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# EXPERIMENT-2

## ZENER DIODE CHARACTERISTICS

1. VI CHARACTERISTIC OF ZENER DIODE

15mA

10mA

(713.191m,1.2868m)
5mA
(-4.4657,-1.1719m)

0A

-5mA

-10mA

-15mA
-5.0V
I(D1)

-4.0V

-3.0V

-2.0V

-1.0V

0V
V(V0)

NOTE:
Knee voltage = .713 V
Breakdown voltage OR zener voltage= -4.47 V
2. VOLTAGE REGULATION USING ZENER

1.0V

2.0V

3.0V

4.0V

5.0V

5.0V

4.0V

3.0V
TRANSFER FUNCTION
2.0V

1.0V

0V

-1.0V
-10V
V(D1:2)

-8V

-6V

-4V

-2V

0V

2V

4V

6V

8V

10V

V1(V1)

NOTE:
So from the curve we conclude that for after a particular value of supply
voltage (for which minimum Zener current required to ensure the Zener diode to
operate in Zener breakdown region) the output voltage is clamped to 4.5 volt .It does
not change even the supply goes on changing. This particular behaviour is called line
regulation.

DISCUSSION QUESTION:
1. Compare the simulation study of Zener diode and PN junction diode on the
basis of their V-I characteristics.
Taking D1N4002 as a general PN junction , the VI characteristic is
60mA

40mA

20mA
(468.715m,131.285u)
(-99.754,-29.426u)

-0mA

-20mA

-40mA

-60mA
-110V
I(D6)

-100V

-80V

-60V

NOTE:
BREAKDOWN VOLTAGE = 100 volt
FORWARD VOLTAGE = .47 volt
For zener diode , the VI characteristic is

-40V
V1(D6)

-20V

-0V

15V

15mA

10mA

(713.191m,1.2868m)
5mA
(-4.4657,-1.1719m)

0A

-5mA

-10mA

-15mA
-5.0V
I(D1)

-4.0V

-3.0V

-2.0V

-1.0V

0V

1.0V

2.0V

3.0V

4.0V

5.0V

V(V0)

NOTE:
ZENER VOLTAGE = 4.46 volt
FORWARD VOLTAGE = .7 volt

COMPARISION:
PN JUNCTION
Same forward characteristic as Zener
Breakdown voltage is very high
Doping is comparatively low
Irreversible breakdown
CONCLUSION:

ZENER
Same forward characteristic as
general PN junction
Breakdown voltage (Zener voltage) is
comparatively low
Doping is comparatively high
Reversible breakdown

General diode is designed to work in forward biasing condition while the Zener
is for operation in reverse region

2. A 10 V Zener diode (type 1N4740) placed in series with a resistor and a fixed
12 V power supply. What is the current flowing through the circuit if the value of the
resistor is 400 ohm?

## Simulation cant be done as the component model is not available in demo

version
Kvl equation:
12-400*I-10 = 0 (as Vin > Vz =10 V)
I = 5 mA > 1.17mA
So the correct ans is 5 mA as it is greater than the minimum current required to
put the diode in breakdown region.

3. Why Zener diode is called as voltage regulator? How the rating of Zener
diode is decided?
It can be explained by considering the following circuit

5.0V

6.0

5.0
4.0V

(12.540,4.5957)

4.0

3.0V

3.0

2.0V
2.0

REGULATION

1.0V
1.0

0V

>>
0
0V
1

2V
V(V0)

4V
D(V(V0))/ D(V1(Vin))

6V

8V

10V

12V

14V

16V

18V

V1(Vin)

So from graph it is clear that when the supply voltage is more than 12V the
output does not change even if the supply voltage changes. The output is fixed at
4.59 V. it is called line regulation.

20V

5.0V

1.0K

(560.163,4.5927)

2.5V

0.5K

>>
0
0.1K
1

0V

V(V0)

0.2K
0.3K
D(V(V0)) / D(I(R2))

0.4K

0.5K

0.6K

0.7K

0.8K

0.9K

OHM

So from graph it is clear that when the load resistance is more than 500 Ohm
the output voltage remain constant irrespective of increase in load resistance or
decrease in load current. This is called load regulation. The minimum 500 Ohm value
ensures the Zener to work in breakdown region.
NOTE:
load regulation specification defines how close the series resistance of the output is to 0 ohms - the series
resistance of an ideal voltage source.
SELECTING ZENER DIODE FOR APPLICATION:
R 2

IS

IL

1k

ID
V1
16Vdc

D 7
D 1N 750

R L
1k

IS = ID + IL
Zener voltage = voltage rating of the load
As we know in the process of operation if the load impedance increase and hence the load current decreases
the current from the supply remains same and hence the Zener current increases.
Maximum Zener current >= off load current in Zener
Minimum Zener current = supply current-full load current
Power rating = Zener voltage* Maximum Zener current

4. Obtain the I-v characteristic of the Zener diode (e.g. D1N750 is a 4.7 V
Zener). The voltage regulator circuit shown below has R = 1 KW.
VI characteristic

1.0K

16m

(4.6694,11.251m)
12m

8m
(4.5966,3.3834m)

4m

0
0V
- I(D1)

1V
(16-V(V0))/1000

2V
(8-V(V0))/1000

3V

4V

5V

6V

7V

8V

9V

V(V0)

ans: 4.67 V

ans: 4.597 V

10V