Sei sulla pagina 1di 86

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University

of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Topic: Disaster Management & Recovery
Course Lecturer:

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam


PhD (HKU), MAppSc (SafMgt), MBA, DipOccHyg(CUHK),
PDAS(OHS), CMIOSH, RSP, RSO, ASA, RSA

Email address:

raglan@netvigator.com

Mobile:

9418 4748

Date: 17 September 2016 (Saturday)


Time: 09:00 - 18:00 hours
Venue: Room 1001, 10/F, HPCC Campus, 66 Leighton Road, Causeway Bay

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
In case of emergency!

Muster Point : G/F at The Entrance of HPCC Campus,


66 Leighton Road, Causeway Bay

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
1. Aims of Course
To develop the knowledge and skills
needed to identify disaster treats and
implement appropriate mitigation and
disaster preparedness, response and
recovery strategies.

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
2. Indicative Course Materials and Reading:

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Definition
4. What is Disaster
The term is used to describe the consequences of
earthquakes, floods, droughts, hurricanes tsunamis, acts
of terrorism and major industrial incidents.
A sudden event, such as an accident or a natural
catastrophe, that causes great damage or loss of life.
Better described as emergencies Disasters can
precipitate local emergencies.
E.g. 2 trains collide causing multiple fatalities and
immediate property and environmental damage, that
would be referred to as a Disaster

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Definition
What is Natural Disaster
Human impact on environment - due to poor
planning of population growth and development
and failure to implement disaster mitigation
strategies.
Lesson Learning Sufficient knowledge and
understanding to reflect on past disasters to
inform future practice.

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Definition
What is Catastrophe
An event causing great and often sudden
damage or suffering: a disaster.
If the event generated major environmental,
public and social harm that has longer term
implications, over and above the immediate
human and property loss, this would be a
Catastrophe. E.g. King Cross Underground Fire
(1987), Chernobyl (1986), Piper Alpha (1988).

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Crisis versus Emergency
Crisis
Crisis can be an accident or incident resulting in a fire, injury
and/or loss of property and etc.
E.g. When the chemical plant explodes with chemical pushed
up into the sky is a crisis involved the media and it can imperil
the survival of an organisation.

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Crisis versus Emergency
Emergency
Emergency can be an accident or incident resulting in a fire,
injury and/or loss of property and etc.
A serious, unexpected and often dangerous situation
requiring immediate action.
E.g. When the lights go off in the office for a few hours
during a busy working day is an emergency which causes
inconvenience.

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH

What is Safety?
Safety is described as a control of loss

What is a Loss
Wastage of assets of the organisation
Assets included human resources, property,
plant and machinery, goods manufactured,
production, money, liability, business, services
and data

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Impact Arising from OSH Performance:
Extra time needed to complete the task
Reduces the efficiency and effectiveness of the operation
Raised production cost
Bodily injury
Material waste
Equipment damage
Property loss
Insurance
Others hidden costs and
Suspended tendering from Public Works

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH

Accident and Fatalities Rate in Hong Kong


Construction Industry

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Accident Rates in Hong Kong

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Accident Statistics
Accident Frequency rate (AFR)
number of occurrences of injury for each 1,000 workers and
100,000 man-hours worked.
Safety Targets from Development Bureau (DB)
22 AFR per 1,000 workers per year
0.6 AFR per 100,000 man-hours worked

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Statistics
Accident Frequency rate
Nos. of Reportable Accident X 1,000 X 300 Days from DB
Total Man-days Worked
Nos. of Reportable Accident X 100,000 from DB
Total Man-hours Worked
Nos. of Injuries or Accidents X 1,000 from Labour Dept.
Employment Size

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Statistics
Fatality rate per 1000 workers from Labour
Department is calculated by:
Number of fatalities x 1000
Employment Size

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Statistics
Accident Analysis
find out the trends and causes of accident to avoid
recurrence

Frequency rate
number of occurrences of injury for each 1,000
workers and 100,000 man-hours worked

Dissemination
discuss in the site safety committee meeting

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH

Statistics

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

No. of Reportable Accidents

Cumulated Reportable Accidents

11

15

2500

3000

3400

4200

4300

3500

2800

1400

Total Man-day Worked


Cumulated Man-day Worked

2500

5500

8900

13100

17400

20900

23700

25100

Total Man-hours Worked

25000

30000

34000

42000

43000

35000

28000

14000

Cumulated Man-hours Worked

25000

55000

89000

131000

174000

209000

237000

251000

Monthly Accident Rate per 1000 Workers


Cumulated Accident Rate per 1000
Workers
Monthly A.F.R/100000 Man-hours Worked
Cum. A.F.R/100000 Man-hours Worked

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Limitations of the Existing Measures
Not as an accurate indicator of safety
effectiveness
Not an indicator of safety performance
(Smaller workforce - Higher Rate)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Limitations of the Use of Statistics
It is often invalid to compare with other
organisations
May encourage non-reporting of incidents or
return to work to alter statistics
Some workers compensation statistics do not
cover all incidents (e.g. more than 3 days from
work in some jurisdictions)

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

10

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & SAFETY LEGISLATION
Employee Compensation

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Employees Compensation Ordinance (Cap. 282)
Accident Occurred Report to Labour
Department
Fatal Accident Report to Labour Department
within 24 hours.
Dangerous Occurrence Report to Labour
Department within 24 hours.
Near-miss No needed to report to Labour
Department

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

11

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Employees Compensation Ordinance (Cap. 282)

All employers are required to have valid


employees
compensation
insurance
policies to cover their liabilities both under
the Ordinance and at common law.
Common Law - Unlimited

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH

Company &
Personal

Liable to
Prosecution

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

12

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Huge Compensation: HK$20,060,000

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Huge Compensation: HK$76,000,000

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

13

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Pay Attention to Public
Cost of Accident
Proprietor was
sentenced to 8-month
imprisonment.

Who is the Proprietor?

Copying for Education &


Instruction Purpose Only

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Definition
Who is Proprietor
Proprietor includes the person for the
time being having the management or
control of the business carried on.

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

14

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Accident Causation Models
Heinrich 1931
(Domino Theory)

Unsafe
Act
88%

Accident
Others
2%

Unsafe
Condition
10%

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Accident Causation Models
The Heinrich Model 1931 (Domino Theory)

Ancestry
Environment

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

Fault
of
Person

Unsafe
Act or
Condition

Accident

Injury

15

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
What is Accident/Incident
Dangerous Occurrence/Near Miss?
Accident - Personal Injured
Incident - Property Damaged
Dangerous Occurrence - Collapse of Crane,
Fire and etc.
Near Miss - No Human Injure & Property
Damage

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Definition
What is Accident
An unforeseeable event often resulting in injury.
An unplanned and uncontrolled event which has
led to or could have caused injury to persons,
damage to plant or other losses
A management error the result of errors or
omissions on the part of management

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

16

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Definition
What is Incident
An undesired event which, under slightly
different circumstances, could have
resulted in harm to people, damage to
property or loss to process
An undesired event which could or does
result in loss

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Definition
What is Dangerous Occurrence
Such as collapse of crane, material hoist, fire,
broken of abrasive wheel, etc.
What is Near-miss
No injury to people, no property damage but
have potential to result in personal injury or
property damage

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

17

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
What is Accident/Incident
Dangerous Occurrence/Near Miss?
Accident - Personal Injured
Incident - Property Damaged
Dangerous Occurrence - Collapse of Crane,
Fire and etc.
Near Miss - No Human Injure &
Property
Damage

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Loss Causation Model - Bird & Loftus 1976
Heinrich (1959)
1 Major or lost-time injury
29 Minor injuries
300 Non-injury accidents

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

18

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Accident Ratios
Bird (1966)
1 Serious injury
10 Minor injuries
30 Property damage
600 - Incidents

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Accident Ratios
British Safety Council (1975)
1 Fatal/serious injury
3 2-day lost time injuries
50 First aid damage
80 Property damage
400 Near misses
Yesterdays near-miss could be tomorrows serious accident

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

19

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Accident Ratios
HSE (1993)
1 Over 3-day injury
11 Minor injuries
441 Non-injury accidents

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
1 Major injury

(Near-miss Reporting)

10 Minor injuries

30
Property Damage

600
Near Misses

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

20

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Hazard versus Risk
Hazard
The potential for a substance or energy or event to
do harm
Are these hazards?
a spillage of oil on the road
unguarded machinery
a heated solvent bath

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH

Categories of OHS hazards


Ergonomic
Biological
Radiation
Chemical
Physical
Psychological

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

21

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Hazard versus Risk
Risk
The probability or severity that the hazard will
cause damage or harm
Are these risks and when?
Driving a car in Hong Kong
Removing asbestos from an old building

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Types of risk
Physical
Property
Legal
Financial
Personal/ family
Social/community
Career

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

22

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH

Discussion in this Session

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Self Assessment Question 4.1:
Here it appears that catastrophe and disaster are
considered equivalent. Consider the everyday use
of the term disaster and Crisis and reflect on
how these terms are being used.

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

23

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Self Assessment Question 4.2:
Notice that the term does not suggest material or
physical damage. Can you provide examples of
when this could be the case in a crisis?

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
4.2 Viners Time Sequence Model

1. The event is the point at which control is lost


2. Prior to the event there is an opportunity for prevention and mitigation
3. After the event if recovery

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

24

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
4.3 Goals of Disaster Management
1. Reduce, or avoid, losses from hazards;
2. Assure prompt assistance to victims;
3. Achieve rapid and effective recovery.

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Disaster Management Cycle (VUSSC)
Mitigation: Risk reduction measures put in place to
minimize the consequences of disaster e.g. building
codes and zoning; vulnerability analyses; public
education.
Preparedness: planning how to respond e.g.
preparedness plans; emergency exercises/ training;
warning systems.
Response: Initial actions taken as the event takes
place. It involves efforts to minimize the hazards
created by a disaster e.g. evacuation; search and
rescue; emergency relief.
Recovery: Returning the community to normal. Ideally,
the affected area should be put in a condition equal to
or better than it was before the disaster took place
e.g. temporary housing; grants; medical care.

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

25

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
4.4 Resilience
The term resilience is increasingly used to in the
field of disaster management. Resilience is in
general terms to do with the ability of a substance
or object to spring back into shape; to have
elasticity recover quickly from difficulties.

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Resilience
Organisations can respond to adversity in a range of ways
(Australian Government Undated):
Decline: An organisation accepts that adversity may cause it to cease
operating.
Survive: An organisation's resilience objective is to exist in a reduced form
after adversity
Bounce back: An organisation's resilience objective is to regain
preadversity position quickly and effectively
Bounce forward: An organisation's resilience objective is to improve
aspects of the organisation's functioning so that in adversity it not only
survives but possibly gains from the situation

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

26

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Khans The Disaster Management Cycle
Zone 3

Zone 2

Zone 1

Remark: The end of one phase is the beginning of another.

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
5.1 Types of disaster
It involves a serious disruption, widespread
human, material, economic or environmental
losses and impacts and it exceeds the ability of
the affected community or society to cope
(UNISDR 2015) we can list what are generally
considered to be examples: droughts, severe
weather, earthquakes, tornadoes, floods,
tsunamis, hurricanes, volcanoes, landslide,
wildfire, epidemics.

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

27

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
What is Natural Hazards
Geophysical (earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis
& volcanic activity),
Hydrological (avalanches and floods),
Climatological (extreme temperatures, drought
and wildfires), meteorological (cyclones and
storms/ wave surges) or
Biological (disease epidemics and insect/ animal
plagues).

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
What is Technological or Manmade Hazards
Complex emergencies/conflicts,
Famine,
Displaced populations,
Industrial accidents and
Transport accidents).

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

28

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
5.2.1 Crisis Management
Self Assessment Question:
Could it be argued that the attack on the World
Trade Centre in 9/11 was a crisis, emergency or
disaster?

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Crisis Management
Crises may also be considered in terms of severity
and Moore & Lakha (2006) propose a matrix
which closely resembles the risk assessment
matrices commonly used in workplace risk
assessment:

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

29

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Crisis Management
Moore & Lakha (1006 p97) list crisis management
activities as:
Activity 1: Situation monitoring.
Activity 1: Crisis detection support.
Activity 1: Containment.
Activity 1: Response.
Activity 1: De-escalation.
Activity 1: Recovery.
Activities 1 & 2 are pre-crisis, 3-5 crisis response
& 6 post-crisis.

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Crisis Management
Moore & Lakha (2006) present a Crisis life cycle:

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

30

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
5.2.2 Emergency Management
Safety and risk managers naturally have a role in
facilitating and monitoring the emergency planning
and preparedness. Such emergencies can range
from serious firstaid incidents to events resulting
in multiple deaths, property damage and business
interruption.

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Emergency Management
The Prevention, Planning, Response and Recovery
(PPRR) approach was introduced in the US in 1978
and is embedded in practice (Betts 2012).

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

31

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Emergency Management
System Components
Internal & External
Environment
Factors

JOB

Person

Equipment

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Emergency Management
Moore & Lakha (12006) advocates and approach
to emergency planning that begins with
consideration of the in the influences both internal
& external to the organisation:
External

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

The natural environment (Weather, geology, geography)


Societal factors (Demographics and vulnerability)
Social attitudes (Risk acceptance, risk aversion, risk
perception, expectations, history)
Government & political factors

32

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Emergency Management
Moore & Lakha (12006) advocates and approach
to emergency planning that begins with
consideration of the in the influences both internal
& external to the organisation:
External

Legal factors (legal constraints & obligations)


Sources of information (Local & national media
reporting)
Technological factors (local resources e.g. rescue &
lifting equipment, information technology)
Commercial factors (Insurer & bank requirements etc.

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Emergency Management
Moore & Lakha (12006) advocates and approach
to emergency planning that begins with
consideration of the in the influences both internal
& external to the organisation:
Internal
Resource factors (Physical, human & financial
resources, cash flow and budgetary planning)
Design and architecture (Workplace physical
structure, layout, access/ egress, emergency
routes, adequacy of space for vehicles, etc.

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

33

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Emergency Management
Moore & Lakha (12006) advocates and approach
to emergency planning that begins with
consideration of the in the influences both internal
& external to the organisation:
Internal
Corporate culture & practice (proactivity,
planning, resilience, employee engagement, etc.
Information systems

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
5.2.3 Disaster & Emergency Management
Disaster plan is a stand-alone plan a part of which
is an emergency plan.

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

34

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
5.2.3 Disaster & Emergency Management (DEM)
5.2.3.1 Mitigation:
1. Hazard identification and Vulnerability analysis;
and
2. Various mitigation strategies or measures

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Identification
The risk management context
Identify studies needed,
scope, objectives, resources
genetic sources of risk and areas of impact
Identify Risks
What can happen
How it can happen

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

35

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Identification
The most critical step of the process
- risks not identified can not be controlled
Requires
- a systematic and comprehensive approach
- imagination
- in depth understanding

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Purpose of Identification
To identify new risks which follow change
As part of process prioritisation
To ensure best procedures and controls used
To make people aware of risks

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

36

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Workforce Involvement
Gives the message that safety matters
Helps people understand hazards
Trains in hazard awareness

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

ANALYSE RISKS
Determine Existing Controls
Determine
Consequences

Determine
Likelihood

Establish Level of Risk

Monitor and Review

Consult and Communicate

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH

37

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Evaluation
Comparing against criteria
Deciding whether the risk is acceptable
Deciding whether the risk is as low as
reasonably practical
Deciding priorities for action
taking account of wider context of risks
communicating with stakeholders

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Analysis
Purpose
To separate minor risks from major
To estimate the size of the risk
To provide information for decisions
To provide information on how to reduce risk

Risk analysis should be logical,


systematic and as objective as possible

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

38

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Treatment
Identify treatment options
Evaluate treatment options
Prepare management plan
Implement plan
Define mechanism for monitoring

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Treatment Options
Avoid - Eliminate
Reduce probability
Reduce Consequences
Transfer or share
- Insurance
- Subcontracting
Retain and plan

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

RISK
CONTROL

39

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Treatment Plan
What is to be done?
Who by?
When by?
Where is the budget?
What are potential problems?
How will the plan be monitored?

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Monitor and Review
Risks
- Regularly check for new risks
- Look for new factors increasing risk
- Changes in priorities
Systems which control risk

- Audit
- Review

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

40

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Implementation
Support of senior management
Develop organisational policy
Communicate policy
- risk management an integral part of planning
Manage risks at organisational level
Manage risks at program and team level
Monitor and review

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
A Decision Making Process within a
Safety Management System
Requires
Policy
Organisation
- Management representative
- Responsibility and authority
- Resources
Management Review
Plan

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

Act

Review

Improve

41

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Documentation
Adequate

Auditable

Methods
Information Sources
Assumptions
Results
Decisions

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Why document?
To demonstrate that you have undertaken the
process with due diligence
To communicate with others
- about risk
- about risk control
So you can remember what you did
To provide a trail for audit and review

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

42

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Evaluation of Job Related Hazards
Method Statement versus Risk
Assessment
Survey of all Anticipated Activities
Conduct Risk Assessment
Conduct Method Statement

Think?

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
SIMPLE RISK ASSESSMENT

H PROBABILITY

SEVERITY

Risk is the combination of likelihood (probability) &


consequence (severity).

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

43

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
5.2.3 Disaster & Emergency Management
5.2.3.2 Disaster preparedness:

Develop and test warning systems regularly and plan


measures to be taken during a disaster alert period to
minimise potential loss of life and physical damage.
Educate and train officials and the population at risk to
respond to the disaster.
Train firstaid and emergency response teams.
Establish emergency response policies, standards,
organisational arrangements and operational plans to be
followed by emergency workers and other response entities
after a disaster.

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
5.2.3 Disaster & Emergency Management
Emergency Operation Plan:

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

Statement of Purpose This is what the Plan seeks to


achieve
Situation and assumptions Statements of the
anticipated emergency events and any situations that
may be peculiar/ unusual to the community.
Organisation and assignment of responsibilities
Concept of operations the roles and relationships of
government agencies, the private sector and how they
interact with each other

44

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
5.2.3 Disaster & Emergency Management
Emergency Operation Plan:

Administration and logistics The management of


resources, general support requirements,
and availability of services
Plan development and maintenance This involve
activities to keep the plan current Authorities and
references statutes, executive orders, regulations, and
formal agreements that pertain to any type of
emergency.
Definition of terms Ensures common understanding of
the terms that will be used in communication, directing
and control in disasters.

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
5.2.3 Disaster & Emergency Management
5.2.3.3 Disaster response Aims:

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

To ensure the survival of the maximum possible number of


victims, keeping them in the best possible health in the
circumstances.
To reestablish selfsufficiency and essential services as
quickly as possible with special attention to those whose
needs are greatest: the most vulnerable and underprivileged.
To repair or replace damaged infrastructure and regenerate
viable economic activities.
To contribute to longterm development goals and reduce
vulnerability to any future recurrence of hazards.

45

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
5.2.3 Disaster & Emergency Management
5.2.3.3 Disaster response Key Stages:
1. Warning
2. Evacuation and migration
3. Search and rescue (SAR)
4. Postdisaster assessment
5. Response and relief
6. Logistics and supply
7. Communication and information management
8. Survivor response and coping
9. Security
10. Emergency operations management
11. Rehabilitation
12. Reconstruction

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
5.2.3 Disaster & Emergency Management
5.2.3.4 Disaster Recovery Activities Classified as:
a) Shortterm recovery: immediate and tends to overlap with
response.
b) Longterm recovery: may include the complete
redevelopment of damaged areas.

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

46

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
5.2.3 Disaster & Emergency Management
5.2.3.4 Disaster Recovery Major steps of
Recovery Plan:

Gathering basic information


Organising recovery
Mobilising resources for recovery
Administering recovery
Regulating recovery
Coordinating recovery activities
Evaluating recovery

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
5.2.3 Disaster & Emergency Management
5.2.3.5 Education & community awareness
Education and public awareness programmes are essential to the
success of DEM plans. Generally these programmes aim to
educate and empower the target population through sharing
knowledge and information about the various hazards, the risk
and the mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery plans.
This not only increases the likelihood that people will act
appropriately when a disaster happens but also builds
relationships and confidence.

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

47

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
6 Business Continuity Management
Business Continuity Management (BCM) is
variously defined as (Moore and Lakha 2006):
a management process that helps manage the
risks to the smooth running of an organisation or
delivery of a service, ensuring that it can operate
to the extent required in the event of a
disruption

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
6 Business Continuity Management
Business Continuity Management (BCM) identifies
potential threats to an organisation and the
impacts to business operations that those threats,
if realised, might cause. It provides a framework
for building organisational resilience with the
capability for an effective response that safeguards
the interests of key stakeholders, reputation, brand
and valuecreating activities
(The Business Continuity Institute 2010).

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

48

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
6 Business Continuity Management
Business Continuity Management that include:
Corporate governance reasons (obligations to shareholders
and other stakeholders)
Insurance (policy requirements)
Legal (e.g. data protection act)
Social (uninterrupted supply of goods and services)
Humanitarian (particularly with regard to public sector and
essential services)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
6 Business Continuity Management
Business Continuity Management that include:
Corporate governance reasons (obligations to shareholders
and other stakeholders)
Insurance (policy requirements)
Legal (e.g. data protection act)
Social (uninterrupted supply of goods and services)
Humanitarian (particularly with regard to public sector and
essential services)

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

49

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
6 Business Continuity Management
BCM has the following characteristics and produce
a mnemonic PREVENT IT (Moore and Lakha 2006):
Proactive developing continuity solutions beforehand to
be prepared when a Disaster or Emergency strikes.
Resourcing and ensuring that money, people, machinery
etc can be called upon to ensure business survival.
Efficiency focused BCM is not a drain on resources. Use
cost benefit analysis to show the merits of the approach.
Value adding financial, corporate and social.
Essential services and personnel need to be deployed to
ensure continuity.

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
6 Business Continuity Management
BCM has the following characteristics and produce
a mnemonic PREVENT IT (Moore and Lakha 2006):
Normalisation being a key goal to ensure that after the
Disaster or Emergency the operation gets back to some
element of what it was like before.
Time focused BCM is about realistically setting short,
medium and long term plans to
achieve that normalcy.
Information management to key suppliers, contractors
and personnel.
Top management led.

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

50

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
6 Business Continuity Management

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
7 Conclusion
Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) aims to reduce the
damage caused by natural hazards like
earthquakes, floods, droughts and cyclones,
through an ethic of prevention.

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

51

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
7 Conclusion
DEM is usually said to have four phases with
overlapping and indistinct boundaries:
Mitigation
Preparedness
Response
Recovery

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
7 Conclusion
Hazard identification and vulnerability assessment
must be forward thinking and consider risk not
based on current conditions but on foreseeable
future conditions.

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

52

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
7 Conclusion
Hazard identification and vulnerability assessment
must be forward thinking and consider risk not
based on current conditions but on foreseeable
future conditions.

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
7 Conclusion
Workplace (industrial) disasters are sometimes
misnamed. Frequently major accidents,
emergencies and crises precipitate environmental,
ecological and social disasters. Community
leaders, governments and other holding
responsibility for protection of communities must
work closely with major accident risk businesses in
the development of DDR plans.

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

53

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
7 Conclusion
Often overlooked are what may be considered
chronic disasters. Disasters are usually
considered to be acute events with prolonged lead
up and recovery periods (short Viner (2015)
Time Zone 2 with prolonged time Zones 1 and 3).

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
7 Conclusion
There is however an argument (see for
example Tucker 2006) that there are hidden
disasters associated with occupational injury and
disease; the relatively low numbers of fatalities,
injuries and disease cases in individual workplaces
represents a cumulatively large number. Owing to
the temporal and geographic dispersion the size of
the problem is hidden.

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

54

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH

Discussion in this Session

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Disaster case studies:
The Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion on
20 April 2010 - fire broken out
11 fatalities
The Bhopal chemical release on 3 December
1984 leaked around 32 tons of toxic gases
3,000 fatalities
The Chernobyl explosion on 26 April 1986 released large quantities of radioactive particles
into the atmosphere
- 31 fatalities

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

55

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Disaster case studies:
The Clapham junction train collision on 12
December 1988 caused by a signal failure due
to wiring fault
- 35 fatalities
Hurricane Katrina on 23 December 2005
highest winds in tropical storm
- 1,245 1836 fatalities
The World Trade Centre attacks (9/11) on 11
September 2001 Aircraft hijackings
- 2,996 fatalities

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Disaster case studies
Pipe Alpha (UK) on 6 July 1988 - offshore oil
platform fire (PTW system failure)
167 fatalities
Kings Cross underground railway station fire
(London) on 18 November 1987 - fire broken out
31 fatalities
Passenger Hoist in North Point (Hong Kong) 1993
12 fatalities

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

56

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Definition
Safe System
Systems models have been developed which
view accidents as systems of work failure rather
than failure of any single factor.
Accidents do not have a single cause but a
network of causes.
Work systems consist of an interaction of
people, materials, equipment (machine), plant,
environmental factors and organisational factors

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
System Components
External
Factors

Environment

JOB

Person

Equipment

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

57

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH

Definition
Work System
Work systems consist of an interaction of
people, materials, equipment (machine), plant,
environmental factors and organisational
factors

Safe System versus System Safety

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH

Definition
Safe System
Systems models have been developed
which view accidents as systems of work
failure rather than failure of any single
factor.
Accidents do not have a single cause but a
network of causes.

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

58

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH

Definition
Safety System of Work
A safety system of work is a formal
procedure which results from systematic
examination of a task in order to identify all
the hazards. It defines safe methods to
ensure that hazards are eliminated or risks
minimised.

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Five-step for Safety Systems of Work since 1989:
1. Assess the task

4. Implement the system

What is used
Who does what
Where the task is carried out
How the task is done

2. Identify the hazards


When a task is assessed, it is necessary to
spot its hazards and assess the risks
-

5. Monitor the system

Consider the preparation and authorization needed at the start of the job
Ensure clear planning of job sequences
Specify safe work methods
Include means of access & escape
Consider the tasks of dismantling, disposal
etc. at the end of the job

3. Define safe methods

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

The safe system of work must be communicated


properly, understood by employees and applied correctly
Training should be provided to all relevant supervisors and
employees
It should be part of a system of work to stop work when
faced an unexpected problem until a safe solution can be
found
Employees continues to fund the system workable
Procedure laid down in the system of work are being
carried out and are effective
Any change in the circumstances which require
alternations to the system of the work are taken into
account

59

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Approach for Controlling the High Risk Activity
(Raglan 2010)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Control of High Risk Activities
To avoid any mishap, it is highly
recommended to hold the Task Launching
Meeting, provide Methodology Training
and implement the Job Safety Analysis
after developing the method statement, risk
assessment and safe working procedure.

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

60

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Approach for Controlling the High Risk Activity (Raglan 2010)
- Site Management
Method Statement & Risk Assessment
- Engineer Team

Review

Safe Working Procedure


Task Launching Meeting
Methodology Training
Job Safety Analysis / On-site Inspection
Monitoring / Group Discussion
1st Action
Continual Actions

- Safety Personnel
- S/Cs Representative
- Site Management
- Engineer Team
- Safety Personnel
- Supervisor
- S/Cs Representative
- Supervisor
- Ganger
- All relevant workers
- Engineer Team
- Nominated
Supervisor
- Site Management /
Engineer Team / Safety
Personnel / S/Cs
Representative

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
To be achieved by Resources and Commitment
Method Statement & Risk Assessment

Review

Safe Working Procedure


Task Launching Meeting
Methodology Training
Job Safety Analysis / On-site Inspection
Monitoring / Group Discussion
1st Action
Continual Actions

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

- Site Management
- Engineer Team
- Safety Personnel
- S/Cs Representative
- Site Management
- Engineer Team
- Safety Personnel
- Supervisor
- S/Cs Representative
- Supervisor
- Ganger
- All relevant workers
- Engineer Team
- Nominated
Supervisor
- Site Management /
Engineer Team / Safety
Personnel / S/Cs
Representative

61

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Under Planning
Method Statement & Risk Assessment

Review

Safe Working Procedure


Task Launching Meeting
Methodology Training
Job Safety Analysis / On-site Inspection
Monitoring / Group Discussion
1st Action
Continual Actions

- Site Management
- Engineer Team
- Safety Personnel
- S/Cs Representative
- Site Management
- Engineer Team
- Safety Personnel
- Supervisor
- S/Cs Representative
- Supervisor
- Ganger
- All relevant workers
- Engineer Team
- Nominated
Supervisor
- Site Management /
Engineer Team / Safety
Personnel / S/Cs
Representative

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Responsibilities & Accountability
Method Statement & Risk Assessment

Review

Safe Working Procedure


Task Launching Meeting
Methodology Training
Job Safety Analysis / On-site Inspection
Monitoring / Group Discussion
1st Action
Continual Actions

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

- Site Management
- Engineer Team
- Safety Personnel
- S/Cs Representative
- Site Management
- Engineer Team
- Safety Personnel
- Supervisor
- S/Cs Representative
- Supervisor
- Ganger
- All relevant workers
- Engineer Team
- Nominated
Supervisor
- Site Management /
Engineer Team / Safety
Personnel / S/Cs
Representative

62

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Participation, Training & Communication
Method Statement & Risk Assessment
Safe Working Procedure
Review

Task Launching Meeting


Methodology Training
Job Safety Analysis / On-site Inspection
Monitoring / Group Discussion

1st Action
Continual Actions

- Site Management
- Engineer Team
- Safety Personnel
- S/Cs Representative
- Site Management
- Engineer Team
- Safety Personnel
- Supervisor
- S/Cs Representative
- Supervisor
- Ganger
- All relevant workers
- Engineer Team
- Nominated
Supervisor
- Site Management /
Engineer Team / Safety
Personnel / S/Cs
Representative

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Monitoring & Measuring
Method Statement & Risk Assessment
Safe Working Procedure
Review

Task Launching Meeting


Methodology Training
Job Safety Analysis / On-site Inspection
Monitoring / Group Discussion

1st Action

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

- Site Management
- Engineer Team
- Safety Personnel
- S/Cs Representative
- Site Management
- Engineer Team
- Safety Personnel
- Supervisor
- S/Cs Representative
- Supervisor
- Ganger
- All relevant workers
- Engineer Team
- Nominated
Supervisor
- Site Management /
Engineer Team / Safety
Personnel / S/Cs
Representative

63

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Consultation & Reviewing
Method Statement & Risk Assessment

Review

Safe Working Procedure


Task Launching Meeting
Methodology Training
Job Safety Analysis / On-site Inspection
Monitoring / Group Discussion
1st Action
Continual Actions

- Site Management
- Engineer Team
- Safety Personnel
- S/Cs Representative
- Site Management
- Engineer Team
- Safety Personnel
- Supervisor
- S/Cs Representative
- Supervisor
- Ganger
- All relevant workers
- Engineer Team
- Nominated
Supervisor
- Site Management /
Engineer Team / Safety
Personnel / S/Cs
Representative

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Objectives to be achieved by the Flow Chart

Resources & Commitment


Planning
Responsibilities & Accountability
Participation, Training & Communication
Monitoring & Measuring
Consultation & Reviewing
Ultimately, Safe Systems of Work

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

64

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Definition
System Safety
Systems safety is a safety model. It is a tool that
can be used to predict loss rates.

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Modern Accident Analysis
System Safety Technique
Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)
Management Oversight & Risk Tree (MORT)
Even Tree Analysis (ETA)
Cause Consequence Analysis (CCA)

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

65

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH

Modern Accident Analysis


System Safety Technique
Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Modern Accident Analysis
Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)
A symbolic logic diagram that shows the
cause-and-effect relationship between an
undesirable event and one or more
contribution causes.
System for detailed analysis of failure or
potential failure

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

66

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Modern Accident Analysis
Hierarchy of FTA
Head Event Top Event that is analyzed by
constructing the rest of the tree
Primary Event A primary fault in which the
component itself malfunctions
Secondary Event A secondary fault or effect caused
by another component, device, or outside condition
Basic Event An event that covers at the element
level and refers to the smallest subdivision of the
analysis of the system

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Symbols
Fault tree language is largely symbolic
An event, usually a malfunction, described in functional terms

AND gate

OR gate

Primary fault. An event with no further development

Secondary fault. An event with no further development.


Normally expected to happen.

The most common fault tree symbols

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

67

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Analytical Techniques
Light
Failed

Internal
circuit
breaker

Bulb
burned
out

Simplified fault tree


Power
company
failure

Power
failure

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Drill fragments
impact eye

Drill disintegrated

Eye exposed
Press
operates

Drill stuck
by object

Quality control
inadequate
etc.

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

Faulty
drill

Operator in
front of drill

No quality
control

Eye not
protected

Machine shield
removed
etc.

Did not
wear goggles

68

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Modern Accident Analysis
System Safety Technique
Management Oversight & Risk Tree (MORT)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Modern Accident Analysis
Management Oversight & Risk Tree (MORT)
Uses a logic tree format as a guide to seeking
facts in mishap investigations.
Uses for finding the causes and contributing
factors of mishaps

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

69

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Modern Accident Analysis
MORT is based on the concept that all
accidental losses arise from two sources:
Specific job oversights and omissions
The management system factors that control
the job
Assumed Risk

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT)
MORT Investigation
Injury Damage
Cost Performance

Management
system factors

Specific oversights
and omissions
Assumed risks

The basic MORT investigation tree.

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

70

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Title
Company
Author
Date
etc.

Executive Summary (Abstract of complete report)


Scope of the analysis
Say what is analyzed

Brief system description


TOP Description/Severity Bounding
Analysis Boundaries
Physical Boundaries
Operational Boundaries
Operational Phases
Human Operator In/out

and
what is not analyzed.
Interfaces Treated
Resolution Limit
Exposure Interval
Others

The Analysis

Show Tree as Figure.


Discussion of Method (Cite Refs.)
Include Data Sources, Cut
Software Used
Sets, Path Sets, etc. as
Presentation/Discussion of the Tree
Tables.
Source(s) of Probability Data (If quantified)
Common Cause Search (If done)
Sensitivity Test(s) (If conducted)
Cut Sets (Structural and/or Quantitative Importance, if analyzed)
Path Sets (If analyzed)
Trade Studies (If Done)

Findings
TOP Probability (Give Confidence Limits)
Comments on System Vulnerability
Chief Contributors
Candidate Reduction Approaches (If appropriate)

The Fault Tree


Analysis Report

Conclusions and Recommendations

Risk Comparisons (Bootstrapping data, if appropriate)


Is further analysis needed? By what method(s)?

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH

Modern Accident Analysis


System Safety Technique
Even Tree Analysis (ETA)

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

71

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH

What is Event Tree Analysis?


Event tree diagrams provide a logical
representation of the possible outcomes
following a hazardous event. Event tree
analysis provides an inductive approach
to reliability and risk assessment and are
constructed using forward logic.

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH

What is Event Tree Analysis?


The event tree model may be linked to
the fault tree model by using fault tree
gate results as the source of event tree
probabilities.
The event tree module handles both
primary and secondary event trees,
multiple branches and multiple
consequence categories.

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

72

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Event Tree
Example

Replacement
Defunct

Replacement
OK

Replacement
Defunct

Instructor
Replaces

Spare
Available
Charlie
Replaces
Projector
Lamp Fails

Replacement
OK

Instructor
Inept
Charlie
Unavailable

No Spare Available

F
S = Success
F = Failure

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Modern Accident Analysis
System Safety Technique
Cause Consequence Analysis (CCA)

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

73

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Cause-consequence analysis ( CCA ) is a
blend of fault tree and event tree
analysis. This technique combines cause
analysis ( described by fault trees) and
consequence analysis (described by
event trees), and hence deductive and
inductive formal methods adopted for
safety analysis.

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Cause Consequence Example
Time Lost ~
~ 6 min.

Time Lost ~
~12 min.

+ 6 Min.
Increments/Each
Outcome

Time Lost > 90 min.


Y
N
Charlie
Changeover
Succeeds

Y
N
Participant
Attempts/
Succeeds

Time Lost ~~4 min.


N
Y
Instructor
Changeover
Succeeds

Time Lost > min.

C
N
Y
Charlie
Summoned/
Present

N
Spare Lamp
at Hand
C
Projector
Lamp Fails

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

74

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Safety is described as a control of loss

Petersen, D., 1978, Techniques of


Safety Management Accidents,
Unsafe Acts, Unsafe Conditions: are
all symptoms that something is wrong
with the SMS.

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Part I

F&IU(SM) R (2002) 1.

Safety Policy.
2.
Safety Organization.
3.
Safety Training.
4.
In-House Safety Rules.
5.
Programme of Inspection of Hazardous Conditions.
6.
Personal Protection Programme.
7.
Accident/Incident Investigation
8.
Emergency Preparedness.
Part II
9.
Evaluation, Selection and Control of Sub-Contractors.
10.
Safety Committees.
Part III
11.
Evaluation of job related hazards.
12.
Promotion of Safety and Health Awareness.
13.
Programmes for Accident Control and Elimination of Hazards.
14.
Programmes on Protection of Occupational Health.

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

75

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH

Disaster Management in ? Element?

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Part I

F&IU(SM) R (2002) 1.

Safety Policy.
2.
Safety Organization.
3.
Safety Training.
4.
In-House Safety Rules.
5.
Programme of Inspection of Hazardous Conditions.
6.
Personal Protection Programme.
7.
Accident/Incident Investigation.
8.
Emergency Preparedness.
Part II
9.
Evaluation, Selection and Control of Sub-Contractors.
10.
Safety Committees.
Part III
11.
Evaluation of job related hazards.
12.
Promotion of Safety and Health Awareness.
13.
Programmes for Accident Control and Elimination of Hazards.
14.
Programmes on Protection of Occupational Health.

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

76

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Part 1 (Schedule 4)
Main Elements of Safety Management
Emergency Preparedness - Contractors
preparedness in development, communication
and execution against emergency situations

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Emergency Preparedness
Establish the Emergency Programme
Prepare the Emergency Plan
Set up Emergency Team Appoint
Emergency Coordinator & Deputy
Display Emergency Contact Telephone
List

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

77

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Emergency Preparedness
Emergency Drills conduct at Six Months
Interval & Prepare Reports
Demonstration of use of Fire
Extinguishers
Appointment of Sufficient First Aiders
Prepare First Aid Checklist

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH

Implementation of Emergency Preparedness


under Safety Management System

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

78

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH

Sample of Safety Plan

Modern Safety Plan


should include 14
elements of Safety
Management System

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Question 1: Does the emergency plan include
arrangements such as means of fire escape, designation
of a central gathering point, emergency lighting and
power sources, availability and locations of emergency
plants/equipment, emergency coordinator, emergency
and rescue equipment, and liaison with emergency and
medical services?
Answer: Section 12.10 of the safety plan described the
emergency plan in respect of fire, accident, typhoon and
heavy rainstorms, flooding and adverse weather and leakage
of chemicals and etc. EV26 showed the emergency contact
telephone list, flowchart of reporting and escape route to
supplement the procedure in safety plan. Exit sign, muster
point, emergency lighting and escape route were displayed
on site (See Photos 02, 09, 16 & 105). Fire alarm had been
provided in the workplace (See PH105).

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

79

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Question 2: Is there an emergency plan for an effective
and prompt response to adverse weather conditions
that may affect the safety of the site?
Answer: The emergency arrangement for typhoon, heavy
rainstorm, adverse weather was specified in section
12.4 of the safety plan. The emergency flow chart had
been prepared for checking the response against
emergency situation (See EV26). In addition, checklist
before and after inclement weather had been collected
during the safety audit.
In addition, the requirements of Code of Practice in times
of Typhoons and Rainstorms were specified in section
12.5 of the safety plan.

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Question 3: Are emergency services' locations, telephone
numbers and designated personnel listed and displayed
prominently?

Answer: The emergency contact telephone lists were


included in 11.4 of the Safety Plan. Emergency contact
telephone lists were displayed prominently on site (See
EV26, PH02 & PH80).
In addition, the emergency contact telephone number was
displayed at the door of the worker's rest room as per
photo 80.

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

80

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Question 4: Are qualified first aiders, first aid facilities and
equipment adequate and maintained to legal and
contractual requirements?

Answer: Contractor engaged two first aider Mr. X X and


Mr. XXX in this project (See EV27). Mr. X possessed
valid first aid certificates from Hong Kong Red Cross and
Hong Kong St. John Ambulance respectively. PH18
showed that adequate first aid facilities were available
on site.

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Question 5: Is there an emergency team(s) established to
respond to emergency situations?

Answer: Emergency team was established for the project.


The members included the Project Manager, Senior Site
Agent, Site Agent, Foremen, Safety Officer, Safety
Supervisor, First Aider and Electrician (See the name list
and flowchart at EV26). Project Manager, Senior Site
Agent, Site-agent and First Aider were interviewed to
collect information. They understood they were the
members of emergency team.

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

81

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Question 6: Have emergency team members been suitably
trained on emergency evacuation, fire prevention and
fighting etc.?

Answer: Contractor arranged training to emergency team


members on emergency preparedness as per the
training record at EV28. Contractor also used
emergency drills as training for emergency team
members on emergency evacuation as per EV28.
Emergency team members did attend and participate in
the emergency drills.

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Question 7: Is there a programme of drills and exercise
for all emergency situations?

Answer: Emergency drill was scheduled in accordance


with the drill & exercise programme in section 12.11 of
the safety plan and EV26. The drill programme covered
the exercise against fire, first aid, adverse weather
procedure, chemical spillage.
The fire drill was conducted on 20/05/2016 (See EV28).
The drill programme had been collected during the
safety audit.

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

82

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Question 8: Are the drills and exercises for all emergency
situations been conducted and evaluation reports
prepared in accordance with the programme?

Answer: The fire drill was conducted on 20/05/2016 (See


EV28). The next fire drill would be held after 6-month
(See section 12.11 of the safety plan). The emergency
drill report had been collected in accordance with the
programme.

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH

Discussion in this Session

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

83

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH

Changed Risk to Opportunity

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH

Investments
Insurance
Environment

Liability
Security

Fire

Quality
OHS

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

84

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH
Newspaper Cutting - Apple
Daily on 23/04/08

84
34
9
10

800



Copy for HKU SPACE training purpose only

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH

Question

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

85

MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH, The University


of Greenwich (17/09/2016)

The University of Greenwich


MSc/PgDip in OSHE/OH

Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

86