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Prepared and submitted by




Civil Engineering Department

Institute of Technology, Nirma University
Ahmedabad 382481 (India)
September, 2015

The phenomenon remains same that no project ever can be executed proficiently and efficiently
without sharing the meticulous ideas, technical expertise and innovative thoughts put forwarded by
the technical and non-technical veterans.

In this regard first of all we would like to express deep gratitude to our guide for sharing their
precious knowledge, time and innovative ideas for the successful execution of the assigned project.
She always inspired and guided us for the right track to be followed for all the system analysis
section of this project.

Many people, especially our classmates and team members itself, have made valuable comment
suggestions on this proposal which gave us an inspiration to improve our assignment. We thank all
the people for their help directly and indirectly to complete our assignment. The whole project really
brought us together to appreciate true value of friendship and respect of each other.

This is to certify that the report entitled WASTE WATER UTILIZATION submitted by PARIN
fulfillment of requirement of course CL 631 SUSTAINABLE BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES of 6th
semester is an authentic work carried out by them under my supervision and guidance.

To the best of my knowledge, the matter embodied in the project has not been submitted to any other
University / Institute for the award of any Degree or Diploma.

Signature of Guide:




Acknowledgements ... 3
Contents ....... 5
Waste water collection7
Case Study.8


Domestic wastewater is the water that has been used by a community and which contains
all the materials added to the water during its use. It is thus composed of human body
wastes (faeces and urine) together with the water used for flushing toilets, and sullage,
which is the wastewater resulting from personal washing, laundry, food preparation and
the cleaning of kitchen utensils.
Fresh wastewater is a grey turbid liquid that has an earthy but inoffensive odour. It
contains large floating and suspended solids (such as faeces, rags, plastic containers,
maize cobs), smaller suspended solids (such as partially disintegrated faeces, paper,
vegetable peel) and very small solids in colloidal (ie non-settleable) suspension, as well
as pollutants in true solution. It is objectionable in appearance and hazardous in content,
mainly because of the number of disease-causing (pathogenic) organisms it contains.
In warm climates wastewater can soon lose its content of dissolved oxygen and so
become stale or septic. Septic wastewater has an offensive odour, usually of hydrogen
sulphide. The composition of human faeces and urine is given in Table 1.1, and for
wastewater, in simpler form, in Figure 1.1.
The organic fraction of both is composed principally of proteins, carbohydrates and fats.
These compounds, particularly the first two, form an excellent diet for bacteria, the
microscopic organisms whose voracious appetite for food is exploited by public health
engineers in the microbiological treatment of wastewater. In addition to these chemical
compounds, faeces and, to a lesser extent, urine contain many millions of intestinal
bacteria and smaller numbers of other organisms. The majority of these are harmless
indeed some are beneficial but an important minority is able to cause human disease.
Sullage contributes a wide variety of chemicals: detergents, soaps, fats and greases of
various kinds, pesticides, anything in fact that goes down the kitchen sink, and this may
include such diverse items as sour milk, vegetable peelings, tea leaves, soil particles
(arising from the preparation of vegetables) and sand (used to clean cooking utensils).
The number of different chemicals that are found in domestic wastewater is so vast that,
even if it were possible, it would be meaningless to list them all.
For this reason wastewater treatment engineers use special parameters to characterize
A second look at strategies has thrown a picture of making rational use of already
available water, which if used sensibly, there could be enough water for all. The new look
invariably points out at recycle and reuse of wastewater that is being increasingly
generated due to rapid growth of population and related developmental activities,
including agriculture and industrial productions.


Domestic wastewaters are collected in underground pipes which are called sewers. The
flow in sewers is normally by gravity, with pumped mains only being used when
unavoidable. The design of conventional sewerage (the sewer system used in
industrialized countries and in the central areas of many cities in developing countries) is
described in national sewerage codes (eg for India, Ministry of Urban Development,
1993). However, it is extremely expensive. A much lower cost alternative, which is
suitable for use in both poor and rich areas alike, is simplified sewerage, sometimes
called condominial sewerage.


Untreated wastewater causes major damage to the environment and to human health.
Almost always, therefore, wastewater should be treated in order to:
reduce the transmission of excreta-related diseases.
reduce water pollution and the consequent damage to aquatic biota.

Wastewater reuse must meet certain controls:

First, wastewater treatment to reduce pathogen concentrations must meet the WHO
(1989) guidelines; Second, crop restrictions must be specified to prevent direct exposure
to those consuming uncooked crops as well as defining application methods (irrigation)
that reduce the contact of wastewater with edible crops,Finally, control of human
exposure is needed for workers, crop-handlers, and final consumers. Benefits of safely
recovering and reusing human wastes include the reduction in effluents to bodies of water
and the opportunity to re-build soil with valuable organic matter. The nitrogen in
reclaimed water can replace equal amounts of commercial fertilizer during the early to
midseason crop-growing period. Excessive nitrogen in the latter part of the growing
period may be detrimental to many crops, causing excessive vegetative growth, delayed
or uneven maturity, or reduced crop quality.

1- Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Systems

The decentralised wastewater treatment system is an approach which is a combination of

the different systems such as the settler/ biogas settler, anaerobic baffled reactor, planted
gravel filter (horizontal/ vertical) and polishing ponds. These systems are based on
natural wastewater treatment techniques and are designed in accordance with different
parameters such as the characteristics of wastewater, treated wastewater quality to be
achieved, site and technical specifications. In these systems, both aerobic and anaerobic
treatment process occurs.
DWWT applications are based on four basic treatment modules:

Primary treatment includes pre treatment and sedimentation in settlers or septic tanks.
Secondary anaerobic treatment in baffled reactors.
Tertiary aerobic/ anaerobic treatment in planted gravel filter beds.
Aerobic treatment in polishing ponds

Salient features:

Site specific and cost effective wastewater treatment systems.

These systems could be designed for wastewater flows from 1 cubm-1000 cubm.
Can treat waste water with high grease content, suspended solids and organic matter.
Locally available materials required for the construction.
Low operation and maintenance cost.
Can be integrated as part of the landscape.

Project Implementation:

fig: bankers colony

Location: Bankers Colony, Bhuj, Gujarat
Scale: Community
Implementing organisation: Hunnarshala Foundation, Municipality of Bhuj

and Kutch

Navnirman Abhiyan, funded by American India Foundation and

Care today group.
Designed Capacity: 30KLD
Area : 300 sqm
Operational since : 2006
Capital cost : Rs 14-15 lakhs

O&M: Rs 1-1.5 lakhs/year


DWWT at Bankers Colony as a part of hamirsar Green Belt Project was initiated by
Hunnarshala Foundation. The aim of this project was to showcase the best practice in the
area of wastewater management and how wastewater can be treated and reused locally
for horticulture purpose. The Bankers colony is below the level of the main sewer line; so
it was not connected to the main sewerage. To tackle the problem, it was decided to select
this site as a pilot project to implement DWWT. The treated wastewater is reused for
horticulture purpose in order to develop the green belt in the region.


The sewage first goes into a two chambered settler. After the primary treatment the
wastewater goes to the Anaerobic Baffled Reactor which is a nine chambered system
with the anaerobic filter in the last two chambers. Then the wastewater flows to the
planted filter and finally to the polishing pond. From the polishing pond the treated
wastewater is reused. This treatment system is maintained in such a way so that the area
can be utilised as a public space also. The excess of treated wastewater goes to the storm
water drain which passes through the city and meets Hamirsar Lake.

BOD reduction: 91%
COD reduction: 81%
TDS reduction: 98%
(Source: Hunnarshala Foundation)

2- Soil Bio Technology (SBT)


Soil Bio- technology is a terrestrial system for wastewater treatment which

is based on the principle of trickling filter. In this system, combination of
physical processes like sedimentation, infiltration and biochemical
processes are carried out to remove the suspended solids, organic and
inorganic contents of the wastewater.

Suitable mineral constitution, culture containing native micro-flora and bioindicator plants are the key components of the system. It is also known as
Constructed Soil Filter (CSF). SBT systems are constructed from RCC,
stone-masonry or soil bunds. It consists of raw water tank, bioreactor
containment, treated water tank, piping and pumps.

Salient features

The process can be run on batch or continuous mode.

No sludge production
Mechanical aeration is not required.
The overall time of operation is 6-7 hours per day. The soil biotechnology
system bed is dried prior to next cycle of use.

Project Implementation:

Location: Worli, Mumbai, Maharashtra

Scale: Municipal

Implementing organisation: Mumbai Municipal Corporation, IIT Mumbai

Designed Capacity: 3 MLD
Area: 2500 sqm
Operational since : 2006
Capital cost : Rs 3 Crores
O&M: Rs 40-45 Lakhs per year

Lovegrove pumping station treats 3 MLD out of 600 MLD wastewater through SBT. The
wastewater is first screened and then diverted to SBT for treatment. Remaining screened
wastewater is directly disposed to the sea through tunnel.


The treatment system has two units of 1250 sq m each called as bioreactor. The
perforated pipes are laid on the surface and the wastewater is distributed over the media
through these pipes. Bioreactor has different layers consisting of stone or rubble, soil
media (weathered rock) containing culture. The soil media comprised of locally available
weathered rock Deccan Trap Besalt with the culture containing native micro flora. The
wastewater trickles down the bed and undergoes treatment. The treated wastewater is
collected in separate collection tanks and then goes to a common polishing pond. The
treated wastewater then undergoes chlorination and sand filtration before it is reused. The
Municipal Corporation provides recycled wastewater to Mahalaxmi race course and
Wellington sports club and reuses treated wastewater for horticulture purpose and central
cooling in its own premises.

Increase in DO: BDL to 3.0
BOD reduction: 99%
COD reduction: 94%
TSS reduction: 97%
(Source: Mumbai Municipal Corporation).

3- Residence at Salunke Vihar, Pune

Bio sanitizer technology is developed by Bhawalkar Ecological Research Institute (BERI), Pune.
Biosanitiser/ eco chip is a compact water and wastewater treatment bio-catalyst which contains
various plant enzymes in its purified forms. The enzymes present in the eco chip degrades the
organic component and produces active oxygen. It neutralizes the pH of the medium. One chip
contains 100 mg of Biosanitiser.
Salient feature

No use of machinery, electricity and labour

No electricity or chemicals required for its operation

No sludge or greenhouse gases as a by-product.

Location: Pune, Maharashtra

Scale: Residential/ individual
Implementing organisation: Bhawalkar Ecological Research Institute (BERI), Pune
Designed Capacity: 1KLD
Operational since : 2001
Capital cost : Rs 5000 (as in year 2001)
O&M: depends upon cost of biosanitiser only

The purpose of the implementation of the technology was the treatment of domestic wastewater
and reuse with minimum investment and O&M cost.

Grey water (bathrooms and kitchens) from the seven flats of the same building was collected in a
1000 litre storage tank. One chip of the biosanitiser (100 mg) is added in the storage tank.
Another chip of biosanitiser was added in 2006. According to the house owner, after every 5-6
years, there is a requirement to add the biosanitiser in the tank for the treatment (as per the
personal communication). The treated wastewater is used for gardening.


Water has a precious value and each drop must be accounted-for in water scarce regions such as
the Middle East and North Africa. Therefore, wastewater has to be reclassified as a renewable
water resource rather than waste as it helps increase water availability and, at the same time,
prevents environmental pollution. Utilization of this resource requires collection, treatment, and
use of all generated wastewater. Although reuse of wastewater is recognized in most water-carce
countries, the reuse of wastewater is still very low.Once freshwater has been used for an
economic or beneficial purpose, it is generally discarded as waste. In many countries, these
wastewaters are discharged, either as untreated waste or as treated effluent, into natural
waterways from which they are abstracted for further use after undergoing "self-purification"
within the stream. Through this system of indirect reuse, wastewater may be reused up to a dozen
times or more before being discharged. Such indirect reuse is common in the larger river systems
of Latin America. However, more direct reuse is also possible.