer, bone marrow failure

Male: 4.7-6.1
Female: 4.25.4

n/a

COPD, anemia, heart disease, hemorrhage

Male: 14-18
Female: 12-16

L 9.0

COPD, dehydration, heart disease

Male: 42%52%
Female: 37%47%
150,000400,000

L 29%

COPD, anemia, heart disease, hemorrhage

Prothrombin time:
(PT) time it takes for clotting to occur
After thromboplastin and calcium
Are added to the blood (extrinsic pathway)
Checks blood clotting: regularly checked on
people taking anticoagulants, such as
Coumadin
PTT (Partial throboplastin time)
Evaluates intrinsic pathway in
Coagulation. blood test that looks at how
long it takes for blood to clot. It can help
tell if you have a bleeding problem or if
your blood does not clot properly.
INR:
International normalized ratio
System of standardization of PT

>1.5-2.0 times
the control
40-130 U/L

H130

High- blood too thin


Low- blood too thick

1.5-2.5

n/a

Deficiency of blood clotting factors

0.8-1.2

1.2

BUN: Blood area, nitrogen


Nitrogen in blood in the form of urea
(a by- product of protein metabolism
Indirect measurement of kidney function
Creatinine:
End product of metabolism
Sensitive indicator of renal function
Used to diagnose impaired kidney function
Glucose:
Primary energy source
within most cells
Sodium:

10-20 mg/dL

H 55

Effectiveness of warfarin therapy. INR, patients


taking 2-3.5 The therapeutic range for INR is 2-3.5,
although specific ranges vary warfarin sodium based
on diagnosis
High- low blood volume, shock, kidney disease, drug
toxicity to the kidney
Low: liver failure, overhydration, nephrotic(kidney)
syndrome

Male: 0.6-1.2
mg/dL
Female: 0.51.1 mg/dL

0.8

High- kidney disease


Low- debilitation, decreased muscle mass

70-105

94

High: diabetes, stress response


Low: - too much insulin production, hypothyroidism,
insulin overdose

136-145

140

High- increased dietary intake, Cushing's syndrome

Platelet Count:
# of circulating platelets
Checks blood's ability to clot

Rheumatoid arthritis, cancer therapy, HighMalignant disorders, infection

Na: most abundant


cation in extracellular fluid
evaluates and monitors fluid and electrolyte
status
Potassium:
K: principal cation

meq/L

Low: decreased dietary intake, Addison's disease,


excessive oral water intake

3.5-5.0

4.7

High- excessive dietary intake, kidney disease or


failure, Addison's disease
Low: Deficient dietary intake, use of diuretics,
Cushing's Syndrome

Calcium- measures the level of calcium in


the blood.

8.5-10.8

8.6

Bone cancer, prolonged bed rest, kidney failure,


liver disease, hyperparathyroidism, tuberculosis,

Albumin- Albumin is a protein made by the


liver. A serum albumin test can help
determine if a patient has liver disease or
kidney disease, or if the body is not
absorbing enough protein.
CO2- The CO2 test is most often done as
part of an electrolyte or basic metabolic
panel. Changes in your CO2 level may
suggest that you are losing or retaining
fluid. This may cause an imbalance in your
body's electrolytes.
Phosp- Phosphate, or phosphorous, is
similar to calcium, as it is found in your
teeth and bones. Like calcium, you need
vitamin D in order to absorb phosphate
properly.
Chloride- one of the most important
electrolytes in the blood. It helps keep the
amount of fluid inside and outside of your
cells in balance. It also helps maintain
proper blood volume, blood pressure, and
pH of your body fluids
Anion Gap- This test looks at electrically
charged particles in your blood. This
helps your health care provider diagnose
acid-base problems

3.5-5.5 g/dL

2.3

Kidney or liver disease

23-29

32

Lower than normal may indicate: diarrhea, kidney


disease, aspirin overdose, Addison's disease
Higher than normal may indicate: breathing
disorders, vomiting, Cushing's disease

2.5-4.6

2.4

the most common cause of increased phosphate


levels (or hyperphosphatemia) is the kidney's
inability to get rid of phosphate.
Kidney failure, thyroid problems, muscle damage

96-106

105

Hyperchloremia is an electrolyte imbalance and is


indicated by a high level of chloride in
the blood. . Chloride is an important electrolyte and
works to ensure that your body's metabolism is
working correctly. Your kidneys control the levels
of chloride in your blood.

8-16

Your body makes too much acid


You lose too much bicarbonate. This can happen
if you have diarrhea
The body doesn't get rid of enough acid in your
urine because of problems with your kidneys.

BNP-test measures the amount of

100-300
pg/mL sugges
t heart failure
is present.

4136

BNP levels above 300 pg/mL indicate mild heart failure.


BNP levels above600 pg/mL indicate moderate heart
failure. BNP levels above 900 pg/mL indicate severe heart
failure.

in intracellular fluid
evaluates and monitors fluid and
electrolyte status: provides information
on heart function

the BNP hormone in your blood. BNP is


made by your heart and tells how well
your heart is

Test

Normal
Adult Range

Clients
Range

List all possible causes for abnormal values

BNP/100300

4136

Indicates heart failure

Risk Score16

18 or less
indicates
skin
breakdow
n

Other Laboratory Tests


Cardiac Labs
Sputum Cultures
Microbiology Cultures for C-diff, Staph,
MRSA

Other Diagnostic Tests


X-Ray
CT Scan
Pulmonary Function Tests
EKG
Endoscopy Procedures
Diagnostic Surgery
Skin Integrity