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CONTROL VALVE

CHARACTERISTICS
Instruction Manual

CREATIVE LAB
AN ISO 9001 2008 CERTIFIED CO.
MANUFACTURES & SUPPLIERS OF ENGG LAB EQUIPMENT
ADD: - # 12 KHUDDA KHURAD NEAR INDUSTRIAL ESTATE AMBALA CANTT (HARYANA),
CONTACT NO: - 9992077725(O),8950674989(M),9017583360(R)
E- Mail ID: - creativelabengineers@gmail.com

CONTROL VALVE CHARACTERISTICS

OBJECTIVE:
To Study the characteristics of ON/OFF, Linear and Equal Percentage control valves
AIM:
To calculate the Gain for above valves

INTRODUCTION:
PRINCEPLE
A control valve is the usual mechanism for adjusting the input of the process control
system. In most industrial process control system control valve is the final control
element. It is used to control flow of fluid viz. air, water, gas, steam, coolant water,
vacuum, contaminated or viscous fluid, mild acids, alkalies [ non injurious to body,
stem, seating and gland packing.
The two types of control valve is
A.Single seat valve.
B.Double seat valve.
With a single seat valve, the valve position depends on both the unbalanced force on
the plug from the pressure drop across the valve and the force produced by the motor.
The effect of valve pressure drop can be minimized by using either a more powerful
motor or a valve positioner.
The advantages of using double seats are that the pressure drop forces on the plugs
almost cancel, and also the flow capacity is upto 30 percent greater than for single
seat valve of same size. Our control valve is a single seated control valve as the valve
with two seats cannot be tightly closed and would not be used where positive shutoff
is essential.
CONTROL VALVE AND ITS COMPONENTS
The control valve consists of two major components
A.Actuator.
B.Valve.
The actuator is made of the following components
1.Flexible diaphragm.
2.Spring [ usually ] and spring tension element [ range location element ].
3.Plate, Stem and locknut.
4.Housing.

CONTROL VALVE TRAINER

The valve is made of the following components
1.Body.
2.Plug.
3.Stem.
4.Pressure tight connection.

THEORY:
A control valve is the usual mechanism for adjusting the input of the process control
system. In most industrial process control system, control valve is the final control
element. It is used to control flow of fluid viz. air, water, gas, steam, coolant water,
vacuum, contaminated or viscous fluid, mild acids, alkalis [non injurious to body,
stem, seating and gland packing.
The control valve is essentially a variable resistance to the flow of a fluid, in which
the resistance and therefore the flow can be changed by a signal from a process
controller. The control valve consists of an actuator and a valve. The valve itself is
divided into the body and the trim. The body consists of housing for mounting the
actuator and connections for attachment of the valve to a supply line and a delivery
line. The trim, which is enclosed within the body, consists of a plug, a valve seat, and
a valve stem.
The actuator moves the valve stem as the pressure on a spring-loaded diaphragm
changes. The stem moves a plug in a valve seat in order to change the resistance to
flow through the valve. When a valve is supplied by the manufacturer, the actuator
and the valve are attached to each other to form one unit. For most actuators, the
motion of the stem is proportional to the pressure applied on the diaphragm. In
general, this type of actuator can be used for functions other than moving a valve
stem. For example, it can be used-to adjust dampers, variable speed drives, rheostats,
and other devices. As the pressure to the valve varies over its normal range of
operation (3 to 15 psig) the range of motion of the stem varies from a raction of an
inch to several inches depending on the size of the actuator. Manufacturers provide a
range of actuators for various valve sizes.
The valves available vary over a wide range of sizes. The size is usually referred to by
the size of the end connectors. For example, a one-inch valve would have connectors
(threaded or flanged) to fit into a one inch pipe line. In general, the larger the valve
size the larger the flow capacity of the valve. For the control valve shown in Fig. 1, an
increase in signal pressure above the diaphragm exerts a force on the diaphragm and

back plate, which causes the stem to move down; this causes the cross-sectional area
for flow between the plug and the seat to decrease, thereby reducing or throttling the
flow. Such valve action as shown in Fig.1 is called pressure-to-close action. The
reverse action shown in Fig.2 is pressure-to-open, can be accomplished by designing
the actuator so that pressure is applied to the under side of the diaphragm, for which
case an increase in pressure to the valve raises the stem. An alternate method to
reverse the valve action is to leave the actuator as shown in Fig.1 and to invert the
plug on the stem and place it under the valve seat.
The valve shown in Fig.1 is single-seated, meaning the valve contains one plug with
one seating surface. For a single-seated valve, the plug must open against the full
pressure drop across the valve. If the pressure drop is large, this means that a larger,
more expensive actuator will be needed. To overcome this problem, valves are also
constructed with double seating as shown in Fig. 3. In this type valve, two plugs are
attached to the valve stem and each one has a seat. The flow pattern through the valve
is designed so that the pressure drop across the seat at A tends to open the plug and the
pressure drop across the seat at B tends to close the plug. This counterbalancing of
forces on the plugs reduces the effort needed to open the valve with the result that a
smaller, less expensive actuator is needed. In a double-seated valve, it is difficult to
have tight shut-off. If one plug has tight closure, there is usually a small gap between
the other plug and its seat. For this reason, single-seated valves are recommended if
the valve is requited to be shut tight. In many processes, the valve is used for
throttling flow and is never expected to operate near its shut-off position. For these
conditions, the fact that the valve has a small leakage at shut-off position does not
create a problem.

Fig-1

Fig-2

Fig-3

CONTROL VALVE CHARACTERISTICS

LINEAR CHARACTERISTICS
For studying the linear characteristics, a globe valve with sliding stem is used. A
bevelled disc or poppet valve consists of a globe valve with the sliding stem. Full flow
is achieved with relatively short movement of the stem. In short linear flow is the flow
which is directly proportional to valve lift.
EQUAL PERCENTAGE CHARACTERISTICS
The flow area increases more rapidly with lift as valve opens in equal percentage
valve for an ideal equal percentage valve the flow characteristics would be straight
line on a semi log graph. In equal percentage flow, the flow changes by a constant
percentage of its instantaneous value for each value of valve lift. Whereas in quick
opening, flow increases rapidly with initial travel reaching near its maximum at a low
lift.
QUICK OPENING FLOW CHARACTERISTIC
A valve with quick opening flow characteristic provides a maximum change in flow
rate at low travels. The curve is basically linear through the first 40 percent of valve
plug travel, and then flattens out noticeably to indicate little increase in flow rate as
travel approaches the wide open position. Control valves with quick opening flow
characteristics are often used for ON /OFF applications. Flow rate must be established
quickly as the valves begin to open. Consequently, they are often used in relief valve
applications. (Quick- opening valves can also be selected for the many of the same
applications for which linear flow characteristics are recommended, since the quick
opening characteristic is linear up to about 70 percent of maximum flow rate.
Linearity decreases sharply after flow area generated by valve plug travel equals flow
area of port. For a typical quick opening valve, such as that shown in figure, this
occurs when valve plug travel equals one fourth of port diameter).

DESCRIPTION:
The setup is specially designed for various experimental and demonstrative
capabilities. The product consists of Pneumatic control valves of Quick opening,
Linear and Equal % type. The Stainless Steel water tanks with pump are provided for
continuous water circulation. The Rotameter is used for the flow measurement. The
pressure at the valve inlet is measured with the help of manometer. The air regulator
and pressure gauge is provided for regulating air supply. These units along with
necessary piping and fitting are assembled in a painted MS Structure.

UTILITIES REQUIRED:
1. Electricity Supply: Single Phase, 220 VAC, 50 Hz, 1.5 kw, 5-15 amp
combined socket with earth Connection.
2. Water Supply.
3. Floor Drain.
4. Floor Area.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
1. Switch ON the compressor.
2. Start the pump and close the By-pass valve.
3. Wait for overflow from over head tank, when over flow starts open the inlet
valve of desired control valve (Both for water and air).
4. Adjust the air regulator to give 15 psig (Be careful such that the pressure
should not exceed above 15 psig).
5. Adjust the Rotameter to its maximum.
6. Open the manometer valve so that pressure reading shows in manometer.
8. Now Decrease the pressure to 12 psig to the control valve by adjusting the air
regulator.
9. Note down the reading of the stem movement, rotameter and manometer.
10. Repeat the steps 9 & 10 and the readings are tabulated.
11. Draw a graph for the stem movement Vs flow rate.
12. Repeat the same procedure for Linear and Equal Percentage Valve.

OBSERVATION & CALCULATION:

OBSERVATION TABLE:
S.No.

Flow Rate, LPH

Stem Lift

Pressure drop p
(mm of H2O)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

CALCULATION:
CV

1.16 Q

1000

G
= ---------------min
P

Where
Q = Flow Rate (m3/Hr) = Q in LPH / 1000.
P = Pressure Drop across Valve (Bar) = P in mm of H2O x 1.013/(1.33 x 103)
G = Specific Gravity = 1 for Water
Rangeability = maximum controller flow / minimum controllable flow
Rangeability

MaximumControllerFlo w
MinimumControllableF low

GRAPH
Plot Stem Lift vs. Flow Rate on a simple graph.

RESULT
The characteristics of ON/OFF, Linear and Equal Percentage control valves were
studied and plotted in the graph.

1. Always keep the apparatus free from dust.

2. Always use clean water in tanks.
3. Always increase or decrease the pressure of air very slowly.

TROUBLESHOOTING:
1. If any type of suspended particles are come in the Rotameter. Remove the
Rotameter clean the tube and fit that at its place.
2. If there is any leakage tight that part or remove that and fix that again after
wrapping Teflon tape.
3. If Rotameter fluctuating more than average tight control knob of that.