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Ezbet EL Hagana Case Study Reflections on results of joint students project between Ain Shams
Ezbet EL Hagana Case Study
Reflections on results of joint
students project between Ain Shams
University & Cologne University of
Applied Sciences (PartNaR)
Supervised by
Dr. Marwa A. Khalifa
Formal and informal settlements in Cairo (UN-HABITAT, 2008)

Ezbet El Haggana - Location

Located in north-east of Cairo governorate. More than a million inhabitants

living in the area (UNFPA, 2007).

Ezbet el Haggana was at the beginning a village for the families

of coast guard soldiers stationed

nearby. Then informal residential community started to grow and usually constructed under the

process of “hand claim.” without

any legal documents

process of “hand claim.” without any legal documents Map showing Ezbet el Haggana location (circle) in

Map showing Ezbet el Haggana location (circle) in Cairo Governorate (GTZ, 2009)

Main Entrance Army Army area area Unsafe zone under high voltage transmission lines
Main
Entrance
Army
Army
area
area
Unsafe zone
under high voltage
transmission lines

Formal

settlement

Formal

settlement

Formal

settlement

© Hassan El Mouelhi

Map showing the area of Ezbet el Haggana (dotted line) and the adjacent areas

Main Entrance Army area Army area Unsafe zone under high voltage transmission lines Formal settlement
Main
Entrance
Army area
Army area
Unsafe zone
under high voltage
transmission lines
Formal settlement
Formal settlement
© Hassan El Mouelhi

Formal settlement

The whole process of the study methods and results

The whole process of the study methods and results

Methodology

1. Data acquisition:

Literature review

Data observation in three dimensions: physical, economical, and socio- cultural:

First observation is conducted to appreciate the present situation of the

inhabitant’s living conditions and the environment of the area

Unsorted data in each dimension is collected.

Qualitative data collection

Interview (aim to interview the internal stakeholders)

Presentations(Two external stakeholders gave presentations on their role

and responsibility; a governmental agency, the Informal Settlement Development Facility (ISDF)) 2. Stakeholders identification (External/internal- Primary secondary and Key ones)

3. Perspectives of stakeholders analysis (interest/conflict and conditions of

power)

Physical current Situation

Water Supply:

The Association for Health and Environmental Development

(AHED) reported in 2007 that more than 50 percent of the households are not connected to a formal water distribution

network and rely on informal and unsustainable water

delivery.

AHED (2007) collected data from the interviews that the water quality of formal water system is unclean, colour and smell which may contaminated by the leakages of the old sewed pipes or informal sewage disposal systems. Moreover, many inhabitants believe that the unclean water supply is a

reason of their illnesses especially the repeated diarrhea,

chronic renal diseases and renal failure

Sewage system:

Sewage is the biggest problem as it accumulates in the lower

levels and creates risk of explosion.

According to the data of AHED (2007), less than 50 percent of

households are connected to formal sewage system in the area.

The existing connection is mainly a result of an official Canadian

funding project superintended by one internal NGO.

Electricity:

Electricity tampering is conducted in the area by

households that have no legal

connection.

However, there are Some

households having electricity

connection with the supply

from the State which can be noticed from the meter in front of the houses .

The power lines frequently

fire roof-top of households underneath because of spontaneous combustion and

the easily ignited roof

materials such as straw, rags or wood (AHED, 2007).

because of spontaneous combustion and the easily ignited roof materials such as straw, rags or wood
because of spontaneous combustion and the easily ignited roof materials such as straw, rags or wood
because of spontaneous combustion and the easily ignited roof materials such as straw, rags or wood
because of spontaneous combustion and the easily ignited roof materials such as straw, rags or wood

Waste management:

There is no existing formal garbage collection system in the area.

However, there is one family collects and classifies garbage and sells sorted garbage for recycling. (AHED, 2007).

Housing conditions:

The buildings under construction still

present over the whole area . The structure of buildings is considerably good.

However, without any plan or regulation, the buildings have poor light and ventilation; while the areas have

narrow unpaved streets with no open

spaces and few public services

narrow unpaved streets with no open spaces and few public services Buildings under construction in Ezbet
narrow unpaved streets with no open spaces and few public services Buildings under construction in Ezbet

Buildings under construction in Ezbet el Haggana

© Simon Witti

© Wityada Techadisai
© Wityada Techadisai

© Wityada Techadisai

House number and the designs of the buildings

Street condition and

transportation:

There are 2main entrances to Ezbet el Haggana.

There are few main streets which

approximately 10-12 metres long; but many small streets with around 3-4 metres length

All streets in the area are unpaved

and have no street light.

Tuk Tuk is introduced as a mean of transport inside the quarter since last year.

A carriage drawn by a horse or donkey is also used for transporting goods.

Two main streets of Ezbet el Haggana, El Tahrir and Al Mazraa

goods. Two main streets of Ezbet el Haggana, El Tahrir and Al Mazraa Tuk Tuk and
goods. Two main streets of Ezbet el Haggana, El Tahrir and Al Mazraa Tuk Tuk and

Tuk Tuk and horse carriage are used in Hagana

Educational Services

According to the data of AHED (2007),

there are two primary schools in Ezbet el Haggana. However, they are

not sufficient for the students in the

area and their infrastructures.

There are some private schools and educational centres which also providing summer courses in Ezbet el Haggana where only children from middle-income families can attend and they aren’t in a good condition.

can attend and they aren’t in a good condition . The private school (up) and the
can attend and they aren’t in a good condition . The private school (up) and the

The private school (up) and the learning environment provided by local NGO (down)

Socio-Economic:

The ground floors of the buildings in main streets out there are mostly commercial activities which can be split into retailing

and manufacturing.

The retailing can be often seen , the manufacturing is rarely found.

However, most income is generated on a daily basis, which can have impact on limiting the planning of investments.

Many small industries and productive activities in Ezbet el Haggana interrelate to formal economic activities in the city.

and productive activities in Ezbet el Haggana interrelate to formal economic activities in the city .
and productive activities in Ezbet el Haggana interrelate to formal economic activities in the city .
and productive activities in Ezbet el Haggana interrelate to formal economic activities in the city .

Retail shops

The capital flow in the area also bases on the ongoing construction.

Commercial and manufacturing activities

are the second basis for the generation of income in the quarter.

Also one of the socio-economic positive

features existing there is the micro- crediting system based on mutual trust and control through social capital,

enables investments beyond the

individual budget.

In addition, the informal business allows people to spare expenditures for taxes which on the other hand, can encourage bribe to perform business.

which on the other hand, can encourage bribe to perform business . Car maintenance service and
which on the other hand, can encourage bribe to perform business . Car maintenance service and

Car maintenance service and home decoration shop

Health risks:

Inhabitants living in unhealthy

environment and constant presence of pathogenic micro-organisms may have health risks arise from poor sanitation,

lack of clean water, poorly ventilated

living and working condition, and from air and industrial pollution (UNFPA,

2007).

Moreover, There is one sector of the area that has the high voltage transmission lines over the households. The high voltage transmission lines cause the most dangerous zone and the lowest land

price for that part of the Ezbet El

Haggana.

© Wityada Techadisai

© Simon Witti

conditions that can cause health risks to inhabitants

Data analysis

SWOT analysis: Four elements of SWOT matrix
SWOT analysis:
Four
elements of
SWOT matrix

The cross-cutting process of SWOT analysis to identify core issues

Structuring of field information into

SWOT and deriving core issues

The physical dimension SWOT:

1-Strengths:

Most houses seem to have access to electricity and clean water

Water and electricity seem to be provided by the state against payment

The structure of buildings is of strong nature and for permanent stay

There seems to be a strong reuse of construction materials

At the entrance to the quarter at Suez road, there are transportation stations for mobility between el Haggana and the city

The main streets have a width of up to 12 meters, offering enough space for heavy transport vehicles and car traffic when roads are paved, allowing pedestrians to walk onto streets.

Streets for only residential use are even smaller size, allowing for more quite areas

Private primary schools are there for education of middle-income families

Garbage is collected and partly separated for further reuse

There are some small open green spaces

Structuring of field information into

SWOT and deriving core issues

The physical dimension SWOT:

2- weaknesses

no drainage systems in buildings (though that fact couldn’t be clarified in total)

The current sewage system is not able to remove the amounts of wastewater,

leading to regular flooding of Tahrir street.

The majority of buildings seem to obtain its electricity through informal (illegal) connection

The roads are not paved and rough, making transport more difficult and causing

dust devils encouraging sprinkling of roads necessary in front of cafés and terraces and by thus increases water consumption.

There is only one public clinic in the quarter

lack of public primary and secondary schools

no police station in the quarter

The people, living beneath the high voltage lines suffer from health hazards

Reused bricks may not be as strong as new ones, causing fragile walls.

Garbage is present all over streets and only rarely collected

Structuring of field information into

SWOT and deriving core issues

The physical dimension SWOT:

3-The opportunities:

there is still potential for the construction of further living space, to take up new

incomers

There will be new occupation possibilities available at the currently built new hospital

There are community based development projects in place

A signal tower eases communication via mobile phones

The widespread skills in construction allow for a greater independence

4-Threats:

The close vicinity as well as height of buildings leads to a high population density, bearing a great load on infrastructure services.

High voltage lines may rip and cause severe electricity accidents.

The mobile phone signal tower may have negative impacts on people’s health.

Tuk Tuks, mostly driven by children, might be subject to a higher risk of accidents.

Structuring of field information into

SWOT and deriving core issues

The economic dimension - SWOT

1-The strengths:

Most people earn money outside the quarter.

Commuters get to their work place and back via a microbus system.

The economic strength of the quarter is partly built on the still ongoing construction cycle; the expenses for construction (except for building materials) do not leave the quarter, but stay inside and enable construction workers to earn money for their families.

Commercial and manufacturing activities are the second basis for the generation of income in the quarter.

A crediting system based on mutual trust and control through social capital, enables investments beyond the individual budget.

The informal business environment allows the people to spare expenditures for

taxes, Those savings add to the household’s budget

There is a skilful labour force available in the quarter

Structuring of field information into

SWOT and deriving core issues

The economic dimension - SWOT

2-The weaknesses:

The economic activities, beside construction are concentrated at the fringes of the

quarter.

Informality of business may augment insecurity regarding return of investment and job opportunities.

The quarter’s reputation and by that economic exchange with the surrounding areas might suffer from the prevailing perception of Ezbet el Haggana.

The area beneath the high voltage lines suffers a lack of investment for proper housing, the people living there might be limited in their economic abilities due to health issues.

Most income is generated on a daily basis, limiting the planning of investments.

The inhabitants do not support the meaning of paying taxes.

Working conditions may not be safe, increasing the risk of accidents.

The lack of formal vocational training reduces the younger people’s chances to get a job in the formal labour market.

The location of the quarter at the outer fringes of the Cairo city agglomeration increases transportation times and raises prices of goods due to a long supply chain

Structuring of field information into SWOT

and deriving core issues

The economic dimension - SWOT

3-opportunities

There is a still growing construction and commercial business ongoing, creating new job and income opportunities.

The construction of new bypassing roads increases local job opportunities.

There is no formal process for financial investment, decisions and transactions can be done easier.

An introduction of tax payments can help to formalize the quarter, namely the facilitation of public services, supporting business activities.

The newly introduced Tuk-Tuk allows for transportation even in the smaller streets.

The currently changing political situation may have a positive impact on the business activities in the quarter.

4-Threats

In case of an increasing formalization of the quarter, there might be the risk of higher rents .

Child labour hinders children from education, decreasing their job opportunities later on.

The limited array of skills found in the quarter might impact on the size of wages,

when demand for labour increases.

Structuring of field information into SWOT

and deriving core issues

The socio-cultural dimension SWOT:

1-strengths

People’s aspirations towards an improvement of their livelihoods are high, giving way to optimistic planning.

Wide and well-connected entrances facilitate exchange and communication with the

surrounding areas and the city.

A sufficient pre-educational infrastructure through nurseries and NGO-led activities creates a basis for the further acquisition of knowledge.

There seem to be good relations between people of different religions

The outer area seems to be understood as a common home place (e.g. indicated by

visibly hanging out clothes for drying) supporting social cohesion.

The NGO is a well-known institution with a great influence in the area.

2-Weaknesses:

There are no strong ties across residents with different origins.

The quality of education given is not sufficient, when compared to formal school teachings.

People living underneath the high voltage lines may not be well connected to the other parts of the quarter.

Public primary and secondary schools are geographically far away, hampering access

to formal education.

Structuring of field information into SWOT

and deriving core issues

The socio-cultural dimension SWOT:

3- opportunities

The construction of a new hospital raises hopes for better medical treatments

The younger generation’s aspirations towards a better future life raise productivity.

Positive recognition of NGO may support future participatory approaches. 4- The threats

Many mosques lack formally approved supervision and by thus may negatively impact on the quality of religious education.

The meaning of the whole area to be a common home place without a real public

space may reduce externals ability and willingness to invest in the area.

There is no offer by the government to the people to participate in an upgrading

process.

The core issues, thus the assets, assumed to be most important to the inhabitants, derived by

cross-cutting dimensions and SWOT-elements

are as follows:

Connectivity and accessibility

Physical and social infrastructure

Informal economic capital and income (income generation and gap)

Communication between stakeholders

Social capital

Aspirations.

Data analysis

Stakeholder identification

All concerned actors to Ezbet el Haggana is listed and classified as internal

and external stakeholders which then in the next step the relations of

them and the core issues will be analysed.

Internal stakeholders :

Internal stakeholders include inhabitants who live and work in Ezbet el Haggana and commuters who either live or work in the area. Internal stakeholders are classified as follows.

(1) high income - low income (based on economic status) (2) Families (3) Local jobs commuters (places of work) (4) Non-governmental organization (NGO)/Community-based organization (CBO) (5) Unsafe population (6) New comers

External stakeholders :

External stakeholders comprise of actors who neither live nor work in the

area, but have other concerns to the area; for example, land ownership

and infrastructure services. This includes public and private agencies, NGOs, international organizations and civil societies.

(1) Informal Settlement Development Facility (ISDF) Public

agency

(2) Electricity Authority Public agency

(3) Ministries Public agency (4) Cairo Governorate Public agency

(5) Army Public agency

(6) Parliament Public agency (7) Madinet Nasr for Housing and Development - Private company (8) Neighbouring communities civil society

Data analysis

Stakeholder Matrix :

Aiming find out the relations between core issues and stakeholders in the stakeholder matrix based on interest/conflict of stakeholder on core issues and power relation of stakeholders on core issues.

A result from this matrix can be used as a fundamental for conducting or

performing recommendation, action plan, urban planning or decision making.

action plan, urban planning or decision making. Figure showing Stakeholder matrix used for analysing the
action plan, urban planning or decision making. Figure showing Stakeholder matrix used for analysing the

Figure showing Stakeholder matrix

used for analysing the relations

between core issues and stakeholders.

Impact of core issues on internal stakeholders

Impact of core issues on internal stakeholders Remark:

Remark:

Impact of core issues on internal stakeholders Remark:

Impact of internal and external stakeholders on core

issues

Impact of internal and external stakeholders on core issues Remark:

Remark:

Impact of internal and external stakeholders on core issues Remark:

Power Vs.Interest Matrix

Power Vs.Interest Matrix

Data analysis

Stakeholder relation analysis

Data analysis Stakeholder relation analysis Figure showing The distribution of stakeholder relationships

Figure showing The distribution of stakeholder relationships

The stakeholder power analysis

Thank You…

Thank You…

Thank You…