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Procedural theory of democracy: Schumpter views that in the procedural theory of democracy,

people are not direct decision makers in a democratic regime, instead they bestow legitimacy to
the regime through elections. He explores this form of democracy and later concludes that,
although socialism and democracy are not harmful to each other, socialist bodies of governance
are not surely better off than bourgeois administrations.
Moralistic political culture: Elazar emphasized the commonwealth conception, politics as the
best action man carry out to achieve the best society, and the idea that the governments main
goal should be to better the welfare of man. As a result, those who believe in such ideas also
believe in a strong welfare state where politics should be important to every citizen.
Scenes: Clark utilizes scenes to examine the human behavior in social structures. Specifically,
studying the way man consumes and what man consumes can be later used to model mans
choices and actions. Thus, the use of scenes is a method to frame the life decisions of

The development of a nation is a nuanced and complex process that varies across
countries. Rokkan and Tilly present two ways in which the process of state formation can be
separated into distinct dimensions and stages. Rokkan breaks down the formation of a state into
four clear phases: penetration, standardization, participation and redistribution. He founds his
ideas in the fact that there was a low degree of political mobilization during state formation
periods in Western Europedetermining his conclusions in a certain and narrow context. It
could be seen as a weakness to base general theorieslike nation building that should be widely
applicableon specific contexts. His theory is exclusively based on European states that

depended on of freedom of trade to keep up their livelihood. As a result, the main thing that
facilitates nation building in Rokkans theory is a pre-existing trait of a state. Tilly presents a
more general sequence of what actions are needed to build a foundation, emphasizing a
particular driving force of the state transforming process: the expansion of military forces.
Although Tillys theory of state formation is ballistic in nature, his conflict theory is not
exclusive to certain countries in certain time periods. The dissection of both authors works
reveal that Tillys idea state making through attacking challengers and competitors has a more
compelling and sound logic of determination.
Tilly meticulously describes how military forces propel the process of state formation.
War begins with a power, threat or conflict that ignites the attention and passion of many
individuals for them to then organize and communicate amongst each other to form a form a
mass rebellion. Conflict and resistance creates negotiation and bargaining between rules and the
populace. Through the struggle and conflict of negotiation and war itself, it resolves in a fulfilled
citizenship. Tilly provides a comprehensive outline on how war is a homogenizing experience.
Wars are enforced and carried out by large military cores which need a government of direct rule.
The transition from indirect to direct rule calls for assimilation through national politics. Citizens
will begin to rely more and more on their state, and thus by common languages and local
economies and are crystalized and standardized. This process is begun through collective action
as a joint effort towards a common goal in terms of revolutions, uprisings and strikes. The
transition between war and government is state formation.
The exploration of Tilly and Rokkans discussion of state formation theories reveals how
one concept can be so widely studied and yield such heterogeneous conclusions.