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# Beirut Arab University

## Department of Mechanical Engineering

MCHE-204 Foundation of Mechanical Engineering
Spring 2015-2016

Chapter (3)

## 1st Law of Thermodynamics

((Closed System))
3.1 Introduction
We cannot neither create nor destroy energy

## Heat & Work

3.2 Heat Transfer
If a body is left in a medium of different temperature, energy transfer takes place
until thermal equilibrium is established.
Heat is a form of energy that is transferred due to temperature difference.
Temperature difference is the driving force of heat transfer.

Body of higher
temperature

direction of energy
transfer

Body of lower
temperature

## Beirut Arab University

Department of Mechanical Engineering
MCHE-204 Foundation of Mechanical Engineering
Spring 2015-2016

Units:
Heat (Q) kJ
Heat per unit mass q

Q
kJ / kg
m

## Rate of heat transfer Q kJ/s kW

Sign convention
- Heat transfer to the system (heat gain), Q > 0
Example:
10 kJ is transferred to the system Q = + 10 kJ or Qin = 10 kJ
- Heat transfer from the system (heat loss), Q < 0
Example:
The heat loss from the system is 20 kJ Q = - 20 kJ or Qout = 20 kJ

3.3 Work
Any energy interaction between the system and the surrounding that is not
driven by the temperature difference is known as "work" (e.g; moving-piston
work, rotating shaft work, etc...)

Units:
Work (W) kJ
Work per unit mass w

W
kJ / kg
m

## Beirut Arab University

Department of Mechanical Engineering
MCHE-204 Foundation of Mechanical Engineering
Spring 2015-2016

Sign convention
- Work done by the system, W > 0
Example:
10 kJ work is done by the system W = + 10 kJ or Wout = 10 kJ
- Work done on the system, W < 0
Example:
20 kJ work is done on the system is W = - 20 kJ or Win = 20 kJ

## 3.4 Mechanical Forms of Work

There are several forms of work. Most commonly known is the one due to the
motion of a piston inside a cylinder.

Moving-piston Work
Work due to the movement of inner face of a piston (part of boundary). It is
usually called "Work of Moving Boundary (Wb)"

moving boundary

GAS

fixed boundary
Piston- cylinder
device

## Beirut Arab University

Department of Mechanical Engineering
MCHE-204 Foundation of Mechanical Engineering
Spring 2015-2016

F

ds
P
GAS

Wb PdV
2

kJ

P
1
Process path

2

Wb PdV
1

dA

dV

## Beirut Arab University

Department of Mechanical Engineering
MCHE-204 Foundation of Mechanical Engineering
Spring 2015-2016

P
Since Wb equals the area
under the process path,

A
1

## WbA WbB WbC

B
2
C
V
Net work is defined as:
Wnet Wout Win

In a cycle, Wnet is
1

minus

Wnet
2
1

minus

## "area under process 2 - 1"

V1

V2

Example:
A gas expands from 500 kPa, 2 m3 to 100 kPa, 5 m3. Assuming a linear
behavior, determine the work done during this expansion.
Solution:
Plot the process path on a P-V diagram. It is a straight-line segment.
The work done is equal to the total area, AT, under this segment.

1
AT Arec tan gle Atriangle 100 (5 2) (500 100) (5 2) 900kJ
2

## Beirut Arab University

Department of Mechanical Engineering
MCHE-204 Foundation of Mechanical Engineering
Spring 2015-2016

## Work Done During Some Common Processes

1- Isometric (constant volume) process
2- Isobaric (constant pressure) process
3- Isothermal (constant temperature) process
4- Polytropic Process, PVn = constant

p

Wb PdV

but dV = 0

V=constant

Wb = 0
2

2

Wb PdV

1
2

P dV

1 P=constant

P [ V ]12
Wb P( V2 V1 )

Wb
V
V1

V2

## Beirut Arab University

Department of Mechanical Engineering
MCHE-204 Foundation of Mechanical Engineering
Spring 2015-2016

Example:
A hot-air balloon has a volume of 20 m3 at atmospheric pressure 100 kPa. If the
balloon was inflated (expanded) to 1020 m3, how much work was done during
this expansion process. Assume the pressure inside the balloon is approximately
constant.

Solution:
Since the balloon expansion occurs under constant pressure conditions;
Therefore, W = P(V2-V1) = 100(1020 20) = 105 kJ

2

Wb PdV

## For ideal gases: PV = mRT = constant

PV = C
P

(P1 V1 = P2 V2 =)

T=constant

C
V

Wb
2

V
C
dV
Wb dV C
C ln 2
V
V
V1
1

V1

V
V
Wb P1V1 ln 2 P2V2 ln 2
V1
V1

V2 P1

V1 P2

V2

## Beirut Arab University

Department of Mechanical Engineering
MCHE-204 Foundation of Mechanical Engineering
Spring 2015-2016

Example:
a) How much work is required to compress 2 kg of air from 500 kPa to 1 MPa
if the compression process is isothermal at 250 oC?
b) Find the final volume of the air
Assumption:
Air is treated as an ideal gas
Properties:
R 0.287kJ / kgK

Analysis:
a) Isothermal process

V1

Wb P1V1 ln

P1
P2

## mRT 2 0.287 (250 273)

V1 0.6m3
P1
500

Wb 500 0.6 ln

500
207.94kJ (done on the air)
1000

b) P1V1 P2V2 V2

P1
500
V1
0.6 V2 0.3m3
P2
1000

## 4- Polytropic Process (PVn = constant)

P

Wb PdV
1

1
PVn = C

Since PV = constant = C
( P1V1n P2V2n ... )

Wb

2
V

V1

V2

## Beirut Arab University

Department of Mechanical Engineering
MCHE-204 Foundation of Mechanical Engineering
Spring 2015-2016

C
Vn
V

2
V n 1 2
C
dV

Wb n dV C n C

1
V
V

V1
1
1
2

Wb C 2

1
n 1

## But P1V1n P2V2n C , then

P2V2 .V2 n1 P1V1.V1 n1
Wb
n 1

Wb

P1V1 P2V2
n 1

Example:
A perfect gas in a piston-cylinder assembly expands according to pV1.5 = const.
If the initial pressure and volume are 450 kPa and 0.1 m3 respectively, determine
the work done during the expansion process. Final pressure is 200 kPa.

Solution:

p
P1=450 kPa

1
PV1.5 = C
Wb

P2=200 kPa

V1=0.1m3

2
V2=?

## Beirut Arab University

Department of Mechanical Engineering
MCHE-204 Foundation of Mechanical Engineering
Spring 2015-2016

Wb

P1V1 P2V2
n 1

## P1= 450 kPa , V1=0.1 m3

, P2=200 kPa , V2 = ?

To get V2
p1V11.5 p2V21.5
1 / 1.5

V2 p1

V1 p2
Wb

1 / 1.5

450
V2 0.1

200

0.1717m3

21.32 kJ
n 1
1.5 1

## 1st Law of Thermodynamics

Net energy
transfer to or
from a system as
heat and work

Net increase or
decrease in the
total energy of
the system

Esystem

Q-W

i.e. Q W = E
Q =Qnet = Qin Qout

11

## Beirut Arab University

Department of Mechanical Engineering
MCHE-204 Foundation of Mechanical Engineering
Spring 2015-2016

## W=Wnet = Wout Win

E = U + K.E. + P.E.
Then, Q W = U + K.E. + P.E.
where,
U = m (u2 u1)
K.E. = m (v22 v12 )
P.E. = mg (z2 z1)
Note that for a stationary system, K.E. = 0 & P.E. = 0
Q W = U

Example:

## Apply 1st law

Q W = E
(Qin Qout ) (Wout Win ) = E
(30 5) (0 0.5) = E
E = 25.5 kJ
Total energy of the system will increase by 25.5 kJ

11

## Beirut Arab University

Department of Mechanical Engineering
MCHE-204 Foundation of Mechanical Engineering
Spring 2015-2016

Example:

## An ideal gas occupying a volume of 0.2 m3 at a pressure of 1.5

MPa. If the gas expands isothermally to a volume of 0.5 m3, find
the final pressure, W, Q, and U.
p1V1 p2V2
V
0.2
p2 p1 1 1.5
0.6 MPa
0.5
V2

## Since temperature is constant, U = 0

Note:
The internal energy of an ideal gas is a function of temperature only.

## 1st Law gives : Q - W 0.0 (stationary)

P
Q W
1

W Q P1V1 ln

V2
V1

0.5
(1.5 10 )( 0.2 )ln
274.89kJ
0.2
3

0.

12

## Beirut Arab University

Department of Mechanical Engineering
MCHE-204 Foundation of Mechanical Engineering
Spring 2015-2016

Problems set # 3
(1) A gas expands from a volume of 0.2 m3 and a pressure of 300 kPa to a volume
of 0.7 m3 and a pressure of 100 kPa such that the process path on the p-V
diagram is a straight line. Calculate the work done during the expansion.

(2)

## ** A spherical balloon has a diameter of 0.3 m and contains air at a pressure of

150 kPa. The diameter of the balloon increases to 0.4 m due to heating the air.
If the pressure during this process was changing in a proportional manner
with the diameter, calculate the work done by the air.

(3) A piston-cylinder device initially contains 0.4 m3 of air at 100 kPa and 80 C.
The air is now compressed to 0.1 m3 in such a way that the temperature inside
the cylinder remains constant. Determine the work done during this process.

(4)

## 0.05 m3 of a gas at 6.9 bar expands in a piston-cylinder assembly to a volume of

0.08 m3. Calculate the work done by the gas, knowing that the expansion
process follows the relation pV1.2 = constant.

(5) **A gas at 10 bar inside a cylinder having a volume of 0.05 m3. Calculate the
work done by the gas when it expands;
(a) at constant pressure to a final volume of 0.2 m3.
(b) according to a linear law to a final volume of 0.2 m3 and a final pressure of 2
bar.
(c) according to: pV = constant to a final volume of 0.1 m3.
(d) according to: pV3 = constant to a final volume of 0.06 m3.

13

## Beirut Arab University

Department of Mechanical Engineering
MCHE-204 Foundation of Mechanical Engineering
Spring 2015-2016

(6) **One kilogram of air expands according to a linear behavior from 4.2 bar &
0.004 m3 to 1.4 bar & 0.02 m3. If the air is then cooled at constant pressure,
and finally compressed according to pV = constant back to the initial
conditions of 4.2 bar and 0.004 m3. Calculate:
(a) the work done in each process; is it done by or on the air ?
(b) the net work of the cycle.
(c) sketch the cycle on the p-V diagram

(7) A gas is heated at constant pressure of 1.05 bar until it has a specific volume of
0.1 m3/kg. It is then compressed according to pV=constant to a pressure of
4.2 bar, followed by expansion according to pV1.3 = constant, and finally
heated at constant volume back to the initial conditions. If the mass of the gas
is 0.2 kg, and the work done in the constant-pressure process is 515 J, calculate
the net work done in the cycle, and sketch the cycle on the p-V diagram. Is the
cycle work done by or on the gas ?.

(8) **Fill in the missing data for each of the following processes of a closed system
between states 1 and 2. Everything is in kJ.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

18
-10

-6
12

25

E1

E2
35
4

3
14

14

E
-15
32
10