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Mechanics lecture

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7 visualizzazioni8 pagineMechanics lecture

© All Rights Reserved

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This presentation introduces you to engineering structures and the

role of the truss.

My name is Peter Hamilton. I am delivering this presentation on

behalf of Dr Ke Xing.

Remember, that the script is in the notes tab as usual.

Slide

1

Engineering Mechanics

Planar Truss Analysis

Method of Joints

Peter Hamilton

For

Dr Ke Xing

School of Engineering

Slide

2

Copyright Notice

Do not remove this notice.

COMMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA

Copyright Regulations 1969

WARNING

This material has been produced and communicated to you by or on

behalf of the University of South Australia pursuant to Part VB of the

Copyright Act 1968 (the Act).

The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the

Act. Any further reproduction or communication of this material by you

may be the subject of copyright protection under the Act.

Do not remove this notice.

characteristics of a simple truss, and the concepts and techniques

for analysing a truss structure by using the Method of Joints.

Slide

3

The Method of Joints

Slide

4

Understand different types of engineering structures.

Understand the role of trusses in structures.

Be able to represent complex trusses into a simple truss which

enables you to easily analyse the loadings in internal members of

the truss using a technique known as the Method of Joints.

You will be able to:

Slide

5

engineering structures

loads in members of a truss

engineering structure like this bridge can be prevented with a

good understanding of engineering structural analysis.

A structural engineer should be able to design each member of a

structure to carry the intended load safely.

Image source:

http://serial.co.ua/2007/08/02/v_minneapolise_obrushilsja_most_c

herez_missisipi.html

5

Engineering Mechanics

Slide

6

system of members that has the capacity to support or to transfer

loads and to safely withstand all external loads on it. A member is

a constituent part of any engineering structure.

Large structures must withstand enormous forces and moments

due to their weights and external loads.

An engineering designer should always clearly identify and

analyse all the forces and moments acting on the structure and its

members for safety and design purposes.

Engineering Structures

Slide

7

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/

Existing engineering structures have different forms.

Image source:

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ea/Forth_rail_bri

dge_-_paint_will_last_40_years_now.jpg

By EG Focus [CC-BY-2.0

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia

Commons

Slide

8

Pratt truss

and how their loadings can be analysed so that they can be safely

used for their intended use.

Many structures such as bridges and roofs mostly uses trusses,

which will be the main focus of this module.

Examples of popular trusses are presented in the slide. They

include:

Howe truss

Trusses, Frames, and Machines

on the type of loadings their members can support or transmit.

They are referred as Truss, Frame or machine.

Slide

9

Structural Categories

Trusses

Frame

Machines

structures?

The principle difference between the three lies in the number of

loads applied on the members of the structure.

In a TRUSS each member is a two-force member. From an earlier

presentation, a two-force member is one in equilibrium under the

action of 2 forces only.

On the other hand frames and machines contain at least one

multi-force member. Remember, a multi-force member may have

three or more forces applied on it at different points, or may have

two or more forces and one or more couples.

A Machine is similar to a frame except that it has at least one

moving part which can transmit load.

The following slides look in detail at each type of structure.

Image sources

http://s0.geograph.org.uk/geophotos/02/79/70/2797030_98d9c26a

.jpg

http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3537/3636660305_e702cc0b37_z.jpg

?zz=1

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Grove_Crane_in_Antarctic

a.jpg

Engineering Mechanics

Slide

10

their ends by bolted or welded or riveted joints to form a rigid

structure. The commonly used members are I beams, channels,

and bars of different cross sections. Trusses are designed to

support external loads at the members ends. That is, each

member is a two-force member to satisfy equilibrium conditions.

1.Truss

Truss

A structure composed of slender members joined

together at the end by welding or bolting

The members are two-force members

It is designed only to support loads, usually

stationary (fully constrained), e.g. roof and bridge

Slide

11

Truss as it is a structure that is designed to take stationary loads.

However, in contrast to a Truss, which only contains two-force

members, a frame contains at least one multi-force member.

2. Frame

A structure

designed only to

support loads.

It is stationary

and contains at

least one multiforce member.

-force

members as the external load is applied on the mid part of the

rungs, when we land on them.

11

Slide

12

3. Machine

A structure designed to transmit and modify the

effect of forces

It contains moving parts and at least one multiforce member.

Image source:

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0c/The_ladder_

of_life_is_full_of_splinters.jpg

frame in that it has at least one multi-force member.

A Machine is, however, designed to transmit and modify the effect

of forces. In contrast to a frame, which consisst of only stationary

parts and only supports stationary loads, a machine contains

moving parts and is able to transmit loads.

Automobile engines and cranes are two examples of machines.

Image source:

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ee/MercedesBenz_E300_(W211)_Bluetech_engine_2.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c2/US_Navy_09

1119-N-7676W-070_A_Large_Vessel_Interface_Lift-on-Liftoff_(LVI_LoLo)_crane_demonstrates_container_transfers_aboard_USNS_Flic

kertail_State_(T-ACS-5).jpg

Slide

13

Structure Analysis

Design

Safety

external loads and internal loads on each member should be be

considered for design and safety evaluation.

in the figure constitutes direct application of the equilibrium of rigid

bodies which was discussed in the previous module.

The internal forces of an engineering structure can be determined

by analyzing separate, free body diagrams of individual members

or a combination of members which requires the application of

Newton's third law.

Engineering Mechanics

Slide

14

Truss

actually formed by the combination of many simple trusses.

14

Slide

15

frame with a triangle shape. A structure built from this basic form

is known as a simple truss.

Many large and complex trusses are formed through the

combination of many simple trusses, as shown in the slide.

The bars are said to be the members and the contact points

where the bars are connected are called the joints.

When the members of the truss and all external loadings lie

essentially on a single plane, the truss is called a Plane Truss. In

this module, We focus on plane trusses.

joint

F

member

15

Slide

16

Assumptions

All loadings are applied at the joints

The weight of each member is neglected

Smooth pins

16

to assist analysis.

First, all loadings are assumed to be applied only at the joints.

There is no force applied to the bodies of the members. This

condition is satisfied in most trusses.

Second, the weight of each member is neglected. Each member

is regarded as weightless. This assumes that loadings are much

bigger than the weight of individual members. If the weight of a

member must be accounted for, this can be done in such a way

that half of the weight of the member can be applied at each joint

of the member.

Additionally, it is assumed that the members are joined together

by smooth pins which do not prevent rotation. The figures show

members that are bolted together using a gusset plate. In

practice, bolted, welded or riveted connections are commonly

used. However the assumption is valid if the centerlines of the

members are concurrent at the joint.

These three assumptions are the basis for each member to be a

two-force member. That is the member may only be in tension or

compression.

Image source

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6f/Bolted

_joint_bridge.jpg/640px-Bolted_joint_bridge.jpg

Engineering Mechanics

Slide

17

RB

equilibrium.

The force R is an axial force at points A and B that has the same

magnitude, but in opposite directions, and they share the same

line of application.

RA RB

Equilibrium

RA

Slide

18

RB

Rh

RA Rh

any part of the body is also in a state of equilibrium according to

Newtons 3rd law.

This simple understanding is very important as it forms the basis

for the truss analysis technique known as the Method of Section

which will be discussed later.

RA

RA

Slide

19

Slide

20

Direction of Load

Direction of loadtension or compression?

The force R is an axial force either tension or

compression

Compression

with the force which is exerted by the cut away member.

support tension or compression forces.

The direction of the forces on the contact point follows Newton's

third law.

be in compression and it applies the same and opposite force on

the pin due to action and reaction. Therefore the direction of the

compression force on the pin will be towards the pin.

Tension

and the reaction will also be a pulling force on the pin. The

reaction force is drawn acting away from the pin.

Slide

21

senses of each force can be evaluated applying conditions of

equilibrium.

When solving a planar truss problem, remember the following:.

opposite to a force applied by the joint on the member.

Forces applied on a joint are concurrent at the centre of the joint.

equilibrium analysis, it is a good practice to resolve

forces in to Cartesian components. Knowledge of fundamentals of

trigonometry is important in this regard.

Then apply equilibrium equations of forces and moments

appropriately.

Engineering Mechanics

Slide

22

number of planar trusses.

Structure simplification:

3-D (space) truss problems can be simplified

into 2-D (planar) truss problems

In this analysis only a statically determinate truss, which can

readily be analysed by equilibrium equations, is considered.

Statically determinate trusses are usually supported by a pinsupport at one end, and a roller support at the other end.

Slide

23

Method of Joints

Method of Sections

members of a planar truss analysed?

There are two techniques that can be used, depending on the

requirement.

As its name implies, this method focuses on examining the

characteristics of forces acting on the joints, so as to derive the

forces within the members connected with those joints using

Newtons third law.

Slide

24

the body is sectioned for analysis. In this way the size of the

problem can be reduced. This method is derived from the fact that

if the rigid body is in equilibrium, then any part of the rigid body is

also in equilibrium.

The Method of Joints focuses on analysis of unknown loads acting

on joints by drawing a free body diagram for each joint.

Method of Joints

What is it?

Analyse the loads acting on each joint.

Use the equilibrium conditions of each joint of the truss.

The forces acting in the members of a truss can be

determined.

You have to include all external forces and reaction

forces in supports

Slide

25

1. Draw a free-body diagram (FBD) for the entire truss

the reaction forces at the supports of the whole truss.

3. Draw a FBD for each joint: should include all forces acting on

the joint (external forces, reactions and member forces).

Note that the pairs of internal forces in the member should

cancelled each other out in the FBD. Label the forces properly.

Remember that a member in compression pushes on the joint

and a member in tension pulls on the joint

FBC

BC

A

FAB

AB

each joint of the truss, the maximum of two unknown forces acting

on the members of a truss at each joint can be determined.

that all external forces and reaction forces exerted at the

supports are identified and analysed considering the equilibrium of

the whole truss.

The first step is to draw a free-body diagram of the entire truss.

This can help to properly identify all external forces applied to the

body of the structure, including those unknown reactions at the

ilibrium

equations for the entire truss to determine those unknown reaction

forces at the supports of the truss.

-body diagram for each joint, and

F

F'BA

BA

F

F'CB

CB

unknown forces, as we can derive only two independent

equilibrium equations of forces in the x and y axis. Because of

action and reaction, a joint applies a force on a member which is

equal and opposite to the force applied by that member on the

joint.

member can either be in tension or compression.

Engineering Mechanics

Slide

26

first select a joint connected to a

maximum of two members with unknown internal forces.

4. Choose firstly a joint with 2 unknown forces

determine unknowns using equilibrium conditions.

5. Then choose the next joint with only 2 unknowns

repeat the process until you find all member forces.

equations Fx 0 , Fy 0 in each joint.

joint analysis.

It is recommended to resolve forces into x and y components and

use two equilibrium equations of forces in the x and y axis to find

the unknown forces in each joint.

For example in the truss shown, the two possible joints to start

with are joint A or E which are connected to two members with

unknown forces.

Which joints do you think need to be evaluated next?

In this example of planar truss, vertical forces are applied at joints

A, B, C and E.

First evaluate the reaction forces, represented by RD, R1, R2

considering the free body diagram of the whole truss and

equilibrium equations for coplanar forces.

Then, examine each joint and the forces applied on them. Note

that, since only two unknowns can be solved at each joint, it is

necessary to look for and start the analysis with a joint that only

has two unknown forces applied to it. In this particular case,

choose either joint A or joint C to begin with .

TBD

TBC

Slide

27

FAB

FAB

FAD

FBD

FBC

FBC

FBE

FAD

FCF

FBF

FBD

FBF

FDE FBE

FDE

FEF

FCF

FEF

identified force and two unknowns. For convenience and

consistency, always assume an unknown force in the member to

be a tension force, unless we can clearly judge the sense of the

force by an observation.

Using the particle equilibrium conditions, find the magnitude and

correct sense of Fab and Fad.

Slide

28

After solving the unknown forces at joint A, move to the next joint

which only has two unknown forces. In this case, joint D is a

correct choice than joint B, as Fad and Rd have been already

identified, while Fbd and Fde are the only unknown forces.

The same procedure is repeated until all unknown forces are

analysed.

The method of joints is a preferred method when the internal

forces in all members need to be established. However the

method of joints can be quite time consuming to use, particularly if

only forces in a few members located in the middle of a complex

Method of joints works well when the forces in all

members need to be established

However it will take a long time to calculate a certain

specific member force, or

Sometimes impossible to determine the member forces

because of constraint on the number of unknowns in

each joint.

We will therefore need a different, and more flexible technique in

such scenario, such as the Method of Sections.

Slide

29

in equilibrium, then any part of the body should also be in

equilibrium. In the Method of Sections, as the name implies, the

truss is cut into sections in a right way to solve it for the

unknowns. The next presentation will address the Method of

Sections in detail.

Method of Sections

29

Engineering Mechanics

Slide

30

Quiz time

Quiz

Click the

Slide

31

some cases.

Reaction forces in the supports need to be found

before starting to find all member forces.

problems can be found.

Slide

32

Summary

In this Module, the following key concepts

and techniques were discussed

Different types of engineering structures

Simple truss and key techniques for truss

analysis

Method of Joints to analyse structures

of planar trusses using the Method of Joints.

To summarise the important steps,

First find the reaction forces at the supports of the truss by

drawing the free body diagram of the whole truss and applying

equilibrium equations for coplanar forces.

Then start solving the internal forces of members at the joint,

which contains at most two unknown forces, using equilibrium

conditions at that joint in two orthogonal coordinate axes say x

and y axes.

Keep on applying the same equilibrium analysis for the other

joints, until analysis of the internal forces of the required members

is complete.

Remember that, using the Method of Joints only two unknowns on

one joint can be solved. Thus the selection of a joint for analysis is

based on the number of members with unknown internal forces

connected to the joint.

In this module, different types of engineering structures, such as

trusses, frames, and machines have been introduced.

You have been introduced to solving the internal forces of

members of a planar truss using the Method of Joints.

Thank you. If you have any questions please raise them in the

forum.

Slide

33

Thank you

self-drawn or from the textbook.

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