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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Part I Released Items .............. :.......... ............................... 5
Answer Key ............................ ;.......................... ............... 25

1.

The branches of the maxillary artery supply each


of the following EXCEPT one. Which one is this
EXCEPTION?

A.

B.
C.
D.
E.

6.

Nasal septum
Mandibular incisors
Hard and soft palate
Skin of the forehead
Muscles of mastication

A.
B.
C.
D.

7.
2.

The cervical ridge would stand out most


prominently as a distinct entity on which of the
following primary maxillary molars?

Which of the following actions is at least partially


dependent on an intact long thoracic nerve?

Which of the following muscles position the


condyles in the most superior anterior position?
A.

A.
B.
C.
D.

E.

Depression of the scapula


Retraction of the scapula
Protraction of the scapula
Medial rotation of the humerus
Lateral rotation of the humerus

B.
C.
D.
E.

8.
3.

Which of the following represents a wellvascularized structure in the temporomandibular


joint?

B.
C.

D.
E.

B.
C.

Retrodiscal pad
Fibrous covering of the condyle
Central portion of the articular disc
Fibrous covering of the articular eminence
Fibrous covering of the condylar surface

D.

9.

4.

Which of the following procedures depends


primarily on electrostatic net charge?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

B.
C.
D.
E.

5.

maxillary lateral incisor.


mandibular central incisor.
mandibular canine.
mandibular first molar.

Which of the following explains penicillin.resistance


in Neisseria gonorrhoeae?
A.

Dialysis
Electrophoresis
X-ray diffraction
Ultracentrifugation
Molecular sieve chromatography

Masseters and digastrics


Masseters and medial pterygoids
Temporalis and stemocleidomastoids
Temporalis and superior lateral pterygoids
Medial pterygoids and sternocleidomastoids

When a parent notices an erupting tooth in a


child's mouth at 6 months of age, it is most likely a
primary
A.

A.

Mesiofacial of the first


Distofacial of the first
Mesiofacial of the second
Distofacial of the second

A spontaneous chromosomal mutation of


gonorrhea organisms
The production of a plasmid-encoded Blactamase
A change in the permeability of the cell wall
Efflux mechanism to export drug from the
cell
Mutational alteration of the drug target

Which of the following best describes collagen?


10.
A.
B.
C.
D.

A soluble fiber of ground substance


The most abundant protein in the body
A fibrous protein with a high content of
tryptophan
A globular protein with a high contenl of
hydroxyproline

An acute arthritis of the great toe is a classic sign


of which of the following diseases?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Rheumaloid arthritis
Osleoarthritis
Osteomyelitis
Osteoporosis
Gout

11.

Special visceral afferent fibers for taste are


conveyed in which of the following cranial nerves?

A.
B.
C.
D.

12.

B.
C.
D.

E.

17.

Celiac
Hepatic
Splenic
Superior mesenteric

First premolar
Second premolar
First molar
Second molar
Third molar

C.
D.

B.
C.
D.

The presence of numerous keratohyalin


granules
Being the only cells with membrane coating
vesicles
The ability to divide and give rise to new
cells in the epithelium
Exhibiting the highest metabolic activity of all
cells in tihe oral epithelium
The presence of the greatest number of
desmosomes (intercellular bridges)
compared to the other strata

18.

19.

20.

Adenovirus
C-type virus
Varicella zoster virus
Epstein-Barr virus
Human papillomavirus

Which of the following infections is often seen as a


white. patchy lesion on the oral mucosa in
debilitated patients?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Cephalin
Lecithin
GanglioSide
Cerebroside
Sphingomyelin

Maxillary central
Mandibular central
Maxillary lateral
Mandibular lateral

A virus associated with the induction of cervical


carcinoma is which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Non-permeating solute to X
Non-permeating solute to Y
Permeating solute to X
Permeating solute to Y

the presence of an excessive maxillary labial


frenum.
thumb sucking.
tongue thrusting.
growth of the dental arches.

Which of the following incisors are usually the last


to erupt?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following membrane components


consists of glycerol. phosphate . fatty acids. and
choline?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

The spacing normally seen between the primary


anterior teeth of a flVe-year-old child is most likely
caused by
A.

Chambers X and Yare separated by a biologic


membrane . Initially. both chambers contain water.
Addition of which of tihe following solutions will
cause a net movement of water from X to Y?

A.
B.

15.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

The cells of the stratum granulosum in the


keratinized portions of the oral mucosa are
characterized by which of the following?

A.

14.

V. VII. and IX
VII. IX. and X
VII. IX. and XII
XII only

The lingual cusp(s) on which of the following


mandibular posterior teeth is (are) apprOXimately
2/3 the height of the respective facial cusp(s)?

The gastroduodenal artery is usually a direct


branch of which of the following arteries?
A.
B.
C.
D.

13.

16.

Coccidiomycosis
Histoplasmosis
Aspergillosis
Blastomycosis
Candidiasis

21.

Each of the following muscles is a primary elevator


of the mandible EXCEPT one. Which one is this
EXCEPTION?
A.
B.
C.
D.

22.

27.

Primary teeth differ from permanent teeth in that


primary teeth
A.

Masseter
Temporalis
Medial pterygoid
Lateral pterygoid

B.
C.
D.
E.

The inferior vena cava passes through the


diaphragm at the level of which of the following?
28.

A.

B.
C.
D.

T8
T10
T12
L2

Mandibular canines normally erupt at age

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

23.

The trigeminal nerve distributes special visceral


efferent nerve fibers to
A.
B.
C.
D.

<.

.j

"
24.

::..

29.

temporalis and frontalis.


temporalis and buccinator.
tensor veli palatini and tensor tympani.
posterior belly of the digastric and
stylohyoid.

Protective antibodies produced as a result of


recovery from hepatitis B infection include which of
the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.

30.

B.
C.

D.
E.

Lysine
Cysteine
Leucine
Hydroxyproline
Glycine

An axon is stimulated by a threshold stimulus and


then by a stimulus three times as strong as the
first. The resulting impulse in the latter instance will
have
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

26.

5-6.
7-8.
9-10.
11-12.
13-14.

HBcAg
HBeAg
HBsAg
HDVAg

Which amino acid possesses a hydrophobic side


chain?

A.

25.

have longer crowns compared with their


mesiodistal diameters.
are smaller mesiodistally than their
replacement teeth.
have comparatively larger pulp cavities.
have less pronounced cervical ridges.
have wider crowns faciolingually.

the same amplitude and velocity.


the same amplitude but less velocity.
less amplitude but the same velocity.
one-third the amplitude and velocity.
three times the amplitude and velocity.

The erupted dentition of a normally developed 7year-old child usually consists of


A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

8 primary and 8 permanent teeth.


10 primary and 10 permanent teeth.
12 primary and 8 permanent teeth.
18 primary and 6 permanent teeth.
20 primary teeth.

Which of the following neoplasms is associated


with the Epstein-Barr virus?
A.
B.
C.
D.

31.

Oral carcinoma
Lymphangioma
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
Choriocarcinoma

The foramen magnum serves as a port of entry to


the cranial cavity for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

the basilar artery.


the vertebral artery.
the vagus and accessory nerves.
the spinal portion of accessory nerve and
the posterior meningeal artery.
the anterior spinal artery and the bulbar
portion of the eleventh cranial nerve.

32.

The facial artery is usually a branch of which of the


following arteries?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

33.

Genial tubercle
Left condylar neck
Right condylar neck
Left mental foramen
Right mental foramen

D.
E.

Valine
Lysine
Alanine
Methionine
Phenylalanine

B.

C.
D.

31.

38.

B.
C.
D.
E.

is a relatively insoluble protein-carbohydrate


complex inaccessible to our digestive
enzymes.
is a mucopolysaccharide. for which there are
no hydrolytiC enzymes.
is highly sulfated, making it inaccessible to
most glycosidases.
is a polymer of p-linked glucose molecules
for which we have no digestive enzymes.
resists enzyme action because of its highly
branched structure.

Incisors
Canines
First molars
Second molars

Most cases of encephalitis are caused by which of


the following?

A.
B.
C.
D.

E.
40.

fewer molars.
fewer incisors.
fewer canines.
more incisors.
more total teeth.

Which of the following primary teeth show the


earliest .evidence of calcification in utero?
A.
B.
C.
D.

39.

It is designed to protect against root fracture


by having the crown structure serve as root
support.
It is designed to allow for a minimum amount
of chewing efficiency on the coronal surface
of the tooth.
It is usually rhomboidal and has a design
flaw that encourages cusp fracture.
It is usually trapezoidal and has a design
flaw that encourages cusp fracture.

When compared to the permanent dentition. the


primary dentition normally exhibits
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Cellulose is not digested by humans because it


A.

From a proximal view, which of the following


describes the crown outline on a mandibular
posterior tooth?
A.

Which of the following amino acids contains one or


more atoms of sulfur per molecule?
A.
B.
C.

35.

External carotid
Internal carotid
Superior thyroid
OCcipital
Maxillary

After an automobile accident. a patient's chin


deviates to the left on opening his mouth widely.
His mandible is probably fractured at which of the
following points?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

34.

36.

Fungi
Viruses
Protozoa
Bacteria
Rickettsia

To which of the following does carcinoma of the


prostate most often metastasize?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Lung
liver
Brain
Spleen
Skeleton

41.

The splenic artery is found in which of the following


ligaments?

A.
B.
C.
D.

E.
42.

43.

When a fourth root canal exists in a maxillary first


molar, it is most likely located in which of the
following roots?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

47,

Keratohyaline
Oesmosomes
Capillaries
Mitotic cells
Free nerve endings

Optic nerve
Mandibular nerve
Maxillary artery
Greater petrosal nerve
Middle meningeal artery

48.

Which of the following represents the number of


molars that is normally found in the entire primary
dentition?

A.
B.
C.

2
4
6

D.

E.

12

Heparin
Ceramide
Hyaluronate
Dermatan sulfate
Chondroitin sulfate

Which of the following anatomic structures of a


maxillary first molar moves through the distofacial
groove of a mandibular first molar?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Each of the following substances is a


glycosaminoglycan EXCEPT one. Which one is
the EXCEPTION?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

49.

A.
B.

Tetrodotoxin blocks which of the following channels


in nerve-axon membranes?

D.

A.

E.

B.
C.
D.
E.

Sodium
Calcium
Hydrogen
Chloride
Potassium

50.

Mesial marginal ridge


Distal marginal ridge
Mesiofacial cusp
Distofacial cusp
Oblique ridge

Pathologic changes found in heart valves in


rheumatic fever are the result of which of the
following?

C.

45.

Lingual
Distofacial
Distolingual
Mesiofacial
Mesiolingual

Which of the following passes through the foramen


ovale of the cranium?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

44.

Lieno-renal
Hepatogastric
Gastro-lienal
Hepatoduodenal
Ligamentum venosum

Each of the following is found in the epidermis


EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

46.

Inborn error of metabolism


Generalized inhibition of the inflammatory
mechanism
Liberation of nonspecific toxins from a
distant site
Direct invasion of microorganisms from the
bloodstream
Autoimmune reaction triggered by hemolytic
streptococci

Which of the following is a component of bacterial


cell wall peptidoglycan?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Chilin
N-acetyl-muramic acid
Cellulose
Lipopolysaccharide
Glucans

51.

The bifurcation of the trachea lies at the level of


which of the following structures?
A.
B.
C.
D.

E.

52.

56.

Sternal angle
Xiphisternal junction
Third thoracic vertebra
Second thoracic vertebra
Attachment of the fourth costal cartilage to
the sternum

A.
B.

C.
D.
E.

Which of the following can be used, on a histologic


level. to distinguish between a section of the arch
of the aorta and a section of the brachial artery?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Type of endothelium
Width of tunica intima
Type of tissue in the tunica adventitia
Composition of tissue in the tunica media
Type of tissue direcHy undenying the
endothelium

A mother ingested tetracycline antibiotics during


the second trimester of pregnancy. This medication
can affect the calcification of the crowns of which
of the following teeth of the infant?

57.

Which of the follOwing is a distinguishing


characteristic of a mandibular lateral incisor?
A.
B.
C.

53.

The hypophysis (pituitary gland) is located in the


D.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

sella turcica.
fourth ventricle.
anterior cranial fossa.
posterior cranial fossa.
superior orbital fissure.

E.

58.
54.

Which of the follOwing is a pyrimidine base that is


present in RNA, but is NOT present in DNA?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

59.
55.

The maintenance of a polarized state in a resting


nerve requires which of the following?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Passage of nerve impulses


Release of acetylcholine
Continuous expenditure of energy
Continuous presence of stimuli

The incisal edge follows the arch curvature


in relation to the faciolingual axis.
The incisal edge is perpendicular to the
faciolingual axis.
The cervical line curvature is greater distally
than mesially.
The incisal edge is lingual to the root
bisector.
The mesiodistal dimension of the facial
surface is narrower than that of a mandibular
central incisor.

Which of the following teeth more likely have only


one or no pulp homs?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Uracil
Guanine
Thymine
Adenine
Cytosine

All primary teeth


Primary teeth and permanent mandibular
central incisors
Primary teeth and permanent mandibular
first molars
Primary teeth and permanent incisors
Primary teeth, permanent incisors, and
mandibular first molars

Maxillary incisors
Mandibular incisors
Maxillary premolars
Mandibular premolars
Maxillary molars

Each of the following is associated with Tetralogy


of Fallot EXCEPT one. Which one is the
EXCEPTION?
A.
B.
C.
D.

E.

Dextroposed aorta
Pulmonic stenosis
Ventricular septal defect
Left ventricular hypertrophy
Right ventricular hypertrophy

60.

Production of exotoxins by Corynebacterium


diphtheriae requires which of the following genetic
processes?
A,
B,
C.
D.

61.

S.
C.
D.
E.

aorta.
axillalY artelY.
subclavian artelY.
brachiocephalic artelY.
common carotid artelY.

67.

D.

It is an extrinsic muscle of the soft palate.


It elevates the soft palate.
It is innervated by the vagus nerve.
It Inserts in a palatine aponeurosis.
It hooks under the hamulus.

E.

68.

body of the axis.


margin of the foramen magnum.
apex of the odontoid process.
posterior tubercle of the atlas.

69.

C.

D.
E.

70.
Which of the following characterizes the generator
potential of a receptor?

A.
B.
C.
D.

An all-or-none response
Propagated in a non-decremental manner
Universally present in all nerve tissues
Graded according to the strength of the
stimulus

maxillalY central incisor.


mandibular lateral incisor.
maxillalY canine.
mandibular canine.

Which of the following mechanisms would most


likely be involved in the development of acute
pulmonalY edema in a patient with congestive
heart failure?

A.
B.

Urate
Uracil
Ribose
Adenosine
Thymidylate

Have only 3point angles


Erupt between the ages of 9 and 10 years
Possess a root system that suggests
bifurcation
Have roots that. although under bone,
dictate alveolar wall morphology
Are narrower through the crowns and root
on the facial than on the lingual surface

The longest cusp in the mouth is present on the


A.
B.
C.
D.

Which of the following is a nucleotide?


A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

65.

Four major cusps are evident.


Oblique ridges are well developed.
Marginal ridges are well developed.
The outline forms are rectangular in shape.
The crowns converge to the distal and
lingual aspects.

Which of the following statements best


characterizes the maxillalY canines?
A.
B.
C.

The inferior band of the cruciate ligament of the


atlas attaches at the

A.
B.
C.
D.

64.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Each of the following statements is correct


regarding the levator veil palatini EXCEPT one.
Which one is the EXCEPTION?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

63.

Mutation
Conjugation
Transformation
Lysogenic conversion

From an occlusal view, which of the following


anatomical features are frequently found on both
the primalY maxillalY first and second molars?

The vertebral artelY is typically a branch of the


A.

62.

66.

Increased vascular permeability


Incneased plasma osmotic pressure
Decreased plasma osmotic pressure
Increased intravascular hydrostatic pressure
Decreased intravascular hydrostatic
pressure

Which of the following represents an endotoxic


cellular component of many gram-negative bacteria
that accumUlates in the gingival crevice in the
absence of good oral hygiene?

A.
B.
C.
D.

E.

Cytoplasmic RNA
Flagellar protein
Capsular polysaccharides
Lipopolysaccharide-protein complex
Bacterial metabolites including enzymes

71.

Which of the following nerves is located directly on


the lateral surface of the medial pterygoid muscle?
A.

B.
C.
D.
E.

72.

73.

B.
C.
D.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

78.

B.
C.
D.
E.

79.

D.
E.

B.

C.
D.

E.

81 .
75.

Which of the following is a natural opiate


synthesized by the central nervous system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

82.
76.

Which of the following anatomic characteristics


dislinguishes a maxillary canine from a mandibular
first premolar?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Presence of a facial cusp


Presence of an occlusal table
Presence of a bifurcated root
Mesiodistal width of the crown
Steepness of the mesial cusp angles

Aspergillus navus
Nocardia asteroides
Coccidioides immitis
Histoplasma capsulatum
Cryptococcus neoformans

In the developing spinal cord. the marginal layer of


the alar plate develops into which of the following
adult structures?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Dopamine
Serotonin
Enkephalin
Substance P
Acetylcholine

atrophy.
embolism.
ischemia.
hemorrhage.
thrombosis.

Which of the following is an intracellular paraSite?

A.

Uracil and thymine


Adenosine and uracil
CytOSine and thymine
Guanine and cytOSine
Guanine and adenosine

closing.
retruding.
protruding.
opening with translation.
opening without translation.

Local injury to arteries or veins and turbulence of


blood flow might lead directly to
A.
B.
C.

80.

Maxillary central incisor


Mandibular lateral incisor
Mandibular canine
Mandibular second premolar
Mandibular first molar

Contraction of the posterior fibers of the temporalis


muscle results in the mandible
A.

Foramen ovale
Jugular foramen
Hypoglossal canal
Stylomastoid foramen

Which of the following represents the two


pyrimidine bases in DNA?

Which of the following teeth would more frequently


have a mesial concavity on its crown?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Head
Lateral epicondyle
Capitulum
Greater tubercle
Trochlea

Each of the following foramina transmits nerves


containing SVE fibers EXCEPT one. Which one is
the EXCEPTION?
A.

74.

Facial
lingual
Masseteric
(Long) buccal
Auriculotemporal

The ulna articulates with which of the following


parts of the humerus?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

77.

Motor axons
Sensory axons
Motor neurons
Sensory neurons

Cutaneous innervation of the chin and lower lip is


mediated by which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Mental nerve
Facial nerve
Inferior alveolar nerve
Buccal nerve of V
Branches of th e maxillary division of V

83.

Each of the following structures of the posterior


triangle are deep to its fascial floor EXCEPT the
A.
B.
C.
D.

88.

phrenic nerve.
brachial plexus.
transverse cervical nerve.
transverse cervical artery.

Each of the following is considered a supporting


cusp EXCEPT one. Which one is the
EXCEPTION?

A.
B.

C.
D.
E.

84.

Which of the following can decrease the


concentration of creatine phosphate in a skeletal
muscle fiber?

89.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

85.

Glycolysis
Cori cycle
Muscle contraction
Oxidative decarboxylation
Oxidative phosphorylation

90.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

86.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

87.

Blood flow to the skin


Arterial pressure
Mental activity
Blood glucose concentration
Blood flow to skeletal muscle

Which of the following is a major function of the


masticatory system?

A.
B.
C.
D.

91.

mandibular first premolar.


mandibular second premolar.
maxillary first premolar.
maxillary second premolar.

Alcohol
Anionic detergent
Cationic detergent
Chlorhexidine gluconate
Quaternary ammonium compound

Which of the following muscles inserts on the


lateral surface of the angle of the mandible?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

92.

hyperplasia.
hypertension.
inflammation.
arterial dilatation.
venous obstruction .

Which of the following has a perSistent


antimicrobial effect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Tongue biting
Tongue thrusting
Cheek biting
Lip sucking
Speaking

The mesiolingual groove extending between the


mesial marginal ridge and the lingual cusp may be
found on a

Passive congestion occurs when increased


amounts of blood in the tissues collect secondary
to
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Each of the following increases when the


sympathetic nervous system is activated EXCEPT
one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?

Buccal cusp of mandibular first premolar


Lingual cusp of maxillary first premolar
Distobuccal cusp of mandibular first molar
Distolingual cusp of maxillary first molar
Mesiolingual cusp of a mandibular second
molar

Masseter
Temporalis
Buccinator
Medial pterygoid
Lateral pterygOid

Each of the following structures is located at the


boundary between the body and the root of the
tongue EXCEPT one. Which one is the
EXCEPTION?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Lingual raphe
Foramen cecum
Sulcus terminalis
Circumvallate papillae

93.

A lymph node with groups of highly active germinal


centers is most often indicative of which of the
following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

94.

95.

Each of the following mechanisms is activated in


response to heat EXCEPT one. Which is the
EXCEPTION?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

96.

Panting
Sweating
Loss of appetite
Peripheral vasoconstriclion
Decrease in voluntary activity

In the intercuspal pOSition, the cusp of Carabelli on


a maxillary first molar opposes the

A.

B.
C.

D.
E.

97.

raising the energy of the products.


raising the energy of the reactants.
lowering the energy of the reactants.
raising the energy of activation.
lowering the energy of activation.

distal triangular fossa of the mandibular first


molar.
mesial triangular fossa of the mandibular
second molar.
lingual embrasure between the mandibular
first and second molars.
facial portion of the central fossa of the
mandibular first molar.
lingual portion of the central fossa of the
mandibular first molar.

A distinguishing characteristic of a maxillary


second premolar is the presence of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

two distinct roots.


a mesiolingual groove.
longer lingual cusp than facial cusp.
a concavity of Ihe mesial crown surface.
a short central groove mesiodistally.

Mammelons are normally found


A.
B.
C.
D.

Adolescence
Nodular involution
Presence of an infection
Germinal center degeneration
Imminent degeneration of the lymph node

An enzyme catalyzes a reaction by


A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

98.

E.

99.

in adult patients only.


on the incisal ridge of anterior teeth.
on the lingual surface of anterior teeth.
in the depth of an occlusal fossa on posterior
teeth.
on the cervical portion of the marginal ridges
of posterior teeth.

Which of the following is an endogenous bacterial


infection?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Trachoma
Candidiasis
Shigellosis
Brucellosis
Actinomycosis

100. A 43-year-old male patient presents with multiple


bone radiolucencies. Laboratory results reveal
elevated serum calcium, decreased serum
phosphorus. and normal alkaline phosphatase
levels. Which of the following is the most likely
diagnosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Osteomalacia
Paget disease
Fibrous dysplasia
Hyperparathyroidism
Metastatic prostate carcinoma

101. In the developing spinal cord, Ihe mantle layer of


the basal plate develops into which of the following
adult structures?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Motor axons
Sensory axons
Motor neurons
Sensory neurons

102. The oral part of the pharynx communicates directly


with the oral cavity and which of the following
areas?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Trachea and esophagus


Trachea and maxillary sinus
Larynx and tympanic cavity
Laryngopharynx and nasopharynx
Laryngopharynx and nasal cavity

103. A drug (D) has a pK of 6.4. At a pH of 7.4. which of

108. Most bacterial endotoxins are composed of which

the following approximates the ratio of the


unprotonated form to the protonated form (i.e.,

of the following?

D-/HD)?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

A.

B.
C.
D.

0
0.1
1
10

Proteins
Carbohydrates
Heteropolysaccharides
Mucoprotein complexes
Lipoprotein-polysaccharide complexes

109. Which of the following risk factors is etiologically


104. Sympathetic stimulation affects carbohydrate
metabolism because
A.
B.
C.
D.

epinephrine increases liver glycogenolysis.


peripheral tissues require epinephrine to
take up glucose.
sympathetic nerves to the pancreas increase
insulin release.
insulin cannot act on the liver in the absence
of epinephrine.

associated with transitional cell carcinoma of the


urinary bladder?

A.

B.
C.

D.
E.

Syphilis
Gonorrhea
Cigarette smoking
Human papillomavirus
Benign prostatic hypertrophy

110. Which of the following represents the histologic


105. A person is playing tennis in a dry climate in which
the temperature is 11 OOF. Most of this person's
heat loss occurs by

type of Hodgkin's disease that offers the most


favorable prognosis?
A.

B.
A.
B.
C.
D.

alteration in hypothalamic setpoint.


enhanced baroreceptor activity.
enhanced sympathetic activity.
enhanced parasympathetic activity.

C.
D.

Mixed cellularity
Nodular sclerosis
Lymphocytic depletion
Lymphocytic predominance

111. Which of the following comprise the arterial


branches of the common hepatic artery?

106. Which of the following represents the usual color of


the crowns of primary teeth?

A.

B.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Grayish-white
Yellowish-white
Darker than the crowns of permanent teeth
Same color as the crowns of permanent
teeth
Whiter than the crowns of permanent teeth

107. On the maxillary first molar crown, the distolingual

C.
D.
E.

Splenic and the left gastroepiploic


Short gastrics and the gastroduodenal
Gastroduodenal, the right gastroepiploic, and
the proper hepatic
Gastroduodenal, the right gastric. and the
proper hepatic
Gastroduodenal, the left gastric, and the
cystic

112. Which of the following transmits pain from the

groove normally

temporomandibular joint?

A.

A.

B.
C.

originates in the central pit.


originates and terminates in pits.
parallels the transverse ridge.

B.
C.
D.
E.

Auriculotemporal nerve in the articular


surfaces of the mandible and temporal
bones
Auriculotemporal nerve in the capsule and
periphery of the disc
Maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve in
the retrodiscal pad and capsule
Maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve in
the articular disc and the retrodiscal pad
ZygomatiC branches of the facial nerve

113. Gel electrophoresis is used to separate molecules


by
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

which of the following conditions?


shape.
charge.
viscosity.
mass and shape.
charge and size.

114. Which of the following processes occurs after


prolonged muscular exercise when oxygen debt is
being paid?
A.
B.

C.
D.

118. The Reed-Sternberg cell is pathognomonic for

Lactic acid in muscles continues to increase.


Most lactic acid undergoes gluconeogenesis
in muscles.
Most lactic acid undergoes gluconeogenesis
in the liver.
Most lactic acid undergoes gluconeogenesis
in the brain and heart.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Thalassemia
Hodgkin disease
Burkitt lymphoma
Sickle cell anemia
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

119. Which of the following represents the etiologic


agent of travelers' diarrhea?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Clostridium difficile
Shigella sonnei
Campylobactef jejuni
Escherichia coli
Vibrio cholera

120. Which of the following typifies the nephrotic


syndrome?

115. The distalmost region of the cochlea relative to


the oval window is believed to be the point of
localization for
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

high amplitude.
low amplitude.
high frequency.
intermediate frequency.
low frequency.

116. Which of the following represents the most


powerful muscle of mastication?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Masseter
Temporalis
Geniohyoid
Lateral pterygoid
Sternocleidomastoid

117. Lingual convergence is important for each of the


following reasons EXCEPT one. Which one is the
EXCEPTION?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Reduces the size of the occlusal table on


posterior teeth
Creates proper light deflection to produce
good esthetics
Influences the size of the contact areas
between teeth
Allows the teeth to be put into arch forms
Allows proper embrasure formation

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Proteinuria
Glycosuria
Hyperalbuminemia
Elevated serum uric acid
Nitrogen retention

121. Which of the following tracts in the spinal cord


contains both ascending and descending
collaterals of pain and thermal afferent axons
(presumably for the purpose of faCilitating spinal
reflex activity)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Tract of Cuneatus
Lateral corticospinal tract
Lateral spinothalamic tract
Anterior spinothalamic tract
Dorsolateral tract (fasciculus) of Lissauer

122. The principal (chief) sensory nucleus of V is


primarily involved in which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Pain
Touch
Temperature
Kinesthesia
Proprioception

123. Which of the following contains the largest


hydroxyapatite crystals?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Enamel
Dense bone
Calculus
Cementum
Spongy bone

124. Which of the following helps to regulate the overall


rate of glycolysis by directly influencing the activity
of phosphofructokinase?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Malate
Lactate
Citrate
Succinate
Oxaloacetate

129. Which of the following conditions is associated with


the peripheral neuropathy?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Lead poisoning
Silver poisoning
Mercury poisoning
Bismuth pOisoning
Tetracycline intoxication

130. Which of the following characterize(s) sickle cell


anemia?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Hypoplastic bone marrow


Capillary stasis and thrombosis
Decreased formation of bilirubin
Increased F hemoglobin that does not sickle

131. The XII nerve nucleus that innervates the tongue is


located in the
125. A sligh I detachment of the retina results in a
decrease of length from the optical center, and the
subject therefore exhibits
A.
B.
C.
D.

near sightedness.
far sighted ness.
strabismus.
nystagmus.

126. Which of the following differentiates mandibular


premolars from maxillary premolars? Mandibular
premolars
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

have pulp horns of equal size.


have lingual cusps less developed.
have crowns tilted to the facia\.
have roots much less round and bifurcated.
have trapezoidal-shaped facial surfaces.

127. The distobuccal root of a maxillary first molar


usually has how many root canals?
A.
B.
C.
D.

0
1
2
3

128. Which form of actinomycosis occurs most


frequently?
A.
S.
C.
D.
E.

Abdominal
Pulmonary
Lepromatous
Tuberculoid
Cervi cofacial

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

pons.
medulla.
midbrain.
diencephalon.
telencephalon.

132. In hypersecretion of growth hormone, which of the


following conditions will determine whether
gigantism or acromegaly will result?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Fusion of the spheno-occipital and


basioccipital-sphenoid synchondroses
Fusion of epiphyses of the long bones
Nutritional state of the individual
Genetic make-up of the individual
Concomitant excess of thyroxine

133. The extracellular edema in patients with cirrhosis


of the liver is caused by which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Decreased capillary permeability


Decreased plasma proteins
Decreased capillary pressure
Increased lymphatic return
Increased plasma proteins

134. In humans, the site for production of ketone bodies


is the

A.
S.
C.
D.
E.

liver.
kidney.
adrenal.
pancreas.
adipose ti ssue.

135. Which of the following represents the sensory


organs concerned with maintenance of skeletal
muscle tonus?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Sarcomeres
Muscle spindles
Gamma efferents
Pacinian corpuscles
Golgi tendon organs

136. In a maxillary first molar, two root canals are most

140. Ten days after being hospitalized for a large,


incapacitating myocardial infarct, a 50-year-old
man suddenly develops a paralysis of the right
side of his body. Which of the following best
explains the damage to his brain?
A.
B.
C.
D.

commonly found in which of the following roots?


E.
A.

B.
C.
D.
E.

Distal
Distofacial
Mesiofacial
Mesiolingual
Palatal

137. On molar depressions immediately distal to the


mesial marginal ridge and immediately mesial to
the distal marginal ridge are
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

triangular fossae.
central fossae.
interdental spaces.
proximal concavities.
spillways.

138. Each of the following is useful in identifying viruses


EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Nature of the viral nucleic acid


Morphology of the viral protein capsid
Ability of the virus to grow on complex media
Neutralization of the virus with specific
antisera
Ability of the virus to be inactivated by ether
or chloroform

139. Fatty change is most commonly seen in which of


the following organs?
A.

B.
C.
D.
E.

Brain
Liver
Heart
Kidney
Spleen

Rupture of a congenital aneurysm of the


circle of Willis
Brain abscess from necrosis of myocardium
Formation of a bacterial embolus from the
pulmonic valve
Embolization of a mural thrombus from the
right ventricle
Detachment of a mural thrombus from the
left ventricle

141. Which of the following muscles is totally


denervated as a result of a section of spinal nerve
C5?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Trapezius
Teres major
Subscapularis
Rhomboid major
Latissimus dorsi

142. Each of the following hormones is produced by the


adenohypophysis of the hypophysis EXCEPT one.
Which one is the EXCEPTION?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Prolactin
Luteinizing hormone
Antidiuretic hormone
Follicle stimulating hormone
Adrenocorticotropic hormone

143. If a person stands rigidly at attention for a sufficient


length of time, then he will probably lose
consciousness because of
A.
B.
C.
D.

E.

increased peripheral pooling.


decreased tidal volume.
increased baroreceptor input.
decreased ventricular rate.
increased carbon dioxide accumulation.

144. Which of the following amino acids is required for


enzymatic conversion of alpha-amino nitrogen to
urea?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Lysine
Glycine
Cystine
Ornithine
Methionine

145. During increased muscle activity. adenosine


triphosphate is resynthesized from which of the
following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Phosphocreatine
Ribose-3-phosphate
Galactose-6-phosphate
Guanosine triphosphate
Nicotinamide adenosine phosphate

150. Which of the following most often causes


esophageal varices?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Thrombosis
Coarctation
Cor pulmonale
Portal hypertension
Aging changes in the vessels

151. Blastocyst usually occurs in which of the following?


146. A mandibular first molar usually has how many
roots and canals?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Roots

Two
Two
Three
Three

Two
Three
Two
Three

147. Which of the following represents the rough outline


of the mandibular first premolar from the buccal
aspect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Hexagonal
Pentagonal
Rhomboidal
Triangular
Diamond-shaped

148. Which of the following is a genetic condition that


involves sweat and mucous glands and results in
impaired transport of their secretions?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Cystic fibrosis
Marfan syndrome
Neurofibromatosis I
Mucopolysaccharidosis I
Cytomegalic inclusion disease

149. Cancer of the colon has been linked etiologically to


which of the following?

A.

B.
C.
D.
E.

Laxative use
Diverticulosis
High fiber diet
Asbestos exposure
Intestinal polyps

A.
B.
C.

D.

Uterine tube
Peritoneal cavity
Cervix of the uterus
Upper portion of the uterine cavity

152. In humans, which of the following cells produce


gastriC intrinsic factor?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Chief
Parietal
Mucous neck
Enteroendocrine
Surface mucous

153. In the presence of a constant heart rate, blood


pressure changes may be chiefly attributed to
alterations in resistance. Which of the following
offer this resistance?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Veins
Venules
Arteries
Arterioles
Capillaries

154. Which of the following is the major end-product of


protein nitrogen metabolism in humans?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Urea
Creatine
Allantoin
Uric acid
Amino acid

155. Failure of cardiac muscle to exhibit tetany results


from its
A.
B.
C.
D.

long refractory period.


intercalated disks.
automaticity.
protoplasmic bridges between fibers.

156. As a general rule, maxillary teeth precede


mandibular teeth in the process of eruption.
The teeth in both jaws erupt in pairs, one on the
right and one on the left.
A.

S.
C.

O.

Both statements are true.


Both statements are false .
The first statement is true, the second is
false .
The first statement is false, the second is
true.

157. The total number of premolars in one arch of the


dentition is normally the same as the total number
of which of the following?
A.
B.
C.

O.
E.

Primary premolars in one arch


Canines in the primary dentition
Molars in the primary dentition
Permanent molars in one quadrant
Permanent anterior teeth in one quadrant

158. Which immunoglobin is associated with inflamed


gingiva of patients with adult periodontitis?
A.

S.
C.

O.
E.

IgM
IgO
IgG
IgE
IgA

159. Which of the following is the most important


chemotactic factor resulting from the activation of
the pathway of complement?

A.
B.
C.

O.
E.

C2a
C3a
C3b
C5a
C5b

161 . Which of the following represents a medial rotator


at the glenohumeral joint?

A.
B.
C.
O.
E.

Teres minor
Teres major
Infraspinatus
Supraspinatus
Long head of the triceps brachii

162. While performing an inferior alveolar nerve


injection, a dentist mistakenly places the needle
too far posteriorly at the level of the mandibular
foramen. The needle is likely to contact which of
the follOwing structures?
A.
B.
C.

O.
E.

Parotid gland
Lingual nerve
Auriculotemporal nerve
pterygomandibular raphe
Transverse facial artery

163. When a brief period of hysterical hyperventilation


causes respiratory alkalosis, tetany might be
caused by a sudden decrease in which of the
following kinds of calcium?
A.
B.
C.
O.

Total serum
Ionized serum
Citrate bound
Serum protein-bound

164. Which of the following tissues is primarily


responsible for formation of urea?
A.
B.
C.

O.

E.

Liver
Brain
Kidney
Muscle
Pancreas

165. The atoms of purines are most directly derived


from
160, Radiograph s of a patient's skull show "punchedout" areas. Laboratory studies reveal
hyperproteinemia and proteinuria. Which of the
following represents the probable diagnosis of this
condition?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Osteosarcoma
Chondrosarcoma
Multiple myeloma
Metastatic carcinom a

A.
B.
C.
O.

E.

glucose.
steroids.
pyrimidines.
fatty acids.
amino acids.

166. The primary dentition normally consists of how


many teeth?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

6 teeth per quadrant


20 total teeth
S total premolars
12 total posterior teeth
32 total teeth

167. Which of the following represents the premolar


most likely to be congenitally missing?
A,
B.
C.
D.

Maxillary first
Maxillary second
Mandibular second
Mandibular first

168. Which of the following represents the primary


source of pathogenic microorganisms in the dental
operatcry?
A,
B,
C,
D.
E.

Dust particles
Dental instruments
Mouths of patients
Hands of clinicians
Dental unit water lines

169. Which of the folloWing represents the major celltype that is infected by human immunodeficiency
virus?

A.

CD4+ cell

B,
C.
D.
E.

CDS+ cell
Natural killer cell
Plasma cell
B lymphocyte

170. Which of the following diseases involves a


deficiency of oxygen-dependent bactericidal
activity by polymorphonuclear leukocytes?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Chediak-Higashi syndrome
Chronic granulomatous disease
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

171. Which of the following structures lies directly


anterior to the scalenus anterior muscle?
A.
B,
C.
D.
E.

Subclavian vein
Vertebral artery
Subclavian artery
Costocervical trunk
Superior trunk of the brachial plexus

172. Which of the following muscles form lateral


boundaries of the isthmus of the fauces?
A,
B,

C.
D.
E.

Palatoglossus and palatopharyngeus


Palatopharyngeus and medial pterygoid
Palatoglossus and tensor veli palatini
Palatopharyngeus and levator veli palatini
Palatoglossus and styloglossus

173. Each of the following substances is correctly paired


with the type of covalent bond it contains EXCEPT
one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
A,
B.
C,
D,
E.

Protein; amide
Triglyceride; ether
Amylose; glycosidic
RNA; phosphodiester
Phospholipid; ester

174. Which of the following is the rate-controlling step in


mammalian glycolysis?

A,
B.
C.
D.

Glucose --> glucose-6-phosphate


2-P-enolpyruvate .-> pyruvate
Fructose-6-P --> fructose-1.6-bisphosphate
DihydroxyacetoneP --> glyceraldehyde-3phosphate

175. Which enzyme in glycolysis is inhibited by fluoride?


A,
B.
C,
D.
E,

Enolase
Pyruvate kinase
Phosphoglucomutase
Glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase
Glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase

176. An adult patient exhibits no evidence. either


clinically or radiographically, of maxillary third
molars, and there is no history of extraction, Which
of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A.
B,
C,
D,
E,

Syphilis
Impaction
Mulberry molars
Supemumerary teeth
Congenitally missing teeth

177. Within a tooth crown, the space occupied by the


dental pulp is properly referred to as the
A,
B,
C,
D,
E,

pulp chamber,
pulp cavity.
root trunk,
pulp canal(s),
interdental space,

178. Each of the following is characterlstic of plasmids


EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
A,
B,
C,
D.
E,

Exist as circular RNA molecules


Exist as extrachromosomal elements in
bacteria
Mediate antibiotic resistance
Confer conjugal fertility
Carry genetiC information

181. A branch of which of the following motor nerves


supplies the sternohyoid muscle?

A
B.
C,
D.
E.

Phrenic
Spinal accessory
Ansa cervicalis
Transverse cervical
Cervical sympathetic trunk

182. The retromandibular vein is formed within the


parotid gland by the union of which of the following
veins?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Posterior auricular and deep facial


Posterior auricular and posterior deep
temporal
Superficial temporal and maxillary
Superficial temporal and transverse facial
External jugular and transverse facial

183. Which of the following represents the disease in


which patients usually are overweight, respond
well to diet and exercise, do NOT have high levels
of ketone bodies in their blood, and do NOT
require exogenous hormone injections to recover?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Acromegaly
Hypothyroidic dwarfism
Diabetes mellitus Type I
Diabetes mellitus Type II
Familial hypercholesterolemia

179. Which of the following is most likely to be a


warning sign of an impending atherosclerotic brain
infarction?
A,
S.
C,
D,
E.

Angina pectoris
Pulmonary embolus
Myocardial infarction
Ruptured berry aneurysm
Transient ischemic attacks

180. Which of the following represents the first


inflammatory cell to leave the vascular bed and
remain at the site of injury through the acute
phase?
A,
B,
C.
D,
E.

Monocyte
Lymphocyte
Neutrophil
Eosinophil
Plasma cell

184. Fluorouracil produces an active site-directed


inhibitor for the enzyme
A.
B.
C,
D.
E.

trypsin.
chymotrypSin.
thymidylate synthase,
adenosine deaminase.
fluorocilrate synthase

185. Parathyroid hormone acts in the body by


A.
B.
C.
D.

stimulating gluconeogenesis in the liver,


diminishing excretion of sodium and
chloride.
decreasing absorption of calcium in the
intestinal tract.
accelerating removal of calcium and
phosphate from the skeleton.

186. A 50year-old patient has a full mouth set of


radiographs. from which the dentist discovers the
maxillary third molars are present in the alveolar
process, but they are not visible clinically. Which of
the following conditions is associated with these
third molars?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Impaction
Dilaceration
Supernumerary
Congenital absence
Hutchinson's teeth

187. In a molar, root canals usually join the pulp


chamber
A.
B.
C.
D.

at the level of the furcation.


at varying levels, dependent upon age.
within the cervical third of the crown.
apical to the cervical level of the crown.

188. Bacterial capsules usually consist of


A.

B.
C.
D.
E.

chitins.
protein.
celluloses.
polypeptides.
polysaccharides.

189. Secretory IgA functions primarily by


A.

B.
C.
D.
E.

killing bacteria via a lytic mechanism.


targeting microorganisms for phagocytosis.
preventing the pathogen from adhering to
mucosal surfaces.
faCilitating the pathogen's adherence to
inappropriate tissues.
the induction of specific cytokines in gut
associated lymphoid tissue.

191. Where is the thickest stratum corneum found in the


integument?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Lip
Anterior body wall
Scalp
Palm
Interscapular region of the back

192. The internal thoracic artery gives rise to the


A.
B.
C.
D.

costocervical trunk.
posterior intercostal arteries.
bronchial and esophageal arteries.
superior epigastric and musculophrenic
arteries.

193. Solution A has a pH of 7.0, and Solution B has a


pH of 6.0. Both Solutions are of equal volume.
Which of the following statements about Solutions
A and B is most accurate?
A.

B.
C.
D.

A has 1110 as many hydrogen ions as B.


A has 10 times more hydrogen ions than B.
A has 7/6 of the hydrogen ion concentration
ofB.
A has 6/7 of the hydrogen ion concentration
of B.

194. A lipid bilayer membrane Is least permeable to


which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Water
Sodium ions
Glycerol
Cholesterol
Palmitic acid

195. Which of the following circumstances will tend to


produce edema?
190. Which of the following is expected to occur when
Tlymphocytes from a patient with chronic
periodontitis are cultured in vitro with dental plaque
antigen?
A.

B.
C.
D.

Release of histamine
SyntheSis of Iymphokines
Production of specific IgG
Release of lysosomal enzymes

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Increased tissue oncotic pressure


Increased plasma oncotic pressure
Increased tissue hydrostatic pressure
Decreased plasma hydrostatic pressure
Decreased venous pressure

196. A normal 10 1/2-yearold child has


A.
B.
C.
D.

erupted both mandibular first and second


molars.
completed root formation for the mandibular
first molar only.
completed enamel formation for all 3
mandibular molars.
initiated calcification for the mandibular
molars.

197. The free gingiva extends from the


A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

attached gingiva to the gingival crest.


gingival crest to the interdental groove.
alveolar mucosa to the free gingival groove.
mucogingival junction to the free gingival
groove.
epithelial attachment to the cementoenamel
junction.

198. In advanced gingivitis, plaque is mainly


A.
B.
C.
D.

gram-positive and facultative.


gram-positive and anaerobic.
gram-negative and facultative.
gram-negative and anaerobic.

199. Which of the following slatements best describes


patients who develop meningitiS following mumps,
coxsackievirus, or echovirus infections?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Sensitive to viral loxins


Experience mortality rate of 75%
Rarely develop permanent neural damage
Subject to exacerbations once the latent
virus is activated
Most often initially infected by blood
containing the virus

200. Massive necrotizing lesions of the palate in a


patient with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus are
most likely a manifeslation of
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

candidiasis.
mucormycosis.
blastomycosis.
cryptococcosis.
histoplasmosis.

?4

PART 1 KEY
The key below may be used to determine correct and incorrect answers; however, for this item set, it is not possible to
convert a raw score number correct to a standard score or associaled passlfail status.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

C
A
B
B
A
B
B'
B
E
B
B
A
B
B
A
D

C
E
E
D
A

C
C
A
D

C
C
C
C
B
A
B
D
D

C
A
A
B
E

C
C
B
B
A
D
D
D
E
B

51 .
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64

65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100

A
D
A
A

C
A
A
B
D
D

C
E
A
E
D

C
D

C
D
D
B
E

C
C
C
B
E
B
E
0
B
A

C
C
A
E
A
E
E

0
A
A

C
E
D
E
E
B
E
D

101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
,131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150

C
D
D
A

C
E
B
E

C
D
D
B
E

C
E
A
B
B
D
A
E
B
A

C
B

C
B
E
A
B
B
B
B
A
B

C
A

C
B
E
D

C
A
D
A
B
B
A
E
D

151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200

D
B
D
A
A
D
B

C
D

C
B
A
B
A
E
B

C
C
A
B
A
A
B

C
A
E
A
A
E

C
C
C
D

C
D
A

C
E

C
B
D
D
A
B
A
B
A
D

C
B