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Simulation

Assignment -1
ECE 442

Submitted by: Nikhil Kumar (UIN:


655818534)

Q.1

Plot the Current Voltage (I-V) characteristic of the following p-n structure
using ATLAS.
Also plot the Electric field for the p-n junction at both forward and reverse
biases.

Fig. 1 I-V characteristic of PN diode forward bias

Fig.2 Reverse I-V characteristic of PN diode

Fig.3 PN diode structure forward bias

Fig. 4 Electric field PN diode in reverse bias

Fig.5 PN diode structure in reverse bias

Fig. 6 Electric field for PN diode at reverse bias

Q.2

Do the simulation for different temperatures (say 300 K, 350 K, 400 K


and 450 K) and compare the results for built-in potential and breakdown
voltage.

a) 300K

b) 350K

c) 400K

d) 450 K

Fig. 7 Built-in potential at different temperature

Variation of built-in potential with temperature


0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
300

350

400

450

a) 300K

b) 350K

c) 400K

d) 450 K
Fig. 8 Breakdown Voltage

Variation of breakdown voltage with temperature


80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
300

350

400

450

Q.3

Change the doping concentration of p-region (4 different points) and

record the change in built-in potential. Do the same with changing the
doping concentration of n-region. Plot Vbi
vs NAND. Compare the simulation results with theoretical results.

a) 1e14

b) 1e16

c) 1e20

d) 1e22

Fig. 9 Keeping doping concentration of N region 1e16 and varying p-type


concentration

NA
1e14
1e16
1e20
1e22

NB
1e16
1e16
1e16
1e16

Vib(calculated)
0.538
0.644
0.855
1.09

Vib(simulated)
0.2
0.5
0.7
0.8

Error
0.38
0.144
0.155
0.161

a) 1e14

b) 1e16

c) 1e20

d) 1e22

Fig. 10. Keeping Na constant Nd is varied

NA
1e17
1e17
1e17
1e17

NB
1e14
1e16
1e20
1e22

Vib(calculated)
0.591
0.697
0.908
1.01

Vib(simulated)
0.4
0.625
0.8
0.825

Error
0.191
0.072
0.108
0.185

Q.4. What is the breakdown voltage of this structure? What change do you
observe in the
breakdown voltage if you insert a 5 micron intrinsic layer in between the P
and N region of the
same device? Give analytical explanation of your observation.

Fig. 11
Breakdown voltage of the structure increases by adding intrinsic layer in between P
and N region. The new value of breakdown voltage is 110 V.
Analytical Explanation
Breakdown Voltage (PIN) > Breakdown Voltage (PN)
In a PIN diode, the depletion region exists almost completely within the
intrinsic region. This depletion region is much larger than in a PN diode.

High breakdown voltage: Thus, the wide depletion layer caused by the
intrinsic layer ensures that PIN diodes have a high reverse breakdown
characteristic