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An initiative to solve Power Quality

13, October 2011


New Delhi

JEF TECHNO SOLUTIONS


PRIVATE LIMITED
JEF ECOSAFE
ELECTRICAL GROUNDING

POWER QUALITY THROUGH


INNOVATION
Good grounding is essential for electrical equipment and
distribution systems, Good grounding provides the level of
safety required to protect personnel and equipment from
shock hazards.
Every solution to a power quality problem in your facility
should start with a thorough ground study.

Custom
Solutions

Uninterrupted
Power Supply
System

Power Conditioning

Harmonic Elimination
Grounding and
Transient Voltage Surge Suppression

NEED FOR EFFECTIVE


GROUNDING

Voltage reference and stability


Fault detection and interruption
Lightning dissipation
Dissipate Static Discharge

CAUSES OF ABNORMAL
VOLTAGES

Lightning
Switching surges
Static
Contact with a HV system
Line to ground fault
Resonant condition

TYPES OF EARTH SYSTEMS

T N system
T T system
I T system
TN-S system
TN-C-S system

JEF TECHNO SOLUTIONS PRIVATE LTD


LORESCO USA
MASTERS IN BACKFILLS SINCE 1956.
HAVE MORE THAN 3 MILLION
INSTALLATIONS WORLD WIDE

MAJOR APPLICATION AREAS

TRANSFORMER NEUTRAL EARTHING


DG NEUTRAL EARTHING
EQUIPMENT EARTHING
SUB STATION MAT EARTHING
EARTHING FOR INSTRUMENTATION
(DCS, PLCs, ETC)

MEASURED EARTH
RESISTANCE

HOW DO WE OBTAIN
A LOW EARTH
RESISTANCE ?

A BRIEF COMPARISON OF EARTHING SYSTEMS RECOMMENDED BY VARIOUS


INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
Parameters
How to obtain a low overall Earth
resistance?

IS-3043
To obtain a low
overall
resistance, the
current density
should be as
low as possible
in the medium
adjacent to the
electrode
(Clause 9.1.1
page 19 of IS3043)

BS-7430
To obtain a low overall
resistance, the current
density should be as
low as possible in the
medium adjacent to
the electrode Clause 9
Page 10 of BS-7430)

IEEE80
It is impossible to achieve
the desired reduction in
the ground resistance by
adding core grid
conductors or ground rods.
An alternate solution is to
effectively increase the dia
metre of the electrode by
modifying the soil
surrounding the electrode.
The Inner shell of the soil
closest to the electrode
normally comprises the
bulk of the electrode
ground resistance to
remote earth (Clause 14.5
page 68 of IEEE 80

REMARKS
This clearly means that
a lower earth
resistance can be
obtained by using a
good and highly
conductive backfill
compound around the
primary electrode and
not by using one
electrode inside
another or any such
other special
combination. The
means of reducing
earth resistance is
backfill compound and
not a special electrode.

WHY DO WE NEED
MAINTANANCE FREE
EARTHING ?

HOW DO WE OBTAIN
A MAINTANANCE
FREE EARTHING ?

REQUIREMENT OF BACKFILL
COMPOUND
RESISTANCE OF BACKFILLED AREA
MUST REMAIN CONSISTENTLY LOW TO
ENSURE A CONSISTENT LOW EARTH
RESISTANCE
MUST NOT BE SUBJECT TO VARIATION
DUE TO CHANGE IN MOISTURE /
ELCTROLYTE CONTENT
BACKFILL MUST NOT LEACH INTO
GROUND
BACKFILL MUST NOT SHRINK

A BRIEF COMPARISON OF EARTHING SYSTEMS RECOMMENDED BY


VARIOUS INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
Parameters
Use of Bentonite clay to
improve Earth resistance

IS-3043

BS-7430

IEEE80

REMARKS

The Bentonite clay


or similar material
may be used in
rocky terrain in an
insertion around
vertical electrode /
strip electrode as
per clause 8.5 of
Page 17

The clay based material


formed by
decomposition of
volcanic ash such as
Bentonite may be used
to lower the earth
resistance. The
resistivity of Bentonite
varies from above 3
Ohm upwards
depending on its
moisture content.
Should it become dry,
its resistivity raises
appreciably and it will
shrink away from the
electrode (Clause 8.5
page Nos 9 & 10)

Bentonite a natural
clay formed by
volcanic action years
ago may be used. Its
resistivity of 2.5 Ohm
metre at 300%
moisture. It may not
function in a very dry
environment because
it may shrink away
from the electrode
increasing the
electrode resistance.
(Clause 14.5 Page
68)

India being a
topographycal country
with a prolong dry
season, use of
Bentonite cannot offer
a reliable solution due
to the limitations
brought out in the
IEEE & BS.

A BRIEF COMPARISON OF EARTHING SYSTEMS RECOMMENDED BY


VARIOUS INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
Parameters
How to obtain a maintenance free Earth
System?

IS-3043

BS-7430

IEEE80

REMARKS

If a great degree of
permanence is
envisaged, earth
electrodes
packaged in
materials such as
Bentonite are
preferable. (Clause
8.5 of Page 17 -THIS STANDARD
IS CURRENTLY
UNDER
REVISION)

If a great degree of
permanence is
envisaged, it may be
desirable to replace the
soil immediately around
an electrode with a
lower resistivity material
such as a conductive
concrete or cement
made with graded
granular carbanacious
aggregate in place of
conventional aggregate
(Clause 8.5 of Page 9)

Ground enhancement
materials some with a
resistivity of less than
0.1 Ohm meter (about
5% resistivity of
Bentonite) are typically
placed around the rod
in a augured hole in
either a dry or premixed in slurry. Some
of these enhancement
materials are
permanent and will not
leech in chemicals into
the ground (Clause
14.5 of Page 68)

All important
international standards
have recommended the
use of special carbon
based backfills to have
a reliable and
maintenance free
earthing solution. The
JEF Eco Safe Earthing
solutions brought in by
us is a Carbon based
product and meets all
parameters laid down
by the IS, BS & IEEE &
is truely maintenance
free..

TYPES OF BACKFILL COMPOUND


BENTONITE CLAY BASED BACKFILL
COMPOUNDS - RESISTIVITY
> 2 .5OHM MTR at 300 % moisture.
(Bentonote relies on the presence of
ground moisture to maintain its
charecteristics).
CARBON BASED BACKFILL
COMPOUNDS RESISTIVITY ~ 0.001
OHM MTR

CONDUCTION IN BENTONITE
BACKFILLS IEEE 80- CONVENTIONAL

CONDUCTION IN CARBON
BASED BACKFILLS

ELECTRODE GEOMETRY

ELECTRODE GEOMETRY
Sphere of influence:
4/3 pi (r) x (r) x (r)
4/3 x 3.1x10 x 10 x
10
4133 cu.ft

RESISTANCE OF EARTH MASS

R5 RESISTANCE OF EARTH-EFFECTIVE ARTIFICIAL


TREATMENT AREA- IEEE-142
RESISTANCE OF SOIL IS SUM OF SERIES RESISTANCE OF
VIRTIUAL SHELLS OF EARTH.
RESISTANCE DECREASES PROGRESSIVELY OUTWARD
FROM ELECTRODE.
SHELL NEAR TO THE ELECTRODE OFFERS HIGHEST
RESITANCE DUE TO SMALLEST CIRCUMFERENTIAL
AREA.
52% OF THE RESISTANCE OCCURS WITHIN 150 mm FROM
ELECTRODE.
HENCE ARTIFICIAL TREATMENT OF THIS FIRST FEW
INCHES OF SOIL FROM ELECTRODE IS MOST USEFUL IN
IMPROVING EFFECTIVENESS OF EARTHING SYSTEM.

ELECTRODE GEOMETRY
The resistance geometry of a ground electrode (pipe /rod) is explained as below :
Around a grounding electrode the resistance of the soil is the sum of the series
Resistances of virtual shells of earth,located progressively outward from the rod.
The shell nearest the rod has the smallest circumferential area or cross section.So
It has the highest resitance.Successive shells outside this one have progressively
Larger area and thus lower rsistance. As the radius from the rod increases the
Incremental resistance per unit of radius decreases effectively to nearly zero.
Experiments with a 10 ft,16 mm rod shows the following reading:
Distance from electrode surface
Ft
mtr
0.1
0.03
0.2
0.06
0.3
0.09
0 .5
0.15
1.0
0.3
5.0
1.5
10.0
3.0
15.0
4.6
20.0
6.1
25.0
7.6

Approx. % of total resistance


25
38
46
52
68
86
94
97
99
100

SOIL TREATMENT IS VITAL


BECAUSE

52 % of the Resistance
occurs in 150 mm

CONVENTIONAL EARTHING LIMITATIONS


No Standardisation - Neither in

electrode nor in backfill.


Commercial grade GI pipe is used as
electrode in most cases.
The backfill (SALT) reacts with the
electrode (GI / COPPER) and causes
corrosion.
The salt dissolves in water and
conductivity dips over time.
Not suitable for places with high water
table, flowing water, etc,.

ADVANTAGES OF CARBON
BASED BACKFILL COMPOUNDS
CARBON BASED BACKFILL COMPOUNDS
CONDUCT LIKE METAL THROUGH
ELECTRON FLOW AND DO NOT RELY ON
MOISTURE FOR CONDUCTIVITY.
CARBON IS HIGHLY STABLE AND LASTS
FOR SEVERAL DECADES.
TRUE MAINTANANCE FREE
CARBON IS HIGHLY STABLE TO DC
CURRENT DISCHARGES. ALMOST 25
TIMES MORE THAN COPPER ITSELF.

CARBON BASED BACKFILLADVANTAGES


DOES NOT diffuse / leach into ground
Carbon is highly stable over long
duration- does not degrade
TRULY MAINTANANCE FREE
DOES NOT POLLUTE THE
ENVIRONMENT- CERTIFIED TO ANSI /
NSF STANDARD 60 SAFE FOR USE
NEAR POTABLE GROUND WATER
SOURCES
POWER SET which has hardening
characteristics of cement can be used in
areas with high water table.

CHEMICAL EARTHING AS PER


IEEE 80 - CONDUCTION

A BRIEF COMPARISON OF EARTHING SYSTEMS RECOMMENDED BY


VARIOUS INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS

Parameters
Chemical Earthing

IS-3043

Not
Recommended

BS-7430

Not
Recommended

IEEE80

REMARKS

Chemical type
electrodes consists of a
copper tube filled with a
salt. Holes in the tube
allow moisture to enter
and dissolve the salts
and allow the solution to
leach into the ground.
These electrodes are
installed in a augured
hole and typical
backfilled with soil
treatment. (Clause 14.5

The concept of chemical earthing


is very different in IEEE as
compared to what it is made out
to be in India.
The chemical earthing products
available in India generally
comprise of a sealed GI pipe
electrode and are said to have
another electrode within. Such a
design is clearly at variance with
the recommendation of IEEE-80.
As such, the sealed GI pipe
electrodes do not conform to any
international standards of repute
and can only be termed as a
manufacturer's standard.

of Page

POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FOR HIGH


SOIL RESISTIVITY AREAS

POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FOR


ROCKY AREAS

POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FOR


ROCKY AREAS

33

POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FOR


ROCKY AREAS

POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FOR


ROCKY AREAS

TERMINAL ARRANGEMENTS

EQUIPOTENTIAL

It is very important to
interconnect all earths and
achieve equipotential
earthing to ensure human
and equipment safety.

EQUIPOTENTIAL EARTHING

EQUIPOTENTIAL EARTHING

LIGHTNING IMP CURRENT -100KA


RESPONSE VOLT. -- 10KV
PROTECTION LEVEL -- 5KV
CONNECTOR COPPER
LUGS

JEF TECHNO SOLUTIONS


PRIVATE LTD
THANK YOU

For any more queries, pl contact :


PRASHANTH.B.G. prashanth@jeftechno.net
Cell :
09845009617