Sei sulla pagina 1di 27

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
English is the most widely used by the countries in the world and become
a commodity that language must be owned and controlled by most people in the
world. Many residents in various countries in the world to wear the English
language as a communication tool in the important international meetings.
Mastery of English is very important because almost all global resources in
various aspects of life using English. (Richards & Rodgers, 1999)
Basic sentence construction is something learned in begining English
language courses; however, as life happens and time goes by, many of these
first learned English fundamentals begin to elude us (Quick Study Academic:
English Grammar & Puntuation, 2013)
Learning and understanding English becomes a necessity that can not be
avoided. By learning English, someone will open horizons and knowledge
internationally. English has the function and big role. One of the implications
that looks are more people are trying to learn to master English. (Crystal, 2001)
One of the things that can not be separated from learning to master the
English language is to understand the way of writing. Writing in English is a
skill that is most difficult because it must have sufficient capacity corresponding
rules of the English language. Some of the points that must be understood in
writing English that clause, types of sentence, and correction symbol (Anker,
Susan. 2009)
Sentence is an organized series of words that allows you to make a
statement, ask a question, express a thought, offer an oppinion an ideas
(Marchel Danesi, Ph.D., 2006).
The English Sentences is an amazing thing. It has a limited set of distinct
part (phrases and clauses), but these parts can be strong together and rearranged
in a seemingly endless variety of ways. Furthermore, there is an incredible
volume of words from which a writer can draw. This flexibility of parts and

variety in vocabulary make it possible to write a sentence that no one has ever
written or even spoken before (Brian Backman, 2008).
To achieve a good quality of writing, needed an effort for perfection in
accordance with procedures English writing. To produce the correct of writing,
is not easy in the process. Certainly found errors in the way of writing. To
investigate faults, takes symbol aimed at marking the wrong points (Maarek,
2009
1.2 Purpose
1.2.1 General Purpose
To demonstrate and explain about the sentence structure in English
1.2.2 Specific Purpose
1. Students can understand the concept of understanding written
English
2. Students can understand the concept of understanding written
information
1.3 Benefits
Students know and understand penggunaam sentence structure in English and
understanding written English

CHAPTER 2
PRESENTATION TOPIC
A. Clause and Sentence Structure
1. Clause
Clauses are the building blocks of sentences. A clause is a group of words
that contains a subject and a verb. Adjective: clausal (Sidney Greenbaum
and Gerald Nelson, 2009). An examples:
Clauses

Not Clauses

Subject

Verb

Ecology is a science

Subject
Because pollution

To protect the environment

Verb
causes cancer

A fter working all day

Reference: Oshima, Alice and Hogue, Ann. 2007. Introduction to Academic


Writing, Forth Edition. New York. Pearson Education

1.1 Function of Clause


Clauses that function as verb clause, noun clause, adjective clause, and
abverb clause (Hopper, 1999)
1. Verb Clause
Verb clauses perform verbal function, verbal function correspond
to the forms of sentences in English (Marchel Danesi, Ph.D., 2006)

Declaration Statement (declarative sentence)

Question (interrogative sentence)

Command (imperative sentence)

All sentences contain at least one verb clause. Verb clauses are also
referred to as main clauses.
2. Noun Clause

Noun clauses begins with a wh- question word, that whether, and
sometimes if. A noun clause acts like a noun; it can be either the
subject or an object of the independent clause (Oshima, Alice and
Hogue, Ann. 2007)
For example, the following italicized clauses are examples of
noun clauses:

The library will send a bill to whoever damaged this book.

Whether you will pay for the damage is not even a question.

The judge has given that you behaved well after your
arrestsome consideration.

Noun

clauses

prototypically

perform
performed

nominal
by

functions,

noun

phrases.

or

functions
The

nine

main functions of noun clauses in English grammar are: (Nelson,


Gerald. 2011)
1. Subject
2. Subject complement
3. Direct object
4. Object complement
5. Indirect object
6. Prepositional complement
7. Adjective phrase complement
8. Noun phrase complement
9. Appositive.
3. Adjective Clause
Adjective clauses atcs like an adjective; that is, it describes a noun
or pronoun. An adjective clausevbegins with a relative pronoun such
as: are who,whom, that, which, whose, when, and where (Oshima,
Alice and Hogue, Ann. 2007)
For example, the following italicized clauses are examples of
adjective clauses:

The woman that works in the cafe is my aunty.

Last year we vacation in Raja Ampat, which features excellent


scuba diving

The restaurant where you left you purse is known for its unique
pasta dishes.

The primary grammatical function of adjective clauses is noun


phrase modifier. Noun phrase modifiers are defined as words,
phrases, and clauses that describe or modify a noun phrase.
Adjectives clauses may also, although rarely, function as verb phrase
modifiers, prepositional

phrase

modifiers,

and noun

clause

modifiers.
Adjective clauses are also referred to as relative clauses. The
subordinating conjunctions that introduce adjective clauses are also
called relative pronouns.
4. Adverb Clause
Adverb clauses acts like an adverb; that is, it tells where, when,
why, and how. An adverb clause begins with a subordinator, such as
when, while, because, although, if, so, or, that (Oshima, Alice and
Hogue, Ann. 2007)
For example, the following italicized clauses are examples of
adverb clauses:

After she gave the baby a bath, she decided to take a nap.

The girl cannot usually eat beef stew because she is allergic
to carrots.

The couple has been saving money so that they can go on a


vacation.

All adverb clauses perform the grammatical function of adjunct


adverbial. Adjunct adverbials are words, phrases, and clauses that
modify or describe an entire clause by providing additional
information about time, place, manner, condition, purpose, reason,
result, and concession (Nelson, Gerald. 2011).

1.2 Types of Clause


There are 2 types of clauses in English: Independent Clause and Dependent
Clause (Obrecht, 2000)

Type of clause

Independent
Clause

Dependent
Clause

Verb Clause

Noun Clause

Adjective Clause

Adverb Clause

Reference: Obrecht, Fred. 2000. Minimum Essential of English second


edition. Chicago. Barrons Educational Series,Inc

1.2.1 Independent Clause


An Independent clause contains a subject and a verb and expresses a
complete thought. It can stand alone as a sentence by it self. An independent
clause is formed with a subject and a verb and often a complement (Oshima,
Alice and Hogue, Ann. 2007).
Independent clause can stand alone as a sentence, begining with a
capital letter and ending with terminal punctuation such as period. An
independent clause also known as a main clause at sentence (Gary Lutz,
2005).
Formula:
Subject

Verb

(Complement)

Reference: Oshima, Alice and Hogue, Ann. 2007. Introduction to Academic


Writing, Forth Edition. New York. Pearson Education

Example:
Water
Subject

evaporates

rapidly in warm climate zones

Verb

Complement

1.2.2 Dependent Clause


A dependent clause has a subject and a verb too but does not express a
complete thought, so it is not a sentence by it self. A dependent clause is
also called a sentence fragment. By it self, it is an incomplete sentence, and
it is an error. A dependent clause begins with a sub ordinator such as when,
while, if, that or who (Oshima, Alice and Hogue, Ann. 2007).
Dependent clauses are statements that have a subject and predicate but
are made subordinate to the independent clause to which they are attached
(Obrecht, Fred. 2000)
There are two types of dependent clauses: noun clauses (nominative
dependent clauses) and modifiying clauses. Modifiying clauses can be either
adverbial or adjectival. Furthermore, if the modifying clause is adverbial, it
is introduced by a subordinating conjunction; if the modifying clause is
adjectival, it is introduced by a relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, which
or that),or by a relative adverb (when, where, why) (Gary Lutz, 2005).

Formula:
Subordinator + Subject + Verb

(Complement)

Or
Subordinator + Independent Clause

Reference: Oshima, Alice and Hogue, Ann. 2007. Introduction to Academic


Writing, Forth Edition. New York. Pearson Education
Example:
Because
Subordinator

water
Subject

evaporates
Verb

rapidly in warm climate zone


Complement

Independent Clause
7

1. Noun Clause
a noun clause is a subordinate clause used as a noun. Within a sentence, it
may be used as the subject, the direct object, a predicate noun, or an
objective complement. Noun clauses are usually headed by one of the
following words: that, who, whoever, whom, whomever, what, whatever.
Because they are nouns, they frequently become part of the basic structure
of an independent clause (Obrecht, Fred. 2000).
Noun clauses, which function gramatically as nouns:
Example:
They knew that the gun was loaded
The clause which underline have a functions as the direct object of
the verbs in the main clause

What i want for Christmas is a tool box


The clause which underline have a functions as the subject of the
verb in the main clause
2. Adjective Clause
An adjective clause is a subordinate clause used as a adjective. Within a
sentence, it ussually located adjacent to the word it modifies. Adjective
clauses are usually headed by one of the following words: who, whom,
whose, which, that. (Obrecht, Fred. 2000).
Adjective clauses, which function grammatically as adjective. Remember
that adjective modify (or describe) nouns. In the same way, an adjective
clause gives additional information about a noun (Oshima, Alice and
Hogue, Ann. 2007).
Example:
The man who is raking the lawn is my uncle Bill
The clause which underline gives additional information about the
noun man
Is Stanford the school that you want to attend?
The clause which underline modifies the noun school

3. Adverb Clause
An adverb clause is a subordinate clause used as an adverb. Adverb clauses
are usually headed by a subordinating conjunction such as if, unless,
because, before, after, since, as. Because they are adverbs, they are the
most movable of modifiers, and can appear in various positions throughout
the sentence. Remember that all adverbs, including adverb clauses, answer
the questions how, when, where, and why about the verb (Obrecht, Fred.
2000).
Examples:
Because it was so cold that night, Stan started up the main furnace
The adverb clause which underline tells why he start up the main
furnace
I will give you a gold pocket watch when you graduate from high school
The adverb clause which underline tells when will give a gold pocket
watch
2. Sentence Structure
Grammar deals with the rules for combining words into a larger units.
The Largest unit that is described in grammar is normally the sentence.
Sentence is an organized series of words that allows you to make a
statement, ask a question, express a thought, offer an oppinion an so on. In
writing, a sentence starts with capitalized word and ends with a period, a
question mark, or an exclamation mark (Marchel Danesi, Ph.D., 2006).
This is a national definition about sentences : it defines a term by the
the notion or idea it conveys. The difficulty with this definition lies in fixing
what is meant by a complete thought (Sidney Greenbaum, 2009)
The Building blocks of grammar are sentences, clauses, phrases and
words. These four units constitute what is called the gramatically hierarchy,
So sentences are at the top and the largest units of the grammatical hierarchy
(Gerald Nelson, 2011).

And there is a represent the hierarcy schematically:


SENTENCES
-

consist of one or more:


CLAUSES
-

consists of one or more:


PHRASES
-

consits of one or more:


WORDS

Reference: Nelson, Gerald. 2011. English an Essential Grammar 2nd


edition. New York. Routledge
A sentence represents an eventuality. An eventuality is an action or an
event or a state of affairs: something that happens or something taht is. The
sentence represents an eventuality by separating out the type of eventuality
from the abstract or concrete things which are involved in the eventuality.
The type of the eventuality is prototypically represented by the verb (Nigel
Fabb, 2005)
Sentences have two basic parts at least: a subject and a verb. The
subject is the part of sentence that denotes the action or what the sentence
about. It is often the first element in a simple sentence such as a direct
statement. The verb is the part of a sentence that provides information about
the subject, in simple sentences it comes after the subject (Marchel Danesi,
Ph.D., 2006).
Each combination of subject and verb is called clause. The sentence
consisting of one or more clause (Marchel Danesi, Ph.D., 2006)
Here the sentence as a whole contains the sentence-like construction,
we refer to this construction as a clause:

Sentences

Clause
when the plane landed, the ground crew removed the cargo.

Reference: Nelson, Gerald. 2011. English an Essential Grammar 2nd


edition. New York. Routledge

10

In sentences consisting of more than one clause, there is a main clause,


called Independent Clause, and one or more subordinate clauses, called
Dependent Clauses (Marchel Danesi, Ph.D., 2006). Different types of
sentences are made up of different combinations of these two types of
clauses(Fred Obrecht, 2000)
Every sentences is formed from one or more clauses and expresses a
complete thought. The four basic basic kinds of sentences in english are
simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex. The kind of sentence
is determined by the kind of clauses used to from it (Oshima, Alice and
Hogue, Ann. 2007).
2.1 Types of Sentence
2.1.1 Simple Sentence
A simple sentence is a sentence is a group of words with a subject and
verb expressing one complete thought. The simple sentence has other
names: Independent clause is the most common, althought simple clause
is frequently used (Fred Obrecht, 2000).
A simple sentence is one independent clause (Oshima, Alice and Hogue,
Ann. 2007).
Formula:
Subject

Verb

(Complement)

Reference: Oshima, Alice and Hogue, Ann. 2007. Introduction to Academic


Writing, Forth Edition. New York. Pearson Education
Example:
Freshwater
Subject

boils
Verb

at 100 degress Celcius


Complement

11

2.1.2 Compound Sentence


The compound sentences consits of at least two simple sentences joined
by mean of a coordinating conjuction (Fred Obrecht, 2000).
A compound sentence is a sentence consisting of at least two independent
clause and no dependent clause. In a compound sentence, all of the
independent clauses receive equal emphasis and are of equal emphasis
and are of equal importance (Gary Lutz, 2005).
A compound sentence is two or more independent clauses joined
together. There are three ways to join the clauses: (Oshima, Alice and
Hogue, Ann. 2007).
1. Compound sentences with coordinator
There are seven coordinators, which are also called conjunction. You
can remember them by the phrase FANBOYS (For, And, Nor, But,
Or, Yet, So). The following sentences ilustrate the meaning of the
seven FANBOYS coordinator. There is comma after the first
independent clause (Oshima, Alice and Hogue, Ann. 2007).
A compound sentence can be formed as follow
Formula:
Independent Clause + Comma (,) + Coordinator + Independent Clause

Reference: Oshima, Alice and Hogue, Ann. 2007. Introduction to Academic


Writing, Forth Edition. New York. Pearson Education
Example.:
Independent Clause
Salt water boils at lower temperature than freshwater, so
Independent Clause

Comma (,)

Coordinator

food cooks faster in salt water

12

2. Compound sentences with conjunctive adverbs


A second way to punctuate a compound sentences is to insert a
logically appropriate conjunctive adverb (or transitional phrase)
between the two independent clauses. A semicolon (;) will precede
the conjunctive adverb, and coma will follow it. (Gary Lutz, 2005).
A compound sentence can be formed as follow
Formula:
Independent Clause+Semicolon (;)+Conjunctive adverbs+Comma (,)+ Independent Clause

Reference: Lutz, Gary and Stevenson, Diane. 2005. Grammar Desk Reference: The
Definitive Source for Clear and Correct Writing. Ohio. The Writers Digest
Example
Independent Clause

Conjunctive Adverbs

Jennifer work for a mortage company; however,


Independent Clause

Semicolon (;)

Comma (,)

shes looking for a less stressful job

3. Compound sentence with semicolon


A third way to from a compound sentences is to connect two
independent clauses with a semicolon (;)alone. This kind of
compound sentence is possible only when the two independent clauses
are closely related in meaning. If they are not closely related, they
should be written as two simple sentence, each ending with a period
(Oshima, Alice and Hogue, Ann. 2007).

13

Formula:
Independent Clause + Semicolon (;) + Independent Clause
Reference: Oshima, Alice and Hogue, Ann. 2007. Introduction to Academic
Writing, Forth Edition. New York. Pearson Education
Example:
Independent Clause
Polland was the first Eastern European country to turn away from communism;
Independent Clause

Semicolon (;)

other soon followed

2.1.3 Complex Sentence


A complex sentences, contains one independent clause and one (or more)
dependent clause. In a complex sentence, one idea is generally more
important than the other. We place the more important than the other. We
place the more important idea in the independent clause ang the less
important idea in the dependent clause (Oshima, Alice and Hogue, Ann.
2007).
It is important to keep in mind the effect and importance of subordination
in writing. Sub ordinate clauses carry a great deal of information and
meaning, and yet allow the subject and verb named in the independent
clause to remain dominant and visible as the main idea. (Fred Obrecht,
2000).

14

Formula:
Independent Clause + Dependent Clause
Or
Dependent Clause + Comma(,) + Independent Clause
Reference: Oshima, Alice and Hogue, Ann. 2007. Introduction to Academic
Writing, Forth Edition. New York. Pearson Education)

Comma Rule:
In a complex sentence, when the dependent clause comes first, separate
the clause with a comma. When the independent clause comes first, do
not separate them (Oshima, Alice and Hogue, Ann. 2007).
Example:
Independent Clause

Dependent Clause

Anna left the party early because she was tired.


Dependent Clause

Independent Clause

Because she was tired, Anna left the party early.

Comma (,)
The dependent clause in complex sentence can function as adjectives, as
adverbs, or as noun (Gary Lutz, 2005), an Examples:

Mary fried the eggs which her son had brought from the market
Independent Clauses

Dependent Clause (Adjective Clause)

Mary fried the eggs when her family finaly came downstairs
Independent Clauses

Dependent Clause (Adverb Clause)

Mary knew that they all Were very hungry


Dependent Clause (Noun Clause)
Independent Clauses

15

2.1.4 Compound Complex Sentence


A compound-complex sentence has at least three clauses, at least two of
which are independen clause. It can use almost any combination of
dependent and independent clauses. Just be sure that there is at least one
independent clause (Oshima, Alice and Hogue, Ann. 2007).
A compound-complex sentence consists of at least two independent
clauses and at least one dependent clause. Punctuation patterns for
compound-complex sentences vary from thosewith minimal or liaght
punctuation to those with heavy punctuation (Gary Lutz, 2005).
when punctuating a compound-complex sentences, apply the rules for
both compound and complex sentence. . (Fred Obrecht, 2000).

Formula:
C ompound sentence + Dependent Clause
Or
Complex sentence + Independent Clause

Reference: Oshima, Alice and Hogue, Ann. 2007. Introduction to Academic


Writing, Forth Edition. New York. Pearson Education)

Example:
Complex Sentence
Dependent Clause

Independent Clause

When Considering owning a pet, you must calculate the cost,


Independent Clause
or the animal may suffer

16

2.2 Connecting Words


2.2.1 Coordinating Conjunction
Coordinating conjunctionns connect gramatically equal parts of a
sentence. The parts can be words, phrases, or clauses. (Oshima, Alice
and Hogue, Ann. 2007).
Coordinating

Use

Example

Connect a reason to a

I am a little hungry, for I

result

didnt eat breakfast this

Conjunction
For

morning
And

Connects equal similiar

John likes to fish and hunt

ideas
Nor

But

Or

Connects two negative

She does not eat meat, nor

sentences

does she drink milk

Connect equal different

I like to eat fish but not to

ideas

catch them

Connects two equal

Do you prefer coffe or tea?

choices
Yet

Connect equal

It is sunny yet cold

contrasting ideas
So

Connects a result to a

I did not eat breakfast this

reason

morning, so I am little
hungry

Reference: Oshima, Alice and Hogue, Ann. 2007. Introduction to Academic


Writing, Forth Edition. New York. Pearson Education

17

2.2.2 Subordinating Conjunction


A subordinating conjunction (or subordinator) is the first word in a
dependent clause. Common subordinator include the following.
(Oshima, Alice and Hogue, Ann. 2007).

Subordinating Conjunction
To tell a time
After
As
As soon as

He goes to school after he finishes work


Several overcrowded busses passed as they were waiting
She felt better as soon as she took the medicine

Before

Before you apply to college, you have to take an exam

Since

It has been a year since I left home

until

We cant leave the room until everyone finishes the test

When

When you start college, you sometimes have to take a


placement test

Whenever
while

Whenever I dont sleep well, I feel sick the next day


Several overcrowded busses passed while we were waiting
To give a reason

Because
Since
As

Jack excels at sports because he trains hard


Since she works out daily, Jill is in great condition
As they want to compete in a marathon, they run every day
To tell where

Where
Wherever

I can never remember where I put my house keys


A baby animal follows its motherwherever she goes
To make a contrast

Although

I love my brother although we disagree abbout almost


everything

Even though

I love my brother even though we disagree abbout almost


everything

Though

I love my brother though we disagree abbout almost


everything

While

My brother likes classical music, while I prefer hard rock

18

Whereas

He dresses conservatively, whereas I like to be a little


shocking

Reference: Oshima, Alice and Hogue, Ann. 2007. Introduction to Academic


Writing, Forth Edition. New York. Pearson Education

2.2.3 Relative Pronouns


Subordinating words for adjective clauses are called relative pronouns
(Oshima, Alice and Hogue, Ann. 2007).

Relative Pronouns
To refer to people
Who

People who live in glass houses should not throw stones

Whom

My parents did not aprove of the man whom my sister


married
Hes man that everyone in our towb respects

That
(informal)

To refer to animals and things


Which

My new computer, which I bought yesterday, stopped


working today

That

Yesterday I received an e-mail that I did not understand


To refer to a time

When

Thanksgiving is a time when families travel great


distances to be together

Reference: Oshima, Alice and Hogue, Ann. 2007. Introduction to Academic


Writing, Forth Edition. New York. Pearson Education

2.2.4 Conjunctive Adverb


Here are the most commonly used conjunctive adverbs and transitional
phrases. (Gary Lutz, 2005).
Function

Conjunctive Adverb

To express an additive Also, in additionally, furthermore, first,


relationship

second, finally

19

To express a contrastive However, neverthless, on the other hand in


relationship

contrast

To expresss a cause-and- Therefore, thus, consequently, as a result


effect relationship
To introduce an example

For example, for instance

To intesify

In fact, indeed, after all

To make a comparison

Similiarly, likewisw, in like manner

To

express

time Meanwhile, soon, then, afterward, later, now

relationship
To

introduce

a In other words, taht is, that is to say

clarification
To introduce a conclusion In conclusion, in short, to sum up, in sum, in
or summary

brief

Reference: Lutz, Gary and Stevenson, Diane. 2005. Grammar Desk Reference:
The Definitive Source for Clear and Correct Writing. Ohio. The Writers Digest

20

B. Correction Symbols
SYMBOL
P

MEANING
Punctuation

INCORRECT

CORRECT

I live, work, and go to school in


P
I live work, and go to school in Walnut.
Walnut.

Missing word

am

I am working in a restaurant

I working in a restaurant
^
=

Capitalization
Needed

VT

The Dodgers play in Los

The dodgers play in los angeles.

Verb Tense

Angeles.
I never worked as a cashier until

VT

I never work as a cashier until I I got the job there.


got a job there.
#SV

Subject-verb
Agreement

The manager works* hard.

SV

The manager work hard.

*This is just one correct tense


that can be used. Depending on
the time of the action, conjugate
accordingly.

TS

Tense Shift

TS

After I went to the store, I ate

After I went to the store, I eat the the ice cream I bought.
ice cream I bought.
Close Space

Everyone works hard.


Every one works hard.

Space Needed

Going to class is awesome.

Goingto class is awesome.


SP

Spelling

SP
The maneger is woman.

The manager is a woman.

PL

Plural

Apples are the most nutritious


PL
Apple are the most nutritious fruit.
fruit.

21

Unnecessary
Word

The student studies all the time

The student she studies all the


time.

Missing Word

Please dont ask me that


o
Please dont me that question question anymore.
anymore.

WF

Wrong

Word

Form
WW

Wrong Word

WF
Her voice is delighted.

Her voice is delightful.

The
food
is
delicious.
WW
The food is delicious. Besides, Therefore, the restaurant is
the restaurant is always crowded. always crowded.

The apple is delicious.


WW
The apple is delighted.
Wrong

PN

Word

Order

Friday always is our busiest day.

day.

Pronoun

The restaurants specialty is fish.

The restaurants specialty is

Reference

PN
They are always fresh.

fish. It is always fresh.

Error
RO

Friday is always our busiest

Run-on (Fused
Sentences)

Lily is hardworking, so she is


RO
Lily is hardworking she is employee of the month.
employee of the month.

OR
Lily is hardworking: therefore,
she is employee of the month.
OR
Because Lily is hard worker,
she is she is employee of the
month.
OR
Lily is employee of the month
because she is hard worker.

22

CS

Comma Splice

Lily is a hard worker, she is Same


employee of the month.

Frag.

Fragment

as

above

run-on

corrections.

She was selected because she


Frag.
She was selected. Because she sets a good example.
sets a good example.

Transition

Mt.

SAC

Needed

services.

has

many

great Mt. SAC has many great

The Writing Center services.

For example, the

helps students improve their Writing Center helps students


writing.
S

improve their writing.

Subject

Is open from 6 p.m. until the last The restaurant is open from 6

Needed

customer leaves.

p.m. until the last customer


leaves.

Verb Needed

The employees are on time and


V
The employees on time and work work hard.
hard.

Prep.

Conj.

Art.

Preposition

We start serving dinner at 6

Needed

Prep.
We start serving dinner 6.p.m.

Conjunction

The garlic shrimp, fried clams, The garlic shrimp, fried clams,

Needed

broiled lobster are the most and broiled lobster are the most

Article Needed

popular dishes.

popular dishes.

Art.
Diners expect glass of water

Diners expect a glass of water


when they first sit down at the

Art.

table.

when they first sit down at table.


//

Faulty

He enjoys watching movies,

He enjoys watching movies,

Paralleism

riding his bike, and going to the


//
riding his bike, and to go to movies.
Disneyland.

Coll

Slang/Colloqui
alism

I am going to class right now.

Coll
I am going 2 class right now
Coll

23

DM

Dangling
Modifier

Going to the store, I noticed the


DM
Going to the store, the traffic was traffic was unusually heavy.
unusually heavy.

OR
I realized the traffic was
unusually heavy as I went to the
store.

Syn.

Syntax

Syn.
I to the store with Dan went.

I went to the store with Dan.

Awk.

Awkward

My mothers house is always


Awk
The house . of my brother is clean.
always clean.

ww

ww

Wrong word

The food delicious. Therefore,

The food is delicious. Besides, the the restaurangt


restaurant is always crowded
crowded

Rep.

Repetitive

is

always

This error occurs, often times, Take out repetitive material and
when a writer repeats the same revise accordingly.
idea, word(s), concepts, ets.

???

Confusing

Ideas are not clear to the reader.

Passage

Clarify

and

revise

accordingly.

Begin a New Paragraph covers unrelated/new Look


Paragraph

ideas

topic.

for

thoughts/ideas

break
and

in

revise

accordingly

Indent

The beginning of each paragraph Hit the tab button on the


should be indented.

keyboard.

Reference:
Oshima, Alice and Hogue, Ann. 2007. Introduction to Academic Writing, Forth
Edition. New York. Pearson Education
Maarek, Samia. 2009. The Effectiveness of Correction Symbols as Feedback in
Enhancing Self Correction in Writing The Case of First-Year Students.
Constantine: Mentouri University

24

CHAPTER 3
CLOSING
3.1 Conclusion
Sentence is an organized series of words that allows you to make a
statement, ask a question, express a thought, offer an oppinion an so on. In
writing, a sentence starts with capitalized word and ends with a period, a
question mark, or an exclamation mark (Marchel Danesi, Ph.D., 2006).
A sentence represents an eventuality. An eventuality is an action or an
event or a state of affairs: something that happens or something taht is. The
sentence represents an eventuality by separating out the type of eventuality
from the abstract or concrete things which are involved in the eventuality. The
type of the eventuality is prototypically represented by the verb (Nigel Fabb,
2005)
To achieve a good quality of writing, needed an effort for perfection in
accordance with procedures English writing. To produce the correct of writing,
is not easy in the process. Certainly found errors in the way of writing. To
investigate faults, takes symbol aimed at marking the wrong points (Maarek,
2009).

3.2 Suggestion
From this paper, we hope that the students can understand and know about
written structure of a sentence in English

25

REFERENCE
Anker, Susan. 2009. Real Essay with Readings with 2009 MLA Update: Written
Projects for College, Work, and Everyday Life. New York
Apriyanti, Ida Dkk. 2014. Symbols In Teachers Written Feedback And Their
Meanings. Surabaya
Brian Backman.2008. Building Sentence Skills: Tools for Writing the Amazing
English Sentence. USA. Teacher Created Resources,inc.:
Burton, Barbara S.,MA. 2001. English Grammar Comprehension dwibahasa.
Jakarta. Grasindo
Crystal, David. 2001. Language and the Internet.Cambridge. Cambridge University
Press.
Danesi, Marcel. 2006. Basic American Grammar and Usage: An ESL/EFL
Handbook. New York. Barrons Educational Series.
Fabb, Nigel.2005. Sentence Structure: Second Edition. USA. Routledge
Greenbaum ,Sidney and Gerald Nelson. 2016. An Introduction to English
Grammar, 4th ed. New York. Pearson Education.
Hopper, Paul J. 1999. A Short Course in Grammar. New York: W. Norton &
Company
Huddleston, Rodney. 1984. Introduction to the grammar of English. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Lutz, Gary and Stevenson, Diane. 2005. Grammar Desk Reference: The Definitive
Source for Clear and Correct Writing. Ohio. The Writers Digest
Maarek, Samia. 2009. The Effectiveness of Correction Symbols as Feedback in
Enhancing Self Correction in Writing The Case of First-Year Students.
Constantine: Mentouri University.
Nelson, Gerald. 2011. English an Essential Grammar 2nd edition. New York.
Routledge

26

Obrecht, Fred. 2000. Minimum Essential of English second edition. Chicago.


Barrons Educational Series,Inc.
Oshima, Alice and Hogue, Ann. 2007. Introduction to Academic Writing, Forth
Edition. New York. Pearson Education
Richards, J. ; Rodgers . 1999. Teaching Approaches and Methods in Language
Teaching: The Nature of Approaches and Methods in Language. Cambridge.
Cambridge University Press.
Shanks, Janet. 2004. TOEFL Paper-and-Pencil Third Edition. New York. Kaplan
Publishing

27