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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND


Introduction
Language is mans most effective medium of communication. It is basic to all living. It allows people to
communicate their ideas- to say or to write things to each other and express their communicative needs.
Language help us to realize both to make real and to come to understand knowledge and thought. This is
rather mysterious; if language is a systematic set of structure, how can it use attract or blame? (Wood D.,
2008). The answer lies in the understanding that language is not a neutral set of linguistic relationship, but the
repository of peoples ideas of what is valuable or to be valued in the society.
Communication is an integral part our life. We use various means of communication like radio,
television, theater, movies, internet and others. Now images, sounds and interactive communication are
everywhere. (Karen Voss, 2011). All these medium help us gain knowledge and educate us. The term
multimedia has been coined from two terms: multiple and media. Hence multimedia means usage of multiple
Medias to communicates. In other words, multimedia is a combination of different media elements like text,
audio, graphics, video and animation. Multimedia transfer can be defined in a number of ways. For the
purposes of this paper we define multimedia transfer as the delivery of instructional content using multiple
modes that include visual and auditory information and the student use of this information to construct
knowledge. The combination of all the media elements makes the communication more structured and
understandable to the users (Beal, 2009).
If we teach today as we taught yesterday, we rob our children of tomorrow Dewey (as cited
Yohana (2012). Todays K-12 students are very different from even their recently graduated peers.
These students are digital natives, a term attributed to futurist to distinguish between those who
have grown up with technology and those who have adapted to it. They live in a world in which
digital technology is part of the texture of their daily lives. They have never known a world
without technology. Teachers need to integrate technology into the curriculum instead of viewing
it as an add-on an afterthought or an event. It is not about technology; its about sharing
knowledge and information, communicating efficiently, and building learning in a new innovative
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ways of teaching using the multimedia transfer in teaching. Technology is their native language
and they expect to use technology in school. When information is presented using both channels,
the brain can accommodate more new information. By taking advantage of this multimodal
processing capability and technology-based tools, we can dramatically enhance student learning
through multimedia instruction (Marc Prensky, 2008).
Multimedia transfer offer the opportunity for students to use words and pictures. Mayer
(2010) stated that using words and pictures is better than using words alone. And these elements
work together to convey meaningful information. Thus, we can say that the information in the
form of the text, sounds, pictures etc. it should be presented to the user in such a way that the
students will not be confused. Say it with words and youre lucky if they hear it or bother to read
it, tell your story with imagery, and it grabs attention, evokes emotion and learning more instantly
processed (Lambert, 2011). Because technology can become the wings that will allow the
educational world to fly farther and faster than ever before. There can be an infinite uses of the
computer and of new age technology, but if the teachers themselves are not able to bring it into
the classroom and make it work, then it fails. The fact that the use of technology has become a
reality cannot be ignored (Guemide & Benachaiba, 2012).

Theoretical Framework

Much education today is monumentally ineffective. All too often we are giving young
people cut flowers when we should be teaching them to grow their own plants (Gardner).
Constructivism is basically a theory based on observation and scientific study about how people
learn. It says that people construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world, through
experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences. When we encounter something new, we
have to reconcile it with our previous ideas and experience, maybe changing what we believe, or
maybe discarding the new information as irrelevant. In any case, we are active creators of our
own knowledge. To do this, we must ask questions, explore, and assess what we know. Learning
is an active process. Facets of the process include selection and transformation of information,
decision making, generating hypotheses, and making meaning from information and experiences.
Constructivist believe that students learn more through active engagement using their skills to
make the learning possible. Learner is faced with new knowledge, a combination of concrete,
pictorial and symbolic activities will lead to more effective learning. This holds true even for
adult learners. These stages are not necessarily neatly delineated. They are, however, modes of
representation that are integrated and only loosely sequential as they translate into each other
(Paine, 2008).

Research Paradigm

Illustrates the concept used by the researcher.

Grade 8 Students

Controlled

Experimental

Traditional
Approach

Multimedia
Transfer Approach

Academic performance

Effect of Multimedia Transfer in


Teaching English to the Academic
Performance of Grade 8 Students
Figure 1.0

Based on the theoretical framework of the present study the researcher uses the schematic
diagram to illustrate the effect of multimedia transfer in teaching English to the academic
performance of grade 8 students. It casual in nature as symbolized by the arrow from the origin.
The first box referred to the respondent of the researcher in this current study. The researcher will
be having two groups of students; the controlled group where traditional approach will be
implemented and the experimental group where multimedia transfer will be used. Those boxes
would be the processes that the researcher will possess to find out the effect of multimedia

transfer in teaching English to the academic performance of grade 8 students. And the last box
would be defining the possible result of grade 8 students.
Statement of the Problem
The study aims to know the effect of multimedia transfer on teaching English to the
academic performance of grade 8 students.
Specifically, the researcher would seek to answer the following problems;
1. What are the 2nd and 3rd quarter academic performance of the grade 8 students?
a. Controlled group
b. Experimental group
2. Is there a significant difference between academic performance of the respondents in the
second and third quarter?
3. Does Multimedia transfer in teaching English have a significant effect on the academic
performance of grade 8 students?
Statement of the Hypotheses
The researcher hypothesized that:
Ho:
1.

There is no significant difference between on the academic performance of the students


in the second and third quarter.

2.

Multimedia transfer has no significant effect on the academic performance of grade 8


students.

Scope and Limitations


The study will be conducted to grade 8 students in public school. The study will consist of
two sections of grade 8. The study covers the effect of multimedia transfer in teaching. This study
focuses on the backwards type of multimedia transfer. One section will be the controlled group
under the traditional approach and the other section will be the experimental group under the use
of multimedia transfer presentation. The researchers will begin in second quarter SY: 2016-2017
up to the end of third quarter of the same school year.
Significance of the Study
The researcher believes that this study is significant to the following:
Students

This study will train the students to become a critical thinker and to
train for the future to be active and learn in a new innovative ways
using multimedia transfer in classroom with the help of technology.

Teachers

Teacher will also learn by this study, and getting a best strategy how
to manage teaching ways and develop the use of technology in
classroom.

Parents

It will help them to encourage their children more when it comes to productive
use of technology in this generation.

Future Researcher

This can be the guide of their studies. It can also help them to be
aware about the importance multimedia transfer in teaching.

Definition of Terms
For the sake of clarity the required specific definitions are explained below:

Academic Performance

is the outcome of education the extent to which a student, teacher or


institution has achieved their educational goals.

Animation

is the process of making the illusion of motion and change is by


means of the rapid display of a sequence of static images that
minimally differ from each other.

Audio

is a term used to describe any sound or noise that is within a range


the human ear is capable of hearing.

Multimedia

is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as


text, audio, images, animation, video and interactive content.

Teaching

the activities of educating or instructing; activities that impart


knowledge or skill

CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents studies and important concepts collected from different literature
which are needed and significant for the researchers study. Included in this chapter are the local
and foreign literature studies that will provide a deeper and clearer understanding of this study.
On Multimedia Transfer
Okolo and Ferrett (2007) showed that students represents ideas simultaneously through text
and audio, video and sound increased the likelihood that students will acquire an understanding of
complex information. Simulations, models and media rich study materials like still and animated
graphics, video and audio integrated in a structured manner facilitate the learning of new
knowledge much more effectively. The interactive nature of multimedia provides the room to
enhance the method of teaching with more flexibility to learners to adapt to individual learning
strategy. It enables both the educators and learners to work together in an informal setting. The
teacher's job is to assist the learner in this sense-making process the goal of multimedia
presentations is not only to present information, but also to provide guidance for how to process
the presented information, multimedia is a sense-making guide, that is, an aide to knowledge
construction. However, the role of educators and learners are extended. Furthermore, it
encourages and enhances peer learning as well as individual creativity and innovation (S. Malik
and A. Agarwal, 2012).
Multimedia is multi-sensory that stimulates multiple senses of the audience at a time. Its
interactive nature enables teachers to control the content and flow of information. Gilakjani
mentioned three reasons and the rationale for the use of multimedia in the classroom. According
to him, its use increases students interest level, enhances their understanding, and increases their
memorizing ability. There are different learning styles for different students and multimedia

provides a variety of learning styles at the same time to cater for the requirement of different
students and address individual differences. In spite of some potential disadvantages of using
multimedia transfer in teaching, the advantages in the teaching and learning process have been
documented. Meaningful learning environment recommended by cognitivist and constructivism
can best be created with the help of multimedia. With multimedia, the communication of the
information can be done in a more effective manner and it can be an effective instructional
medium for delivering information. Multimedia transfer design offers new insights into the
learning process of the designer and forces him or her to represent information and knowledge in
a new and innovative way (Gilakjani (2012).
One of the most rapidly changing and exciting areas of education in the world today is the
development of computer-based teaching materials. These new technologies offer students and
teachers access to materials as never before. Through the condensed storage capabilities of
computers, multimedia can deliver large amounts of information in ways that make it
manageable, approachable, and useful. And by making it possible to access illustrations and
photographs, sound and video, as well as large amounts of text, interactive multimedia programs
present learning information to teachers, students, and scholars in newly engaging and
meaningful ways. The integration of multimedia transfer in classrooms promises not only to
change the kinds of information that is available for learning, but the ways that learning takes
place (Carugan, 2011).
Multimedia transfer is a powerful and efficient source for acquiring learning resources. This
is especially important for schools, libraries, and learning institutions where books are difficult to
obtain and update. Multimedia can also provide educational institutions access to other kinds of
inaccessible materials, such as hard to find historical films, rare sound recordings of famous
speeches, illustrations from difficult to obtain periodicals, and so on. Multimedia can put primary
and secondary source materials at the fingertips of users in even the remotest locations from
major research facilities (Villacorte, 2008).
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On Teaching English
Multimedia transfer in teaching is not simply a means of introducing multimedia (Gong &
Zhou, 2007). Attention should be paid to coordination between teachers and students, teaching
materials and methods, theory and practice and multimedia teaching and the real learning
environment. Students learn to take the initiative to promote exchanges with teachers, and vice
versa; it is not appropriate to apply too many teaching methods or provide too much courseware
to students. It is important to choose the most suitable teaching method for creating a real
teaching and learning environment to help students gain the most intuitive and cultural
information using various functions and forms of multimedia presentation. In this way, students
can develop self-confidence in communication and improve their overall English skills. English
teachers should constantly make use of the advantages of multimedia teaching to update English
teaching concepts and teaching strategies. This will create multimedia English teaching context
conducive to the development of Multiple Intelligence (Gardner) as well as diversifying the
teaching forms, to fully motivate students to capture and understand the information, and
encourage them to learn English. We believe that this is an effective way of promoting students
all-round development of intellectual awareness, and to maximize their potential for intellectual
development (Landy, 2008).
Multimedia transfer and network technology can offer students not only rich sources of
authentic learning materials, but also an attractive and a friendly interface, vivid pictures and
pleasant sounds, which to a large extent overcomes the lack of authentic language environment
and arouses students interest in learning English. Students are bound to have some problems in
classroom teaching, which can be addressed under the guidance of teachers. In such
circumstances, students can use the new technology to their advantage, such as manipulating the

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network to contact teachers, and receiving answers by email (Canagarajah, Mahboob & Szenes,
2010).

According to an Educational Testing Service (ETS) ranking based on TOEFL (Test of


English as a Foreign Language) scores for 2010, the Philippines ranked 35th out of 163 countries
worldwide. The only other Asian countries to score higher than the Philippines were Singapore
(ranked 3rd in the world with a score of 98), and India (19th with a score of 92). Malaysia tied the
Philippines for 35th place with a score of 88. The US helped plant the seeds for learning English,
it was the country itself that took enough interest to dedicate resources and attention to
maintaining the language after the Americans left. As Zhang (2007) points out that multimedia
transfer creates a context for language teaching. This method makes the class lively and
interesting, as well as optimizing the organization of the class. Multimedia has its own features
such as visibility and liveliness. During the process of multimedia English teaching, sounds and
pictures can be set together, which enhances the initiative of both teachers and students. When
using multimedia software, teachers can use pictures and images to enrich the content of classes,
and also imagine different contexts in the process of producing teaching courseware. Students in
the class can use multimedia to understand the class in a clear way. Through the whole interactive
process, it is apparent that using multimedia in ELT is effective in nurturing students interest in
learning English, as well as enhancing teachers interest in English teaching (Chavez, 2014).
Multimedia teaching stresses the role of students, and enhances the importance of
interaction between teachers and students. A major feature of multimedia teaching is to train
and improve students ability to listen and speak, and to develop their communicative
competence. During this process, the teachers role as a facilitator is particularly prominent.
Using multimedia in context creation creates a good platform for the exchange between teachers
and students, while at the same time providing a language environment that improves on the
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traditional classroom teaching model. In this way, teachers in the classroom no longer blindly
input information and force students to receive it in a passive way. Instead, the English context
from multimedia creation enables students to participate actively during the process. Therefore, in
this context, English teaching methods gradually diversify and bring students enthusiasm into
full play with guidance from teachers. It is evident that using multimedia for context creation in
learning process improves teaching efficiency and quality (Bautista, 2009).
On Academic Performance
I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand. (Confucius 551-479 BC)
A quote that provides evidence that, even in early times, there was a recognition of the existence
of different learning preferences among people. Indeed, Omrod (2008) reports that some students
seem to learn better when it is presented in the form of pictures (visual learners), whereas other
seem to learn better when it is presented through words (verbal learners). Every academic subject
faces the challenge of helping students to go beyond life experiences, to use it and reflect on it,
and thereby change their perspective on it and therefore change the way they experience the
world. All knowledge is located in our experience of the world. Outcome based education (OBE)
also call for real world meaningful experience. E Learning helps to create such experiences.
Sedimo (2007). Students performance remains at top priority for educators. It is meant for
making a difference locally, regionally, nationally and globally. Educators, trainers, and
researchers have long been interested in exploring variables contributing effectively for quality of
performance of learners. (Saxton, 2006).
Multimedia presentations in teaching create the necessary experience. While academics are
concerned with what is known in their subjects, how their subject is learned is also important.
Teaching must not simply impart decontextualized knowledge, but must emulate the success of
everyday learning, by contextualizing, situating knowledge in real-world activity. Teaching must
create artificial environments which creates mediation between the lived experiences of the world
and the learning of the academic world (Laurillard, 2007). Integration of instruction technology
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has shown successful results in creating such mediation. (Hugo, 2011). The students
performance plays an important role in producing the best quality graduates who will become
great leader and manpower for the country thus responsible for the countrys economic and social
development (Ali et.al, 2009).
Karemera (2008) found that students' performance is significantly correlated with satisfaction
with academic environment and the facilities of library, computer lab and etc. in the institution.
Student academic performance is monitored closely so as to identify early any student whose
performance is likely to lead to academic failure. The Faculty works with individual students to
provide academic guidance so as to maximize the chances of all students succeeding. Karemera
distinguished achievement from performance when he stated that academic is a long-term ('end")
while academic performance is measurable at any point in time (continual). In other words,
achievement can be measured as stagnating, falling or improving over a long period. In relation to
educational research, academic performance of a student can be regarded as the observable and
measurable behaviour of a student in a particular situation. The students performance plays an
important role in producing the best quality graduates who will become great leader and
manpower for the country thus responsible for the countrys economic and social development
(Enciso, 2007)
Multimedia elements have paramount importance in improving the performance of the
students (Altherr, Wagner, Eckert, & Jodl, 2009). With the help of multimedia, we can present
different phenomena and processes vividly, simulate complex content, and present different levels
of abstraction. This helps in meaningful and authentic learning. According to Bagui (as cited in
Junaidu, 2008), data communication is possible through multiple channels and if information is
presented through more than one channels, it will improve learning ability and will affects the
academic performance of the students If the students have strong communication skills and have
strong grip on English, it increases the performance of the students. The performance of the
student is affected by communication skills; it is possible to see communication as a variable
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which may be positively related to performance of the student in open learning (Mantei, Lydia
2010).

Synthesis
These literature and studies discuss the effect of multimedia transfer on teaching English to
the academic performance of grade 8 students. The researcher found out reviewed foreign and
local literature and studies shared the same similarities to the study. The similarities of these
studies will be useful and will provide an additional information to the current study. The
differences on the other hand are the principles implemented to different point of views of the
authors will also serve a good source for further understanding of the topic.

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CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the methods of the study covering its research design, research locale,
population and sampling and instrumentation gathered by the researcher about the effect of
multimedia transfer in teaching English to the academic performance of grade 8 students.
Research Design
This study is a quantitative true experimental research to find out the effect of using
multimedia transfer in teaching English to the academic performance of grade 8 students. In
quantitative experimental research your aim is to determine the relationship between one thing
and another in a population.
Quantitative research is quantifiable research approach in which raw data are collected and
turned into usable information by mathematical manipulation that leads to forward looking
predictions. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about
what is being studied.
Reseach Locale
The researcher will conduct the said study at Las Pinas National Highschool- Almanza in
Las Pinas City at Lazo court St. Pilar, Almanza Uno Las Pinas City. The school is a Government
Learning Institution with a core values: Maka Diyos, Maka- tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa.
Population and Sampling

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In this study the respondent are the grade 8 students in English subject of Las Pinas National
High school- Almanza. There are an estimated of 820 students in the grade 8 level. Each class
there are an estimated number of 70 students, the researcher will randomly group them into two,
there are estimated number of 75 students for the traditional type of learning and there are an
estimated number of 75 students for experimental group that will use the multimedia transfer in
teaching English.
Instrumentation
The study is all about the Effect of multimedia transfer in teaching English to the academic
performance grade 8 students. The researcher will provide two different detailed lesson plan with
the same topic in English subject. One lesson plan would be used for traditional approach and the
other one would be used in multimedia transfer.

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). In traditional method we convey the information using only text while in multimedia we have
other elements along with the text. And these elements work together to convey meaningful
information. Thus, we can say that the information in the form of the text, sounds, pictures etc. it
should be presented to the user in such a way that he/she is not confused. Sound is the most
important element of multimedia, sound plays an important role the best example is when we are
viewing an educational CD, the learning process is more enjoyable when it is played with sound.
When a user sees the presentation he/she is able to understand it easily by seeing the animation
along with the voice (Taylor 2008).

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