Drag of a cylinder using pendulum method
Joshi Yash ^{∗} , Kiran Kalbhor ^{†} , Kalicharan Hansda ^{‡} , Kartikey Sharma ^{§}
Aerodynamics Lab, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology
Experiment was performed to calculate the drag force on the solid cylinder. Drag force variation for diﬀerent Reynolds numbers was also observed. Experiment was conducted at low subsonic free stream velocities. Drag was observed to have increased with the increase in free stream velocity of air.
D
m
m
m
r
r
g Acceleration due to gravity, m ^{2} /s
θ Deﬂection angle
θ
C _{D}
D _{w}_{c} Diameter of Wooden Cylinder, m
Drag force, N Mass of bob with pointer, Kg Mass of pendulum rod, Kg Mass of wooden cylinder, Kg Length of pendulum rod, m Wooden cylinder rod length, m
_{b}
_{b}
_{c}
_{r}
_{c}
_{m}
Inclination angle of manometer tubes Coeﬃcient of drag
Nomenclature
S 
Projected area of cylinder in ﬂow direction, m ^{2} 
Re 
Reynolds Number 
v 
Velocity of air, m/s 
ν 
Kinematic viscosity, m ^{2} /s 
ρ 
Density of air, Kg/m ^{3} 
P 
Static Pressure of air, mm of ethanol 
P _{a}_{t}_{m} Atmospheric pressure, mm of Hg T _{a}_{t}_{m} Atmospheric temperature, ^{◦} C M _{a}_{i}_{r} Molecular mass of air, g/mole
R Universal Gas Constant, J/kg.K
Subscripts
∞ Free stream properties
I.
Introduction
When a body is placed inside the ﬂow domain of the ﬂuid, ﬂuid exerts force on the body and vice versa. Generally this force is classiﬁed into lift and drag. Drag force is the force exerted by the ﬂuid on the body in the ﬂow direction. Study of drag force is very crucial for aircrafts, rockets as well as vehicles. Most of the times, main aim of design is to reduce drag.
^{∗} Student,B. Tech. 5th semester, Aerospace Engineering, SC13B022 ^{†} Student,B. Tech. 5th semester, Aerospace Engineering, SC13B023 ^{‡} Student,B. Tech. 5th semester, Aerospace Engineering, SC13B024 ^{§} Student,B. Tech. 5th semester, Aerospace Engineering, SC13B025
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Here drag force on a cylinder was measured. A wooden cylinder was attached with a pendulum. And the cylinder was placed inside the wind tunnel. The experimental set up has been covered in the later portion of the report.
C _{d} , the drag coeﬃcient is given by the formula stated below:
C _{D} =
_{2} 1 ρ _{∞} ^{D} v ∞ _{2} _{S}
(1)
C _{D} consists of two kinds of drag forces. Skin friction and pressure drag. Pressure drag is produced because of diﬀerential pressure generated between upstream of the body and downstream of the body. Skin friction, as name suggests, is caused by the friction (wall sheer stress) between body and the ﬂow. Skin friction dominates for low Re values (especially for stream lined bodies). Pressure drag becomes dominating at high velocities and for blunt bodies. Flow fails to keep itself aligned with the surface and separates. Separation in turn creates low pressure in the downstream of the body which contributes to pressure drag.
II.
Background
The air ﬂow over the cylinder exerts drag force on the cylinder causing it to rotate about the ﬁxed shaft. Depending on the amount of drag force the cylinder deﬂects to a particular angle till it comes to equilibrium due to drag and weights of cylinder, rod and bob as shown in ﬁg. 1. Thus by using force balance or moment balance the drag force on the cylinder can be calculated if angle of deﬂection is known.
_{D}
_{=} ^{} m _{b} r _{b} + ^{m} ^{r} ^{r} ^{b}
2 
+ 
m _{c} r _{c} ^{} g tan θ 

r 
c 
(2)
Figure 1. Free body Diagram at equilibrium (Only required forces are shown)
The characteristic length for a circular cylinder or sphere is taken to be the external diameter D. Thus, the Reynolds number is deﬁned as Re = VD/ν where V is the uniform velocity of the ﬂuid as it approaches the cylinder or sphere. The critical Reynolds number for ﬂow across a circular cylinder or sphere is about
Re _{c}_{r} ≈ 2 × 10 ^{5} . That is, the boundary layer remains laminar for about Re 2 × 10 ^{5} and becomes turbulent
for Re 2 × 10 ^{5} .
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Figure 2. Average drag coeﬃcient for crossﬂow over a smooth circular cylinder and a smooth sphere. ^{1}
The nature of the ﬂow across a cylinder or sphere strongly aﬀects the total drag coeﬃcient C _{D} . Both the friction drag and the pressure drag can be signiﬁcant. The high pressure in the vicinity of the stagnation point and the low pressure on the opposite side in the wake produce a net force on the body in the direction of ﬂow. The drag force is primarily due to friction drag at low Reynolds numbers (Re < 10) and to pressure drag at high Reynolds numbers (Re > 5000). Both eﬀects are signiﬁcant at intermediate Reynolds numbers. Variation of C _{D} with Reynolds number is shown in ﬁg. 2 and visualisation of diﬀerent regimes of ﬂow are shown in ﬁg. 3
Figure 3.
Visualisation of ﬂow over cylinder at diﬀerent ranges of Reynolds number ^{2}
• For Re 1 and the drag coeﬃcient decreases with increasing Reynolds number. separation in this regime.
There is no ﬂow
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• At about Re = 10, separation starts occurring on the rear of the body with vortex shedding starting
90. The region of separation increases with increasing Reynolds number up to about
Re=10 ^{3} . At this point, the drag is mostly (about 95 percent) due to pressure drag. The drag coeﬃcient
at about Re ^{∼}
=
continues to decrease with increasing Reynolds number in this range of 10 < Re < 10 ^{3} .
• In the moderate range of 10 ^{3} < Re < 10 ^{5} , the drag coeﬃcient remains relatively constant. This behavior is characteristic of blunt bodies. The ﬂow in the boundary layer is laminar in this range, but the ﬂow in the separated region past the cylinder or sphere is highly turbulent with a wide turbulent wake.
• There is a sudden drop in the drag coeﬃcient somewhere in the range of 10 ^{5} < Re < 10 ^{6} (usually, at about 2 × 10 ^{5} ). This large reduction in C _{D} is due to the ﬂow in the boundary layer becoming turbulent, which moves the separation point further on the rear of the body, reducing the size of the wake and thus the magnitude of the pressure drag. This is in contrast to streamlined bodies, which experience an increase in the drag coeﬃcient (mostly due to friction drag) when the boundary layer becomes turbulent. ^{1}
III. Experimental Setup and Procedure
The experimental setup consists of a blower type wind tunnel. Wind tunnel had radially blowing fan which was driven by a motor whose RPM could be changed vary the air speed. There were tapping at entry of contraction cone and test section for measurement of static pressure. A multitube manometer kept at 45 deg inclination was used to measure these pressures. A spirit level was also provided to make sure that ethanol in the manometer tubes was at same level initially. A wooden cylinder was suspended in test section; Pointer attached to the pendulum was used to ﬁnd deﬂection angle of cylinder from the scale as shown in
ﬁg.4.
Figure 4. Testsection of experimental setup for drag on a cylinder using pendulum method experiment
• Before starting the experiment, the formula to ﬁnd the drag on the cylinder using the angle of deﬂection was found out.
• It was checked that cylinder was hanging vertically and the levels of ethanol in manometer tubes was same.
• Motor was switched on and rpm of the motor was changed gradually and for some deﬂection of cylinder its corresponding angle, pressure were measured using the pointer attached to the pendulum and manometer tubes respectively.
• This was repeated upto 12 ^{◦} of deﬂection.
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• While noting down the deﬂection values, the oscillations of the cylinder were observed and correspond ingly angle of oscillation was also noted.
• From the observed values, Reynolds number and coeﬃcient of drag were calculated and were plotted.
IV.
Results
At steady state a ﬂow ﬁeld forms around the object, force and coeﬃcients changes with diﬀerent ﬂow parameters. For incompressible ﬂows Reynolds number is an important parameter that decides pressure distribution over an object, hence aero dynamic force on a body.
R e yn o l d s N u m b e r
Figure 5. Plot of C _{D} Vs. Re along with uncertainties
1. When compared to reference ideal graph (refer plot 2), the plot of C _{D} Vs Re shows slight variation. Value of C _{D} is almost constant for 2/3 ^{r}^{d} of the readings.
2 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0
R e yn o l d s N u m b e r
Figure 6. Plot of Drag vs Re
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2.
Initially at lower values of Re, oscillations of pendulum were negligible. At higher Re values, both frequency and aptitude of oscillations increased, causing signiﬁcant error.
3. Plot 6 and plot 7 shows that Drag is proportional to Re and square of velocity for the experimantal range of data.
A n g u l a r D e f l e c t i o n ( D e g r e e )
Figure 8. plot of Drag vs Angular Deﬂection
4. Drag force varies linearly with the angular deﬂection of the cylinder as shown in ﬁg.8.
V.
Conclusion
With increasing Reynold’s number variation of C _{D} of the cylinder is not exactly monotonic. The ﬂuctu ations are due to diﬀerent degree of turbulence and ﬂuctuating form drag over the cylinder.
1. Reynolds no. varies from 21000 to 69000 in this regime the ﬂow is a region where the vortex sheet is fully turbulent refer ﬁg 3. Its a turbulent region some ﬂuctuations are expected and inherent.
2. For this kind of fully turbulent ﬂow, the value for Cd is relatively constant.
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3.
As C _{D} is nearly constant in the experimental range of Re values, hence drag force is found to be proportional to square of the velocity as expected from equation 7.
4. The drag force on the cylinder is proportional to tan which implies that drag force increases with the
increase in angular deﬂection. For small of deﬂection tanθ is linear this explains linear nature of plot
8.
5. Cd not only depends on the ﬂow velocity but will also depend upon ﬂow direction, object position, object size, ﬂuid density and ﬂuid viscosity.
6. The oscillation of the pendulum at higher velocities of air may be because of the change of ﬂow from laminar to turbulent regime. Oscillatory behaviour of the cylinder is combine eﬀect of shedding vortexes in the wake region and mechanical vibration of motor.
Causes of variation and uncertainty
• The wooden cylinder is misaligned with the ﬂow .
• Manometer’s base is not aligned to the ground.
• The ideal C _{d} plot (Refer ﬁg. 2) was a 2D case (or inﬁnite cylinder) but in experiment its a 3D object (Finite cylinder) will have some ﬁnite shear forces(boundary layer eﬀects) acting on the side walls which will contribute to drag.
• Mechanical Vibration of motor is causes the cylinder to oscillate causing error in reading. Oscillations started around 800 rpm. At higher rotational speeds, the amplitude of oscillations were ﬂuctuating, possible reason being the fully turbulent nature of vortex sheet (as shown in ﬁg 3).
• It was a subsonic experiment so any disturbance in aft ﬁeld can also causes variation in result. Also the rod used for suspending the cylinder will have some contribution in variation in readings.
• Steady state may not have be achieved due to variable velocity and pressure distribution.
• The leakage in wind tunnel causes the internal pressure to drop and induces disturbances in the ﬂow which consequently reduces the drag force experienced by the cylinder.
• Due to prolonged uses the tube of manometer is having some deposited residue around 5 cm from the base so that might contribute to error due variation in density of ﬂuid . The blue coloured substance can be ”CuSO _{4} ” usually added in industrial Ethanol.
Uncertainty Analysis
Error analysis is done for θ = 5 ^{o} . Drag on the cylinder is given by the following moment balance equation:
_{D}
_{=} ^{} m _{b} r _{b} + ^{m} ^{r} ^{r} ^{b} + m _{c} r _{c} ^{} g tan θ
2
r c
(3)
The above equation has only one variable in the form of deﬂection. Therefore uncertainty in drag is given by:
Net uncertainty is given by:
∂D
∂θ
= sec ^{2} θ × g × (2m + ^{L}^{M} ^{r}
= 12.22
l
∂D
_{×} δθ
D
∂θ
= 1.236477
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)
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Reynolds number is given by:
_{R} e _{=} ρ × V × D
µ
Uncertainty in Reynolds number depends on velocity of ﬂow which is dependent on rise of ethanol on the multitube manometer. Uncertainty in Reynolds number due to h _{1} is given by:
∂R _{e} 
_{=} 289694.117 × −1 
∂h _{1} 
2 × ^{√} h _{2} − h _{1} 
Therefore total error due to h _{1} is given by:
∂R _{e} 

∂h _{1} × δh _{1} R e = −0.02132 

∂R _{e} 

∂h _{2} × δh _{2} R e = 0.02132 

× 
δh _{1} ) ^{2} 
_{(} ∂R _{e} ∂h _{2} 
× 
δh _{2} ) ^{2} 

∂h _{1} 
× 
= 
^{} −0.02132 ^{2} × 0.02132 ^{2} 

R 
e 
R 
e 

= 
0.03015 
^{} _{(} ∂R _{e}
Similarly total error due to h _{2} is given by:
Net error due to h _{1} and h _{2} is given by:
Similarly error in C _{d} can be found out. The parameters eﬀecting the uncertainty in Coeﬃcient of drag are deﬂection and the height of the rise in ethanol level in the multitube manometer. Maximum uncertainty value for C _{D} was obtained as ±0.572 while the minimum value was ±0.061. Similarly maximum uncertainty in calculation of Reynolds number was ±0.145 and minimum value was ±0.014.
Appendix
Sample Calculation
Experiment is well within the incompressible regime of ﬂuid ﬂow (i.e. Mach no. less than 0.3), So Bernoulli’s equation is valid.
P _{a}_{t}_{m}
T _{a}_{t}_{m}
M _{a}_{i}_{r}
R
750 mm of Hg 314.15 K
29.1 gm/mole
8.314 J/(kg.K)
Table 1. Atmospheric Properties
By using Bernoulli’s equation for two points at the same height, we have:
Density of air is calculated by:
Using properties given in table V.
_{1} + ^{1} _{2} (ρ(v _{1} ) ^{2} ) = P _{2} +
P
ρ = ^{P}^{M} RT
_{2} 1 (ρ(v _{2} ) ^{2} ) 
(4) 
(5) 
_{ρ} _{=} 13600 × 0.75 × 9.81 × 29.1
8.314 × 304
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Measurement 
Values 

r b 
260 
mm 

r c 
130 
mm 

D 
wc 
50 
mm 
W 
wc 
45 
mm 
m 
r 
111 gm 

m 
c 
58 
gm 
m 
b 
225 
gm 
θ m 
45 Degrees 
Table 2. Apparatus Measurements
ρ = 1.152kgm ^{−}^{3}
Drag force on the given cylinder is calculated using moment balance
_{D}
_{=}
^{} m _{b} r _{b} + ^{m} ^{r} ^{r} ^{b} + m _{c} r _{c} ^{} g tan θ
2
r c
Sample calculation for reading 5:
θ = 5 ^{o} ; D = 9.81 × tan(5)(2 × 0.058 + ^{0}^{.}^{2}^{6}^{0} ^{×} ^{0}^{.}^{1}^{1}^{1}
0.130
_{+} 2 × 0.260 × 0.225
0.130
D = 1.0625kgms ^{−}^{2} ;
(0.166 − 0.142) × sin45 × 9.81 × 789 = ^{1} _{2} × 1.152 × v ^{2}
v = 15.454m/s
C _{D} =
^{D} _{2} _{S}
1
_{2} ρv
C _{D} = 1.2697
)
(6)
(7)
Acknowledgments
We would like to acknowledge all the people involved directly or indirectly in completion of this experiment and report. We would like to thank our lab supervisor Dr. B. R. Vinoth for providing us an opportunity to experimentally understand various aspects of aerodynamics. We would also like to thank our instructors Mr. Roshan Kumar and Ms. Prasanthi for providing us the needful guidance for conducting the experiment.
References
^{1} Yunus A. Cengel, John M. Cimbala, FLUID MECHANICS: FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS, SI Units, 1st Edition, Mc Graw Hill Education, chapter 11, pp 583586 ^{2} Sunden, Bengt Tubes, Crossﬂow Over, Article, Thermopedia DOI: http://www.thermopedia.com/content/1216/
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