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 Solid Waste (SW) is known as garbage  Definition - waste materials or waste results

Solid Waste (SW) is known as garbage

Definition - waste materials or waste results from human and animal activity, whether in the form of solid and semi- solid which is regarded as useless and no longer required.

Solid waste includes municipal solid waste (MSW), municipal and industrial sewage sludge, and industrial waste

 Solid waste includes municipal solid waste (MSW), municipal and industrial sewage sludge, and industrial waste
All types of solid waste generated by households and commercial establishments, and collected usually by
All types of solid waste generated by
households and commercial establishments,
and collected usually by local government
bodies.
1.Tempat Rumah teres, banglo,  kediaman rumah pangsa, kondominium, pangsapuri, dll. Sisa makanan, kertas,
1.Tempat
Rumah
teres,
banglo,
kediaman
rumah
pangsa,
kondominium, pangsapuri,
dll.
Sisa makanan, kertas, kadbod, plastik,
tekstil, kulit, kayu, kaca, tin minuman,
logam, abu, sisa merbahaya, tayar
buruk, dedaun, rumput kering, perabot
buruk, dsbnya.
2.Perdagangan
Pusat beli-belah, kedai,
Kertas,
kadbod,
plastik,
kayu,
sisa
restoren, pasar, bangunan
pejabat, hotel, kedai
percetakan, stesen
minyak, bengkel kereta.
makanan,
kaca,
logam,
sisa
merbahaya, dsbnya.
3.Institusi-institusi
Sekolah, hospital, penjara,
pejabat-pejabat kerajaan
dan firma-firma.
Sama seperti perdagangan.
4.Pembinaan dan Tapak pembinan baru,  Kayu, keluli, konkrit, paip, dsbnya. perobohan tapak ubahsuaian
4.Pembinaan dan Tapak pembinan baru,  Kayu, keluli, konkrit, paip, dsbnya. perobohan tapak ubahsuaian
4.Pembinaan dan Tapak pembinan baru,  Kayu, keluli, konkrit, paip, dsbnya. perobohan tapak ubahsuaian
4.Pembinaan dan Tapak pembinan baru,  Kayu, keluli, konkrit, paip, dsbnya. perobohan tapak ubahsuaian
4.Pembinaan dan Tapak pembinan baru,  Kayu, keluli, konkrit, paip, dsbnya. perobohan tapak ubahsuaian
4.Pembinaan dan Tapak pembinan baru,  Kayu, keluli, konkrit, paip, dsbnya. perobohan tapak ubahsuaian

4.Pembinaan dan

Tapak pembinan baru,

Kayu, keluli, konkrit, paip, dsbnya.

perobohan

tapak ubahsuaian

bangunan, baikpulih jalanraya dan laluan pejalan kaki, perobohan bangnan lama, dll.

5.Perkhidmatan

Pembersihan jalan, lanskap, tempat letak kereta dan tepi pantai, lain-lain pusat rekreasi.

Sisa khas, sampah sarap, lanskap, pembersihan jalan, pemotongan dahan pokok, sisa dari tempat letak kereta, tempat rekreasi dan tepi pantai.

perbandaran

6.Loji

rawatan

Loji pembersihan air, loji air sisa, proses rawatan industri, dll.

Sisa-sisa loji rawatan dan enapcemar.

dan penunuan

  7. Sisa pepejal Sama seperti semua  Sama seperti semua perkara di atas. perbandaran
 
 
 
 
 
 

7. Sisa pepejal

Sama seperti semua

Sama seperti semua perkara di atas.

perbandaran

perkara di atas.

8. Industri

Pembinaan, fabrikasi, industri ringan dan berat, loji penapisan, loji kimia,

Sisa pemprosesan industri, bahan- bahan skrap.

Sisa bukan industri seperti sisa

loji janakuasa, perobohan,

makanan, sampah sarap, abu, sisa

dll.

perobohan dan pembinaan, sisa khas dan sisa merbahaya.

9. Pertanian

Ladang ternakan haiwan, ladang-ladang bijiran, ladang kelapa sawit, kebun sayur, nurseri, dll.

Sisa

makanan

yang

rosak,

sisa

pertanian,

sampah

sarap,

sisa

merbahaya.

The types of wastes:

Biodegradable Waste
Biodegradable Waste

1. Biodegradable Waste

It can be defined as solid waste that

can be decomposed under natural conditions. This includes food scraps, paper,

dust, waste and sewage sludge.

waste that can be decomposed under natural conditions. This includes food scraps, paper, dust, waste and
Rubbish
Rubbish

2. Rubbish

It can be defined as solid waste from residential areas and businesses, institutions and places

of work.

It does not include solid waste consisting of food waste and ashes.

areas and businesses, institutions and places of work. It does not include solid waste consisting of

regulatory

Solid Waste Management
Solid Waste
Management

generation

disposal

regulatory Solid Waste Management generation disposal storing transport collection public health, economics, engineering,
storing
storing

transport

collection

public health, economics, engineering, aesthetics, and consideration of environmental & public awareness of the need
public health, economics, engineering, aesthetics,
and consideration of environmental & public awareness of the
need

Important fundamentals of solid waste management:

1. The quantity of solid wastes i. Input analysis

- based on the products used by people in the

community If individuals use 5 cans a week, how many cans being disposed by a family in a month ?

- only suitable for small and isolated communities

only.

ii. Secondary analysis -uses an empirical formula for estimating solid waste generation

iii. Output analysis

- solid waste generation is measured directly through the product

- more accurate and often used to determine the

quantity of solid waste

- however, the weight of wastes varies with time (days, weeks, years). -weather conditions also affect the weight of solid

waste.

Important fundamentals of solid waste

management (cont.)

2. Types of solid wastes

Solid waste consists of:

i. municipal solid waste

ii. industrial waste

iii.dangerous / scheduled wastes residues are said to be dangerous when it is flammable, explosive, corrosive, reactive or toxic. classified into five categories of radioactive materials, chemicals, biological materials, flammable and explosive substances.

into five categories of radioactive materials, chemicals, biological materials, flammable and explosive substances.
into five categories of radioactive materials, chemicals, biological materials, flammable and explosive substances.

Important fundamentals of solid waste

management (cont.)

3. The composition of solid waste -composition is a term used to describe the

components that make up the solid waste

-its distribution is based on the relative weight percent -this information is important to determine what type of equipment, systems and

management program required to deal with

-solid waste composition varies from one community to another community solid waste composition is also influenced by time

-in various studies on the composition of

municipal solid waste (MSW) obtained varies according to places of waste generation

various studies on the composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) obtained varies according to places of

Ipoh, 185,000 tonnes solid waste disposed in 2006

Ipoh, 185,000 tonnes solid waste disposed in 2006
1. Sampah sarap (garbage) Sisa-sisa dari penyediaan makanan, pasar dan sisa dari penyimpanan & penjualan
1. Sampah sarap (garbage) Sisa-sisa dari penyediaan makanan, pasar dan sisa dari penyimpanan & penjualan
1. Sampah sarap (garbage) Sisa-sisa dari penyediaan makanan, pasar dan sisa dari penyimpanan & penjualan
1. Sampah sarap (garbage) Sisa-sisa dari penyediaan makanan, pasar dan sisa dari penyimpanan & penjualan

1. Sampah sarap (garbage)

Sisa-sisa dari penyediaan makanan, pasar dan sisa dari penyimpanan &

penjualan hasil-hasil makanan.

Rumah kediaman, restoren, institusi-institusi, kedai-kedai

& pasar.

2. Sampah

(rubbish)

Bahan boleh terbakar: Kertas, kotak, tong kayu, kayu, dahan-dahan kayu, perabot, kadbod, dsbnya. Bahan tak

boleh terbakar: Logam, tin minuman,

perabot logam, kaca, galian.

Sama seperti di atas

3. Habuk/abu (ashes)

Baki dari pembakaran untuk pemanasan dan penyediaan makanan, tapak loji penunuan.

Sama seperti di atas

4. Sampah sarap di jalanan Dedaun kering, kotoran dari takungan air, buangan sampah sarap, dsbnya.
4. Sampah sarap di jalanan Dedaun kering, kotoran dari takungan air, buangan sampah sarap, dsbnya.
4. Sampah sarap di jalanan Dedaun kering, kotoran dari takungan air, buangan sampah sarap, dsbnya.
4. Sampah sarap di jalanan Dedaun kering, kotoran dari takungan air, buangan sampah sarap, dsbnya.

4. Sampah sarap

di jalanan

Dedaun kering, kotoran dari takungan air, buangan sampah sarap, dsbnya.

Sepanjang jalanan,tepi-tepi jalan & lot kosong

5. Bangkai haiwan

Bangkai kucing, anjing, kuda, lembu, kerbau

Sama seperti di atas

6. Kenderaan

buruk

Kereta-kereta dan lori-lori buruk.

Sama seperti di atas.

7.Sisa industri

Sisa dari pemprosesan makanan, skrap logam, kayu

Kilang-kilang, loji janakuasa.

8.Sisa perobohan Kayu-kayu reput, paip, batu-bata, konkrit dan bahan-bahan binaan yang dibuang. Kawasan perobohan di
8.Sisa
perobohan
Kayu-kayu reput, paip, batu-bata, konkrit
dan bahan-bahan binaan yang dibuang.
Kawasan perobohan di mana
akan dibina projek/bangunan
baru, lebuh-raya.
9.Sisa
Kayu
skrap,
paip
dan
lain-lain
bahan
Kawasan pembinaan.
pembinaan
binaan.
10.Sisa khas
Sisa pepejal dan cecair merbahaya,
bahan mudah meletup, bahan radioaktif
dan sisa-sisa klinikal.
Rumah kediaman, hotel,
hospital, institusi, kedai-kedai
dan industri.
11.Sisa
Pepejal dari proses penabiran air sisa &
penyingkiran kersik serta enapcemar dari
tangki pemendapan dan tangki septik.
Loji
rawatan
kumbahan
dan
rawatan
tangki septik
kumbahan
 moisture content  bulk density  particle size  permeability  biodegradation of organic

moisture content bulk density

particle size

permeability

biodegradation of organic waste

odor generation

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE COMPOSITION OF SOLID WASTE
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE
COMPOSITION OF SOLID WASTE

1. Climate

“Climate change could result in changes in

temperatures, cloud cover, rainfall patterns, wind speeds, and storms: all factors that could impact future waste management facilities’ development and operation. The time scales for climate change and waste management are similar. For instance, landfill sites can be operational for decades and still remain active for decades following their closure. There is, therefore, a need to consider potential changes

in waste management over significant

timescales and respond appropriately.”

a need to consider potential changes in waste management over significant timescales and respond appropriately.”
a need to consider potential changes in waste management over significant timescales and respond appropriately.”

2. The frequency of waste

collection The more frequent waste being collected, the more waste being

generated

3. Tradition or culture of a

community Some people do not eat fast food

being collected, the more waste being generated 3. Tradition or culture of a community Some people
being collected, the more waste being generated 3. Tradition or culture of a community Some people

4. Income per capita

Low-income communities will generate more solid waste than food waste such as glass, plastic or paper the left-over food waste will

be fed to livestock animals such as

chickens, ducks, pigs and so forth.

5. Technological change

Packed / frozen food, canned /

bottled drink

6. Rural and urban areas In rural areas, the decomposed wastes can be used as fertilizer for crops while in urban area, land for crops is very limited

rural areas, the decomposed wastes can be used as fertilizer for crops while in urban area,
rural areas, the decomposed wastes can be used as fertilizer for crops while in urban area,

7. The use of food grinder at home

- Grinder used to grind food

waste produced during

preparation, cooking or serving

- reduce the volume of food

waste generated

used to grind food waste produced during preparation, cooking or serving - reduce the volume of
used to grind food waste produced during preparation, cooking or serving - reduce the volume of

Important factors of solid waste

management:

1. Solid waste generation rate.

- waste generation rates vary from one

community to another community, depending on the size of the community

2. Chemical composition

- may affect the stability of solid waste in

landfills

3. Solid waste moisture

4. Particle size distribution

5. Density of waste

the stability of solid waste in landfills 3. Solid waste moisture 4. Particle size distribution 5.

Factors to consider when storing solid waste:

storage effects of solid waste components

biological decomposition that would cause odour and health problem

fluid absorption that will be a problem during collection

pollution of waste components which can reduce the value of recycled waste

Type of storage container

Depends on the characteristics & types of solid waste collection

system, space & aesthetics

Handling in-situ - the work done at the collection centres before they are collected, such as:

i. Segregation of waste (separation at source) to facilitate the recycling process

ii. controlled incinerator e.g. laboratory or clinical waste

Location of the storage containers

depends on the type of accommodation , e.g. terrace houses , flats ,commercial areas or factories

space available

collection service route

, e.g. terrace houses , flats ,commercial areas or factories  space available  collection service

COLLECTION SYSTEM

There are several activities associated

With solid waste

There are several activities associated With solid waste collection process carried out by Local Authority: 1.
There are several activities associated With solid waste collection process carried out by Local Authority: 1.

collection process carried out by

Local Authority:

1.

Storage

2.

In situ handling

3.

Collection

waste collection process carried out by Local Authority: 1. Storage 2. In situ handling 3. Collection
waste collection process carried out by Local Authority: 1. Storage 2. In situ handling 3. Collection
waste collection process carried out by Local Authority: 1. Storage 2. In situ handling 3. Collection

Method of Transportation

hydraulic or pneumatic transportation trucks

solid waste is compressed to:

i.

save space for more volume of waste can be transported

ii.

not attract flies, rats, birds and

wild animals

iii.

lightweight waste will not blown by the wind

iv.

fire resistance

rats, birds and wild animals iii. lightweight waste will not blown by the wind iv. fire

Transfer Station -- Facility where solid waste is transferred from collection vehicles

to larger trucks or rail cars for longer distance transport

Factors to consider when choosing the location of transfer stations is as follows:

i.

must be located not far away from sources of waste collected

ii.

place must be accessible and no obstruction

iii.

not located too close to residential area

iv.

construction and operating costs must be more economic

v.

the location must be located away from water sources or ground water to prevent contamination or poisoning

v. the location must be located away from water sources or ground water to prevent contamination
v. the location must be located away from water sources or ground water to prevent contamination

Solid Waste Collection Method:

i. Haul Container System (HCS) containers will be emptied and placed back in its original place , the waste transported to transfer station or disposal site suitable for areas with high solid waste generation rate e.g. markets, wholesale markets or supermarkets

site  suitable for areas with high solid waste generation rate e.g. markets, wholesale markets or

ii. Stationary Container System (SCS).

waste container remains on the point of collection

ii. Stationary Container System (SCS) .  waste container remains on the point of collection

Route Selection

Selection of the optimum route may save costs and improve operational efficiency of waste collection

There are several computer programs to select

the route and frequency of collection

Factors should be considered in the route

layout

i. quantity of waste collected from collection sites every day

ii. arrangement of collection routes from the

transfer station

arrangement of collection routes from the transfer station iii. routes should be arranged so that the

iii. routes should be arranged so that the final location of the collection must be adjacent to the landfill

Method of Solid Waste Disposal

1. Landfill

2. Incineration

3. Composting

4. Pyrolysis

Factors for landfill site selection :

haul distance accessibility to the site soil conditions and topography weather conditions

3.

2.

1.

4.

surface water hydrology

5.

end-use of landfill

6.

local community activities

7.

geological and hydrological conditions

5. end-use of landfill 6. local community activities 7. geological and hydrological conditions

Controlled Combustion /

Incineration

thermal processing of solid waste by chemical oxidation in a controlled

combustion

by-products produced during combustion including nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water vapor, as well as `flue gas', e.g. organic

acids, hydro-chloride (HCl) and SOx,

dioksins and furans

other by-product is ash that is incombustible organic which contain heavy

metals

incineration temperatures <750 0 C, volatile material unburned completely will cause bad odors

heavy metals  incineration temperatures <750 0 C, volatile material unburned completely will cause bad odors

Incinerator

Incinerator

Controlled Combustion / Incineration (cont'd)

The advantages of incineration are: -

1. the volume and weight of waste can be reduced immediately

2. the final ash formed is stable

requires a small area for disposal

3. the technology used can treat hazardous materials in a proper and effective method

4. by adopting conservation of energy

technique, operating costs can be

reduced

The weakness of incineration are: -

1.

require high cost of capital

2.

skilled workers needed

3.

not all materials may be burned

4.

some materials require more energy for elimination

workers needed 3. n ot all materials may be burned 4. s ome materials require more

Composting

is the process by which organic material is broken down into simpler forms of matter

The objective of the composting process are: -

biodegradable organic material stabilized and reduced the volume of waste destroy bacteria, pathogens, metamorphosis of insect and other undesirable microorganisms such as protozoa and fungi preserves the nutrients

good compost product can be used to upgrade the

quality of soil, for instance to increase the water

holding capacity of sandy soil

2 types of composting process :

1. Aerobic composting

2. Anaerobic composting

Factors that influence Aerobic Composting Process

i. Particle size 25 to 75 mm for the

optimum chemical reactions to occur

ii. The ratio of C: N (Carbon to nitrogen

ratio)

i. Particle size 25 to 75 mm for the optimum chemical reactions to occur ii. The

Factors that influence Aerobic Composting Process (cont.)

iii. Moisture content should be in the range 50 - 60%

iv. Temperature the optimum temperature for the composting process is 50 to 70 0 C

v. PH Control the optimum pH for microbial activity is 6.5 - 7.5 to prevent loss of nitrogen as ammonia (NH 3 ) gas, pH should not exceed 8.5

Factors that influence Aerobic Composting Process (cont.)

vi. mixing process to prevent dehydration on the surface of

the compost vii. air requirements

Composting Process (cont.) vi. mixing process to prevent dehydration on the surface of the compost vii.
heap or windrows aerated static pile reactor or closed container
heap or windrows
aerated static pile
reactor or closed
container

Composting methods:

1.

2.

3.

Introduction

Waste Management Strategies

"3 Rs Concept “ recycle

Waste Management Strategies "3 Rs Concept “ recycle reduce, reuse and consuming and throwing away less

reduce, reuse and

Strategies "3 Rs Concept “ recycle reduce, reuse and consuming and throwing away less or cutting
Strategies "3 Rs Concept “ recycle reduce, reuse and consuming and throwing away less or cutting
Strategies "3 Rs Concept “ recycle reduce, reuse and consuming and throwing away less or cutting

consuming and throwing away less or

cutting down on waste and using products made to last rather than disposable

Introduction

Waste Management Strategies

"3 Rs Concept “

recycle

Waste Management Strategies "3 Rs Concept “ recycle reduce, reuse and reusing products when possible is
Waste Management Strategies "3 Rs Concept “ recycle reduce, reuse and reusing products when possible is
Waste Management Strategies "3 Rs Concept “ recycle reduce, reuse and reusing products when possible is
Waste Management Strategies "3 Rs Concept “ recycle reduce, reuse and reusing products when possible is

reduce, reuse and

reusing products when possible is even better than recycling, because the item does not need to be reprocessed before it can be used again

Introduction

Waste Management Strategies

"3 Rs Concept “

reduce, reuse and

Strategies "3 Rs Concept “ reduce, reuse and recycle recycling turns materials that would normally be
recycle
recycle
Strategies "3 Rs Concept “ reduce, reuse and recycle recycling turns materials that would normally be
Strategies "3 Rs Concept “ reduce, reuse and recycle recycling turns materials that would normally be

recycling turns materials that would normally be turned to waste into valuable resources by reprocessing

Recovery

is defined as any waste management operation that diverts a waste material from the waste stream and which results in a certain product

material from the waste stream and which results in a certain product with a potential economic
material from the waste stream and which results in a certain product with a potential economic
material from the waste stream and which results in a certain product with a potential economic

with a potential economic or ecological benefit

Waste Management Hierarchy – “3 Rs” Concept

Source

Reduction

Reuse

Recycling and Composting

Landfill with Energy Recovery

Landfill

Literature Review Steel and tin containers

Literature Review Steel and tin containers
Literature Review Steel and tin containers

Literature Review Carboys

Literature Review C a r b o y s Jerry Cans

Jerry Cans

Literature Review C a r b o y s Jerry Cans

Other Potentially Recyclable Materials

i. Feras metals (iron and steel)

from large items like cars, old iron machine, furniture, kitchen appliances, stairs, hardware), the construction debris (copper wire, cast iron pipes and plumbing equipment) & of commercial

& industrial area (appliances, automobiles, trucks,

aircraft, machinery, etc.).

ii. Aluminium aluminium cans, window frames and doors and roof

gutters

iii. Paper the main types of waste paper which consists of old newspapers, cardboard, paper & paper high-grade mixed. Paper can be reprocessed into newsprint, insulation paper and paper bode.

cardboard, paper & paper high-grade mixed. Paper can be reprocessed into newsprint, insulation paper and paper

Pyrolysis is a thermochemical decomposition of organic material at elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen. Pyrolysis typically occurs under pressure and at operating temperatures above 430°C (800°F). Pyrolysis of organic substances produces gas and

liquid products and leaves a solid residue richer in

carbon content.

Extreme pyrolysis, which leaves mostly carbon as the

residue, is called carbonization.

16/04/2010 5:49pm

KUALA LUMPUR 16 April - Jabatan Pengurusan Sisa Pepejal Negara (JPSPN) sedang membina sembilan tapak pelupusan sisa pepejal sanitari antaranya di Negeri Sembilan, Melaka dan Pahang bernilai RM20 juta setiap satu berikutan penutupan beberapa tapak pelupusan.

Ketua Pengarahnya, Datuk Dr. Nadzri Yahaya berkata, pihaknya sedang giat menutup tapak-tapak pelupusan sampah pembuangan terbuka di kawasan sensitif seperti kawasan tadahan air dan melindungi kesihatan orang awam daripada pencemaran udara.

Katanya, tapak pelupusan sanitari mempunyai loji rawatan leachate” (air larut resapan)

ke

dalam sumber air bawah tanah, sistem saluran paip untuk menyerap gas Metana yang

dihasilkan daripada proses pereputan sampah serta sistem penutupan sampah yang dilupuskan bagi mengelak risiko bau.

Nazri berkata, jumlah tapak pelupusan yang masih beroperasi setakat ini ialah 177 buah

di

lagi.

Jabatan itu juga mengambil langkah sementara dengan menaik taraf tapak pelupusan yang tidak sanitari yang tidak dapat ditutup kerana masih tidak menemui tapak alternatif yang sesuai, katanya.

mana tujuh daripadanya tapak sanitari manakala 114 tapak sudah tidak digunakan

Beliau berkata, JPSPN juga sedang membina insinerator mini (loki penunu) untuk

menangani masalah sisa pepejal di pulau-pulau dan kawasan tanah tinggi yang tidak mempunyai kawasan untuk membina tapak pelupusan.

Insinerator mini itu sedang dibina di Langkawi, Tioman, Pangkor, Labuan dan Cameron Highlands dan dijangka siap akhir tahun ini, katanya. - Bernama