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PREFACE

STATISTICS

This book is the result of my teaching experience in the subject and working experience in various
softwares related to Statistics for Management to Sikkim Manipal University,Udupi students for about 3
years.It is designed to meet the requirements of research students at Masters and Ph D levels
particularly Engineering and Management(M E, MCA MBA and Ph D ,Mathematics,Engg,Computer
Applications and Business Administration).
The main highlight of the book is solved problem approach added for numerical question problems
framed by the author.This book has a large number of problems solved in all 9 chapters.
I also thank various International software makers in the field of Statistics.

There are many problems framed by myself and can be best suitable for other Ph D students during
their RESEARCH WORK in Statistics In the three fields mentioned below:
ENGINEERING-ALL FIELDS.(BACHELORS,MASTERS LEVEL AND DOCTORS LEVEL)

COMPUTER APPLICATIONS. (BACHELORS,MASTERS LEVEL AND DOCTORS LEVEL)

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION. (BACHELORS,MASTERS LEVEL AND DOCTORS LEVEL)


SRINIVAS R RAO

EDUNXT CERTIFIED LEVEL III FACULTY FOR MBA


TRACKS INDIA INFOTECH LTD,UDUPI

SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY,MANIPAL

ABOUT THE AUTHOR


Authors name is Srinivas R Rao, born and done his school level education in Mangalore,Karnataka in a
reputed private school Canara High School and PUC(+2) from Canara PUC in Science stream with PCMB
as main subjects.

Later, pursuing LL.B(5 Years) course passed the degree in 1999 and done Diploma in Export
Management ,Diploma in Customs and Central Excise , Diploma in Business Administration and some
important IT subjects like MS-Office,Internet/Email,Visual Basic 6.0,C,C++,Java,Advanced Java,Oracle
with D2K,HTML with Javascript,VBscript and Active Server Pages.

Joined as a FACULTY for students in a small computer Institute in 2002 July and later after 4 months
worked in a company by name CRP Technologies(I) .P.Ltd as Branch Manager(Risk Manager) for
Mangalore,Udupi and Kasargod areas from January 26 2003 to June 11 2007.In the year 2005 pursued
MBA distance education course. Currently working as a FACULTY in Sikkim Manipal University , Udupi
centre for BBA & MBA students and teaching numerical subjects like Statistics/Operations Research(Mgt
Science/Quant. Techniques for Mgt)/Accounting and several numerical and difficult oriented subjects
for distance education students in their weekend contact classes from July 2010 till present day.
Thanks

Regards
Author

(SRINIVAS R RAO)

ABOUT THE BOOK

This book is on Statistics which is a compulsory subject for B.E, M.E., B Tech, M.Tech.,B.Sc and
M.Sc(Maths),MBA and Ph.D .However , any Bachelor level students can also read it as it contains a lot of
numerical problems framed by me.

There are 9 main topics covered in this book : Descriptive Statistics,Dispersion,Probability,Probability


Distributions,Normal Distributions,t-distributions,Hypotheses Testing,Estimation & Sample
Size,Correlation & Regression with 40 individual topics & primary , important Statistics concepts covered
with accurate working method and exact/correct answers for numerical problems with solutions framed
by me.
I feel that this is a unique book as there are theory concepts and many numerical problems solved .
HAPPY READING.
THANKS

REGARDS
AUTHOR

SRINIVAS R RAO

TRACKS INDIA INFOTECH(STUDY CENTRE)


EDUNXT CERTIFIED LEVEL III FACULTY
SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY
MANIPAL

STATISTICS
CHAPTERS:

1.AVERAGE DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS:


FIND MEDIAN

FIND ARITHMETIC MEAN


FIND MODE

FIND GEOMETRIC MEAN

FIND QUADRATIC MEAN (RMS)

2. DISPERSION STATISTICS

FIND STANDARD DEVIATION


FIND SKEW OF A DATA SET

FIND RANGE OF A DATA SET

FIND VARIANCE OF A DATA SET

3. PROBABILITY

SOLVING COMBINATIONS

SOLVING PERMUTATIONS
USING ADDITION RULE

USING MULTIPLICATION RULE

FIND CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY

4. PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION

FIND EXPECTATION OF A DISTRIBUTION

FIND STANADARD DEVIATION OF A DISCRETE DISTRIBUTION


FIND VARIANCE OF A DISCRETE DISTRIBUTION

5. NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

FIND PROBABILITY FROM A NORMAL DISTRIBUTION


FIND z-SCORE FOR A NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

APPROXIMATE BINOMIAL USING NORMAL DISTRIBUTION


FIND PROBABILITIES USING CENTRAL LIMIT THEOREM
FIND PROBABILITY OF z-SCORE RANGE

FIND PROBABILITY OF RANGE IN A NON STANDARD NORMAL DISTRIBUTION


FIND z-SCORE FOR THE GIVEN PROBABILITY
FIND z-SCORE OF THE PROPORTION

6. t-DISTRIBUTIONS:

FIND P VALUE

FIND t-VALUE FOR A CONFIDENCE LEVEL


FIND CRITICAL t-VALUE

7. HYPOTHESES TESTING:

TEST A CLAIM ABOUT THE MEAN


TEST A CLAIM USING THE t-TEST

TEST A CLAIM ABOUT THE MEAN (TWO-TAILED TEST)


TEST A CLAIM FROM A SMALL SAMPLE

8. ESTIMATION AND SAMPLE SIZE:

FIND SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION OF THE MEAN


FIND MAXIMUM ERROR OF THE ESTIMATE

FIND CONFIDENCE LEVEL OF THE ESTIMATE

DETERMINE SAMPLE SIZE REQUIRED FOR STATED CONFIDENCE LEVEL


FIND CONFIDENCE LEVEL FOR A SMALL SAMPLE
FIND MAXIMUM ERROR FOR A SMALL SAMPLE

9. CORRELATION AND REGRESSION:

FIND LINEAR CORRELATION COEFFICIENT

DETERMINE IF THE CORRELATION IS SIGNIFICANT.


FIND A REGRESSION LINE

Chapter 1:
Introduction to Statistics

INSTRUCTORS MANUAL

1. Define the meaning of Statistics and other popular terms widely used in statistics
2. Describe the types of statisticsdescriptive and inferential

3. Describe the sources of data, the types of data and variables


4. Understand the different levels of measurement
5. Describe the various methods of collecting data

What is Statistics?
Statistics is a science that involves the efficient use of numerical data relating to groups of
individuals (or trials).

Related to the collection, analysis and interpretation of data, including data collection
design in the form of surveys and experiments.
Defined as the science of:
. Collecting

. Organizing
. Presenting
. Analyzing

Interpreting numerical data to efficiently help the process of making decisions

A person who works with the applied statistics (the practical application of statistics),
and is particularly eloquent in the way of thinking for the successful implementation
of statistical analysis is called a statistician.

The essence of the profession is to measure, interpret and describe the world and patterns
of human activity in it both in the private and public sectors.

Those involved in marketing, accounting, quality control and others, such as consumers,
sports players, administrators, educators, political parties, doctors, etc. on the other hand,
tend to widely use the outcomes of various statistical techniques to help make decisions.

Population size refers to a very large amount of data where making a census or a complete
sampling of all of the population would be impractical or impossible.
A sample is a subset of the population.

Samples are collected and statistics are calculated from the samples in order to make
conclusions about the population.

Types of Statistics
Two types of statistics:
1. Descriptive statistics
2. Inferential statistics

Descriptive statistics explains the sample data whereas inferential statistics


tries to reach conclusions that go beyond the existing data.
Descriptive Statistics
Statistical methods used to describe the basic features of the data that have been collected
in a study.

Provide simple summaries about the data and the measures.

Together with simple graphics analysis, they form the basis of virtually every quantitative
analysis of data.

Use descriptive statistics simply to describe whats going on in our data.


Used to present quantitative descriptions in a manageable form.

Help us to facilitate large data in a way that easily makes sense.


Each statistic reduces large data into a simple summary.
Inferential Statistics
Methods used to find out something about a population based on a sample taken from that
population.

Also called statistical inference or inductive statistics.

Most of the major inferential statistics come from a general family of statistical models
known as the General Linear Model
. Includes the t-test

. Analysis of variance (ANOVA)


Regression analysis

Multivariate methods like factor analysis,multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis,


discriminant function analysis, etc.

Sources of Data
Two sources of data: primary data and secondary data.

Researchers conduct various research projects using questionnaires addressed directly to


respondents, and their responses are known as the primary data.

Other studies involving the use of data collected by others, such as information from
census and earlier findings are also used by researcherscalled secondary data.

Primary data offer information tailored to specific studies,but are usually more expensive
and takes a longer period to process.

Secondary data are usually less expensive to be acquired and can be analyzed in a shorter
period.

Primary Data
Primary data is the specific information collected by person who is doing research
(researcher).

Researchers collect data through surveys, interviews, direct observations and experiments.
Essential to all areas of study because it is the original data of an experiment or
observation that has not been processed or altered.

Primary data can be prospective, retrospective, interventional or observational in nature.


Prospective data is collected from subjects in real time
Retrospective data is collected from archival records.

Retrospective primary data provides information on past circumstances


or behaviours.

Interventional primary data can be gathered after the interventions of interest have been
prospectively delivered, manipulated or managed.

Observational primary data is collected by monitoring an intervention of interest without


intervening in the delivery of the intervention.

Advantages:
1 Researchers can decide the type of method they will use in collecting the data and how
long it will take them to gather that particular data.

2 Researchers can focus the data collection on specific issues of their research and enable
them to collect more accurate information.

3 Researchers would know in detail how the data were gathered and hence, will be able to
present original and unbiased data.
Disadvantages:

1 Primary data collection consumes a lot of time, effort and cost; the researchers will not only
need to make certain preparations, in addition, they will need to manage both their time and
cost effectively

2 Researchers will have to collect large volumes of data since they will interact with different
people and environments; also they will need to spend a lot of time checking, analyzing and
evaluating their findings before using such data.
Secondary Data
Any material that has been collected from published records, such as newspapers,
journals, research papers and so on.

Sources of secondary data may include information from the census, records of employees
of a company, or government statistical information such as Malaysia gross national income
(GNI) in different sectors and many others.
Easily available and cheap.

Available for a longer period of time.


Advantages:

1 Using data from secondary sources is more convenient as it requires less time, effort and
cost.

2 Secondary data helps to decide what further researches need to be done.


Disadvantages:

1 Secondary data may have transcription errors (reproduction errors).

2 Data from secondary sources may not meet the users specific needs.
3 Not all secondary data is readily available or inexpensive.

4 The accuracy of the secondary data can be questionable.

Types of Data and Variables


Data refers to qualitative or quantitative attributes of a variable or set of variables.
A variable is defined as any measured attribute that varies for different subjects.
Two basic types of data
1. Quantitative data
2. Qualitative data

Quantitative Data
Data that measures or identifies based on a numerical scale.
Can be analyzed using statistical methods

. Values obtained can be illustrated using diagrams such as tables, graphs and histograms.
Variable being studied can be reported numerically and is called a quantitative variable
while the population is called a quantitative population.

Quantitative variables can be further classified as either discrete or continuous.

Discrete variables can assume only integer values (whole number such as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, etc.).

Discrete variables result from counting.

Continuous variable can assume any value over a continuous range of possibilities.
For example:

Time (05:31:24 a.m)

Temperature (35.5 C)

Weight (85.6 kilograms)


Height (167.5 cm)

Speed (183.7 km/h), etc.

Continuous variables result from measuring something.


Qualitative Data
Provide items in a variety of qualities or categories that may be informal or even using
features that is relatively obscure, such as warmth and taste.

Although, the data that was originally collected as qualitative information, it can be
quantitative if it is further simplified using the method of counting.

Can include the obvious aspects such as gender, age or occupation.

Can also be in the form of pass-fail, yes-no, or various other categories.

If qualitative data uses categories based on ideas of subjective or non-existent, it is


generally less valuable for scientific study than quantitative data.

Sometimes it is possible to obtain quantitative estimates of the qualitative data.


For example:

People can be asked to rate their perceptions about their interest in a sport based on the
Likert scale, that is, a rating or a psychometric scale commonly used in questionnaires.
If a 10-point scale is used, 1 would signify strongly agree and 10 would indicate
strongly disagree.

When the characteristics or variable being studied is non-numeric (categorical), it is called a


qualitative variable or an attribute, while the population is called a qualitative

population.

When the data are qualitative, we are usually interested in:


How many?

What proportion fall in each category?

Qualitative variables are measured according to their specific categories and are often
summarized in charts.
For example:

Gender is measured as male or female.

Marital status is measured as single or married, and so on.

Levels of Measurement(NOIR)
Can be classified into four categories:
. Nominal
. Ordinal

. Interval
Ratio

Nominal Level
The most primitive, the lowest, or the most limited type of measurement.
In this level of measurement,

. Numbers or even words and letters are used to categorize the data.
Suppose there are data about students who sat for an examination.
Hence, in a nominal level of measurement,

Students who passed the examination are classified as P


Students who failed can be classified as F
Ordinal Level
Describes the relationship within a group of items in some specified order.
For example,

For a student with the highest marks in a classhe will be placed as the first rank.

Then, a student who received the second highest marks will be placed as the second rank,
and so on.

This level of measurement indicates an approximate ordering of the measurements. The

difference or the ratio between any two types of rankings is not always the same along the
scale.

Interval Level
Includes all the features of ordinal level (classification and direction).

States that the distances between intervals are the same along the interval scale from low
to high (constant size).

A popular example of this level of measurement is temperature in Celsius.


Ratio Level
Is the highest level of measurement

Has all the characteristics of interval level.

Major differences between interval and ratio levels of measurement


are:

(1) Ratio-level data has a meaningful zero point

(2) Ratio between any given two numbers is meaningful

Divisions between the points on the scale have an equivalent distance between them
Rankings assigned to the items are according to their size.
Money is a good illustration,

Having zero ringgit means you have none


Weight is another ratio-level measurement.

. If the dial on a scale is zero, there is a complete absence of weight.

If you earn $40 000 a year and Abu earns $10 000, you earn four times what he does.

Methods of Collecting Data


Data collection is an important aspect of any type of research study as inaccurate data
collection can impact the results of a study and ultimately lead to invalid results.

Investigator (researcher) must first of all, define the scope of his inquiry in every detail.
The probable cost, time and labour required must next be estimated.

If a complete coverage of information is not possible, for example, in market research, the
sample size and method of sampling will have to be determined.

Investigators collect primary data directly from the original sources.

They can collect the necessary data appropriate for specific research needs, in the form
they need.

In most cases, primary data collection is costly and time-consuming.

For some areas within social science research, such as socio-economic surveys, studies of
social anthropology, market research, etc., necessary data are not always available from
secondary sources, and they must be directly collected from the original or primary

sources.

In cases where the available secondary data are not suitable, again, the primary data
should be collected.

Methods of Primary Data Collection


Method refers to a data collection mode or method

Tool is an instrument used to carry out the method.


Some important methods of data collection:
1. Observations

2. Experimentation
3. Simulation

4. Interviewing

5. Panel Method
6. Mail Survey

7. Projective Techniques
8. Sociometry

Tools for Data Collection


A number of different types of instruments or tools are used for data collection depending
on the nature of the information to be gathered.
1. Types of Tools
Observation schedule

Interview guide and schedule


Questionnaires
Rating scale
Checklists

Data sheet

Institutions schedule
2. Constructing Schedule and Questionnaire
Schedule and questionnaire are the most common tools of data collection.

These tools have many similarities and contain a set of questions related to the problem
under study.
Both these tools aim at retrieving information from the respondents.
The content, structure, question words, question order, etc. are the same for all
respondents.
Each may use a different method; schedule is used for interviewing (the interviewer fills

The schedule) and questionnaire is used for mailing (the respondents fill out questionnaires
by themselves).
Schedule and questionnaire are constructed almost in the same way.
It consists of some main steps as below:
(i) Identifying the research data
(ii) Prepare dummy tables
(iii) Determine the level of the respondents
(iv) Decide methods of data collection
(v) Design instrument/tool
(vi) Assessment of the design instrument
(vii) Pre-testing
(viii) Specification of procedures
(ix) Planning format
3. Pilot Studies and Pre-Tests

It is often difficult to design a large study without adequate knowledge of the problem;
population to cover, level of knowledge, and so on.
. What are the issues and the concepts related to the problem under study?
. What is the best method of study?

. How long will it take and what is the cost?

. These and other related questions require a lot of knowledge about the subject matter.
To obtain such pre-knowledge, a preliminary or pilot study should be conducted.
Pilot study is a full-fledged miniature study of a problem

Pre-test is a trial test of a specific aspect of the study such as method of data collection or
instrument.
Instrument of data collection is designed with reference to the data requirements of the
study.
. It cannot be perfected purely on the basis of a critical scrutiny by the designer and other
researchers.
. It should be empirically tested (should be tested using a collection of data). Hence, pretesting of a draft instrument is rather indispensable.
Pre-testing has several beneficial functions:
. To test whether the instrument will get the responses needed to realize the objectives of
the study.
. To examine whether the content of the instrument is relevant and sufficient.
. To test the questions whether the words are clear and in accordance with the
understanding of the respondents.
. To examine other qualitative aspects of the instrument such as the question structure
and the sequence of questions.
. To develop appropriate procedure to deal with the instrument in the field.

1 Differentiate between descriptive and inferential statistics.

Descriptive statistics just explains the sample data, whereas


inferential statistics tries to reach conclusions that go beyond the
existing data.

2 Explain the differences between primary and secondary data.


Primary data is the specific information collected by the person
who is doing the research,
whereas secondary data is any material that has been collected
from published records
(newspapers, journals, research papers, etc).
3 Define these terms ,

Secondary data : Data that have been already collected by


and readily available from other sources.
Census
The procedure of systematically acquiring and recording
information about the members of a given population.

Inferential statistics
To apply the conclusions obtained from one experimental
study to more general
populations.
Quantitative data
Data measured or identified on a numerical scale.

Identify whether these are descriptive or inferential

statistics.

(a) In general, men die earlier than women.

Inferential statistics and not Descriptive Statistics

(b) A researcher has concluded that the property values will


increase
Inferential statistics and not Descriptive Statistics

(c) It is found that 55% of school children are not obese in


which 40% are females.
Descriptive statistics and not Inferential Statistics

(d) A study based on a random sample has revealed that the


school children are obese because they always preferred fast
foods.
Inferential statistics and not Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics are inferred from a certain phenomenon or


an event or a group of events
Descriptive Statistics involve numericals and percentages
instead of some inferences which are categorical or text based
without numericals.
When we take an average we use or perform DESCRIPTIVE
STATISTICS MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY.
When we do hypotheses testing we use or perform
INFERENTIAL STATISTICS.
5 State TRUE or FALSE.
(a) If a researcher uses descriptive statistics, the researcher
will be able to conclude about the population based on a
sample. FALSE
(b) Probability is the basis of the inferential statistics. TRUE
(c) Marital status is an example of a qualitative data. TRUE
(d) The highest level of measurement is the ratio level. TRUE

(e) The examination grades (A to F) are an example of ordinal


scale measurement. FALSE
(f) Phone survey is the most expensive method of data
collection. FALSE
6 Identify the type of measurements (nominal, ordinal,
interval and ratio) :

LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT:
(a) Test grades. Interval
(b) Size of shoe. Ordinal
(c) Type of blood. Nominal

NOIR

(d) Weight of chicken in kg. Ratio


(e) The top five supermodels. Ordinal
(f) Rating given to the cleanliness of restaurants. Interval
(g) The times recorded by the runners in a 100-metres sprint.
Ratio
(h) The ranking of the top 10 worlds richest people for 2011.
Ordinal
(i) The positions in a soccer team such as striker and
goalkeeper. Ordinal
(j) The average day temperature recorded at 14 major cities in
the world . Interval
(k) The number of accidents on a highway during the New
Year festival. Ratio

Chapter 1:
Introduction to Statistics
1 Differentiate between descriptive and inferential statistics.
Descriptive statistics just explains the sample data, whereas
inferential statistics tries to reach conclusions that go beyond the
existing data.

2 Explain the differences between primary and secondary data.


Primary data is the specific information collected by the person
who is doing the research,
whereas secondary data is any material that has been collected
from published records
(newspapers, journals, research papers, etc).

3 Define these terms ,

Secondary data : Data that have been already collected by


and readily available from other sources.
Census
The procedure of systematically acquiring and recording
information about the members of a given population.

Inferential statistics
To apply the conclusions obtained from one experimental
study to more general
populations.
Quantitative data
Data measured or identified on a numerical scale.

Identify whether these are descriptive or inferential

statistics.

(a) In general, men die earlier than women.

Inferential statistics and not Descriptive Statistics

(b) A researcher has concluded that the property values will


increase

Inferential statistics and not Descriptive Statistics

(c) It is found that 55% of school children are not obese in


which 40% are females.
Descriptive statistics and not Inferential Statistics

(d) A study based on a random sample has revealed that the


school children are obese because they always preferred fast
foods.
Inferential statistics and not Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics are inferred from a certain phenomenon or


an event or a group of events
Descriptive Statistics involve numericals and percentages
instead of some inferences which are categorical or text based
without numericals.
When we take an average we use or perform DESCRIPTIVE
STATISTICS MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY.
When we do hypotheses testing we use or perform
INFERENTIAL STATISTICS.
5 State TRUE or FALSE.
(a) If a researcher uses descriptive statistics, the researcher
will be able to conclude about the population based on a
sample. FALSE
(b) Probability is the basis of the inferential statistics. TRUE
(c) Marital status is an example of a qualitative data. TRUE
(d) The highest level of measurement is the ratio level. TRUE

(e) The examination grades (A to F) are an example of ordinal


scale measurement. FALSE
(f) Phone survey is the most expensive method of data
collection. FALSE
6 Identify the type of measurements (nominal, ordinal,
interval and ratio) :

LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT:

NOIR

(a) Test grades. Interval


(b) Size of shoe. Ordinal
(c) Type of blood. Nominal
(d) Weight of chicken in kg. Ratio
(e) The top five supermodels. Ordinal
(f) Rating given to the cleanliness of restaurants. Interval
(g) The times recorded by the runners in a 100-metres sprint.
Ratio
(h) The ranking of the top 10 worlds richest people for 2011.
Ordinal
(i) The positions in a soccer team such as striker and
goalkeeper. Ordinal
(j) The average day temperature recorded at 14 major cities in
the world . Interval
(k) The number of accidents on a highway during the New
Year festival. Ratio

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MuIAlply 3 by 7 'ho ge1 2 1.


2 1.6

MuIAlply 2 1 by 6 'ko geA 12 6 .


12 6

P ro b lem 1
5C4

Finci&he num ber op posszble unorctened com bzna'dlons w hen r z'denns clre
seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'terns.
5 C 4=nC r=

ni

'

r'(n-r)I

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.


sI

4.1(.
5-4.)I
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchcltors.
S

P ro b lem 1
6C a

Finci&he num ber op posszble unorctened com bzna'dlons w hen r z'denns clre
seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'terns.
s C a=nC r=

nl

'

r'(n-r)1

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.


6I

2 I(6-2)1
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchctors.
6 .5
2

Canceiou& +he rem opning com m on Pac#ors.


3 .E;

MuIAlply 3 by 5 'ho geA 15 .


15

P ro b lem 1
6C 4

Finci&he num ber op posszble unorctened com bzna'dlons w hen r z'denns clre
seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'terns.
s C 4=nC r=

ni

'

rl(n -r)I

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.


61

4.l(6 -4.)1
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchctors.
6 .5
2

Canceiou& +he rem opning com m on Pac#ors.


3 .E;

MuIAlply 3 by 5 'ho geA 15 .


15

P ro b lem 1
aCa

Finci&he num ber op posszble unorctened com bzna'dlons w hen r z'denns clre
seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'terns.
a C a=nC r=

n!
r!(n-r)!

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.

8!
3!(8 -3)!
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchctors.
8 '7 '6
3 .2

Conceiou& +he rem opning com m on Pac#ors.


4.'7 '2

MuIAlply 4.by 7 'ho geA 2 ().


2 ().2

MuIAlply 2 i) by 2 'ko ge1 5 6.


56

P ro b lem 1
,C 7

Finci&he num ber op posszble unorctened com bzna'dlons w hen r z'denns clre
seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'terns.
, C 7=nC r=

ni

'

rl(n-r)I

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.


%I

71(% -7)I
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchctors.
% .()
2

Canceiou& +he rem opning com m on Pac#ors.


% .4.

MuIAlply 9 by 4 'ho geA 36 .


36

P ro b lem 1
,C a

Finci&he num ber op posszble unorctened com bzna'dlons w hen r z'denns clre
seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'terns.
, C a=nC r=

ni

'

r'ln-rll

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.


%I

8l(%-8)I
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchcltors.
%

P ro b lem 1
,C a

Finci&he num ber op posszble unorctened com bzna'dlons w hen r z'denns clre
seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'terns.

n!
r!(n-r)!

, C a=nC r=

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.

%!
3!(% -3)!
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchctors.
% '8 '7
3 .2

Conceiou& +he rem opning com m on Pac#ors.


3 .4.'7

MuIAlply 3 by 4 'ho geA 12 .


12 .7

MuIAlply 12 by 7 'ko geA 8 4 .


8 4.

P ro b lem 1
!5 C 4

Finci&he num ber op posszble unorctened com bzna'dlons w hen r z'denns clre
seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'terns.

n!
r!(n-r)!

!5 C4=nC r=

R rlln #he know n volues.

1S!
41(15-4)!
CancelouA +he com m on Pactorzolpcctors.
15 '14 '13 '12 '11'1Q 'Q '8 '7 '6 'S
11.10 .9 .8.7 .6 .5 .4 .3 .2

Conceiou& +he rem opning com m on Pac#ors.


13 .2 .7 .6 'E;
4.

Multpply 13 by 2 'to ge+ 2 6 .


2 6 '7 '6 '5
4.

MuIAlply 2 6 by 7 'o ge+ 1()2 .


18 2 '6 '5
4.

Problem 1 (Page 2)
MulAlply 18 2 by 6 Ao ge& 1()9 2 .
1()%2 'S
4.

Muliiply 109 2 by 5 io ge+ 5 4.69 .


S 4.6()
4.

R
5 4 6()
eciuce 1he expression 4 by rem ovlng o Pocl'or o.p 4 Prom 'the
num eroior and cienom pnaion.
13 6 5

P ro b lem 1
6C a

Finci&he num ber op posszble unorctened com bzna'dlons w hen r z'denns clre
seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'terns.
s C a=nC r=

ni

'

r'ln-rll

Since r:n 1+ zs zm posszble Ao selec: 68I'henns Prom o g'ol'alo.p only 6 posskble


7')e rns.

P ro b lem 1
oCo

Finci&he num ber op posszble unorctened com bzna'dlons w hen r z'denns clre
seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'terns.
o C o=nC r=

nl

'

r'(n-r)1

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.


oI

QI(()-())I
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchcltors.

P ro b lem 1
! c!

Finci&he num ber op posszble unorctened com bzna'dlons w hen r z'denns clre
seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'terns.
1 C != nC r=

nl

'

rl(n-r)1

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.


11

11(1-1)1
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchcltors.

P ro b lem 1
!C o

Finci&he num ber op posszble unorctened com bzna'dlons w hen r z'denns clre
seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'terns.
1 Co=nC r=

nl

'

rlln-rll

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.


1I

QI(1-Q)I
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchcltors.

P ro b lem 1
oC!

Finci&he num ber op posszble unorctened com bzna'dlons w hen r z'denns clre
seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'terns.
o C !=nC r=

nl

'

rlln-rll

Since r:n 1+ zs zm posszble Ao selec: 1 z'kenns Prom ctlotolop only () posspble


7')e rns.

P ro b lem 1
5Co

Finci&he num ber op posszble unorctened com bzna'dlons w hen r z'denns clre
seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'terns.
5 C o=nC r=

ni

'

r'(n-r)I

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.


sI

()I(.
5-())I
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchcltors.

P ro b lem 1
!a C o

Finci&he num ber op posszble unorctened com bzna'dlons w hen r z'denns clre
seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'terns.
!8 C

= C =

nl

'

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.


18 I

QI(18 -Q)I
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchcltors.

P ro b lem 1
! c!

Finci&he num ber op posszble unorctened com bzna'dlons w hen r z'denns clre
seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'terns.
1 C != nC r=

nl

'

rl(n-r)1

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.


11

11(1-1)1
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchcltors.

P ro b lem 1
a o C ao

Finci&he num ber op posszble unorctened com bzna'dlons w hen r z'denns clre
seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'terns.
a o C ao= nC r=

nl

j( '
r. n r).
j
.

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.


2 QI
2Q1
. (2 Q -2 Q )I

CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchcltors.

P ro b lem 1
!a C 7

Finci&he num ber op posszble unorctened com bzna'dlons w hen r z'denns clre
seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'terns.

n!
r!(n -r)!

!a C 7=nC r=

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.

18!
7!(18 -7)!
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchc'tors.
18 '17 '16 '1S '14.'13 '12 '11 '1()'% '8
11 '1().% '8 .7 '6 'S '4.'3 '2

Conceiou& +he rem opning com m on Pac#ors.


17 '2 '2 '13 '2 '% '2

MuIAlply 17 by 2 Ao ge+ 3 4 .
3 4.'2 .13 '2 '% .2

MuIAlply 3 4 by 2 'ko ge1 6().


6 8 '13 .2 .9 '2

Mul'kzply 6 8 by 13 wo ge1 i)8 4.

Problem 1 (Page 2)
8 8 4.'2 '% '2

Mul'kzply 8 ()4 by 2 To ge+ 176 8 .


17 6 8 '% '2

Mulllply 176 8 by Q 'ro geA 15 9 12 .


1S %12 '2

Mulllply 15 912 by 2 '/o ge+ 318 2 4..


3 18 2 4.

P ro b lem 1
P(A)=().61,P(8)=().61
The condiAionalprobclbzlz'ry Is 1he probclbzlz'/y op boAh evenls occurrpng
tsivldeclby 1he p-obobilliy op 1he Pirsl evenl occunrlng.

P(A I 8)= P(A)'P


P(
(8
A)
)

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.

P(A I 8)= ().61'().61


().6 1

Spm plppy 'the expressb n.

P(A I 8)=().61

P ro b lem 1
P(A)=().S 2,P(8)=().S2
The condiAionalprobclbzlz'ry Is 1he probclbzlz'/y op boAh evenls occurrpng
tsivldeclby 1he p-obobilliy op 1he Pirsl evenl occunrlng.

P(A I 8)= P(A)'P


P(
(8
A)
)

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.

P(A I 8)= ().52 '().52


().5 2

Spm plppy 'the expressb n.

P(A I 8)=().52

P ro b lem 1
P(A)=().3S,P(8)=().3S
The condiAionalprobclbzlz'ry Is 1he probclbzlz'/y op boAh evenls occurrpng
tsivldeclby 1he p-obobilliy op 1he Pirsl evenl occunrlng.

P(A I 8)= P(A)'P


P(
(8
A)
)

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.

P(A I 8)= ().35 '().35


().3 5

Spm plppy 'the expressb n.

P(A I 8)=().35

P ro b lem 1
P(A)=().16,P(8)=().7S
The condiAionalprobclbzlz'ry Is 1he probclbzlz'/y op boAh evenls occurrpng
tsivldeclby 1he p-obobilliy op 1he Pirsl evenl occunrlng.

P(A I 8)= P(A)'P


P(
(8
A)
)

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.

P(A I 8)= ().16 '().75


().16

Spm plppy 'the expressb n.

P(A I 8)=().75

P ro b lem 1
P(A)=().38,P(8)=().%8
The condiAionalprobclbzlz'ry Is 1he probclbzlz'/y op boAh evenls occurrpng
tsivldeclby 1he p-obobilliy op 1he Pirsl evenl occunrlng.

P(A I 8)= P(A)'P


P(
(8
A)
)

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.

P(A I 8)= ().38 '().%8


().3 8

Spm plppy 'the expressb n.

P(A I 8)=().%8

P ro b lem 1
P(A)=().7(),P(8)=().78
The condiAionalprobclbzlz'ry Is 1he probclbzlz'/y op boAh evenls occurrpng
tsivldeclby 1he p-obobilliy op 1he Pirsl evenl occunrlng.

P(A I 8)= P(A)'P


P(
(8
A)
)

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.

P(A I 8)= ().7 '().78


().7

Spm plppy 'the expressb n.

P(A I 8)=().78

P ro b lem 1
P(A)=().2 S,P(8)=().7S
The condiAionalprobclbzlz'ry Is 1he probclbzlz'/y op boAh evenls occurrpng
tsivldeclby 1he p-obobilliy op 1he Pirsl evenl occunrlng.

P(A I 8)= P(A)'P


P(
(8
A)
)

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.

P(A I 8)= ().25 '().75


().2 5

Spm plppy 'the expressb n.

P(A I 8)=().75

P ro b lem 1
P(A)=1.(),P(8)=().37
The condiAionalprobclbzlz'ry Is 1he probclbzlz'/y op boAh evenls occurrpng
tsivldeclby 1he p-obobilliy op 1he Pirsl evenl occunrlng.

P(A I 8)= P(A)'P


P(
(8
A)
)

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.

P(A I 8)= 1'().37


1

Spm plppy 'the expressb n.

P(A I 8)=().37

P ro b lem 1
P(A)=().%1,P(8)=().()1
The condiAionalprobclbzlz'ry Is 1he probclbzlz'/y op boAh evenls occurrpng
tsivldeclby 1he p-obobilliy op 1he Pirsl evenl occunrlng.

P(A I 8)= P(A)'P


P(
(8
A)
)

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.

P(A I 8)= ().%1'().()1


().% 1

Spm plppy 'the expressb n.

P(A I 8)=().()1

P ro b lem 1
P(A)=().31,P(8)=1
The condiAionalprobclbzlz'ry Is 1he probclbzlz'/y op boAh evenls occurrpng
tsivldeclby 1he p-obobilliy op 1he Pirsl evenl occunrlng.

P(A I 8)= P(A)'P


P(
(8
A)
)

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.

P(A I 8)= ().31'1


().3 1

Spm plppy 'the expressb n.

P(A I 8)=1

P ro b lem 1
o Pa

Finci&he num ber op posszble ordered perrnulaAlons w hen r z'denns clre


seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'tem s.
nl
'
n -rl

o Pa=nPr=

Since r:n 1+ zs zm posszble Ao selec: 2 i'henns Prom o 'tolcllop only ()posslble


7')e rns.

P ro b lem 1
!o Pa

Finci&he num ber op posszble ordered perrnulaAlons w hen r z'denns clre


seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'tem s.

n!
n -r!

!o Pa=nPr=

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.

1()!
(1Q-8)!
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchctors.
1()'% '8 '7 '6 'S '4.'3

Mul'/zply 1() by 9 To ge+ % 0.


% ()'i)'7 '6 'S '4.'3

Multpply 9 ()by i) To ge+ 72 ().


7 2 ()'7 '6 'S '4.'3

Muliply 7 29 by 7 '?o ge1 5()4 ().


5 ()4 ()'6 '5 '4 '3

MulAlply 5()4.0 by 6 'to ge+ 3 ()2 4.().


3 ()2 4.()'S '4.'3

Problem 1 (Page 2)
MulAlply 3 ()2 4.9 by 5 'ro geA 1512 00.
1S 12 ()()'4.'3

MulAzply 15 12 ()0 by 4.f'o ge'c 6 ()4.80 ().


6 ()4.8 ()()'3

Mullpply 6 ()48 ()()by 3 Ao ge# 18 14.4.()t).


18 14.4.()()

P ro b lem 1
4 Pa

Finci&he num ber op posszble ordered perrnulaAlons w hen r z'denns clre


seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'tem s.
nl
'
n -rl

4 Pa=nPr=

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.


4I

(4 -2)1
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchctors.
4..3

MulAzply 4 by 3 to ge't 12.


12

P ro b lem 1
4 Pa

Finci&he num ber op posszble ordered perrnulaAlons w hen r z'denns clre


seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'tem s.

n!
n-r!

4 Pa=nP r=

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.

4.!
(4.-3)!
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchctors.
4.'3 '2

Mul'tzply 4 by 3 to ge't 12.


12 .2

Multpply 12 by 2 '/o ge1 2 4.


2 4.

P ro b lem 1
5 Pa

Finci&he num ber op posszble ordered perrnulaAlons w hen r z'denns clre


seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'tem s.

n!
n-r!

5 Pa=nP r=

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.

S!
(5 -3)!
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchctors.
5 '4..3

Mul'tzply 5 by 4 to ge't 2 0.
2 ().3

Multpply 2 0 by 3 '/o geT 60 .


6 ()

P ro b lem 1
sP 5

Finci&he num ber op posszble ordered perrnulaAlons w hen r z'denns clre


seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'tem s.

n!
n-r!

s P 5=nP r=

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.

6!
(6 -5)!
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchctors.
6 '5 '4.'3 '2

Mul'tzply 6 by 5 to ge1 39 .
3 ()'4.'3 '2

Multpply 3 ()by 4 '/o ge+ 12 ().


12 ()'3 '2

Muliply 12 0 by 3 'po ge+ 3 6 ().


3 6 ()'2

MulAlply 3 6 ()by 2 4'o gem 7 2 0.


7 2 ()

P ro b lem 1
!5 P!a

Finci&he num ber op posszble ordered perrnulaAlons w hen r z'denns clre


seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'tem s.

n!
n -r!

!5 P!a=nPr=

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.

1S!
(15-13)!
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchc'tors.
1S '14.'13 '12 '11 '1()'% '8 '7 '6 'S '4.'3

MulAzply 15 by 14 '/o ge'


t 2 19 .
2 1()'13 '12 '11'1()'% '8 '7 '6 'S '4.'3

Multpply 2 1()by 13 'to geA 2 7 30 .


2 73 ()'12 '11 '1()'% '8 '7 '6 'S '4.'3

Muliply 2 73 Q by 12 'to ge+ 3 27 6 0.


3 2 7 6 ()'11 '10 '% '8 '7 '6 '.
5 '4 '3

MulAlply 3 2 76 ()by 11 'to ge+ 3 6 ()3 6 ().


3 6 ()3 6 ()'1()'% '8 '7 '6 'S '4.'3

Problem 1 (Page 2)
MulAlply 3 6 ()3 60 by 1()'ho ge& 3 6 ()3 6 Ci0.
3 6 ()3 6 Q ()'% '8 '7 '6 'S '4.'3

MulAzply 3 6 ()3 60 ()by 9 S'o ge1 3 2 43 2 4 t)0.


3 2 4.3 2 4.()()'8 '7 '6 'S '4.'3

Mullpply 3 2 4.3 2 49() by i)'to geA 2 59 4 592 ()0 .


2 S %4.S % 2 ()()'7 '6 'S '4.'3

M ul'dzply 2 59 4.592 ()0 by 7 'do ge') 1916 2 14.4.0 ().


18 16 2 14.4.()()'6 'S '4.'3

Multlply 1()162 14 4 ()0 by 6 Ao ge1 10 i)97 28 6 40 0.


1()8 %7 2 8 6 4.()()'S '4.'3

MuIAlply 1()8 9 72 8 6 4.()() by 5 lo ge1 5 4 4.i)6 4.3 2 ()()().


S 4.4.8 6 4.3 2 ()()()'4.'3

Muliiply 5 4 4.9 6 4 32 ()()Q by 4 Ao geA 2 179 4 57 28 ()00.


2 17 94.S 72 8 ()()()'3

Mul'kpply 2 179 4 5 7 28 ()()0 bhy 3 'ko geT 6 5 3 8 3 718 4.0 ()Q.


6 S 3 8 3 718 4.()()()

P ro b lem 1
!s Pa

Finci&he num ber op posszble ordered perrnulaAlons w hen r z'denns clre


seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'tem s.

n!
n -r!

!s P8=nPr=

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.

16!
(16-8)!
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchc'tors.
16 '1S '14.'13 '12 '11 '1()'9

MulAzply 16 by 15 '/o ge1 2 49 .


2 4.()'14.'13 '12 '11'1()'%

Multpply 2 4.0 by 14 To ge+ 3 3 60 .


3 3 6 ()'13 .12 '11 '1()'%

Muliply 3 3 60 by 13 'to ge+ 4.3 68 Q .


4 3 6 8 ()'12 '11 '1()'%

MulAlply 43 6 8 Ciby 12 '


t'o ge'r 5 2 4.16 ().
S 2 4.16()'11 '1()'%

Problem 1 (Page 2)
MulAlply 52 4.16 ()by 11 Ao ge'r 5 7 6 5 76 ().
S 7 6 S 76 ()'1()'9

MulAzply 57 6 5 76 ()by 1()To ge' 576 57 60 ().


S 7 6 S 76 ()()'%

Mullpply 57 6 5 76 ()() by 9 Ao ge+ 5 18 9 1()499.


S 18 %18 4.()()

P ro b lem 1
!o P5

Finci&he num ber op posszble ordered perrnulaAlons w hen r z'denns clre


seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'tem s.

n!
n -r!

!o P5=nPr=

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.

1()!
(1Q-5)!
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchctors.
1()'% '8 '7 '6

Mul'/zply 1() by 9 To ge+ % 0.


% ()'i)'7 '6

Multpply 9 ()by i) To ge+ 72 ().


7 2 ()'7 '6

Muliply 7 29 by 7 '?o ge1 5()4 ().


5 ()4 ()'6

MulAlply 5()4.9 by 6 'to ge+ 3 ()2 4.().


3 ()2 4.()

P ro b lem 1
,P o

Finci&he num ber op posszble ordered perrnulaAlons w hen r z'denns clre


seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'tem s.
n!
'
n -rl

, Po=npr=

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.


%I

(% -())I
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchcltors.

P ro b lem 1
,P ,

Finci&he num ber op posszble ordered perrnulaAlons w hen r z'denns clre


seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'tem s.

n!
n -r!

, P ,= nPr=

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.

%!
(% -%)!
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchctors.
% '8 '7 '6 'S '4.'3 '2 '1

MulAzply 9 by i) to ge1 7 2 .
7 2 '7 '6 'S '4.'3 '2 '1

Multpply 7 2 by 7 To ge+ 5 0 4.
5 ()4.'6 '5 '4.'3 '2 '1

Muliply 5()4.by 6 Ao ge1 3 ()2 4..


3 ()2 4 '5 '4 '3 '2 '1

MulAlply 3 ()2 4.by 5 'ho ge+ 1512 ().


15 12 ()'4.'3 '2 '1

Problem 1 (Page 2)
MulAlply 15 12 () by 4.'to ge't 6 ()48 ().
6 ()4.8 ()'3 '2 '1

MulAzply 6 ()48 () by 3 To ge1 1()14 49 .


18 14.4.()'2 '1

Mullpply 18 14 49 by 2 ''o ge* 3 6 29 68().


3 6 2 8 8 Q '1

M ul'dzply 3 6 28 8 () by 1 '/o ge* 3 6 2 6.()().


3 6 2 8 8 ()

P ro b lem 1
sP a

Finci&he num ber op posszble ordered perrnulaAlons w hen r z'denns clre


seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'tem s.
s pa=npr=

nl
'
n -rl

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.


6I

(6 -2)I
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchctors.
6 .5

MulAzply 6 by 5 to ge1 39 .
3 ()

P ro b lem 1
!s P!4

Finci&he num ber op posszble ordered perrnulaAlons w hen r z'denns clre


seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'tem s.

n!
n -r!

!s P14=nPr=

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.

16!
(16-14.)!
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchc'tors.
16 '1S '14.'13 '12 '11 '1()'9 '8 '7 '6 'S '4.'3

MulAzply 16 by 15 '/o ge1 2 49 .


2 4.()'14.'13 '12 '11'1()'% '8 '7 '6 'S ' 4.'3

Multpply 2 4.0 by 14.To ge+ 3 3 60 .


3 3 6 ()'13 .12 '11 '1()'% '8 '7 '6 'S '4.'3

Muliply 3 3 60 by 13 'to ge+ 4.3 68 Q .


4 3 6 8 ()'12 '11 '1()'% '8 '7 '6 'S '4 '3

MulAlply 43 6 8 Ciby 12 '


t'o ge'r 5 2 4.16 ().
S 2 4.16()'11 '1()'% '8 '7 '6 'S '4.'3

Problem 1 (Page 2)
MulAlply 52 4.16 ()by 11 Ao ge'r 5 7 6 5 76 ().
S 7 6 S 76 ()'1()'9 '8 '7 '6 'S '4.'3

MulAzply 57 6 5 76 ()by 1()To ge' 576 57 60 ().


S 7 6 S 76 ()()'% '8 '7 '6 'S '4.'3

Mullpply 57 6 5 76 ()() by 9 Ao ge+ 5 18 9 1()499.


S 18 %18 4.()()'9 '7 '6 'S '4.'3

Mul'dzply 518 918 4.()()by 8 l'o ge1 415 13 4.72 ()0 .


4.15 13 4.7 2 ()()'7 '6 ' 5 '4.'3

Mul*lply 415 13 47 29 0 by 7 '/o ge& 2 99 59 43 ()4.0 0.


2 %()S % 4.3 ()4.Q ()'6 'S '4.'3

MuIAlply 2 9()59 4 3()4.()() by 6 '/o ge+ 17 4.3 5 6 5 i)2 4()().


17 4.3 S 6 S 8 2 4.()()'5 '4.'3

MulApply 17 4.3 56 58 2 4.0 Ciby 5 To ge; 8 7178 2 9 129 00.


8 7 178 2 9 12 Q ()()'4.'3

Mullzply 8 7 17 8 2 912 (10() by 4 '/o ge') 3 4 6.713 16 4.8 ()90.


3 4.8 7 13 16 4.8 ()()()'3

Problem 1 (Page 3)
Mul'kzply 3 48 7 13 16 48 00() by 3 To ge* 1()4.613 9 4'
34 49 00.
1()4.6 13 % 4.%4.4.()()()

P ro b lem 1
!4 P!a

Finci&he num ber op posszble ordered perrnulaAlons w hen r z'denns clre


seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'tem s.

n!
n -r!

14 P1a=nPr=

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.

14.!
(14.-12 )!
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchc'tors.
14.'13 '12 '11 '1()'% '8 '7 '6 'S '4.'3

MulAzply 14 by 13 '/o ge'


t 18 2 .
18 2 '12 '11.1()'% '8 '7 '6 'S '4.'3

Multpply 18 2 by 12 ''
,o ge+ 2 19 4..
2 18 4.'11 '1()'% '8 '7 '6 '5 '4.'3

Muliply 2 1: 4.by 11 'to ge+ 2 4.0 2 4..


2 4 0 2 4 '1()'% '8 '7 '6 '.
5 '4 '3

MulAlply 2 4.9 2 4 by 1()'to ge't2 4.()2 4.Q.


2 4.()2 4.()'% '8 '7 '6 'S '4.'3

Problem 1 (Page 2)
MulAlply 2 4.9 2 4 ()by 9 Ao geA 2 162 16 ().
2 16 2 16()'8 '7 '6 'S '4.'3

MulAzply 2 16 216 ()by i)Ao ge+ 172 Q7 2 8 ().


17 2 %7 2 8 ()'7 '6 'S '4.'3

Mullpply 172 9 72 8 () by 7 To ge+ 12 1()8 ()$


36 ().
12 1()8 ()%6 ()'6 'S '4.'3

Mul'dzply 12 1 08 ()9 60 by 6 l'o ge1 72 6 48 57 6 ().


7 2 6 4.8 S 7 6 Q 'S '4.'3

Multlply 7 26 48 5 76 ()by 5 '/o geA 36 3 2 42 8 i)00.


3 6 3 2 4.2 8 8 ()()'4.'3

MulAlply 3 6 32 #2 8 8 ()() by 4 ')o ge1 1# 52 Q7 15 2 ()0.


14.S 2 %7 1S 2 ()()'3

MulAzply 14 5 2 9 7152 ()0 by 3 Ao ge1 4.3 58 914.5 6 ()0 .


4.3 S 8 9 14.S 6 ()()

P ro b lem 1
!a P7

Finci&he num ber op posszble ordered perrnulaAlons w hen r z'denns clre


seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'tem s.

n!
n -r!

1a Pv=nPr=

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.

12 !
(12 -7)!
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchc'tors.
12 '11 '1()'% '8 '7 '6

MulAzply 12 by 11 '/o ge* 13 2.


13 2 '1()'9 '8 '7 '6

Multpply 13 2 by 1()'to ge'


t 13 2 ().
13 2 ()'% .8 '7 '6

Muliply 13 2 () by 9 'ko ge+ 118 6)0 .


118 8 ()'8 '7 '6

MulAlply 118 8 ()by 8 e'o ge1 9 5()40.


% 5 ()4.()'7 '6

Problem 1 (Page 2)
MulAlply 9 5Ci4.9 by 7 'to geA 66 52 8 ().
6 6 S 2 8 Q '6

MulAzply 6 6 52 i)()by 6 Ao geA 3 9 Q168 ().


3 % %16 8 ()

P ro b lem 1
!7 P4

Finci&he num ber op posszble ordered perrnulaAlons w hen r z'denns clre


seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'tem s.

n!
n -r!

17 P4=nPr=

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.

17!
(17-4.)!
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchc'tors.
17 '16 '1S '14.

MulAzply 17 by 16 '/o ge1 27 2 .


2 72 '1S '14.

Multpply 2 72 by 15 '
to ge1 4.98 0 .
4.()8 ().14.

Muliply 4.Q : ()by 1 4.'to ge+ 5712 0.


5 7 12 ()

P ro b lem 1
!o P6

Finci&he num ber op posszble ordered perrnulaAlons w hen r z'denns clre


seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'tem s.

n!
n -r!

!o Ps=nPr=

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.

1()!
(1()-6)!
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchctors.
1()'% '8 '7 '6 'S

Mul'/zply 1() by 9 To ge+ % 0.


% ()'i)'7 '6 '5

Multpply 9 ()by i) To ge+ 72 ().


7 2 ()'7 '6 'S

Muliply 7 29 by 7 '?o ge1 5()4 ().


5 ()4 ()'6 '5

MulAlply 5()4.9 by 6 'to ge+ 3 ()2 4.().


3 ()2 4.()'5

Problem 1 (Page 2)
MulAlply 3 ()2 4.9 by 5 'ro geA 1512 00.
1S 12 ()()

P ro b lem 1
!o Pa

Finci&he num ber op posszble ordered perrnulaAlons w hen r z'denns clre


seiecled Pnom n avoilobie i'tem s.

n!
n -r!

!o Pa=nPr=

F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.

1()!
(1Q-8)!
CancelouA +he com m on PactorzolPchctors.
1()'% '8 '7 '6 'S '4.'3

Mul'/zply 1() by 9 To ge+ % 0.


% ()'i)'7 '6 'S '4.'3

Multpply 9 ()by i) To ge+ 72 ().


7 2 ()'7 '6 'S '4.'3

Muliply 7 29 by 7 '?o ge1 5()4 ().


5 ()4 ()'6 '5 '4 '3

MulAlply 5()4.0 by 6 'to ge+ 3 ()2 4.().


3 ()2 4.()'S '4.'3

Problem 1 (Page 2)
MulAlply 3 ()2 4.9 by 5 'ro geA 1512 00.
1S 12 ()()'4.'3

MulAzply 15 12 ()0 by 4.f'o ge'c 6 ()4.80 ().


6 ()4.8 ()()'3

Mullpply 6 ()48 ()()by 3 Ao ge# 18 14.4.()t).


18 14.4.()()

Problem 1 (Page 2)
MulAlply 18 6 ()48 () by 15 'jo ge+ 2 79 ()7 20 ().
2 7% Q 7 2 ()Q '14.'13 '12 '11 '1()'% '8 '7 '6

MulAzply 2 79 ()7 2 00 by 1 4.'to ge+ 3 907 (198 ()0.


3 % ()7 ()()8 ()()'13 '12 '11 '1()'% '8 '7 '6

Mullpply 3 '30 700 8 ()9 by 13 'ko ge+ 5 ()7 Q110 4.()Q.


S ()7 % 11()4.()()'12 '11 '1()'% '8 '7 '6

Mul'dzply 5()79110 4.()0 by 12 '/o ge't 6 Q'


349 32 48 ()0.
6 ()% 4.% 3 2 4.8 ()()'11 '1()'% '8 '7 '6

MuI'lply 6 ()9 4 Q3 2 48 ()() by 11 'to geA 6 7()4.42 572 ()()().


6 7 Q 4.4.2 S 72 8 ()()'1Q '% '8 '7 '6

MuIAlply 6 7()4 #2 57 2 8 ()() by 1() eo geA 67 ()4 4.2 572 8 ()()().


6 7 ()4.4.2 S 72 8 ()()()'% '8 '7 '6

MulAzply 6 70 4 42 57 28 ()()Q by 9 To ge+ 6 ()3 3 $


)8 3 15 5 2 ()()0 .
6 ()3 3 9 8 31S S 2 ()()()'8 '7 '6

Mullzply 6 ()3 3 '38 3 1 5 52 Ci()g by 6.'/o ge+ 48 2 7 19 6 52 416 ()()0 .


4.8 2 718 6 S 2 4.16()()()'7 '6

Problem 1 (Page 3)
Mul'kzply 48 2 7 18 6 5 2 4.16 ()0 () by 7 J'o ge'? 3 .3 7 Q '1()15
3 .3 7% '1()t5.6

MuI'tlply 3 .3 7 9 .1()15 by 6 'vo get 2 .()2 7 4 .1()16


2 .Q 2 7 4.'1()16

P ro b lem 1
P(A)=().4.7,P(8)=().4.7
Use 'the m uh'/pprpca'rpon rule op probabzl/ pes 4'o Pznd 1he probobzlz')y op A and
!)occurofng.

P(A and B)=P(A)'P(B)


F'IIIin &he know n volues.

P(A and 8)=().4.7'().4.7


Mul'tzply ().47 by ().47 'to ge+ 0.22 ()9.

P(A and 8)=Q.220 %

P ro b lem 1
P(A)=().4.,P(8)=().4.
Use 'the m uh'/zprzca'rzon rule op probabzl/ pes 4'o Pznd 1he probobzlz')y op A and
!)occurofng.

P(A and B)=P(A)'P(B)


F'IIIin &he know n volues.

P(A and 8)=().4.'().4.


Mul'tzply ().4 by ().4 'to ge1 ().16 .

P(A and 8)=Q.16

P ro b lem 1
P(A)=().4.7,P(8)=().4.7
Use 'the m uh'/pprpca'rpon rule op probabzl/ pes 4'o Pznd 1he probobzlz')y op A and
!)occurofng.

P(A and B)=P(A)'P(B)


F'IIIin &he know n volues.

P(A and 8)=().4.7'().4.7


Mul'tzply ().47 by ().47 'to ge+ 0.22 ()9.

P(A and 8)=Q.220 %

P ro b lem 1
P(A)=().7,P(8)=().4.%
Use 'the m uh'/zprzca'rzon rule op probabzl/ pes 4'o Pznd 1he probobzlz')y op A and
!)occurofng.

P(A and B)=P(A)'P(B)


F'IIIin &he know n volues.

P(A and 8)=().7'().4.%


Mul'tzply ().7 by ().4.9 '/o gev 9.3 43 .

P(A and 8)=Q.34.3

P ro b lem 1
P(A)=().5 5,P(8)=().4.6
Use 'the m uh'/pprpca'rpon rule op probabzl/ pes 4'o Pznd 1he probobzlz')y op A and
!)occurofng.

P(A and B)=P(A)'P(B)


F'IIIin &he know n volues.

P(A and 8)=().55 '().4.6


Mul'tzply ().5 5 by ().46 mo ge1 0 .2 5 3 .

P(A and 8)=Q.253

P ro b lem 1
P(A)=1,P(8)=().56
Use 'the m uh'/zprzca'rzon rule op probabzl/ pes 'to Pznd 1he probobzlz',y op A and
!)occurofng.

P(A and B)=P(A)'P(B)


F'IIIin &he know n volues.

P(A and 8)=1'().56


Mul'tzply 1 by ().5 6 mo ge+ 0.56 .

P(A and 8)=Q.56

P ro b lem 1
P(A)=().5 ,P(8)=().5
Use 'the m uh'/zprzca'rzon rule op probabzl/ pes 'to Pznd 1he probobzlz',y op A and
!)occurofng.

P(A and B)=P(A)'P(B)


F'IIIin &he know n volues.

P(A and 8)=().5 '().5


Mul'tzply ().5 by ().5 'to ge1 ().2 5 .

P(A and 8)=Q.25

P ro b lem 1
P(A)=(),P(8)=1
Use 'the m uh'/pprpca'rpon nule op probabzl/ pes 'to Pznd 1he probobzlz',y op A and
!)occurafng.

P(A and B)=P(A)'P(B)


F'IIIin &he know n volues.

P(A and 8)=()'1


Mul'tzply ()by 1 'to ge't ().

P(A and 8)=()

P ro b lem 1
P(A)=().%,P(8)=().%
Use 'the m uh'/zprzca'rzon rule op probabzl/ pes 4'o Pznd 1he probobzlz')y op A and
!)occurofng.

P(A and B)=P(A)'P(B)


F'IIIin &he know n volues.

P(A and 8)=().%'().%


Mul'tzply ().9 by Ci.9 ',o ge+ ().8 1.

P(A and 8)=Q.81

P ro b lem 1
P(A)=().35,P(8)=().%5
Use 'the m uh'/pprpca'rpon rule op probabzl/ pes 'to Pznd 1he probobzlz',y op A and
!)occurofng.

P(A and B)=P(A)'P(B)


F'IIIin &he know n volues.

P(A and 8)=().35'().%5


Mul'tzply ().3 5 by ().9 5 Ao ge+ 0.3 3 2 5.

P(A and 8)=0.332 5

P ro b lem 1
x

P(x)

().1

().2

().3

Q .2

13

().2

The expeceo'tpon op a dps'trpbu'pon zs +he volue expeceed ZP Tppals o.p +he


cizs'/rlbu4'zon could con+pnue Indepinzlely. Thps Is eguol')o each value
m ui'kzplzeciby I+s cizscrete probabzllty.
E = 5 '().1 +6 '().2 +7 '().3 +% '().2 +13 '().2
Mullzply 5 by ().1 ')o ge1 ().5.
E = ().5 +6 '().2 +7 '().3 + % '().2 +13 '().2
Mulliply 6 by 9.2 Ao ge+ 1.2 .
E = ().5 +1.2 +7 '().3 +9 '().2 + 13 '().2
MuI4'lply 7 by ().3 4'o ge1 2 .1.
E = ().5 +1.2 +2 .1+% '().2 +13 '().2
Mullpply 9 by 9.2 Ao ge+ 1.9 .
E = ().5 +1.2 +2 .1+1.8 +13 '().2

Problem 1 (Page 2)
MulAlply 13 by ().2 'to gel 2 .6 .
E = ().5 +1.2 +2 .1+1.8 +2 .6
Adci1.2 'to 0 .5 'to ge+ 1.7.
E = 1.7 +2 .1 +1.8 +2 .6

Acid 2 .1 'to 1.7 Ao ge+ 3 .8 .


E = 3 .8 +1.8 + 2 .6
Acid 1.8 'to 3.8 'do ge't 5.6.
E = 5 .6 +2 .6

Add 2 .6 '/o 5.6 Ao ge+ 8 .2 .


E = 8 .2

P ro b lem 1
x

P(x)

().1

11

().3

18

().3

21

Q .3

The expecicl'kzon op a dzs4'rzbu'/zon zs The vorue expecied ZP Ariols o.p 1he


cizsirlbu'tion could coniinue zndepinz'dely. Thps ps egual')o each value
rnultiplzecsby p+s cipscreie probobflp+y.
E = 5 '().1 +11 '().3 +18 '().3 +2 1'().3
Multpply 5 by ().1 'to geA ().5.
E = ().5 +11 '().3 +19 '().3 +2 1'().3
MuIl'lply 11 by ().3 l'o geT 3 .3 .
E = ().5 +3.3 +18 '().3 +2 1 '().3
M uI'rIpIy 18 by ().3 =.o g e't 5.4..
E = ().5 +3.3 +5 .4.+ 2 1 '().3
Mul'tpply 2 1 by ().3 Ao geA 6 .3 .
E = ().5 +3.3 +5 .4.+ 6 .3

Problem 1 (Page 2)
Acici3.3 'to ().5 Ao ge'r 3 .8 .
E = 3 .8 +5 .4.+6.3
Acid 5.4 To 3 .i)'to ge+ 9 .2 .
E = %.2 +6.3

Acid 6.3 Ao 9 .2 'to ge+ 15.5 .


E = 15 .5

P ro b lem 1
x

P(x)

1S

().2

19

().3

2 4.

().2

28

().3

The expecio'kpon op a dps4'rpbu'/zon zs The vorue expecied ZP Ariols o.p 1he


cizsirlbu'tion could coniinue zndepinz'dely. Thps ps egual')o each value
rnultiplzeciby p+s cipscreie probobflpiy.
E = 15 '().2 + 1% '().3 +2 4.'().2 +2 8 '().3
Multpply 15 by ().2 l'o ge+ 3 .
E = 3 + 19 '().3 +2 4.'().2 +2 8 '().3
MuIl'lply 19 by ().3 l'o geT 5.7 .
E = 3 + 5 .7 +2 4.'().2 + 2 8 '().3
MuIAlply 2 4.by ().2 'to geA 4.().
E = 3 + 5 .7 +4..8 +2 8 '().3
Mul'tpply 2 8 by ().3 'to geA ().4.
E = 3 + 5 .7 +4..8 +8 .4.

Problem 1 (Page 2)
Acici5.7 'to 3 4'o ge1 8 .7.
E = i).7 +4..8 +8 .4.
Acid 4..8 l'o ().7 'to ge+ 13 .5.
E = 13.S +8 .4.

Acid 68.4 Ao 13 .5 Ao ge# 2 1.9.


E = 2 1.%

P ro b lem 1
x

P(x)

().4.

1S

().4.

18

().3

The expec'/o'tpon op a dis'trpbu'tlon ps the vohue expecled IP 'trlols o.p t'he


cizs'trlbu'kzon could cona'pnue indepin ely. Thls zs ecruol'ro eoch volue
m uimiplzed by 2ts cizscre'te probobzlpty.
E = 6 '().4.+15 '().4.+ 18 '().3
Mulizply 6 by ().4 G'o ge+ 2.4..
E = 2 .4.+15 '().4.+18 '().3
Multzply 15 by ().4 Q'o geA 6.
E = 2 .4.+6 +18 '().3
Mulllpky 1() by ().3 ')o geT 5.4..
E = 2 .4 +6 +5 .4.
Au ci6 'ho 2 .4 Ao ge* 8 .4 .
E = 8 .4.+5 .4.

Acici5.4 To ().4 'ro ge+ 13 .().


E = 13.8

P ro b lem 1
x

P(x)

().3

().3

14

().2

1%

Q .2

The expecio'kpon op a dps4'rpbu'/zon zs The vorue expecied ZP Ariols o.p 1he


cizsirlbu'tion could coniinue zndepinz'dely. Thps ps egual')o each value
rnultiplzeciby p+s cipscr'e'te probobflpey.
E = 1.().3 +7 '().3 +14.'().2 +1% '().2
Multpply 1 by ().3 'to ge+ ().3 .
E = ().3 +7 '().3 +14.'Q .2 +1% '().2
MuIl'lply 7 by ().3 Ao geT 2 .1.
E = ().3 +2 .1+14.'().2 +1% '().2
MuIAlply 14 by ().2 '/o geb'2 .8 .
E = ().3 +2 .1+2 .8 + 1% 'Q .2
Mul'tpply 19 by 0.2 'to geA 3.i).
E = ().3 +2 .1+2 .8 + 3.8

Problem 1 (Page 2)
Acici2 .1 io ().3 'to ge1 2 .4..
E = 2 .4.+2 .8 +3 .8
Acid 2 .i)To 2 .4 Ao ge# 5.2 .
E = 5 .2 +3 .8

Acid 3.8 Ao 5 .2 'to ge+ 9 .


E=9

P ro b lem 1
x

P(x)

11

().2

2 ()

().4.

32

().3

The expec'/o'tpon op a dis'trpbu'tlon ps the vohue expecled IP 'trlols o.p t'he


cizs'trlbu'kzon could cona'pnue indepin ely. Thls zs ecruol'ro eoch volue
m uimiplzed by z'>s cizscre'/e probobzlpty.
E = 11'().2 +2 ()'().4.+ 3 2 '().3
Mulizply 11 by ().2 To ge+ 2 .2 .
E = 2 .2 +2 ()'().4.+32 '().3
Multzply 2 0 by ().4.'to ge'ri).
E = 2 .2 +8 +3 2 '().3
Mulllpky 3 2 by ().3 Ao geA 9.6.
E = 2 .2 +8 +%.6
Au cii)Ao 2 .2 Ao ge't 1().2 .
E = 1().2 + 9 .6

Acici9.6 l'o 1().2 '/o ge1 1Q.9.


E = 1%.8

Problem 1 (Page 3)
3 .5 2 7

P ro b lem 1
x

P(x)

26

().3

3 ()

().2

36

().1

4.7

Q .3

The expecicl'kzon op a dzs4'rzbu'/zon zs The vorue expecied ZP Ariols o.p 1he


dzsirlbu'tion could coniinue zndepinz'dely. Thps ps egual')o each value
rnultiplzeciby p+s tspscreie probobflpiy.
E = 2 6 '().3 +3 ()'().2 +3 6 '().1+4.7 '().3
Multpply 2 6 by ().3 'uo ge+ 7.().
E = 7.8 +3 ()'().2 +36 '().1+4.7 '().3
MuIl'lply 3 ()by ().2 'to ge'/ 6 .
E = 7.8 +6 + 3 6 '().1 +4.7 '().3
MuIAlply 3 6 by ().1 'to geA 3 .6 .
E = 7.8 +6 + 3 .6 +4.7 '().3
Mul'tpply 47 by ().3 +0 ge# 14..1.
E = 7.8 +6 + 3 .6 +14..1

P ro b lem 1
x

P(x)

3 ()

().1

32

().3

35

().4.

4.2

().2

The expecio'kpon op a dps4'rpbu'/pon zs The vorue expecied ZP Ariols o.p 1he


cizsirlbu'tion could coniinue zndepinz'dely. Thps ps egual')o each value
rnuliipkzeciby p+s tspscreie probobflp+y.
E = 3 ()'().1 +3 2 '().3 + 3 5 '().4.+4.2 '().2
Multpply 3 ()by ().1 To ge+ 3 .
E = 3 + 32 '().3 +3 5 '().4 +4 2 '().2
MuIl'lply 3 2 by ().3 j'o ge& 9.6 .
E = 3 + %.6 + 3 5 '().4 +4 2 '().2
MuIAlply 3 5 by ().4 +0 ge& 14..
E = 3 + %.6 + 14.+4.2 '().2
Mul'tpply 42 by 9.2 'o geA 8 .4..
E = 3 + %.6 + 14.+8 .4.

Problem 1 (Page 2)
Acici9.6 Ao 3 4'o ge+ 12 .6 .
E = 12 .6 + 14.+8 .4.
Acid 14.To 12 .6 g'o geA 2 6 .6.
E = 2 6 .6 +8 .4.

Acid 68.4 Ao 2 6 .6 'o ge+ 3 5.


E=35

P ro b lem 1
x

P(x)

().3

18

().1

23

().3

26

Q .4.

The expecicl'kzon op a dzs4'rzbu'/zon zs The vorue expecied ZP Ariols o.p 1he


dzsirlbu'tion could coniinue zndepinz'dely. Thps ps egual')o each value
rnultipkzeciby p+s tspscreie probobflp+y.
E = 8 '().3 +18 '().1+2 3 '().3 +2 6 '().4.
Multzply i)by ().3 lo ge+ 2 .4.
E = 2 .4.+19 '().1 +2 3 '().3 +2 6 '().4.
MuIl'lply 18 by ().1 'to geT 1.i).
E = 2 .4 +1.8 +2 3 '().3 +2 6 '().4.
MuIAlply 2 3 by ().3 +0 ge& 6 .9 .
E = 2 .4.+1.8 +6.% +2 6 '().4.
Mul'tpply 2 6 by ().4.'to ge1 1().4.
E = 2 .4.+1.8 +6.% +1().4.

P ro b lem 1
x

P(x)

14.

().2

21

().1

2 4.

().4.

2%

().3

The expecicl'kzon op a dzs4'rzbu'/zon zs The vorue expecied ZP Ariols o.p 1he


cizsirlbu'tion could coniinue zndepinz'dely. Thps ps egual')o each value
rnultiplzeciby p+s tspscreie probobflpey.
E = 14.'().2 + 2 1 '().1+2 4..().4.+ 2 % '().3
Multzply 14 by ().2 l'o geT 2 .().
E = 2 .8 +2 1 '().1+ 2 4.'().4.+2 % '().3
MuIl'lply 2 1 by ().1 l'o ge1 2 .1.
E = 2 .8 +2 .1+2 4.'().4.+2 % '().3
MuIAlply 2 4.by ().4 'to ge't 9 .6 .
E = 2 .8 +2 .1+% .6 +2 % '().3
Mul'tpply 2 Q by 0.3 +0 geA ().7 .
E = 2 .8 +2 .1+% .6 +8 .7

Problem 1 (Page 2)
Acici2 .1 io 2 .8 Ao ge+ 4 .9.
E = 4..% +% .6 +8 .7
Acid Q.6 'to 4..9 +0 ge+ 14..5.
E = 14..5 +8 .7

Acid 68.7 Ao 1 4..5 Ao geA 2 3 .2 .


E = 2 3 .2

P ro b lem 1
x

P(x)

14.

().1

23

().2

2S

().3

3Q

().2

3 4.

().2

The expeceo'tpon op a dps'trpbu'pon zs +he volue expeceed ZP Tppals o.p +he


cizs'/rlbu4'zon could con+pnue Indepinzlely. Thps Is eguol')o each value
m ui'kzplzeciby I+s cizscre4'e probabzllty.
u = E =14 '().1+ 2 3 '().2 +2 S 'Q .3 +3 ()'().2 +34.'().2
Mullzply 14 by ().1 Ao ge1 1.4..
u = E =1.4.+2 3 '().2 +2 S .().3 +3 ()'().2 +3 4.'().2
Mulliply 2 3 by ().2 lo ge* 4..6.
u = E =1.4.+4..6 + 2 S '().3 +3 ()'().2 + 3 4.'().2
MuI4'lply 2 5 by ().3 io ge# 7 .5.
u = E =1.4.+4..6 + 7 .S +3 ()'().2 +3 4.'().2
Mullpply 3 ()by ().2 'to ge+ 6 .
u = E =1.4.+4..6 + 7 .S + 6 +3 4.'().2

Problem 1 (Page 2)
MulAlply 3 4 by ().2 Ao get 6 .().
u = E =1.4.+4..6 + 7 .S +6 +6 .8
Adci4.6 S'o 1.4 To ges'6.
u = E =6 +7.5 + 6 + 6.8

Acid 7.5 'o 6 To ge* 13 .5 .


u = E =13 .5 +6 +6 .8
Acid 6 '/o 13 .5 l'o gem 19 .5.
u = E =1% .5 +6 .8
Adci6.i) '/o 1 9.5 'o ge'/ 2 6.3.
u = E =2 6 .3
The sAondord devlolzon op a cizstrlbu4'lon ss o m eosune op ihe dpsperslon
ond zs egual'to 1he sguare root op Ahe varpallon.

s= W (x-u)2'P(x)
F'yhin *he know n volues.
4 - 2 6 .3

2 .Q

+ 2 3- 2 6 3

Spm plppy +he expresspon.

2.Q 2 + 2 S - 2 6 3

2.Q 3 + 3 ()- 2 6 3

2.Q 2

Problem 1 (Page 3)
S .6 %3

P ro b lem 1
x

P(x)

14.

().2

22

().3

27

().1

31

().1

3%

().2

4.1

().1

The expeciolzon op a dzs'trpbueion ps +he value expec+ed ZP Trpals o.p +he


cilsArlbuAlon fzould confnue Indepinltely. Thks Is egual')o each value
m ul'kzplzeciby I+s cilscrete probablllTy.
u = E =14.'().2 +2 2 .().3 +2 7 '().1+3 1 '().1+3% '().2 +4.1 '().1
MulAlply 14 by ().2 'to ge'c2 .8 .
u = E =2 .8 +2 2 '().3 + 2 7 '().1+3 1 '().1+ 3 % '().2 +4.1 '().1
MuI4'lply 2 2 by ().3 'to ge* 6 .6 .
u = E =2 .8 +6 .6 +2 7 '().1+31 '().1+3 % '().2 +4.1'().1
Mullzply 2 7 by 0.1 'ko ge# 2 .7.
u = E =2 .8 +6 .6 +2 .7 + 3 1.().1+3 % '().2 +4.1 '().1
Mul'tpply 3 1 by ().1 To ge* 3 .1.

Problem 1 (Page 2)
u = E =2 .8 +6 .6 +2 .7 + 3 .1 +3 % '().2 + 4.1 '().1
Mul'
tzply 3 9 by 9.2 'i'o ge1 7.8 .
u = E =2 .8 +6 .6 +2 .7 + 3 .1 +7 .8 + 4.1 '().1
Mulllply 41 by ().1 ''o ge1 4..1.
u = E =2 .8 +6 .6 +2 .7 + 3 .1 +7 .8 + 4..1

Acici6.6 '
to 2 .8 'to geT Q.4.
u = E =9 .4.+ 2 .7 +3 .1+7 .8 +4..1

Ad ci2 .7 ')o 9 .4.'


to ge'12 .1.
u = E =12 .1+3 .1+ 7.8 +4..1

Adcl3.1 's'o 12 .1 'to ge+ 15 .2 .


u = E =15 .2 +7 .8 + 4..1

Ad ci7.8 +0 1 5.2 '/o ge'


k 2 3.
u = E =2 3 + 4..1

Adci4..1 't'o 2 3 '/o ge+ 2 7.1.


u = E =2 7.1
The s'/ondord devlollon op o cizsd'rlbu4'pon Is a m eosure op +he cipspeaslon
and zs eguall'o &he sguare roo'/op +he vorpaizon.

Problem 1 (Page 3)
s= W (x-u)2.P(x)
F'rlIn +he know n vokues.
4 - 2 7.

2.() 2 + 2 2 - 2 7

Sim plipy Ahe expression.


% .5 5 4.6

2'() 3 + 2 7 - 2 7

2'() + 3 - 2 7

2'() +

P ro b lem 1
x

P(x)

1()

().4.

13

().3

1S

().3

The expec'/o'tpon op a dis'trpbu'tlon ps the vohue expecled IP 'trlols o.p t'he


cizs'trlbu'kzon could cona'pnue indepin ely. Thls zs ecruol'ro eoch volue
rnuimiplzed by z'>s cizscreie probobzlpty.
u = E =1()'().4.+13 '().3 +1S '().3
Mulizply 1() by ().4 'to gei 4.
u = E =4.+13 '().3 +15 '().3
Multpply 13 by ().3 To ge1 3 .9.
u = E =4.+3 .% + 15 .().3
Mulllpky 15 by ().3 ')o geT 4..5.
u = E =4.+3 .% + 4..5
Au ci3.9 io 4 4'o ge1 7.9.
u = E =7 .9 + 4..5

Acici4.5 To 7 .Q 'to ge+ 12 .4 .


u = E =12 .4.

Problem 1 (Page 2)
The s'londord devlollon op o cipsd'rlbu4'pon Is a m eosure op +he cipspeaslon
and zs eguall'o &he sguare rooi op +he vorpaizon.

s= W (x-u)2'P(x)
F'zllIn +he know n volues.
1()- 12 .4. 2.() 4.+ 13 - 12 4. 2'() 3 + 1S - 12 4. 2'() 3

Slm plppy +he expresspon.


2 .1()7 1

P ro b lem 1
x

P(x)

().1

4.

().3

().2

1Q

Q .2

1S

().2

The expeceo'tpon op a dps'trpbu'pon zs +he volue expeceed ZP Tppals o.p +he


cizs'/rlbu4'zon could con+pnue Indepinzlely. Thps Is eguol')o each value
m ui'kzplzeciby I+s cizscre4'e prhobabzll'ty.
u = E =1 '().1+ 4.'().3 +6 '().2 +1()'().2 +1S '().2
Mullzply 1 by ().1 'uo ge') 0.1.
u = E =().1 +4.'().3 + 6 '().2 +1()'().2 +1S '().2
Mulliply 4 by Ci.3 Ao ge+ 1.2 .
u = E =().1 +1.2 +6 '().2 +1()'().2 +1S '().2
MuI4'lply 6 by ().2 Ao ge+ 1.2 .
u = E =().1 +1.2 +1.2 +1().().2 +1S .().2
Mullpply 1Ciby ().2 Ao ge') 2.
u = E =().1 +1.2 +1.2 +2 + 1S .().2

Problem 1 (Page 2)
MulAlply 15 by ().2 'to ge1 3 .
u = E =().1 +1.2 +1.2 +2 + 3
Adci1.2 'to ().1 '
i'o ge1 1.3 .
u = E =1.3 +1.2 +2 +3

Acid 1.2 'to 1.3 Ao get 2 .5.


u = E =2 .5 +2 +3
Acici2 l'o 2 .5 '/o ge't 4..5.
u = E =4..5 +3

Adci3 'to 4 .5 To ge'/ 7 .5 .


u = E =7 .5
The sAondord devlolzon op 'a cizstrlbu'
tlon ss o m eosune op ihe dpsperslon
ond ps egual'to 1he sguare roo't op 'the varpallon.

s= V*!(x-u)2.P(x)
F'yhin *he know n volues.
-

7.5

2 .Q

+ 4.- 7 5

Spm plppy +he expresspon.

2 .Q 3 + 6 - 7 5

2.Q 2 +

Q- 7 S

2.Q 2 +

.
5- 7 5

Problem 1 (Page 3)
4..5 6 6 2

P ro b lem 1
x

P(x)

28

().1

4.1

().3

51

().2

57

().1

68

().3

The expeceo'tpon op a dps'trpbu'pon zs +he volue expeceed ZP Tppals o.p +he


cizs'/rlbu'kzon could con+pnue Indepinzlely. Thps Is eguol')o each value
m ui'kzplzeciby I+s cizscre4'e probabzllty.
u = E =2 8 '().1 +4.1 '().3 +S 1 '().2 + 57 '().1+ 6 8 '().3
Mullzply 2 i)by ().1 l'o geA 2 .8.
u = E =2 .8 +4.1'().3 + S 1 '().2 + 5 7 '().1 +6 8 '().3
Mulliply 41 by ().3 'to ge1 12 .3 .
u = E =2 .8 +12 .3 +S 1 '().2 +S 7 'Q .1+ 68 '().3
MuI4'lply 51 by ().2 '/o (je't 1().2 .
u = E =2 .8 +12 .3 +1().2 +S 7 '().1+ 6 8 '().3
Mullpply 57 by ().1 'to gem 5.7 .
u = E =2 .8 +12 .3 +1().2 +S .7 +68 '().3

Problem 1 (Page 2)
MulAlply 6 8 by ().3 lo get 2 ().4.
u = E =2 .8 +12 .3 +1().2 +S .7 +2 ().4.
Adci12 .3 l'o 2 .8 ')o geA 15.1.
u = E =15 .1+ 1().2 +S .7 +2 ().4.

Acid 1().2 Ao 15 .1 g'o ge1 2 5 .3.


u = E =2 5 .3 +5 .7 +2 ().4.
Acid 5.7 ')o 2 5.3 'to ge't 3 1.
u = E =3 1+2 ().4.
Adci2 ().4.To 3 1 '/o ge& 51.4..
u = E = 51.4
The sAondord devlolzon op a cizstrlbu4'lon ss o m eosune op ihe dpsperslon
ond zs egual'to 1he sguare root op Ahe varpallon.

s= W (x-u)2'P(x)
F'yhin *he know n volues.
2 8 - S .:

2'0

+ ; - 5 ;

Spm plppy +he expresspon.

2.Q 3 + 5 - S 4. 2 .Q 2 + 5 7 - S

4. 2.Q

Problem 1 (Page 3)
13 .1S 4.S

Problem 1 (Page 2)
MulAlply 18 by ().1 'to ge1 1.8 .
u = E =3 .2 +2 .7 +1.3 +1.6 +1.8
Adci2 .7 S'o 3 .2 '
i'o geA 5.9 .
u = E =.
5.9 + 1.3 +1.6 +1.8

Acid 1.3 +0 5.9 ')o geA 7.2 .


u = E =7 .2 +1.6 + 1.8
Acici1.6 '/o 7 .2 'to ge1 8 .8 .
u = E =8 .8 +1.8

Adci1.8 'to 8 .8 'to ge'/1().6 .


u = E =1().6
The sAondord devlolzon op 'a cizstrlbu'
tlon ss o m eosune op ihe dpsperslon
ond zs egual'to 1he sguare roo't op 'the varpallon.

s= V*!(x-u)2.P(x)
F'yhin *he know n volues.
8-

0 .6

2 '0 4 + 9 -

Spm plppy +he expresspon.

Q 6

2 .Q 3 +

3-

() 6

2.Q

6-

Q6

2.Q

9-

Problem 1 (Page 3)
3 .5 2 7

P ro b lem 1
x

P(x)

().1

13

().2

2S

().3

36

().4.

The expecicl'kzon op a dzs4'rzbu'/zon zs The vorue expecied ZP Ariols o.p 1he


dzsirlbu'tion could coniinue zndepinz'dely. Thps ps egual')o each value
rnultiplzeciby p+s cipscreie probobflpey.
u = E =6 '().1+13 '().2 +2 S '().3 +3 6 '().4.
Multzply 6 by ().1 'o ge+ ().6 .
u = E =().6 +13 '().2 + 2 S '().3 +3 6 '().4.
MuIl'lply 13 by ().2 l'o ge& 2 .6 .
u = E =().6 +2 .6 +2 S '().3 + 3 6 '().4.
MuIAlply 2 5 by ().3 io ge& 7 .5.
u = E =().6 +2 .6 +7.S + 36 '().4.
Mul'tpply 3 6 by ().4 'Lo ge# 14..4..
u = E =().6 +2 .6 +7.S + 14..4.

Problem 1 (Page 2)
Acici2 .6 4'o ().6 'bo ge* 3 .2 .
u = E =3 .2 +7 .5 +14..4.
Acid 7.5 l'o 3 .2 'to ge+ 1().7 .
u = E =1().7 +14..4.

Acid 14..4 'wo 1().7 'to ge+ 2 5.1.


u = E =2 5 .1
The s'tanciard devzo4'zon op a cis'trzbu'kzon is a m eosure op 1he dsperszon
anciis eguaiAo 'the sguare rooi op &he vorpatpon.
s = *- n

)' (x-u)2'P(x)

F'zilIn 'the know n values.


6 - 2 S .1

2'() 1+ 13 - 2 S 1 2'() 2 + 2 S - 2 S 1 2 .Q 3 + 3 6 - 2 S 1 2.Q 4.

Sinnplhl'y 1he expnesspon.


1().6 4.3 8

P ro b lem 1
x

P(x)

12

().3

2 ()

().2

2%

().4.

The expec'/o'tpon op a dis'trpbu'tlon ps the vohue expecled IP 'trlols o.p t'he


cizs'trlbu'kzon could cona'pnue indepin ely. Thls zs ecruol'ro eoch volue
rnuimiplzed by 2ts cizscre'te probobzlpty.
u = E =12 '().3 +2 ()'().2 +2 % '().4.
Mulizply 12 by 0.3 'to gei 3 .6 .
u = E =3 .6 + 2 ().().2 +2 % '().4.
Multpply 2 0 by 9.2 'to geA 4.
u = E =3 .6 + 4.+ 2 % '().4.
Mulllpky 2 9 by ().4 'to ge'/ 11.6 .
u = E =3 .6 + 4.+ 11.6
Au ci4 Ao 3 .6 'Lo ge1 7.6 .
u = E =7 .6 + 11.6

Acici11.6 l'o 7 .6 To ges'19 .2 .


u = E =1% .2

Problem 1 (Page 2)
The s'londord devlollon op o cipsd'rlbu4'pon Is a m eosure op +he cipspeaslon
and zs eguall'o &he sguare rooi op +he vorpaizon.

s= W (x-u)2'P(x)
F'zllIn +he know n volues.
12 - 1% .2

2.() 3 + 2 ()- 1% 2

Slm plppy +he expresspon.


7 .35 5

2.() 2 + 2 % - 1% 2

2'() 4.

P ro b lem 1
x

P(x)

11

().2

22

().2

35

().2

3%

().3

4.7

().1

The expeceo'tpon op a dps'trpbu'pon zs +he volue expeceed ZP Tppals o.p +he


cizs'/rlbu4'zon could con+pnue Indepinzlely. Thps Is eguol')o each value
m ui'bzplpeciby I+s cipscrete probabzllty.
u = E =11 '().2 +2 2 '().2 + 3 S '().2 +3 % '().3 +4.7 '().1
Mullzply 11 by ().2 lo ge1 2 .2 .
u = E =2 .2 +2 2 '().2 +3 S '().2 + 3 % '().3 + 4.7 '().1
Mulliply 2 2 by ().2 'do ge'/ 4.4.
u = E =2 .2 +4..4.+ 3 S '().2 +3 9 '().3 +4.7 '().1
MuI4'lply 3 5 by ().2 Ao ge# 7 .
u = E =2 .2 + 4..4.+ 7 + 39 '().3 + 4.7 '().1
Mullpply 3 9 by 9.3 Ao ge')11.7.
u = E =2 .2 +4..4.+ 7 + 11.7 + 4.7 '().1

Problem 1 (Page 2)
MulAlply 47 by ().1 eo ge'r 4..7.
u = E =2 .2 +4..4.+ 7 + 11.7 + 4..7
Adci4.4 'ko 2 .2 Ao ge+ 6 .6 .
u = E =6 .6 + 7 + 11.7 + 4..7

Acid 7 +0 6 .6 To geA 13 .6 .
u = E =13 .6 +11.7 +4..7
Acid 11.7 'to 13.6 '/o ge't 2 5.3 .
u = E =2 5 .3 +4 .7

Adci4..7 '/o 2 5.3 '/o ge* 3 ().


u = E =3 ()
The sAondord devlolzon op a cizstrlbu4'lon ss o m eosune op ihe dpsperslon
ond zs egual'to 1he sguare root op Ahe varpallon.

s= W (x-u)2'P(x)
F'yhin *he know n volues.
-

3() 2 .Q 2 + 2 2 - 3 () 2 .Q 2 + 35 - 3 () 2.Q 2 + 3% - 3Q

Spm plppy +he expresspon.

2.Q 3 + 4.7 - 3

Problem 1 (Page 3)
11.%6 6 6

P ro b lem 1
x

P(x)

().2

21

().4.

3 ()

().2

38

Q .4.

The expecicl'kzon op a dzs4'rzbu'/zon zs The vorue expecied ZP Ariols o.p 1he


dzsirlbu'tion could coniinue zndepinz'dely. Thps ps egual')o each value
rnultiplzeciby p+s cipscreie probobflp+y.
u = E =% '().2 +2 1 '().4.+3 ()'().2 +38 '().4.
Multzply 9 by ().2 lo ge+ 1.9 .
u = E =1.8 +2 1 '().4 +3 ()'().2 +3 9 '().4.
MuIl'lply 2 1 by ().4 'to ge'/().4 .
u = E =1.8 +8 .4.+ 3 ()'().2 +3 8 '().4.
MuIAlply 3 ()by ().2 io get 6 .
u = E =1.8 +8 .4.+ 6 + 3 8 '().4.
Mul'tpply 3 ()by ().4 'Lo geA 15.2 .
u = E =1.8 +8 .4.+ 6 + 1S .2

Problem 1 (Page 2)
Acicii).4 'to 1.8 4'o ge1 1().2 .
u = E =1().2 + 6 +1S .2
Acid 6 eo 1().2 ',o geA 16.2 .
u = E =16 .2 +1S .2

Acid 15.2 'to 16 .2 Ao ge1 31.4..


u = E =3 1.4.
The s'tanciard devzo4'zon op a cis'trzbu'kzon is a m eosure op 1he dsperszon
anciis eguaiAo 'the sguare rooi op &he vorpatpon.
s = *- n

)' (x-u)2'P(x)

F'zilIn 'the know n values.


% - 3 1.4. 2'() 2 + 2 1- 3 1 4. 2'() 4.+ 3 ()- 3 1 4. 2 .Q 2 + 38 - 3 1 4. 2.Q 4.

Sinnplhl'y 1he expnesspon.


12 .7 ()5 6

P ro b lem 1
x

P(x)

().1

().2

14.

().3

1%

Q .2

26

().2

The expeceo'tpon op a dps'trpbu'pon zs +he volue expeceed ZP Tppals o.p +he


cizs'/rlbu4'zon could con+pnue Indepinzlely. Thps Is eguol')o each value
m ui'bzplzeciby I+s cizscre4'e probabzll'ey.
u = E = 5 '().1+% '().2 + 14.'().3 +1% 'Q .2 +2 6 '().2
Mullzply 5 by ().1 'o ge1 ().5.
u = E =().5 +% '().2 +14.'().3 +1% '().2 +2 6 '().2
Mulliply 9 by 9.2 Ao geA 1.8 .
u = E =().5 +1.8 + 14.'().3 +19 '().2 +2 6 '().2
M uI'rIpIy 14 by ().3 =.o (je1 4..2 .
u = E =().5 +1.8 + 4..2 +1% '().2 +2 6 '().2
Mullpply 19 by 0.2 ',o geA 3.i).
u = E =().5 + 1.8 + 4..2 +3.8 + 2 6 '().2

Problem 1 (Page 3)
Slm plppy +he expresspon.
4.4..65

P ro b lem 1
x

P(x)

().1

().1

().2

11

Q .4.

14.

().2

The expeceo'tpon op a dps'trpbu'pon zs +he volue expeceed ZP Tppals o.p +he


cizs'/rlbu4'zon could con+pnue Indepinzlely. Thps Is eguol')o each value
m ui'kzplzeciby I+s cizscre4'e probathzll'ty.
u = E =2 '().1 +7 '().1+% '().2 +11 '().4.+ 14.'().2
Mullzply 2 by ().1 4'o ge'/ ().2 .
u = E =().2 +7 '().1+ 9 '().2 +11 '().4.+14.'().2
Mulliply 7 by 9.1 '/o ge'r ().7.
u = E =().2 +().7 +9 '().2 + 11 '().4.+14.'().2
MuI4'lply 9 by ().2 'to ge# 1.8 .
u = E =().2 +().7 +1.8 +11 '().4.+14.'().2
Mullpply 11 by 9.4.'Eo ge+ 4..4..
u = E =().2 +().7 +1.8 +4..4.+ 14.'().2

Problem 1 (Page 2)
MulAlply 14 by ().2 'to ge't2 .8 .
u = E =().2 +().7 +1.8 +4..4.+ 2 .8
Adci().7 S'o ().2 '
i'o geA ().9 .
u = E =().9 + 1.8 + 4..4.+2 .8

Acid 1.8 +0 ().9 To geA 2 .7 .


u = E =2 .7 +4 .4.+2 .8
Acici4..4 'to 2 .7 '/o ge1 7 .1.
u = E =7 .1+2 .8

Adci2 .8 '/o 7.1 'to ge'/ 9.9.


u = E =% .%
The varionce op o dps'rlbu4'pon Is .
a m easure op '
the dlsperspon and ps ecrual
to 1he scruare o.p 'the slandard devpa'hpon.
'

s2=V1 (x-u)2.P(x)
F'yhin *he know n volues.

(2 -(%.%))2.Q .1+(7 -(%.%))2.Q 1+(9 -(9 9))2.Q 2 +(11-(% %))2.Q 4.+(14.-(% %)

Problem 1 (Page 3)
Slm plppy +he expresspon.
11.()%

Problem 1 (Page 3)
Slm plppy +he expresspon.
5 % .4.%

P ro b lem 1
x

P(x)

19

().2

21

().4.

2 4.

().S

2%

().7

The expecicl'kzon op a dzs4'rzbu'/zon zs The vorue expecied ZP Ariols o.p 1he


dzsirlbu'tion could coniinue zndepinz'dely. Thps ps egual')o each value
rnultiplzeciby p+s tspscr'eie probobflp+y.
u = E =1% '().2 +2 1 .().4.+2 4.'().S +2 % '().7
Multzply 19 by 9.2 io ge+ 3.i).
u = E =3 .9 + 2 1 '().4 + 2 4.'().5 +2 % '().7
MuIl'lply 2 1 by ().4 'to ge'/().4 .
u = E =3 .8 + 8 .4.+2 4.'().5 + 2 % '().7
MuIAlply 2 4.by ().5 io ge't 1 2.
u = E =3 .i)+ i).4.+12 +2 % '().7
Mul'tpply 2 Q by Q.7 'Lo geA 2 ().3 .
u = E =3 .8 + 8 .4.+12 +2 ().3

Problem 1 (Page 2)
Acici8 .4 'to 3 .8 '
t'o ge't 12 .2 .
u = E =12 .2 + 12 +2 ().3
Acid 12 To 12 .2 l'o ge+ 2 4..2 .
u = E =2 4..2 +2 ().3

Acid 2 ().3 'to 2 4..2 'Lo geA 4.4..5 .


u = E =4.4..5
The vorponce o.p (7 cis'
tribuApon ps a m easure op 1he cipsperspon and s ecruah
to 1he sguore op +he s'
tondarcicievzo'pzon.
'

s2=Vl (x-u)2'P(x)
F'zilIn 'the know n values.

(1%-(4.4..5))2'().2 +(2 1-(4.4..S))2'() 4.+(24.-(4.4.S))2.Q 5 +(2 %-(4.4.5))2.Q 7


Sinnplhl'y 1he expnesspon.
7 2 % .2 5

P ro b lem 1
x

P(x)

14.

().2

17

().4.

21

().3

The expec'/o'tpon op a dis'trpbu'tlon ps the vohue expecled IP 'trlols o.p t'he


cizs'trlbu'kzon could cona'pnue indepin ely. Thls zs ecruol'ro eoch volue
rnuimiplzed by z'>s cizscre'te probobzlpty.
u = E =14.'().2 +17 '().4.+2 1'().3
Mulizply 14.by ().2 Ao ge+ 2 .8 .
u = E =2 .8 +17 '().4.+ 2 1 '().3
Multpply 17 by ().4.To ge1 6 .8 .
u = E =2 .8 +6 .8 +2 1 '().3
Mulllpky 2 1 by ().3 'to ge't 6 .3 .
u = E =2 .8 +6 .8 +6.3
Au ci6.8 'to 2 .i) mo ge't 9 .6 .
u = E =% .6 + 6.3

Acici6.3 '?o 9 .6 'to ge'r 15.9.


u = E =15 .%

P ro b lem 1
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P(x)

().3

1S

().2

22

().3

2S

().2

The expecio'kpon op a dps4'rpbu'/zon zs The vorue expecied ZP Ariols o.p 1he


cizsirlbu'tion could coniinue zndepinz'dely. Thps ps egual')o each value
rnultiplzeciby p+s tspscr'eie probobflpiy.
u = E =% '().3 + 15 '().2 +2 2 '().3 +2 S '().2
Multzply 9 by ().3 to ge+ 2 .7 .
u = E =2 .7 +15 '().2 +2 2 '().3 +2 S '().2
MuIl'lply 15 by ().2 l'o ge& 3 .
u = E =2 .7 +3 +2 2 '().3 +2 S '().2
MuIAlply 2 2 by ().3 'to get 6 .6 .
u = E =2 .7 +3 +6 .6 +2 S '().2
Mul'tpply 2 5 by ().2 'o geA 5.
u = E =2 .7 +3 +6 .6 +S

P ro b lem 1
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P(x)

13

().3 S

17

().13

27

().2 4.

The expec'/o'tzon op a dis'trzbu'tlon zs the vohue expecled IP 'trlols o.p t'he


cizs'trlbu'kzon could cona'pnue indepin ely. Thls Y ecruol'ro eoch volue
rnuimiplzed by 2ts cizscreie probobzlp'hy.
u = E =13 '().3 S +17 '().13 +2 7 '().2 4.
Mulizply 13 by 0.3 5 'to ge& 4..5 5.
u = E =4..5 5 +17 '().13 +2 7 .().2 4.
Multpply 17 by 0.13 lo geT 2 .21.
u = E =4..5 5 +2 .2 1+2 7 '().2 4.
Mulllpky 2 7 by 9.2 4.To geT 6 .48 .
u = E =4..5 5 +2 .2 1+6 .4.8
Achci2 .2 1 c'o 4..5 5 Ao ge* 6 .76 .
u = E =6 .7 6 + 6.4.8

Acici6.4 () 'ro 6.76 To ge+ 13 .2 4 .


u = E =13 .2 4.

P ro b lem 1
x

P(x)

().3

18

().2

21

().2

27

Q .1

2%

().3

The expeceo'tpon op a dps'trpbu'pon zs +he volue expeceed ZP Tppals o.p +he


cizs'/rlbu4'zon could con+pnue Indepinzlely. Thps Is eguol')o each value
m ui'bzplzeciby I+s cizscre4'e probabzllty.
u = E =6 '().3 + 18 '().2 + 2 1 '().2 + 2 7 '().1+ 2 % '().3
Mullzply 6 by ().3 'ko ge* 1.9 .
u = E =1.8 +18 '().2 +2 1 '().2 +2 7 .().1+2 % '().3
Mulliply 18 by ().2 '/o ge1 3 .6 .
u = E =1.8 +3 .6 +2 1 '().2 + 2 7 '().1 +2 9 '().3
MuI4'lply 2 1 by 0.2 ')o geT 4..2 .
u = E =1.8 +3 .6 +4..2 +2 7 '().1+2 % .().3
Mullpply 2 7 by fi.1 'to geA 2 .7.
u = E =1.8 +3 .6 +4..2 +2 .7 + 2 % '().3

Problem 1 (Page 3)
Slm plppy +he expresspon.
% 2 .1

P ro b lem 1
x

P(x)

13

().4.

21

().S

2S

().6

2%

().7

3 ()

().8

The expeceo'tpon op a dps'trpbu'pon zs +he volue expeceed ZP Tppals o.p +he


cizs'/rlbu'kzon could con+pnue Indepinzlely. Thps Is eguol')o each value
m ui'kzplzeciby I+s cizscre4'e probabzllty.
u = E =13 '().4.+2 1 '().S +2 5 '().6 + 2 % '().7 +3 ()'().8
Mullzply 13 by ().4.To ge1 5.2 .
u = E =5 .2 +2 1 '().S +2 S .().6 +2 % '().7 + 3 ()'().8
Mulliply 2 1 by 0.5 Ao ge1 1().5.
u = E =5 .2 +1().S +2 S '().6 +2 9 '().7 + 3 ()'().8
MuI4'lply 2 5 by Ci.6 Ao ge& 15.
u = E =5 .2 +1().5 +1S +2 % '().7 + 3 ()'().8
Mullpply 2 9 by fi.7 +0 ge+ 2 ().3 .
u = E =5 .2 +1().5 +1S +2 ().3 +3 ()'().8

Problem 1 (Page 2)
MulAlply 3 ()by ().8 lo geA 2 4 .
u = E =5 .2 +1().5 +15 +2 ().3 +2 4.
Adci1().5 'to 5 .2 ''
)o geA 15.7 .
u = E =1.
5.7 +1.
5 + 2 ().3 +2 4.

Acid 15 To 15 .7 Ao ge1 3 ().7.


u = E =3 ().7 + 2 ().3 +2 4.
Acici2 ().3 l'o 3().7 l'o gem 51.
u = E =5 1+2 4.

Adci2 4 Ao 51 '
to ge1 7 5 .
u = E =7 5
The varionce op o dps'rlbu4'pon Is .
a m easure o.p '
the dlsperspon and ps ecrual
to 1he scruare o.p 'the slandard devpa'hpon.
'

s2=V1 (x-u)2.P(x)
F'yhin *he know n volues.

(13-(75))2.Q .4.+(21-(7S))2.Q .
5+(25 -(75))2.Q 6+(29 -(75))2.Q 7 +(3Q -(
7.
5))2.Q.8

Problem 1 (Page 3)
Slm plppy +he expresspon.
7 5 % 6.8

P ro b lem 1
x

P(x)

26

().2 S

3S

().4.1

4.6

().3 2

51

Q .S 4.

6 ()

().6 2

The expeceo'tpon op a dps'trpbu'zon zs +he volue expeceed ZP Tppals o.p +he


cizs'/rlbu'kzon could con+pnue Indepinzlely. Thps Is eguol')o each value
m ui'kzplzeciby I+s cizscre'de probabzll'y.
u = E =2 6 '().2 5 +3 S '().4.1+4.6 '().3 2 +S 1'().S 4.+6 ()'().6 2
Mullzply 2 6 by ().2 5 r'o ge+ 6 .5.
u = E =6 .S + 3 S '().4.1+4.6 '().3 2 +S 1 .().S 4.+6 ()'().6 2
Mulliply 3 5 by ().41 lo gel'1 4..3 5.
u = E =6 .S + 14..3 S + 4.6 '().3 2 +S 1'().S 4.+6 ()'().6 2
MuI4'lply 46 by ().3 2 Ao ge+ 14..72 .
u = E =6 .S + 14..3 S + 14..7 2 + S 1'().S 4.+6 ()'().6 2
Mullpply 51 by ().5 4 'to ge1 2 7.5 4.
u = E =6 .S + 14..3 S + 14..7 2 + 2 7 .5 4.+6()'().6 2

Problem 1 (Page 3)
SIm plppy +he expresspon.
6 3 % 3.6 D 3 5

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P ro b lem 1
u = 3 n = S (x =.1Q

Finci&he 1 -value uszng o + -dzs'/rlbu'tpon 'rable. To prove '/he m ean zs ecfuar


l'o 3 use 'the Tw o-+ozled 'kes',.
1=-2 .1318

P ro b lem 1
u.
?-2 n =16 o =.1()

F'inci&he + -value uszng o 't-dzsirlbu4'pon 'rable. To prove '/he m ean zs


greoter lhan 2 use 'the one-'kailed 'resl'.
t= -1.3 4.Q 6

'

P ro b lem 1
u ?.2 n =14.cq=.()5

F'inci&he + -value uszng o 't-dzsirlbu4'pon 'rable. To prove '/he m ean zs


greoter 'than 2 use 'the one-'kailed 'resl'.
t= -1.7 7 ()%

'

P ro b lem 1
u S.1 n =2 S (x =.1()

Fznci+he 1 -value uszng o 't-dzsirlbu'tpon 'rable. To prove '/he m ean zs res.s


lhon 1 use t'he one-laheclles'r.
t= -1.3 178

'

P ro b lem 1
u S.1 n =18 c4= .Q S

Fznci+he 1 -value uszng o 't-dzsirlbu'tpon 'rable. To prove '/he m ean zs res.s


lhon 1 use t'he one-laheclles'r.
1=-1.7396

P ro b lem 1
u = 3 n = 2 Q fx =.()1

Finci&he 1 -value uszng o + -dzs'/rlbu'tpon 'rable. To prove '/he m ean zs ecfuar


l'o 3 use 'the Tw o-+ozled 'kes',.
1=-2 .860%

P ro b lem 1
u.
?-2 n =2 1 ck= .1()

F'inci&he + -value uszng o 't-dzsirlbu4'pon 'rable. To prove '/he m ean zs


greoter 'than 2 use 'the one-'kailed 'resl'.
t= -1.3 2 .
53

'

P ro b lem 1
u S.1 n =18 c4= .1()

Fznci+he 1 -value uszng o 't-dzsirlbu'tpon 'rable. To prove '/he m ean zs res.s


lhon 1 use t'he one-laheclles'r.
t= -1.3 3 3 4.

'

P ro b lem 1
u.
?-2 n =1() cq=.1()

F'inci&he + -value uszng o 't-dzsirlbu4'pon 'rable. To prove '/he m ean zs


greoter 'than 2 use 'the one-'kailed 'resl'.
t= -1.3 8 3

'

P ro b lem 1
u S.1 n =1% ct=.()1

Fznci+he 1 -value uszng o 't-dzsirlbu'tpon 'rable. To prove '/he m ean zs res.s


lhon 1 use t'he one-laheclles'r.
'

k= -2 .E;E;2 4.

P ro b lem 1
'-

x =3 ().% % ,p E>3 ().2 % ,czE= 11.2 S ,n =73 ,fx =.1()


The z -score converAs o non-sAandarcidpsn'rpbuilon 'o o s'tandorci
dis'hribu'tron In oader e'o Pind *he probabplz'ty op on eveni. For 1he z -score
op Ahe csisArlbutlon op nneons Ahe sionciarcicieviaeion Is divldeciby +he

(x-1.17)
zzz((
E)
- o'

/r')

F'IhhIn +he know n v orues.

3().%% -(3().2%)
z=

11.2 S
73

Spm prppy 'the expresspon.


z =().5 3 16

The p -value zs 1he probabpllAy op ob'toznzng a 4'es't s'tolisAzc o'/ Ieas't as


exirem e os +he one 'hho't w as oomuolly observed assurnzng Tho' #he null
hypoihesps Is lrue.
p -valuezz().2 ()2 7

P ro b lem 1
'-

x =1S .68 ,p k<14..7 2 ,czE=1.% ,n =6 6 ,c4=.1()


The z -score converAs o non-sAandarcidpsn'rpbuilon 'o o s'tandorci
dis'hribu'tron In oader e'o Pind *he probabplz'ty op on eveni. For 1he z -score
op Ahe csisArlbutlon op nneons Ahe sionciarcicieviaeion Is divldeciby +he

(x-1.17)
zzz((
E)
- o'

/r')

F'lhhIn 1he know n v orues.

15.68 -(14..72 )
z=

1.%

75
Spm prppy 'the expresspon.
z =4..1()4.8

The p -value zs 1he probabpllAy op ob'toznzng a 4'es't s'tolisAzc o'/ Ieas't as


exirem e os +he one 'hho't w as oomuolly observed assurnzng Tho' #he null
hypoihesps Is lrue.
p -valuezz().5 ()C12

P ro b lem 1
''

x =S .6 2 ,p'
x'<S .14.,czx
''=Q .6 9 n =S 9 cq=.1()
The z -score converAs o non-sAandarcidpsn'rpbuilon 'o o s'tandorci
dis'hribu'tron In oader e'o Pind *he probabplz'ty op on eveni. F'or 1he z -score
op Ahe csisArlbutlon op nneons Ahe sionciarcicieviaeion Is divldeciby +he

(x
'--;.t-)
z=((o'x)

'w '

F'lhhIn 1he know n v orues.

5.62 -(5.14.)
z=

().6 8

7-sa
Spm prppy 'the expresspon.
z =5 .3 7 5 i)

The p -value zs 1he probabpllAy op ob'toznzng a 4'es't s'tolisAzc o'/ Ieas't as


exirem e os +he one 'hho't w as oomuolly observed assurnzng Tho' #he null
hypoihesps Is lrue.
p -valuezz().5 ()C12

P ro b lem 1
'-

x =3 6 .% S ,p E>3 6.6 7 ,o'E=4..4.7,n = 3% ,c4= .()1


The z -score converAs o non-sAandarcidpsn'rpbuilon 'o o s'tandorci
dis'hribu'tron In oader e'o Pind *he probabplz'ty op on eveni. For 1he z -score
op Ahe csisArlbutlon op nneons Ahe sionciarcicieviaeion Is divldeciby +he

(x-1.17)
zzz((
E)
- o'

/r')

F'lhhIn +he know n v orues.

36.%5 -(36.67)
z=

4 .4.7

N
Spm prppy 'the expresspon.
z =().3 % 12

The p -value zs 1he probabpllAy op ob'toznzng a 4'es't s'tolisAzc o'/ Ieas't as


exirem e os +he one 'hho't w as oomuolly observed assurnzng Tho' #he null
hypoihesps Is lrue.
p -valuezz().15 25

P ro b lem 1
'-

x =2 % .6 2 ,p E>2 8 .8 S ,o'7=7 .17 ,n =1()(),c4= .()S


The z -score converAs o non-sAandarcidpsn'rpbuilon 'o o s'tandorci
dis'hribu'tron In oader e'o Pind *he probabplz'ty op on eveni. For 1he z -score
op Ahe csisArlbutlon op nneons Ahe sionciarcicieviaeion Is divldeciby +he

(x-1.17)
zzz((
E)
- o'

/r')

F'IhhIn +he know n v orues.

2 %.62 -(2 8.8S )


z=

7 .17
()()

Spm prppy 'the expresspon.


z =1.()73 %

The p -value zs 1he probabpllAy op ob'toznzng a 4'es't s'tolisAzc o'/ Ieas't as


exirem e os +he one 'hho't w as oomuolly observed assurnzng Tho' #he null
hypoihesps Is lrue.
p -valuezz().35 8 7

P ro b lem 1
'-

x =6 4..16,p 7>6 3 .S 7 ,o'E=3 1.()S ,n =8 (),c4=.()1


The z -score converAs o non-sAandarcidpsn'rpbuilon 'o o s'tandorci
dis'hribu'tron In oader e'o Pind *he probabplz'ty op on eveni. For 1he z -score
op Ahe csisArlbutlon op nneons Ahe sionciarcicieviaeion Is divldeciby +he

(x-1.17)
zzz((
E)
- o'

/r')

F'IhiIn +he know n v orues.

64..16 -(63.S7)
z=

3 1.()5
8 ()

Spm prppy 'the expresspon.


z =().17

The p -value zs 1he probabpllAy op ob'toznzng a 4'es't s'tolisAzc o'/ Ieas't as


exirem e os +he one 'hho't w as oomuolly observed assurnzng Tho' #he null
hypoihesps Is lrue.
p -valuezz().()6 75

P ro b lem 1
'-

x =3 7 .6 ,p x>3 7.3 7 ,czx=19 .2 ,n =7 3,ct=.()1


The z -score converAs o non-sAandarcidpsn'rpbuilon 'o o s'tandorci
dis'hribu'tron In oader e'o Pind *he probabplz'ty op on eveni. For 1he z -score
op Ahe csisArlbutlon op nneons Ahe sionciarcicieviaeion Is divldeciby +he

(x
'--;.t-)
z=((o'x)

'w '

F'lhhIn 1he know n v orues.

37.6 -(37.37)
z=

18 .2

7-73
Spm prppy 'the expresspon.
z =().1()8

The p -value zs 1he probabpllAy op ob'toznzng a 4'es't s'tolisAzc o'/ Ieas't as


exirem e os +he one 'hho't w as oomuolly observed assurnzng Tho' #he null
hypoihesps Is lrue.
p -valuezz().043

P ro b lem 1
'-

x =4..1S ,p x<3 .7 8 ,o'x=().S ,n =1()(),ct=.()1


The z -score converAs o non-sAandarcidpsn'rpbuilon 'o o s'tandorci
dis'hribu'tron In oader e'o Pind *he probabplz'ty op on eveni. For 1he z -score
op Ahe csisArlbutlon op nneons Ahe sionciarcicieviaeion Is divldeciby +he

(x
'--;.t-)
z=((o'x))
n

F'IhiIn 1he know n v orues.

4..15 -(3.78)
z=

().5
()()

Spm prppy 'the expresspon.


z =7 .4.

The p -value zs 1he probabpllAy op ob'toznzng a 4'es't s'tolisAzc o'/ Ieas't as


exirem e os +he one 'hho't w as oomuolly observed assurnzng Tho' #he null
hypoihesps Is lrue.
p -valuezz().5 ()C12

P ro b lem 1
'-

x =S .8 4.,p x<S .3 4.,o'x=2 .9 3 ,n =3 2 ,c:=.1Q


The z -score converAs o non-sAandarcidpsn'rpbuilon 'o o s'tandorci
dis'hribu'tron In oader e'o Pind *he probabplz'ty op on eveni. For 1he z -score
op Ahe csisArlbutlon op nneons Ahe sionciarcicieviaeion Is divldeciby +he

(x
'--;.t-)
z=((o'x)

'w '

F'lhhIn 1he know n v orues.

5.84.-(5.34.)
z=

2 .8 3

7-32
Spm prppy 'the expresspon.
z =().% % %4

The p -value zs 1he probabpllAy op ob'toznzng a 4'es't s'tolisAzc o'/ Ieas't as


exirem e os +he one 'hho't w as oomuolly observed assurnzng Tho' #he null
hypoihesps Is lrue.
p -valuezz().34 14.

P ro b lem 1
'-

x =2 8 .4.1,p E<2 6 .4.6 ,o'E=3 .4.4.,n =1Q % ,o =.1Q


The z -score converAs o non-sAandarcidpsn'rpbuilon 'o o s'tandorci
dis'hribu'tron In oader e'o Pind *he probabplz'ty op on eveni. For 1he z -score
op Ahe csisArlbutlon op nneons Ahe sionciarcicieviaeion Is divldeciby +he

(x-1.17)
zzz((
E)
- o'

/r')

F'IhhIn 1he know n v orues.

28.4.1-(2 6.4.6)
z=

3.4.4.
()%

Spm prppy 'the expresspon.


z =5 .% 18 2

The p -value zs 1he probabpllAy op ob'toznzng a 4'es't s'tolisAzc o'/ Ieas't as


exirem e os +he one 'hho't w as oomuolly observed assurnzng Tho' #he null
hypoihesps Is lrue.
p -valuezz().5 ()C12

P ro b lem 1
v =14.cq=.1()

Fznci&he + -value Por &he given conppcsence Ieverctncidegrees op Ppeedonn.


Thls is norm olly done usfng a labie op T -volues.
'

k= -1.3 4.E;

P ro b lem 1
v =16 o = .()S

Fznci&he + -value Por &he given conppcsence Ieverctncidegrees op Ppeedonn.


Thls is norm olly done usfng a labie op T -volues.
'

k= -1.7 4.E;9

P ro b lem 1
v =2 1 o =.1()

Fznci&he + -value Por &he given conppcsence Ieverctncidegrees op Ppeedonn.


Thls is norm olly done usfng a labie op T -volues.
'

k= -1.3 2 32

P ro b lem 1
v =16 G =.Q1

Fznci&he + -value Por &he given conppcsence Ieverctncidegrees op Ppeedonn.


Thls is norm olly done usfng a labie op T -volues.
'

k= -2 .E;8 3 E;

P ro b lem 1
v =18 c4= .1()

Fznci&he + -value Por &he given conppcsence Ieverctncidegrees op Ppeedonn.


Thls is norm olly done usfng a labie op T -volues.
'

k= -1.3 3 ()4.

P ro b lem 1
v =2 7 ct=.1()

Fznci&he + -value Por &he given conppcsence Ieverctncidegrees op Ppeedonn.


Thls is norm olly done usfng a labie op T -volues.
'

k= -1.3 137

P ro b lem 1
v =2 S (x =.1()

Fznci&he + -value Por &he given conppcsence Ieverctncidegrees op Ppeedonn.


Thls is norm olly done usfng a labie op T -volues.
'

k= -1.3 163

P ro b lem 1
v =2 8 c4=.()1

Fznci&he + -value Por &he given conppcsence Ieverctncidegrees op Ppeedonn.


Thls is norm olly done usfng a labie op T -volues.
'

k= -2 .4.6 7 1

P ro b lem 1
v =12 o =.1()

Fznci&he + -value Por &he given conppcsence Ieverctncidegrees op Ppeedonn.


Thls is norm olly done usfng a labie op T -volues.
'

k= -1.3 E;6 2

P ro b lem 1
v =2 8 c4=.()S

Fznci&he + -value Por &he given conppcsence Ieverctncidegrees op Ppeedonn.


Thls is norm olly done usfng a labie op T -volues.
'

k= -1.7 ()11

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P ro b lem 1
n=31 c=Q .Q8

To Pznd +he sAondard error op *he m ean dlvzde &he standard devzozzon by
1he num ber o.p som ples uslng 1he CenArolLpm li Theorem .
c

crp=r
F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.
C p=

().% 8

Spm plppy 1he resull.


cp=().17 6

P ro b lem 1
n = 6 % o'=4..()4.

To Pznd +he sAondard error op *he m ean dlvzde &he standard devzozzon by
1he num ber o.p som ples uslng 1he CenArolLpm li Theorem .
c

lp=r
F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.
4 .()4.

lp= a -j
Spm plppy 1he resull.
cp=().48 6 4.

P ro b lem 1
n=38 G =0 .2 6

To Pznd +he sAondard error op *he m ean dlvzde &he standard devzozzon by
1he num ber o.p som ples uslng 1he CenArolLpm li Theorem .
c

crp=r
F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.
C p=

().2 6

Spm plzpy 1he resull.


cp=().04.2 2

P ro b lem 1
n = 6 6 cz=4..8 7

To Pznd +he sAondard error op *he m ean dlvzde &he standard devzozzon by
1he num ber o.p som ples uslng 1he CenArolLpm li Theorem .
c

crp=r
F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.
C p=

4 .8 7

Spm plzpy 1he resull.


cp=().5 %% 5

P ro b lem 1
n=S2 G =2 .QS

To Pznd +he sAondard error op *he m ean dlvzde &he standard devzozzon by
1he num ber o.p som ples uslng 1he CenArolLpm li Theorem .
c

crp=r
F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.
2 .% 5

Cp= X Z
Spm plzpy 1he resull.
cp=().4()Q 1

P ro b lem 1
n=Q8 c =2 .32

To Pznd +he sAondard error op *he m ean dlvzde &he standard devzozzon by
1he num ber o.p som ples uslng 1he CenArolLpm li Theorem .
c

crp=r
F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.
C p=

2 .3 2

Spm plzpy 1he resull.


cp=().23 44.

P ro b lem 1
n=Q8 c =Q.2 Q

To Pznd +he sAondard error op *he m ean dlvzde &he standard devzozzon by
1he num ber o.p som ples uslng 1he CenArolLpm li Theorem .
c

crp=r
F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.
C p=

% .2 %

Spm plzpy 1he resull.


cp=().93 i)4.

P ro b lem 1
n=78 c =6.S4

To Pznd +he sAondard error op *he m ean dlvzde &he standard devzozzon by
1he num ber o.p som ples uslng 1he CenArolLpm li Theorem .
c

crp=r
F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.
6 .5 4.

Cp= JR
Spm plzpy 1he resull.
cp=().74.0 5

P ro b lem 1
n=82 G =1.7Q

To Pznd +he sAondard error op *he m ean dlvzde &he standard devzozzon by
1he num ber o.p som ples uslng 1he CenArolLpm li Theorem .
c

lp=r
F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.
1.7 %

lp=a 'z
Spm plppy 1he resull.
cp=().1Q 77

P ro b lem 1
n = %2 c=1.8 6

To Pznd +he sAondard error op *he m ean dlvzde &he standard devzozzon by
1he num ber o.p som ples uslng 1he CenArolLpm li Theorem .
c

lp=r
F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.
1.8 6

lp=a 'z
Spm plppy 1he resull.
cp=().1Q 3 %

P ro b lem 1
n = %S ,x =2 1. 3 2 o'=7.74.,ct=.()S

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E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 1.% 6 '7 .7 4.

Spm plppy 1he resull.


E = 1.5 5 6 4

P ro b lem 1
n = ()s ,x
'-=2 a . () o.=2 .()(),(x = .o s

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E Zaz2CF
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E = 1.% 6 '2 .8 8

Spm plppy 1he resull.


E = ().612 3

P ro b lem 1
n = 4.6 ,x =1S . 8 4.cz=1.%2 ,c4=.()S

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E Zaz2CF
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Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 1.% 6 '1.9 2

Spm plppy 1he resull.


E = ().5 5 4.%

P ro b lem 1
n = 6 4 ,x
'-=1. ()s o =o .2 2 ,ct=.o s

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E Zaz2CF
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Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 1.% 6 '().2 2

Spm plppy 1he resull.


E = ().()5 3 %

P ro b lem 1
n = 8 4.,x
''=2 1.S % o'=S .2 2 ,ck=.()S

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E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 1.% 6 '5 .2 2

Spm plppy 1he resull.


E = 1.1163

P ro b lem 1
n = a 7,x
'-=6 .2 1 o.=a.o 1,fx =.o s

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 1.% 6 '3 .()1

Spm plppy 1he resull.


E = ().%6 9 %

P ro b lem 1
n = 74.,x =2 S . 8 3 o'=12 .S ,o =.()S

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 1.% 6 '12 .5

Spm plppy 1he resull.


E = 2 .8 4.i)1

P ro b lem 1
n = 4 4 ,x
'-=2 o . 2 s o.=%.(),o =.o 1

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 2 .5 8 ' 9 .8

Spm plppy 1he resull.


E = 3 .8 117

P ro b lem 1
n = %4.,x =1(). ()7 o'=4..8 7 ,c4= .Q S

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 1.% 6 '4..8 7

Spm plppy 1he resull.


E = ().%8 4.5

P ro b lem 1
n = 3 4.,x =14.. 6 3 o'=3.S 4.,cq=.1()

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 1.6 5 .3 .5 4.

Spm plppy 1he resull.


E = 1.()()17

P ro b lem 1
n = %3 ,x
'-=3 2 . ()S cz=3 .8 8 ,ct=.1()

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 1.6 5 .3 .8 8

Szm plzpy 1he resull.


E = ().66 3 %
The conpzdence revel;s +he range op values Por Ahe ''eolm ean bosed on

!he es'tzlpa'red mean and o degree op conpzdence.


x -E <p <x +E
Insen'r Ahe know n volues Int'o +he zn'keovol.
3 2 .()5 -().6 6 3% <p <32 .()S +().6 63 %
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Ievelzs w zlhfn '/hzs fntervctl.
3 1.38 6 1<p <32 .7 13 %

P ro b lem 1
n = a 2 ,x
'-=4 14 o =1 fx =. o 1

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 2 .5 8 ' 1

Szm plzpy 1he resull.


E = ().4.5 6 1
The conpzdence revel;s +he range op values Por Ahe ''eolm ean bosed on

!he es'tzlpa'red mean and o degree op conpzdence.


x -E <p <x +E
Insen'r Ahe know n volues Int'o +he zn'keovol.
4..14.-().4.S 6 1 <p <4..14.+ ().4.S 6 1
Slm plppy 1he resui'. The actualm eon w i'kh o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpicience
Ievelzs w zlhin '/hps fnAervctl.
3 .6 8 3% <p <4..S % 61

P ro b lem 1
n = 6 6,x =3 % .7 2 cz=4..8 1,o = .()1

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 2 .5 8 '4..8 1

Szm plzpy 1he resull.


E = 1.S 2 7S
The conpzdence revel;s +he range op values Por Ahe ''eolm ean bosed on

!he es'tzlpa'red mean and o degree op conpzdence.


x -E <p <x +E
Insen'r Ahe know n volues Int'o +he zn'keovol.
3 % .7 2 -1.S 2 7 S <p <3% .7 2 +1.S 2 7S
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Ievelzs w zlhin '/hps fntervctl.
3 8 .192 S <p <4.1.2 4.7 S

P ro b lem 1
n = 4.1,x
'-=2 4.. 32 o'= 11.7 7 ,c4=.1()

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 1.6 5 .11.7 7

Szm plzpy 1he resull.


E = 3 .()3 3
The conpzdence revel;s +he range op values Por Ahe ''eolm ean bosed on

!he es'tzlpa'red mean and o degree op conpzdence.


x -E <p <x +E
Insen'r Ahe know n volues Int'o +he zn'keovol.
2 4..3 2 -3 .()3 3 <p <2 4..32 + 3 .()33
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Ievelzs w zlhin '/hps fnAervctl.
2 1.2 8 7 <p <2 7.3 S 3

P ro b lem 1
n = 8 1,x
''=1Q . 6 % cz=2 .S %,fx =.1Q

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 1.6 5 .2 .5 %

Szm plzpy 1he resull.


E = ().4.74.8
The conpzdence revel;s +he range op values Por Ahe ''eolm ean bosed on

!he es'tzlpa'red mean and o degree op conpzdence.


x -E <p <x +E
Insen'r Ahe know n volues Int'o +he zn'keovol.
1().6 % -().4.74.8 <p <1().6 % + ().4.7 4.8
Slm plppy 1he resui'. The actualm eon w i'kh o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpicience
Ievelzs w zlhfn '/hzs fntervctl.
1().2 1S 2 <p <11.16 4.8

P ro b lem 1
n = %7 ,x
''= 2 (). 12 o'=4..8 7 ,fx =.()1

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 2 .5 8 '4..8 7

Szm plzpy 1he resull.


E = 1.2 7S 7
The conpzdence revel;s +he range op values Por Ahe ''eolm ean bosed on

!he es'tzlpa'red mean and o degree op conpzdence.


x -E <p <x +E
Insen'r Ahe know n volues Int'o +he zn'keovol.
2 ().12 -1.2 7 S 7 <p <2 ().12 +1.2 7S 7
Slm plppy 1he resui'. The actualm eon w i'kh o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpicience
Ievelzs w ilhin '/hps fntervctl.
18 .8 4.4.3 <p <2 1.3 %S 7

P ro b lem 1
n = 73 ,x
'-=3 %. S 2 cz=4..7 8 ,o =.()1

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 2 .5 8 '4..7 8

Szm plzpy 1he resull.


E = 1.4.4 34.
The conpzdence revel;s +he range op values Por Ahe ''eolm ean bosed on

!he es'tzlpa'red mean and o degree op conpzdence.


x -E <p <x +E
Insen'r Ahe know n volues Int'o +he zn'keovol.
3 % .5 2 -1.4.4.3 4.<p <3 %.S 2 + 1.4.4.34.
Slm plppy 1he resui'. The actualm eon w i'kh o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpicience
Ievelzs w zlhin '/hps fntervctl.
3 8 .()7 66 <p <4.().% 6 3 4.

P ro b lem 1
n = 4.6 ,x =14.. S 8 cz=S .2 % ,fx =.()1

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 2 .5 8 '5 .2 %

Szm plzpy 1he resull.


E = 2 .()12 3
The conpzdence revel;s +he range op values Por Ahe ''eolm ean bosed on

!he es'tzlpa'red mean and o degree op conpzdence.


x -E <p <x +E
Insen'r Ahe know n volues Int'o +he zn'keovol.
14..S 8 -2 .()12 3 <p <14..5 8 +2 .()12 3
Slm plppy 1he resui'. The actualm eon w i'kh o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpicience
Ievelzs w zlhin '/hps fntervctl.
12 .S 6 7 7 <p <16 .S % 2 3

P ro b lem 1
n = %4 ,x
'-=7 . 2 % o.= a.s a ,o =.o s

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 1.% 6 '3.5 3

Szm plzpy 1he resull.


E = ().713 6
The conpzdence revel;s +he range op values Por Ahe ''eolm ean bosed on

!he es'tzlpa'red mean and o degree op conpzdence.


x -E <p <x +E
Insen'r Ahe know n volues Int'o +he zn'keovol.
7 .2 % -().7 13 6 <p <7 .2 % +().713 6
Slm plppy 1he resui'. The actualm eon w i'kh o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpicience
Ievelzs w zlhin '/hps fnAervctl.
6 .S 76 4.<p <8 .()()3 6

P ro b lem 1
n = %2 ,x
''=2 7 . ()4.cz=13 .()% ,(x =.()1

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 2 .5 8 '13 .()%

Szm plzpy 1he resull.


E = 3 .5 2 1
The conpzdence revel;s +he range op values Por Ahe ''eolm ean bosed on

!he es'tzlpa'red mean and o degree op conpzdence.


x -E <p <x +E
Insen'r Ahe know n volues Int'o +he zn'keovol.
2 7.()4.-3.5 2 1<p <2 7 .()4.+3.5 2 1
Slm plppy 1he resui'. The actualm eon w i'kh o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpicience
Ievelzs w zlhin '/hps fnAervctl.
2 3.S 1% <p <3 ().S 6 1

P ro b lem 1
E = 1.13 ,cz=1().%6 ,fx =.1Q
Use ;he Porm ura pnvorvpng bo'
th rn'
axnnpurn earor (E ) ctncisam ple spze n .
E = Z ozaG
n

Se't up 'the PorrnulctAo solve Pon n by rearrongfng 1he Porm ulo Por Ahe
m axirnum error (E ).
z c.za cr

n=12

22

E
Insere 1he know n values zn'f'o +he intervcll.
1.6 5 '1().%6
1. 13
22

n=12

Sim plzl'y +he resul't.


n = 2 56 .1133

Round 'l'he resur: up 'to Pin.


.
'
s 1he m pnpm um sam ple szze n lha'r ps recrulrecl'/o
.
reoch 'the deslred conpidence ievei.
n=2.
57

P ro b lem 1
E = ().%3 ,o'=% .()2 ,ct=.()5
Use ;he Porm ura pnvorvpng boAh rnaxnnpurn earor (E ) ctncisam ple spze n .
E = z'ozaG
n

SeA up 'the PorrnulctAo solve Pon n by rearrongfng 1he Porm ulo Por Ahe
m axirnum error (E ).
z a za cr

n=g

22

E
Insere 1he know n values zn'o +he intervcll.
1.% 6 '%.()2
Q .9 3 22

n=g

Sim plzl'y '/he resulT.


n = 3 61.37 6

Round 'phe resur: up 'o Pincl1he m pnpm um sam ple szze n l'hat ps recrulrecl'/o
reoch 'the deslred conpidence ievei.
n = 3 62

P ro b lem 1
E = 1.4.4.,cz=6 .%%,ct=.1()
Use ;he Porm ura pnvorvpng boAh rnaxnnpurn earor (E ) ctncisam ple spze n .
E = z'ozaG
n

SeA up 'the PorrnulctAo solve Pon n by rearrongfng 1he Porm ulo Por Ahe
m axirnum error (E ).
z a za cr

n=g

22

E
Insere 1he know n values zn'o +he intervcll.
1.6 5 '6 .% %
1. 4.4. 22

n=g

Sim plzl'y Ahe resulT.


n = 6 4..1S ()1

Round 'phe resur: up 'o Pincl1he m pnpm um sam ple szze n l'hat ps recrulrecl'/o
reoch 'the deslred conpidence ievei.
n = 6 E;

P ro b lem 1
E = 1.7 1,cz=16 .S S ,cq=.()1
Use ;he Porm ura pnvorvpng bo'
th rn'
axnnpurn earor (E ) ctncisam ple spze n .
E = Z ozaG
n

Se't up 'the PorrnulctAo solve Pon n by rearrongfng 1he Porm ulo Por Ahe
m axirnum error (E ).
z c.za cr

n=12

22

E
Insere 1he know n values zn'f'o +he intervcll.
2 .5 9 '16.S S
1. 7 1
22

n=12

Sim plzl'y Ahe resul't.


n = 6 2 3 .S ()% 7

Round 'l'he resur: up 'to Pin.


.
'
s 1he m pnpm um sam ple szze n lha'r ps recrulrecl'/o
.
reoch 'the deslred conpidence ievei.
n = 6 2 4.

P ro b lem 1
E = ().8 2 ,cz=5 .%5 ,cq=.()1
Use ;he Porm ura pnvorvpng boAh rnaxnnpurn earor (E ) ctncisam ple spze n .
E = z'ozaG
n

SeA up 'the PorrnulctAo solve Pon n by rearrongfng 1he Porm ulo Por Ahe
m axirnum error (E ).
z a za cr

n=g

22

E
Insere 1he know n values zn'o +he intervcll.
2 .5 9 '5 .% 5
Q. 8 2 22

n=g

Sim plzl'y Ahe resulT.


n = 3 5 ().4.6 5 8

Round 'phe resur: up 'o Pincl1he m pnpm um sam ple szze n l'hat ps recrulrecl'/o
reoch 'the deslred conpidence ievei.
n = 3 E;1

P ro b lem 1
E = 2 .()1,o'=%.71,(x =.()S
Use ;he Porm ura pnvorvpng bo'
th rn'
axnnpurn earor (E ) ctncisam ple spze n .
E = Z ozaG
n

Se't up 'the PorrnulctAo solve Pon n by rearrongfng 1he Porm ulo Por Ahe
m axirnum error (E ).
z c.za cr

n=12

22

E
Insere 1he know n values zn'f'o +he intervcll.
1.% 6 '%.7 1

n=12 2 Q 1

22

Sim plzl'y +he resul't.


n = 8 %.6 5 17

Round 'l'he resur: up 'to Pin.


.
'
s 1he m pnpm um sam ple szze n lha'r ps recrulrecl'/o
.
reoch 'the deslred conpidence ievei.
n = %()

P ro b lem 1
E = 1.3 1,cz=3 .18 ,ct=.()1
Use ;he Porm ura pnvorvpng bo'
th rn'
axnnpurn earor (E ) ctncisam ple spze n .
E = Z ozaG
n

Se't up 'the PorrnulctAo solve Pon n by rearrongfng 1he Porm ulo Por Ahe
m axirnum error (E ).
z c.za cr

n=12

22

E
Insere 1he know n values zn'f'o +he intervcll.
2 .5 9 '3 .18
1.3 1 22

n=12

Sim plzl'y Ahe resul't.


n = 3 %.2 2 3 %

Round 'l'he resur: up 'to Pin.


.
'
s 1he m pnpm um sam ple szze n lha'r ps recrulrecl'/o
.
reoch 'the deslred conpidence ievei.
n = 4.()

P ro b lem 1
E = 4..31,o'=3 1.2 6 ,ct=.()1
Use ;he Porm ura pnvorvpng boAh rnaxnnpurn earor (E ) ctncisam ple spze n .
E = z'ozaG
n

SeA up 'the PorrnulctAo solve Pon n by rearrongfng 1he Porm ulo Por Ahe
m axirnum error (E ).
z a za cr

n=g

22

E
Insere 1he know n values zn'o +he intervcll.
2 .5 9 '3 1.2 6
4. 3 1
22

n=g

Sim plzl'y '/he resulT.


n = 3 5 ().15 7

Round 'phe resur: up 'o Pincl1he m pnpm um sam ple szze n l'hat ps recrulrecl'/o
reoch 'the deslred conpidence ievei.
n = 3 E;1

P ro b lem 1
E = 1.4.8 ,c=1().7 7 ,o =.()S
Use ;he Porm ura pnvorvpng boAh rnaxnnpurn earor (E ) ctncisam ple spze n .
E = z'ozaG
n

SeA up 'the PorrnulctAo solve Pon n by rearrongfng 1he Porm ulo Por Ahe
m axirnum error (E ).
z a za cr

n=g

22

E
Insere 1he know n values zn'o +he intervcll.
1.% 6 '1().77
1. 4.8
22

n=g

Sim plzl'y Ahe resulT.


n = 2 ()3 .4.32 4.

Round 'phe resur: up 'o Pincl1he m pnpm um sam ple szze n l'hat ps recrulrecl'/o
reoch 'the deslred conpidence ievei.
n = 2 ()4.

P ro b lem 1
E = 2 .()5 ,cz=1%.8 3 ,o = .1()
Use ;he Porm ura pnvorvpng boAh rnaxnnpurn earor (E ) ctncisam ple spze n .
E = z'ozaG
n

SeA up 'the PorrnulctAo solve Pon n by rearrongfng 1he Porm ulo Por Ahe
m axirnum error (E ).
z a za cr

n=g

22

E
Insere 1he know n values zn'o +he intervcll.
1.6 S '1% .8 3
2 .Q 5
22

n=g

Sim plzl'y Ahe resulT.


n = 2 54..74.S

Round 'phe resur: up 'o Pincl1he m pnpm um sam ple szze n l'hat ps recrulrecl'/o
reoch 'the deslred conpidence ievei.
n = 2 E;E;

P ro b lem 1
n = 2 7 ,x
''=3 1. 8 6 o'=3.8 6 ,o = .1()

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-tsis'wrzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E = 1.7 ()5 6 '3 .
2876

Spm plppy 'the resule


E = 1.2 6 7
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Inserf 1he know n values zn/'o +he intervol
3 1.8 6 -1.2 6 7 <p <3 1.8 6 +1.2 67
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
IevelY w zmhzn 'hhzs inierval.
3 ().S % 3 <p <3 3 .12 7

P ro b lem 1
n = 1%,x
''=18 .2 7 o'= 2 .2 1,ct=.1Q

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-tsis'wrzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E = 1.7 34 1'2 .1291

Spm plppy 'the resule


E = ().8 7% 2
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values zn/'o +he intervol
18 .2 7 -().8 7 %2 <p <18 .2 7 +().8 7 92
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
IevelY w zmhzn 4'hzs inAerval.
17 .3 % ()8 <p <1% .14.% 2

P ro b lem 1
n = 2 1,x
'-= aa o a o =4 o = .o s

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-tsis'wrzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E
4.

=2.()86'721

Spm plppy '/he resule


E = 1.8 2 ()8
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values zn/'o +he intervol
3 3 .()3 -1.8 2 ()8 <p <3 3 .()3 +1.8 2 Q 8
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
IevelY w pmhpn 4'hps inierval.
3 1.2 ()9 2 <p <3 4..8 S ()8

P ro b lem 1
n = 2 8 ,x
''=1%. 8 8 cz=4..8 1,o =.()1

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-diserzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E
4.81

=2.7707.W 7

Spm plppy '/he resule


E = 2 .S 18 6
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values zn/'o +he intervol
1% .8 8 -2 .S 18 6 <p <1% .8 8 +2 .S 18 6
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
IevelY w zmhzn 'thzs inierval.
17 .3 6 14.<p <2 2 .3 %8 6

P ro b lem 1
n = 2 % ,x
''=6 1. 3 S o'=2 2 .2 7,cq=.1()

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-diserzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E = 1.7 ()11 '2 22.2%7

Spm plppy 'the resule


E = 7.()3 4.9
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values zn'?o +he intervol.
6 1.3S -7.()3 4.9 <p <6 1.3 S +7 .()3 4.%
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
Ievelzs w zmhzn 'hhzs inierval.
S 4..3 1S 1<p <68 .3 8 4.%

P ro b lem 1
n = 2 8 ,x
''=17. S 4.o'=4..2 4.,ct=.()1

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-diserzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E
4.24

=2.7707.W T

Spm plppy '/he resule


E = 2 .2 2 ()1
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Inserf 1he know n values zn/'o +he intervol
17 .S 4.-2 .2 2 ()1<p <17.S 4.+2 .2 2 ()1
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
IevelY w zmhzn 4'hzs inlerval.
1S .3 1%% <p <1%.7 6 ()1

P ro b lem 1
n = 16 ,x
'-=17 o.=4 . 11 o = .o 1

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-tsis'wrzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E
4..11

=2.%4.67.7-16

Spm plppy '/he resule


E = 3 .()2 7 8
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Inserf 1he know n values zn'?o +he intervol.
17 -3 .()2 78 <p <17 +3 .()2 78
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
Ievelzs w zmhzn 'hhzs inierval.
13 .%7 2 2 <p <2 ().Q 2 78

P ro b lem 1
n = 2 4.,x
'-=1S .S 1 cz=S .63 ,c4=.()S

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-diserzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E
5.63

=2.0687.W T

Spm plppy '/he resule


E = 2 .3 77 3
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Inserf 1he know n values zn'?o +he intervol.
15 .5 1-2 .37 73 <p <1S .51+ 2 .3 7 73
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
Ievelzs w zmhzn 4'hzs inierval.
13 .13 2 7 <p <17 .8 8 73

P ro b lem 1
n = 1a ,x
'-=11. 1 o =2 .6 '/,o =.o 1

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-tsis'wrzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E
2 .6 %

=3.()54.5'-l-e
la

Spm plppy '/he resule


E = 2 .2 78 %
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values zn'?o +he intervol.
11.1-2 .2 7 8 % <p <11.1+2 .2 78 %
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
Ievelzs w z''hzn 'hhzs inierval
8.82 114p413.378%

P ro b lem 1
n = 11,x
'-=1a . 2 o =a .1'/,o =.o 1

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-tsis'wrzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E
3.1%

=3.1693.711

Spm plppy '/he resule


E = 3 .()4.8 3
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values zn/'o +he intervol
13 .2 -3 .()4.8 3 <p <13 .2 +3 .Q 4.8 3
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
IevelY w zmhzn 'hhzs inierval.
1().1S 17 <p <16 .2 4.8 3

P ro b lem 1
n = 2 2 ,x
''=4.4.. 2 8 cz=16 .()7 ,fx =.()1

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-diserzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E = 2.8 3 14 '16.
2D27

S2m plppy *he resule


E = %.7 ()()6
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values in/'o +he intervol
4.4..2 8 -%.7()Q 6 <p <4.4..2 8 +% .7 ()()6
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
IevelY w zmhzn 'hhzs inierval.
3 4..S 7 %4.<p <S 3 .% 8 ()6

P ro b lem 1
n = 1(),x
'-=a. 6 % o.=1.a 4 ,fx =.1o

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-tsis'wrzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E = 1.7 3% 6 '1.1384.

Spm plppy 'the resule


E = ().5 4.%4.
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values zn/'o +he intervol
3 .6 % -().S 4.%4.<p <3 .6 % +Q .S 4.%4.
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
IevelY w zmhzn 4'hzs inierval.
3 .14.()6 <p <4..2 3 %4.

P ro b lem 1
n = 11,x
'-=a (). s () o.= 14 ,o =.1o

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-tsis'wrzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E
14

=1.8125.711
-

Spm plppy '/he resule


E = 7.6 S ()7
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values zn'?o +he intervol.
3 8 .S 8 -7 .6 S ()7 <p <38 .S 8 + 7.6 S ()7
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
Ievelzs w zmhzn 'hhzs inierval.
3 ().% 2 % 3 <p <4.6.2 3()7

P ro b lem 1
n = 1(),x
'-=18 . 7 7 o'=%.Q 8 ,cq=.()1

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-diserzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E
% .Q 8

=3.24.%8.W f

Spm plppy '/he resule


E = %.3 3 14.
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values zn'o +he intervol.
18 .77 -9 .3 3 14.<p <18 .7 7 + %.3 3 14.
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
Ievelzs w zmhzn 4'hzs inAerval.
% .4.3 8 6 <p <2 8 .1()14.

P ro b lem 1
n = 2 s ,x
'-=1s .16 o.=s .s ,(x =.o 1

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-diserzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E = 2 .7 %6 % ' 5 .5

Spm plppy '/he resule


E = 3 .()7 6 6
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values zn/'o 'the intervol
15 .16 -3 .()76 6 <p <1S .16 +3 .()7 6 6
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'
th o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
IevelY w zmhzn '
thzs inAerval.
12 .Q 8 3 4.<p <18 .2 3 66

P ro b lem 1
n = 11,x
''=3 % .()1 o'=4..72 ,(x = .()S

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-tsis'wrzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E = 2 .2 2 8 1.4..1712

Spm plppy 'the resule


E = 3 .17()%
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Inserf 1he know n values zn/'o +he intervol
3 % .()1-3 .17 ()% <p <3 9.Q 1+3 .17Q %
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
IevelY w zmhzn 'thzs inierval.
3 5 .8 3 %1 <p <4.2 .18 ()%

P ro b lem 1
n = 2 4.,x
'-=1S .6 1 o'=3 .78 ,ct=.1()

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-tsis'wrzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E = 1.7 13 % '3 .
2748
.

Spm plppy 'the resule


E = 1.3 2 2 4.
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Inserf 1he know n values zn'?o +he intervol.
15 .6 1-1.3 2 2 4.<p <1S .6 1+ 1.3 2 2 4.
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
Ievelzs w zmhzn 4'hzs inlerval.
14..2 8 7 6 <p <16 .% 3 2 4.

P ro b lem 1
n=13,x =37 . 86 G =13.74,G =.Q1

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-diserzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E = 3 .()5 4.5 '131.734.

Spm plppy 'the resule


E = 11.6 4.()2
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values zn'?o l'he intervol.
3 7 .8 6 -11.6 4.()2 <p <37 .8 6 + 11.6 4.()2
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
Ievelps w pmhpn 4'hps inierval.
2 6.2 19 8 <p <4.%.S ()()2

P ro b lem 1
n = 17,x
'-=% . 6 % c = 2 .a 4 ,ct=.1o

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-tsis'wrzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E = 1.7 4.5 % '2 .1374.

Spm plppy 'the resule


E = ().9% ()8
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values zn'?o +he intervol.
% .6% -().% % ()8 <p <%.6 9 +().%% ()8
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
Ievelzs w zmhzn 'thzs inAerval.
8 .6 %% 2 <p <1().6 8 ()8

P ro b lem 1
n = 2 % ,x
'-=2 6 . 4 () o =a .2 ,ct=.1o

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-tsis'wrzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E
3 .2

=1.7()11'7-2%

Spm plppy '/he resule


E = 1.()1()8
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values zn/'o +he intervol
2 6.4.8 -1.Q 1()8 <p <2 6.4.8 +1.()1()8
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
IevelY w pmhpn 4'hps inierval.
2 S .4.6 %1<p <2 7.4.% ()8

P ro b lem 1
n=31 c=Q .Q8

To Pznd +he sAondard error op *he m ean dlvzde &he standard devzozzon by
1he num ber o.p som ples uslng 1he CenArolLpm li Theorem .
c

crp=r
F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.
C p=

().% 8

Spm plppy 1he resull.


cp=().17 6

P ro b lem 1
n = 6 % o'=4..()4.

To Pznd +he sAondard error op *he m ean dlvzde &he standard devzozzon by
1he num ber o.p som ples uslng 1he CenArolLpm li Theorem .
c

lp=r
F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.
4 .()4.

lp= a -j
Spm plppy 1he resull.
cp=().48 6 4.

P ro b lem 1
n=38 G =0 .2 6

To Pznd +he sAondard error op *he m ean dlvzde &he standard devzozzon by
1he num ber o.p som ples uslng 1he CenArolLpm li Theorem .
c

crp=r
F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.
C p=

().2 6

Spm plzpy 1he resull.


cp=().04.2 2

P ro b lem 1
n = 6 6 cz=4..8 7

To Pznd +he sAondard error op *he m ean dlvzde &he standard devzozzon by
1he num ber o.p som ples uslng 1he CenArolLpm li Theorem .
c

crp=r
F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.
C p=

4 .8 7

Spm plzpy 1he resull.


cp=().5 %% 5

P ro b lem 1
n=S2 G =2 .QS

To Pznd +he sAondard error op *he m ean dlvzde &he standard devzozzon by
1he num ber o.p som ples uslng 1he CenArolLpm li Theorem .
c

crp=r
F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.
2 .% 5

Cp= X Z
Spm plzpy 1he resull.
cp=().4()Q 1

P ro b lem 1
n=Q8 c =2 .32

To Pznd +he sAondard error op *he m ean dlvzde &he standard devzozzon by
1he num ber o.p som ples uslng 1he CenArolLpm li Theorem .
c

crp=r
F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.
C p=

2 .3 2

Spm plzpy 1he resull.


cp=().23 44.

P ro b lem 1
n=Q8 c =Q.2 Q

To Pznd +he sAondard error op *he m ean dlvzde &he standard devzozzon by
1he num ber o.p som ples uslng 1he CenArolLpm li Theorem .
c

crp=r
F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.
C p=

% .2 %

Spm plzpy 1he resull.


cp=().93 i)4.

P ro b lem 1
n=78 c =6.S4

To Pznd +he sAondard error op *he m ean dlvzde &he standard devzozzon by
1he num ber o.p som ples uslng 1he CenArolLpm li Theorem .
c

crp=r
F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.
6 .5 4.

Cp= JR
Spm plzpy 1he resull.
cp=().74.0 5

P ro b lem 1
n=82 G =1.7Q

To Pznd +he sAondard error op *he m ean dlvzde &he standard devzozzon by
1he num ber o.p som ples uslng 1he CenArolLpm li Theorem .
c

lp=r
F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.
1.7 %

lp=a 'z
Spm plppy 1he resull.
cp=().1Q 77

P ro b lem 1
n = %2 c=1.8 6

To Pznd +he sAondard error op *he m ean dlvzde &he standard devzozzon by
1he num ber o.p som ples uslng 1he CenArolLpm li Theorem .
c

lp=r
F'lrlIn 'the know n v olues.
1.8 6

lp=a 'z
Spm plppy 1he resull.
cp=().1Q 3 %

P ro b lem 1
n = %S ,x =2 1. 3 2 o'=7.74.,ct=.()S

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 1.% 6 '7 .7 4.

Spm plppy 1he resull.


E = 1.5 5 6 4

P ro b lem 1
n = ()s ,x
'-=2 a . () o.=2 .()(),(x = .o s

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 1.% 6 '2 .8 8

Spm plppy 1he resull.


E = ().612 3

P ro b lem 1
n = 4.6 ,x =1S . 8 4.cz=1.%2 ,c4=.()S

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 1.% 6 '1.9 2

Spm plppy 1he resull.


E = ().5 5 4.%

P ro b lem 1
n = 6 4 ,x
'-=1. ()s o =o .2 2 ,ct=.o s

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 1.% 6 '().2 2

Spm plppy 1he resull.


E = ().()5 3 %

P ro b lem 1
n = 8 4.,x
''=2 1.S % o'=S .2 2 ,ck=.()S

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 1.% 6 '5 .2 2

Spm plppy 1he resull.


E = 1.1163

P ro b lem 1
n = a 7,x
'-=6 .2 1 o.=a.o 1,fx =.o s

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 1.% 6 '3 .()1

Spm plppy 1he resull.


E = ().%6 9 %

P ro b lem 1
n = 74.,x =2 S . 8 3 o'=12 .S ,o =.()S

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 1.% 6 '12 .5

Spm plppy 1he resull.


E = 2 .8 4.i)1

P ro b lem 1
n = 4 4 ,x
'-=2 o . 2 s o.=%.(),o =.o 1

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 2 .5 8 ' 9 .8

Spm plppy 1he resull.


E = 3 .8 117

P ro b lem 1
n = %4.,x =1(). ()7 o'=4..8 7 ,c4= .Q S

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 1.% 6 '4..8 7

Spm plppy 1he resull.


E = ().%8 4.5

P ro b lem 1
n = 3 4.,x =14.. 6 3 o'=3.S 4.,cq=.1()

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 1.6 5 .3 .5 4.

Spm plppy 1he resull.


E = 1.()()17

P ro b lem 1
n = %3 ,x
'-=3 2 . ()S cz=3 .8 8 ,ct=.1()

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 1.6 5 .3 .8 8

Szm plzpy 1he resull.


E = ().66 3 %
The conpzdence revel;s +he range op values Por Ahe ''eolm ean bosed on

!he es'tzlpa'red mean and o degree op conpzdence.


x -E <p <x +E
Insen'r Ahe know n volues Int'o +he zn'keovol.
3 2 .()5 -().6 6 3% <p <32 .()S +().6 63 %
Slm plppy 1he resui'. The actualm eon w i'kh o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpicience
Ievelzs w zlhfn '/hzs fntervctl.
3 1.38 6 1<p <32 .7 13 %

P ro b lem 1
n = a 2 ,x
'-=4 14 o =1 fx =. o 1

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 2 .5 8 ' 1

Szm plzpy 1he resull.


E = ().4.5 6 1
The conpzdence revel;s +he range op values Por Ahe ''eolm ean bosed on

!he es'tzlpa'red mean and o degree op conpzdence.


x -E <p <x +E
Insen'r Ahe know n volues Int'o +he zn'keovol.
4..14.-().4.S 6 1 <p <4..14.+ ().4.S 6 1
Slm plppy 1he resui'. The actualm eon w i'kh o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpicience
Ievelzs w zlhin '/hps fnAervctl.
3 .6 8 3% <p <4..S % 61

P ro b lem 1
n = 6 6,x =3 % .7 2 cz=4..8 1,o = .()1

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 2 .5 8 '4..8 1

Szm plzpy 1he resull.


E = 1.S 2 7S
The conpzdence revel;s +he range op values Por Ahe ''eolm ean bosed on

!he es'tzlpa'red mean and o degree op conpzdence.


x -E <p <x +E
Insen'r Ahe know n volues Int'o +he zn'keovol.
3 % .7 2 -1.S 2 7 S <p <3% .7 2 +1.S 2 7S
Slm plppy 1he resui'. The actualm eon w i'kh o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpicience
Ievelzs w zlhin '/hps fntervctl.
3 8 .192 S <p <4.1.2 4.7 S

P ro b lem 1
n = 4.1,x
'-=2 4.. 32 o'= 11.7 7 ,c4=.1()

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 1.6 5 .11.7 7

Szm plzpy 1he resull.


E = 3 .()3 3
The conpzdence revel;s +he range op values Por Ahe ''eolm ean bosed on

!he es'tzlpa'red mean and o degree op conpzdence.


x -E <p <x +E
Insen'r Ahe know n volues Int'o +he zn'keovol.
2 4..3 2 -3 .()3 3 <p <2 4..32 + 3 .()33
Slm plppy 1he resui'. The actualm eon w i'kh o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpicience
Ievelzs w zlhin '/hps fnAervctl.
2 1.2 8 7 <p <2 7.3 S 3

P ro b lem 1
n = 8 1,x
''=1Q . 6 % cz=2 .S %,fx =.1Q

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 1.6 5 .2 .5 %

Szm plzpy 1he resull.


E = ().4.74.8
The conpzdence revel;s +he range op values Por Ahe ''eolm ean bosed on

!he es'tzlpa'red mean and o degree op conpzdence.


x -E <p <x +E
Insen'r Ahe know n volues Int'o +he zn'keovol.
1().6 % -().4.74.8 <p <1().6 % + ().4.7 4.8
Slm plppy 1he resui'. The actualm eon w i'kh o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpicience
Ievelzs w zlhfn '/hzs fntervctl.
1().2 1S 2 <p <11.16 4.8

P ro b lem 1
n = %7 ,x
''= 2 (). 12 o'=4..8 7 ,fx =.()1

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 2 .5 8 '4..8 7

Szm plzpy 1he resull.


E = 1.2 7S 7
The conpzdence revel;s +he range op values Por Ahe ''eolm ean bosed on

!he es'tzlpa'red mean and o degree op conpzdence.


x -E <p <x +E
Insen'r Ahe know n volues Int'o +he zn'keovol.
2 ().12 -1.2 7 S 7 <p <2 ().12 +1.2 7S 7
Slm plppy 1he resui'. The actualm eon w i'kh o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpicience
Ievelzs w ilhin '/hps fntervctl.
18 .8 4.4.3 <p <2 1.3 %S 7

P ro b lem 1
n = 73 ,x
'-=3 %. S 2 cz=4..7 8 ,o =.()1

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 2 .5 8 '4..7 8

Szm plzpy 1he resull.


E = 1.4.4 34.
The conpzdence revel;s +he range op values Por Ahe ''eolm ean bosed on

!he es'tzlpa'red mean and o degree op conpzdence.


x -E <p <x +E
Insen'r Ahe know n volues Int'o +he zn'keovol.
3 % .5 2 -1.4.4.3 4.<p <3 %.S 2 + 1.4.4.34.
Slm plppy 1he resui'. The actualm eon w i'kh o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpicience
Ievelzs w zlhin '/hps fntervctl.
3 8 .()7 66 <p <4.().% 6 3 4.

P ro b lem 1
n = 4.6 ,x =14.. S 8 cz=S .2 % ,fx =.()1

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 2 .5 8 '5 .2 %

Szm plzpy 1he resull.


E = 2 .()12 3
The conpzdence revel;s +he range op values Por Ahe ''eolm ean bosed on

!he es'tzlpa'red mean and o degree op conpzdence.


x -E <p <x +E
Insen'r Ahe know n volues Int'o +he zn'keovol.
14..S 8 -2 .()12 3 <p <14..5 8 +2 .()12 3
Slm plppy 1he resui'. The actualm eon w i'kh o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpicience
Ievelzs w zlhin '/hps fntervctl.
12 .S 6 7 7 <p <16 .S % 2 3

P ro b lem 1
n = %4 ,x
'-=7 . 2 % o.= a.s a ,o =.o s

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 1.% 6 '3.5 3

Szm plzpy 1he resull.


E = ().713 6
The conpzdence revel;s +he range op values Por Ahe ''eolm ean bosed on

!he es'tzlpa'red mean and o degree op conpzdence.


x -E <p <x +E
Insen'r Ahe know n volues Int'o +he zn'keovol.
7 .2 % -().7 13 6 <p <7 .2 % +().713 6
Slm plppy 1he resui'. The actualm eon w i'kh o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpicience
Ievelzs w zlhin '/hps fnAervctl.
6 .S 76 4.<p <8 .()()3 6

P ro b lem 1
n = %2 ,x
''=2 7 . ()4.cz=13 .()% ,(x =.()1

The Porm ulo provldes *he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
E Zaz2CF
n

Inser'p Ahe know n vctlues png'o +he Porm ula


E = 2 .5 8 '13 .()%

Szm plzpy 1he resull.


E = 3 .5 2 1
The conpzdence revel;s +he range op values Por Ahe ''eolm ean bosed on

!he es'tzlpa'red mean and o degree op conpzdence.


x -E <p <x +E
Insen'r Ahe know n volues Int'o +he zn'keovol.
2 7.()4.-3.5 2 1<p <2 7 .()4.+3.5 2 1
Slm plppy 1he resui'. The actualm eon w i'kh o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpicience
Ievelzs w zlhin '/hps fnAervctl.
2 3.S 1% <p <3 ().S 6 1

P ro b lem 1
E = 1.13 ,cz=1().%6 ,fx =.1Q
Use ;he Porm ura pnvorvpng bo'
th rn'
axnnpurn earor (E ) ctncisam ple spze n .
E = Z ozaG
n

Se't up 'the PorrnulctAo solve Pon n by rearrongfng 1he Porm ulo Por Ahe
m axirnum error (E ).
z c.za cr

n=12

22

E
Insere 1he know n values zn'f'o +he intervcll.
1.6 5 '1().%6
1. 13
22

n=12

Sim plzl'y +he resul't.


n = 2 56 .1133

Round 'l'he resur: up 'to Pin.


.
'
s 1he m pnpm um sam ple szze n lha'r ps recrulrecl'/o
.
reoch 'the deslred conpidence ievei.
n=2.
57

P ro b lem 1
E = ().%3 ,o'=% .()2 ,ct=.()5
Use ;he Porm ura pnvorvpng boAh rnaxnnpurn earor (E ) ctncisam ple spze n .
E = z'ozaG
n

SeA up 'the PorrnulctAo solve Pon n by rearrongfng 1he Porm ulo Por Ahe
m axirnum error (E ).
z a za cr

n=g

22

E
Insere 1he know n values zn'o +he intervcll.
1.% 6 '%.()2
Q .9 3 22

n=g

Sim plzl'y '/he resulT.


n = 3 61.37 6

Round 'phe resur: up 'o Pincl1he m pnpm um sam ple szze n l'hat ps recrulrecl'/o
reoch 'the deslred conpidence ievei.
n = 3 62

P ro b lem 1
E = 1.4.4.,cz=6 .%%,ct=.1()
Use ;he Porm ura pnvorvpng boAh rnaxnnpurn earor (E ) ctncisam ple spze n .
E = z'ozaG
n

SeA up 'the PorrnulctAo solve Pon n by rearrongfng 1he Porm ulo Por Ahe
m axirnum error (E ).
z a za cr

n=g

22

E
Insere 1he know n values zn'o +he intervcll.
1.6 5 '6 .% %
1. 4.4. 22

n=g

Sim plzl'y Ahe resulT.


n = 6 4..1S ()1

Round 'phe resur: up 'o Pincl1he m pnpm um sam ple szze n l'hat ps recrulrecl'/o
reoch 'the deslred conpidence ievei.
n = 6 E;

P ro b lem 1
E = 1.7 1,cz=16 .S S ,cq=.()1
Use ;he Porm ura pnvorvpng bo'
th rn'
axnnpurn earor (E ) ctncisam ple spze n .
E = Z ozaG
n

Se't up 'the PorrnulctAo solve Pon n by rearrongfng 1he Porm ulo Por Ahe
m axirnum error (E ).
z c.za cr

n=12

22

E
Insere 1he know n values zn'f'o +he intervcll.
2 .5 9 '16.S S
1. 7 1
22

n=12

Sim plzl'y Ahe resul't.


n = 6 2 3 .S ()% 7

Round 'l'he resur: up 'to Pin.


.
'
s 1he m pnpm um sam ple szze n lha'r ps recrulrecl'/o
.
reoch 'the deslred conpidence ievei.
n = 6 2 4.

P ro b lem 1
E = ().8 2 ,cz=5 .%5 ,cq=.()1
Use ;he Porm ura pnvorvpng boAh rnaxnnpurn earor (E ) ctncisam ple spze n .
E = z'ozaG
n

SeA up 'the PorrnulctAo solve Pon n by rearrongfng 1he Porm ulo Por Ahe
m axirnum error (E ).
z a za cr

n=g

22

E
Insere 1he know n values zn'o +he intervcll.
2 .5 9 '5 .% 5
Q. 8 2 22

n=g

Sim plzl'y Ahe resulT.


n = 3 5 ().4.6 5 8

Round 'phe resur: up 'o Pincl1he m pnpm um sam ple szze n l'hat ps recrulrecl'/o
reoch 'the deslred conpidence ievei.
n = 3 E;1

P ro b lem 1
E = 2 .()1,o'=%.71,(x =.()S
Use ;he Porm ura pnvorvpng bo'
th rn'
axnnpurn earor (E ) ctncisam ple spze n .
E = Z ozaG
n

Se't up 'the PorrnulctAo solve Pon n by rearrongfng 1he Porm ulo Por Ahe
m axirnum error (E ).
z c.za cr

n=12

22

E
Insere 1he know n values zn'f'o +he intervcll.
1.% 6 '%.7 1

n=12 2 Q 1

22

Sim plzl'y +he resul't.


n = 8 %.6 5 17

Round 'l'he resur: up 'to Pin.


.
'
s 1he m pnpm um sam ple szze n lha'r ps recrulrecl'/o
.
reoch 'the deslred conpidence ievei.
n = %()

P ro b lem 1
E = 1.3 1,cz=3 .18 ,ct=.()1
Use ;he Porm ura pnvorvpng bo'
th rn'
axnnpurn earor (E ) ctncisam ple spze n .
E = Z ozaG
n

Se't up 'the PorrnulctAo solve Pon n by rearrongfng 1he Porm ulo Por Ahe
m axirnum error (E ).
z c.za cr

n=12

22

E
Insere 1he know n values zn'f'o +he intervcll.
2 .5 9 '3 .18
1.3 1 22

n=12

Sim plzl'y Ahe resul't.


n = 3 %.2 2 3 %

Round 'l'he resur: up 'to Pin.


.
'
s 1he m pnpm um sam ple szze n lha'r ps recrulrecl'/o
.
reoch 'the deslred conpidence ievei.
n = 4.()

P ro b lem 1
E = 4..31,o'=3 1.2 6 ,ct=.()1
Use ;he Porm ura pnvorvpng boAh rnaxnnpurn earor (E ) ctncisam ple spze n .
E = z'ozaG
n

SeA up 'the PorrnulctAo solve Pon n by rearrongfng 1he Porm ulo Por Ahe
m axirnum error (E ).
z a za cr

n=g

22

E
Insere 1he know n values zn'o +he intervcll.
2 .5 9 '3 1.2 6
4. 3 1
22

n=g

Sim plzl'y '/he resulT.


n = 3 5 ().15 7

Round 'phe resur: up 'o Pincl1he m pnpm um sam ple szze n l'hat ps recrulrecl'/o
reoch 'the deslred conpidence ievei.
n = 3 E;1

P ro b lem 1
E = 1.4.8 ,c=1().7 7 ,o =.()S
Use ;he Porm ura pnvorvpng boAh rnaxnnpurn earor (E ) ctncisam ple spze n .
E = z'ozaG
n

SeA up 'the PorrnulctAo solve Pon n by rearrongfng 1he Porm ulo Por Ahe
m axirnum error (E ).
z a za cr

n=g

22

E
Insere 1he know n values zn'o +he intervcll.
1.% 6 '1().77
1. 4.8
22

n=g

Sim plzl'y Ahe resulT.


n = 2 ()3 .4.32 4.

Round 'phe resur: up 'o Pincl1he m pnpm um sam ple szze n l'hat ps recrulrecl'/o
reoch 'the deslred conpidence ievei.
n = 2 ()4.

P ro b lem 1
E = 2 .()5 ,cz=1%.8 3 ,o = .1()
Use ;he Porm ura pnvorvpng boAh rnaxnnpurn earor (E ) ctncisam ple spze n .
E = z'ozaG
n

SeA up 'the PorrnulctAo solve Pon n by rearrongfng 1he Porm ulo Por Ahe
m axirnum error (E ).
z a za cr

n=g

22

E
Insere 1he know n values zn'o +he intervcll.
1.6 S '1% .8 3
2 .Q 5
22

n=g

Sim plzl'y Ahe resulT.


n = 2 54..74.S

Round 'phe resur: up 'o Pincl1he m pnpm um sam ple szze n l'hat ps recrulrecl'/o
reoch 'the deslred conpidence ievei.
n = 2 E;E;

P ro b lem 1
n = 2 7 ,x
''=3 1. 8 6 o'=3.8 6 ,o = .1()

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-tsis'wrzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E = 1.7 ()5 6 '3 .
2876

Spm plppy 'the resule


E = 1.2 6 7
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Inserf 1he know n values zn/'o +he intervol
3 1.8 6 -1.2 6 7 <p <3 1.8 6 +1.2 67
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
IevelY w zmhzn 'hhzs inierval.
3 ().S % 3 <p <3 3 .12 7

P ro b lem 1
n = 1%,x
''=18 .2 7 o'= 2 .2 1,ct=.1Q

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-tsis'wrzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E = 1.7 34 1'2 .1291

Spm plppy 'the resule


E = ().8 7% 2
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values zn/'o +he intervol
18 .2 7 -().8 7 %2 <p <18 .2 7 +().8 7 92
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
IevelY w zmhzn 4'hzs inAerval.
17 .3 % ()8 <p <1% .14.% 2

P ro b lem 1
n = 2 1,x
'-= aa o a o =4 o = .o s

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-tsis'wrzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E
4.

=2.()86'721

Spm plppy '/he resule


E = 1.8 2 ()8
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values zn/'o +he intervol
3 3 .()3 -1.8 2 ()8 <p <3 3 .()3 +1.8 2 Q 8
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
IevelY w pmhpn 4'hps inierval.
3 1.2 ()9 2 <p <3 4..8 S ()8

P ro b lem 1
n = 2 8 ,x
''=1%. 8 8 cz=4..8 1,o =.()1

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-diserzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E
4.81

=2.7707.W 7

Spm plppy '/he resule


E = 2 .S 18 6
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values zn/'o +he intervol
1% .8 8 -2 .S 18 6 <p <1% .8 8 +2 .S 18 6
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
IevelY w zmhzn 'thzs inierval.
17 .3 6 14.<p <2 2 .3 %8 6

P ro b lem 1
n = 2 % ,x
''=6 1. 3 S o'=2 2 .2 7,cq=.1()

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-diserzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E = 1.7 ()11 '2 22.2%7

Spm plppy 'the resule


E = 7.()3 4.9
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values zn'?o +he intervol.
6 1.3S -7.()3 4.9 <p <6 1.3 S +7 .()3 4.%
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
Ievelzs w zmhzn 'hhzs inierval.
S 4..3 1S 1<p <68 .3 8 4.%

P ro b lem 1
n = 2 8 ,x
''=17. S 4.o'=4..2 4.,ct=.()1

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-diserzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E
4.24

=2.7707.W T

Spm plppy '/he resule


E = 2 .2 2 ()1
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Inserf 1he know n values zn/'o +he intervol
17 .S 4.-2 .2 2 ()1<p <17.S 4.+2 .2 2 ()1
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
IevelY w zmhzn 4'hzs inlerval.
1S .3 1%% <p <1%.7 6 ()1

P ro b lem 1
n = 16 ,x
'-=17 o.=4 . 11 o = .o 1

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-tsis'wrzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E
4..11

=2.%4.67.7-16

Spm plppy '/he resule


E = 3 .()2 7 8
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Inserf 1he know n values zn'?o +he intervol.
17 -3 .()2 78 <p <17 +3 .()2 78
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
Ievelzs w zmhzn 'hhzs inierval.
13 .%7 2 2 <p <2 ().Q 2 78

P ro b lem 1
n = 2 4.,x
'-=1S .S 1 cz=S .63 ,c4=.()S

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-diserzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E
5.63

=2.0687.W T

Spm plppy '/he resule


E = 2 .3 77 3
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Inserf 1he know n values zn'?o +he intervol.
15 .5 1-2 .37 73 <p <1S .51+ 2 .3 7 73
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
Ievelzs w zmhzn 4'hzs inierval.
13 .13 2 7 <p <17 .8 8 73

P ro b lem 1
n = 1a ,x
'-=11. 1 o =2 .6 '/,o =.o 1

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-tsis'wrzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E
2 .6 %

=3.()54.5'-l-e
la

Spm plppy '/he resule


E = 2 .2 78 %
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values zn'?o +he intervol.
11.1-2 .2 7 8 % <p <11.1+2 .2 78 %
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
Ievelzs w z''hzn 'hhzs inierval
8.82 114p413.378%

P ro b lem 1
n = 11,x
'-=1a . 2 o =a .1'/,o =.o 1

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-tsis'wrzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E
3.1%

=3.1693.711

Spm plppy '/he resule


E = 3 .()4.8 3
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values zn/'o +he intervol
13 .2 -3 .()4.8 3 <p <13 .2 +3 .Q 4.8 3
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
IevelY w zmhzn 'hhzs inierval.
1().1S 17 <p <16 .2 4.8 3

P ro b lem 1
n = 2 2 ,x
''=4.4.. 2 8 cz=16 .()7 ,fx =.()1

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-diserzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E = 2.8 3 14 '16.
2D27

S2m plppy *he resule


E = %.7 ()()6
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values in/'o +he intervol
4.4..2 8 -%.7()Q 6 <p <4.4..2 8 +% .7 ()()6
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
IevelY w zmhzn 'hhzs inierval.
3 4..S 7 %4.<p <S 3 .% 8 ()6

P ro b lem 1
n = 1(),x
'-=a. 6 % o.=1.a 4 ,fx =.1o

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-tsis'wrzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E = 1.7 3% 6 '1.1384.

Spm plppy 'the resule


E = ().5 4.%4.
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values zn/'o +he intervol
3 .6 % -().S 4.%4.<p <3 .6 % +Q .S 4.%4.
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
IevelY w zmhzn 4'hzs inierval.
3 .14.()6 <p <4..2 3 %4.

P ro b lem 1
n = 11,x
'-=a (). s () o.= 14 ,o =.1o

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-tsis'wrzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E
14

=1.8125.711
-

Spm plppy '/he resule


E = 7.6 S ()7
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values zn'?o +he intervol.
3 8 .S 8 -7 .6 S ()7 <p <38 .S 8 + 7.6 S ()7
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
Ievelzs w zmhzn 'hhzs inierval.
3 ().% 2 % 3 <p <4.6.2 3()7

P ro b lem 1
n = 1(),x
'-=18 . 7 7 o'=%.Q 8 ,cq=.()1

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-diserzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E
% .Q 8

=3.24.%8.W f

Spm plppy '/he resule


E = %.3 3 14.
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values zn'o +he intervol.
18 .77 -9 .3 3 14.<p <18 .7 7 + %.3 3 14.
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
Ievelzs w zmhzn 4'hzs inAerval.
% .4.3 8 6 <p <2 8 .1()14.

P ro b lem 1
n = 2 s ,x
'-=1s .16 o.=s .s ,(x =.o 1

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-diserzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E = 2 .7 %6 % ' 5 .5

Spm plppy '/he resule


E = 3 .()7 6 6
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values zn/'o 'the intervol
15 .16 -3 .()76 6 <p <1S .16 +3 .()7 6 6
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'
th o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
IevelY w zmhzn '
thzs inAerval.
12 .Q 8 3 4.<p <18 .2 3 66

P ro b lem 1
n = 11,x
''=3 % .()1 o'=4..72 ,(x = .()S

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-tsis'wrzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E = 2 .2 2 8 1.4..1712

Spm plppy 'the resule


E = 3 .17()%
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Inserf 1he know n values zn/'o +he intervol
3 % .()1-3 .17 ()% <p <3 9.Q 1+3 .17Q %
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
IevelY w zmhzn 'thzs inierval.
3 5 .8 3 %1 <p <4.2 .18 ()%

P ro b lem 1
n = 2 4.,x
'-=1S .6 1 o'=3 .78 ,ct=.1()

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-tsis'wrzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E = 1.7 13 % '3 .
2748
.

Spm plppy 'the resule


E = 1.3 2 2 4.
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Inserf 1he know n values zn'?o +he intervol.
15 .6 1-1.3 2 2 4.<p <1S .6 1+ 1.3 2 2 4.
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
Ievelzs w zmhzn 4'hzs inlerval.
14..2 8 7 6 <p <16 .% 3 2 4.

P ro b lem 1
n=13,x =37 . 86 G =13.74,G =.Q1

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-diserzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E = 3 .()5 4.5 '131.734.

Spm plppy 'the resule


E = 11.6 4.()2
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values zn'?o l'he intervol.
3 7 .8 6 -11.6 4.()2 <p <37 .8 6 + 11.6 4.()2
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
Ievelps w pmhpn 4'hps inierval.
2 6.2 19 8 <p <4.%.S ()()2

P ro b lem 1
n = 17,x
'-=% . 6 % c = 2 .a 4 ,ct=.1o

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-tsis'wrzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E = 1.7 4.5 % '2 .1374.

Spm plppy 'the resule


E = ().9% ()8
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values zn'?o +he intervol.
% .6% -().% % ()8 <p <%.6 9 +().%% ()8
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
Ievelzs w zmhzn 'thzs inAerval.
8 .6 %% 2 <p <1().6 8 ()8

P ro b lem 1
n = 2 % ,x
'-=2 6 . 4 () o =a .2 ,ct=.1o

The Porm ulo provldes +he rnaxpm urn error w z'thzn ch1-ck conpzdence Ievel.
Slnce 'there are Iess t'han 3 ()sam phes use 1he ='-tsis'wrzbullon
'

E = tcxza(7
n

Jnser't 'the know n values pn''


?o 'the Poom ulo
E
3 .2

=1.7()11'7-2%

Spm plppy '/he resule


E = 1.()1()8
The conpzdence Ieveips +he range op values Por *he realm ean based on

!he eslipnated meon and a degree op conpzcience.


x -E <p <x +E
Insere 1he know n values zn/'o +he intervol
2 6.4.8 -1.Q 1()8 <p <2 6.4.8 +1.()1()8
Slm pllpy +he resulf. The octucllm ean w p'/h o 1 -<S>alpha <z: conpdence
IevelY w pmhpn 4'hps inierval.
2 S .4.6 %1<p <2 7.4.% ()8

P ro b lem 1
X

53

32

5S

36

4.4.

38

The Lznear correla'tpon coepplcien'r m easures *he rela'tzonshlp betw een 1he
pozrecivolues pn o sam ple.

n(77 xy)-(7C x)(77 y)


n(77 x2)-(77 x)2. n(7/ y2)-(77 y)2
Sum up *he volues op *he Jps't colum n o.p da'?o (x ).

Y-- .'x = 5 3 + E;E;+ 4 4

Slm pllpy 1he expression.

W x=152
Sum up ihe v olues o.p #he second coIum n o.p dafo (y ).

W y=32+36+39

Problem 1 (Page 3)
sIm plppy +he expresspon.

77 y2=3764
Fpllin +he com puAed v olues.

3(5348)-(152 )(1Q6)

U= 3 77 7 Q

5 2 2. 3 3 7 64 -

sIm plppy +he expresspon.


r.-o.63 3 1

Q6 2

P ro b lem 1
X

22

2 ()

2 4.

11

21

21

23

26

2 ()

14.

2 4.

21

22

11

23

The Ilnear correlctlon coeplk lent m easures 1he nelaAlonshp belw een &he
pozred values zn a sam ple.

n(7C xy)-(7C x)(7r y)


n(V'!x2)-(77 x)2' n('
V 7y2)-(Vl y)2
Sum up *he volues op *he Ppps't colum n op da'to (x ).

V lx=22+%+11+21+26+14.+21+11
Spm plppy 1he expresspon.

P ro b lem 1
X

26

21

27

23

3 ()

21

23

2 4.

2 4.

23

21

2 4.

27

22

3 ()

2 4.

The Ilnear correlctlon coeplk lent m easures 1he nelaAlonshp belw een &he
pozred values zn a sam ple.

n(7C xy)-(7C x)(7r y)


n(V'!x2)-(77 x)2' n('
V 7y2)-(Vl y)2
Sum up *he volues op *he Ppps't colum n op da'to (x ).

V lx=26+27+3()+23+24.+21+27+3()
Spm plppy 1he expresspon.

P ro b lem 1
X

31

13

4.2

1()

4.2

14.

33

1S

32

11

3S

16

4.3

14.

The Iznear correloAlon coeplk zen; m easures +he oela'tzonshzp belw een 1he
pazred volues In a sarnpre.

n(77 xy)-(7C x)(7C y)


n(77 x2)-(77 x)2' n(77 y2)-(RC y)2
surn up +he vaiues o.p &he Jrs'/ coium n o.p do'to (x ).

W x=31+42+42+33+32+35+4.3
spm plppy +he expresspon.

W x=25()

P ro b lem 1
X

2%

28

26

28

31

3 4.

The Lznear correla'tpon coepplcien'r m easures *he rela'tzonshlp betw een 1he
pozrecivolues pn o sam ple.

n(77 xy)-(7C x)(77 y)


n(77 x2)-(77 x)2. n(7/ y2)-(77 y)2
Sum up *he volues op *he Jps't colum n o.p da'?o (x ).

Y-- .'x = 2 % + 2 6 +3 1

Slm pllpy 1he expression.


'

E x=()6

Sum up ihe v olues o.p #he second coIum n o.p dafo (y ).

W y=29+29+34.

Problem 1 (Page 2)
Slm plipy ihe expresspon.

V !y=%o
Sum up +he v opues o.p x .y .

W xy=2%.28+26'28+31'34.
Spm plppy 1he expresspon.

V !xy=25%4
sum up 'the v aiues o.p x2
*7'
'
x , x2=(2 % )2+(2 6 )2+(3 1)2
.

slm plmy +he expression.


'

VIx2=2478

Sum up &he v orues o.p y2

57 ya=(2a)a+(2a)a+(a4)a

Problem 1 (Page 3)
slm plpl'y 'the expresspon.
'''!
:

C y2=2724.

..
...

F'211in 't'he com puAed volues.

3(2 .
5%4)-(86)(%())

U = 3 2 4 79 - 9 6 2' 3 2 7 2 4. - %() 2
.

slm plpl'y +he expresspon.


r =o .8 o 3

P ro b lem 1
X

33

16

3 4.

2S

31

18

31

1S

36

2 4.

The Iznear correloAlon coeppzc:zenl m easuoes *he rela'tzonshzp belw een 1he
pazred volues In a sarnple.

n(77 xy)-(7C x)(7C y)


n(77 x2)-(77 x)2. n(77 y2)-(74 y)2
Sum up *he volues o.p *he Ppps't colum n op da'?o (x ).

W x=33+34.+31+31+36
Slm plipy 1he expresspon.

W x=165
Sum up ihe v olues o.p #he second coIum n o.p dafo (y ).

P ro b lem 1
X

21

1%

32

4.

3 4.

18

4.

32

4.

26

The Iznear correloAlon coeppzc:zen't m easures +he oela'tzonshzp belw een 1he
pazred volues In a sarnpre.

n(77 xy)-(7C x)(7C y)


n(77 x2)-(77 x)2' n(77 y2)-(RC y)2
surn up +he vaiues o.p &he J'prs'/ coium n o.p do'to (x ).

W x=()+5+5+4+6+4+4
spm plppy +he expresspon.

W X=36

Problem 2 (Page 2)
b=(5-ly)(*>-!xz)-(=.,p.
'x)(5-:xy)
(n(W x2)-(W x)2
Sum up The volues op *he Pysi colum n o.p dalo (x )

W x=%+8+6+%+6
sinnplpl'y 1he expresspon.

W X=39
Sum up +he v orues o.p Ahe second coIum n o.p uo'?o (y ).

W y=S+6+6+7+4.
Sinnplpl'y +he expresspon.

->-!y=28
sum up 4.he vohues o.p x .y .

W xy=%.s+().6+6.6+%.7+6.4.

Problem 2 (Page 4)
m =().34.78

F'zilIn 'the com puied values.

b = (2 8)(2 %8)-(38)(2 16)


5 (2%8)-(38)2
Slm plipy +he exp-esspon.
b =2 .%5 6 S
F'iliin 'the values op slope (m ) ond y -fniercep: (i)) in'to 1he slorhe
y -znlercepi Porrnulch.
y = ().3 4.7 8 x + 2 .% S 6S

Problem 1 (Page 2)
b=(5-ly)(*>-!xz)-(=.,p.
'x)(5-:xy)
(n(W x2)-(W x)2
Sum up The volues op *he Pysi colum n o.p dalo (x )

W x=2()+3%+3%+22+22+23
Sinnplpl'y 1he expresspon.

W x=165
Sum up +he v orues o.p Ahe second coIum n o.p do'?o (y ).

W y=3()+37+31+35+33+3i)
Sinnplpl'y +he expresspon.

W Y=20zp
Sum up l'he vohues o.p x .y .

W xy=2().3()+3%.37+3%'31+22 '35+22'33+23'38

Problem 1 (Page 4)
m =().()2 9%

F'zilIn 'the com puied values.

b = (2 ()4.)(4.%3%t-(16S)(S62 2)
6(4.%3%)-(16S )2
Slm plipy +he exp-esspon.
b =3 3 .17 8 1
F'iliin 'the values op slope (m ) ond y -fniercep: (i)) in'to 1he slorhe
y -znlercep'
t Porrnulch.
y = ().()2 %%x +3 3 .17 8 1

Problem 1 (Page 2)
b=(5-ly)(*>-!xz)-(=.,p.
'x)(5-:xy)
(n(W x2)-(W x)2
Sum up The volues op *he Pysi colum n o.p dalo (x )

W x=%+11+7+14.
Sinnplpl'y 1he expresspon.

W X=z'1
Sum up +he v orues o.p Ahe second coIum n o.p do'?o (y ).

W y=13+2%+29+1%
Sinnplpl'y +he expresspon.

->-!y=8%
Sum up *he vohues op x .y .

W xy=9.13+11'2%+7.28+14.'19

Problem 1 (Page 4)
m = -().5 3 2 7

F'zilIn 'the com puied values.

b = (8%t(4.4.7)-(4.1)(8%8)
4 (4.4.7)-(4.1)2
Slm plipy +he exp-esspon.
b =2 7 .7 1()3
F'iliin 'the values op slope (m ) ond y -fniercep: (i)) in'to 1he slorhe
y -znlercep'
t Porrnulch.
y = -().5 3 2 7 x +2 7.7 1()3

Problem 1 (Page 2)
Porrnulcti)= (v;- y)(7,
- xa)- W .X'W 'XY' .
(n(=.
9.
P xa)-(=.
9
.P x)a
.

b= (*Vly)('7lxz)-('Flx)(-> .
'xy)
(n(W x2)-(W x)2
.

Surn up +he values o.p &he Jrs'k colum n o.p dowo (x ).

W x=22+28+32+36+3()+2()+3()
snnplpl'y 1he expresspon.

W x=1%8
surn up +he v opues o.p '/he second coIum n o.p doto (y ).
''C-'

z .y = ()+ 4 + 12 +8 +14 +1()+8

Spm plppy '/he expresspon.

W Y=6z'

Problem 1 (Page 2)
b=(5-ly)(*>-!xz)-(=.,p.
'x)(5-:xy)
(n(W x2)-(W x)2
Sum up The volues op *he Pysi colum n o.p dalo (x )

W x=5+4+dh+7+6
Sinnplpl'y 1he expresspon.

W x=26
Sum up +he v orues o.p Ahe second coIum n o.p do'?o (y ).

W y=%+6+%+%+11
Sinnplpl'y +he expresspon.

->-!y=44
sum up 4.he vohues o.p x .y .

W xy=s.%+4.6+4.%+7.%+6.11

Problem 1 (Page 4)
m =().76 4.7

F'zilIn 'the com puied values.

b = (4.4.)(14.2 )-(2 6)(234.)


5(142 )-(2 6)2
Slm plipy +he exp-esspon.
b =4..8 2 3 5
F'iliin 'the values op slope (m ) ond y -fniercep: (i)) in'to 1he slorhe
y -znleecep: Porrnulch.
y = ().7 6 4.7 x +4..8 2 3 5

P ro b lem 1
X

27

29

27

28

27

32

2%

27

2%

33

27

32

27

27

33

2 4.

33

3 ()

The shope o.p +he besi Pi# regresson Ine can be Pound uslng *he Porm ula

(=70 x)(=7n

m =n(7/ xy)- ' ' ' 'y)


(n(7/ xa)-(7/ x)2
.

n(77 xy)-(7C x)(77 y)


(n(7C xz)-(Mp x)z
The y -inlercepc op Ahe bes: P;+ regresspon Iine can be Pound uszng +he

Problem 1 (Page 2)
Porrnulcti)= (v;- y)(7,
- xa)- W .X'W 'XY' .
(n(=.
9.
P xa)-(=.
9
.P x)a
.

b= (*Vly)('7lxz)-('Flx)(-> .
'xy)
(n(W x2)-(W x)2
.

Surn up +he values op &he Pprs'k colum n o.p dowa (x ).

W x=27+27+27+2%+2%+27+27+33+33
Snnplpl'y 1he expresspon.

W x=2E;%
Sum up The v olues o.p Ahe second coIum n o.p dclto (y ).
'V- '

z .y = 2 % + 2 8 +3 2 +2 7 +3 3 +3 2 +2 7 +2 4.+3 ()

Spm plppy '/he expresspon.

W Y=262

Problem 1 (Page 4)
F'pllIn +he com puied volues.

%(7518)-(25%)(2 62)
P0= %(75()5)-(2 5%t2

Slm pllpy 'the expression.


r.fl= -().4.2 2 4.

F'IIIin &he connpuied volues.

b = (2 62 )(7S()S)-(2 S%)(7S18)
%(75()5)-(2 5%)2
Sinnplppy 'the expresslon.
b =4.1.2 6 7 2
F';IIin +he values op slope (m ) ond y -Inmercep't (i)) zn'to '
the slope
y -pn'
tercep- Porm uro.
y = -().4.2 2 4.x +4.1.2 67 2

Problem 1 (Page 2)
Sum up +he vaiues o.p +he Prs'p colum n o.p do'ra (x ).

W x=32+33+3()
Sfm plhpy &he expresspon.
'L-'x = ;s

Sum up +he volues op *he seconcicolum n o.p do':a (y ).

W y=2%+27+15
Spm plppy 1he expresspon.

W y=71
Sunn up +he v olues oP x .y .

W xy=32.2%+33'27+3()'15
Spm plppy 1he expresspon.

W xy=226%

P ro b lem 1
X

53

32

5S

36

4.4.

38

The Lznear correla'tpon coepplcien'r m easures *he rela'tzonshlp betw een 1he
pozrecivolues pn o sam ple.

n(77 xy)-(7C x)(77 y)


n(77 x2)-(77 x)2. n(7/ y2)-(77 y)2
Sum up *he volues op *he Jps't colum n o.p da'?o (x ).

Y-- .'x = 5 3 + E;E;+ 4 4

Slm pllpy 1he expression.

W x=152
Sum up ihe v olues o.p #he second coIum n o.p dafo (y ).

W y=32+36+39

Problem 1 (Page 3)
sIm plppy +he expresspon.

77 y2=3764
Fpllin +he com puAed v olues.

3(5348)-(152 )(1Q6)

U= 3 77 7 Q

5 2 2. 3 3 7 64 -

sIm plppy +he expresspon.


r.-o.63 3 1

Q6 2

P ro b lem 1
X

22

2 ()

2 4.

11

21

21

23

26

2 ()

14.

2 4.

21

22

11

23

The Ilnear correlctlon coeplk lent m easures 1he nelaAlonshp belw een &he
pozred values zn a sam ple.

n(7C xy)-(7C x)(7r y)


n(V'!x2)-(77 x)2' n('
V 7y2)-(Vl y)2
Sum up *he volues op *he Ppps't colum n op da'to (x ).

V lx=22+%+11+21+26+14.+21+11
Spm plppy 1he expresspon.

P ro b lem 1
X

26

21

27

23

3 ()

21

23

2 4.

2 4.

23

21

2 4.

27

22

3 ()

2 4.

The Ilnear correlctlon coeplk lent m easures 1he nelaAlonshp belw een &he
pozred values zn a sam ple.

n(7C xy)-(7C x)(7r y)


n(V'!x2)-(77 x)2' n('
V 7y2)-(Vl y)2
Sum up *he volues op *he Ppps't colum n op da'to (x ).

V lx=26+27+3()+23+24.+21+27+3()
Spm plppy 1he expresspon.

P ro b lem 1
X

31

13

4.2

1()

4.2

14.

33

1S

32

11

3S

16

4.3

14.

The Iznear correloAlon coeplk zen; m easures +he oela'tzonshzp belw een 1he
pazred volues In a sarnpre.

n(77 xy)-(7C x)(7C y)


n(77 x2)-(77 x)2' n(77 y2)-(RC y)2
surn up +he vaiues o.p &he Jrs'/ coium n o.p do'to (x ).

W x=31+42+42+33+32+35+4.3
spm plppy +he expresspon.

W x=25()

P ro b lem 1
X

2%

28

26

28

31

3 4.

The Lznear correla'tpon coepplcien'r m easures *he rela'tzonshlp betw een 1he
pozrecivolues pn o sam ple.

n(77 xy)-(7C x)(77 y)


n(77 x2)-(77 x)2. n(7/ y2)-(77 y)2
Sum up *he volues op *he Jps't colum n o.p da'?o (x ).

Y-- .'x = 2 % + 2 6 +3 1

Slm pllpy 1he expression.


'

E x=()6

Sum up ihe v olues o.p #he second coIum n o.p dafo (y ).

W y=29+29+34.

Problem 1 (Page 2)
Slm plipy ihe expresspon.

V !y=%o
Sum up +he v opues o.p x .y .

W xy=2%.28+26'28+31'34.
Spm plppy 1he expresspon.

V !xy=25%4
sum up 'the v aiues o.p x2
*7'
'
x , x2=(2 % )2+(2 6 )2+(3 1)2
.

slm plmy +he expression.


'

VIx2=2478

Sum up &he v orues o.p y2

57 ya=(2a)a+(2a)a+(a4)a

Problem 1 (Page 3)
slm plpl'y 'the expresspon.
'''!
:

C y2=2724.

..
...

F'211in 't'he com puAed volues.

3(2 .
5%4)-(86)(%())

U = 3 2 4 79 - 9 6 2' 3 2 7 2 4. - %() 2
.

slm plpl'y +he expresspon.


r =o .8 o 3

P ro b lem 1
X

33

16

3 4.

2S

31

18

31

1S

36

2 4.

The Iznear correloAlon coeppzc:zenl m easuoes *he rela'tzonshzp belw een 1he
pazred volues In a sarnple.

n(77 xy)-(7C x)(7C y)


n(77 x2)-(77 x)2. n(77 y2)-(74 y)2
Sum up *he volues o.p *he Ppps't colum n op da'?o (x ).

W x=33+34.+31+31+36
Slm plipy 1he expresspon.

W x=165
Sum up ihe v olues o.p #he second coIum n o.p dafo (y ).

P ro b lem 1
X

21

1%

32

4.

3 4.

18

4.

32

4.

26

The Iznear correloAlon coeppzc:zen't m easures +he oela'tzonshzp belw een 1he
pazred volues In a sarnpre.

n(77 xy)-(7C x)(7C y)


n(77 x2)-(77 x)2' n(77 y2)-(RC y)2
surn up +he vaiues o.p &he J'prs'/ coium n o.p do'to (x ).

W x=()+5+5+4+6+4+4
spm plppy +he expresspon.

W X=36

Problem 2 (Page 2)
b=(5-ly)(*>-!xz)-(=.,p.
'x)(5-:xy)
(n(W x2)-(W x)2
Sum up The volues op *he Pysi colum n o.p dalo (x )

W x=%+8+6+%+6
sinnplpl'y 1he expresspon.

W X=39
Sum up +he v orues o.p Ahe second coIum n o.p uo'?o (y ).

W y=S+6+6+7+4.
Sinnplpl'y +he expresspon.

->-!y=28
sum up 4.he vohues o.p x .y .

W xy=%.s+().6+6.6+%.7+6.4.

Problem 2 (Page 4)
m =().34.78

F'zilIn 'the com puied values.

b = (2 8)(2 %8)-(38)(2 16)


5 (2%8)-(38)2
Slm plipy +he exp-esspon.
b =2 .%5 6 S
F'iliin 'the values op slope (m ) ond y -fniercep: (i)) in'to 1he slorhe
y -znlercepi Porrnulch.
y = ().3 4.7 8 x + 2 .% S 6S

Problem 1 (Page 2)
b=(5-ly)(*>-!xz)-(=.,p.
'x)(5-:xy)
(n(W x2)-(W x)2
Sum up The volues op *he Pysi colum n o.p dalo (x )

W x=2()+3%+3%+22+22+23
Sinnplpl'y 1he expresspon.

W x=165
Sum up +he v orues o.p Ahe second coIum n o.p do'?o (y ).

W y=3()+37+31+35+33+3i)
Sinnplpl'y +he expresspon.

W Y=20zp
Sum up l'he vohues o.p x .y .

W xy=2().3()+3%.37+3%'31+22 '35+22'33+23'38

Problem 1 (Page 4)
m =().()2 9%

F'zilIn 'the com puied values.

b = (2 ()4.)(4.%3%t-(16S)(S62 2)
6(4.%3%)-(16S )2
Slm plipy +he exp-esspon.
b =3 3 .17 8 1
F'iliin 'the values op slope (m ) ond y -fniercep: (i)) in'to 1he slorhe
y -znlercep'
t Porrnulch.
y = ().()2 %%x +3 3 .17 8 1

Problem 1 (Page 2)
b=(5-ly)(*>-!xz)-(=.,p.
'x)(5-:xy)
(n(W x2)-(W x)2
Sum up The volues op *he Pysi colum n o.p dalo (x )

W x=%+11+7+14.
Sinnplpl'y 1he expresspon.

W X=z'1
Sum up +he v orues o.p Ahe second coIum n o.p do'?o (y ).

W y=13+2%+29+1%
Sinnplpl'y +he expresspon.

->-!y=8%
Sum up *he vohues op x .y .

W xy=9.13+11'2%+7.28+14.'19

Problem 1 (Page 4)
m = -().5 3 2 7

F'zilIn 'the com puied values.

b = (8%t(4.4.7)-(4.1)(8%8)
4 (4.4.7)-(4.1)2
Slm plipy +he exp-esspon.
b =2 7 .7 1()3
F'iliin 'the values op slope (m ) ond y -fniercep: (i)) in'to 1he slorhe
y -znlercep'
t Porrnulch.
y = -().5 3 2 7 x +2 7.7 1()3

Problem 1 (Page 2)
Porrnulcti)= (v;- y)(7,
- xa)- W .X'W 'XY' .
(n(=.
9.
P xa)-(=.
9
.P x)a
.

b= (*Vly)('7lxz)-('Flx)(-> .
'xy)
(n(W x2)-(W x)2
.

Surn up +he values o.p &he Jrs'k colum n o.p dowo (x ).

W x=22+28+32+36+3()+2()+3()
snnplpl'y 1he expresspon.

W x=1%8
surn up +he v opues o.p '/he second coIum n o.p doto (y ).
''C-'

z .y = ()+ 4 + 12 +8 +14 +1()+8

Spm plppy '/he expresspon.

W Y=6z'

Problem 1 (Page 2)
b=(5-ly)(*>-!xz)-(=.,p.
'x)(5-:xy)
(n(W x2)-(W x)2
Sum up The volues op *he Pysi colum n o.p dalo (x )

W x=5+4+dh+7+6
Sinnplpl'y 1he expresspon.

W x=26
Sum up +he v orues o.p Ahe second coIum n o.p do'?o (y ).

W y=%+6+%+%+11
Sinnplpl'y +he expresspon.

->-!y=44
sum up 4.he vohues o.p x .y .

W xy=s.%+4.6+4.%+7.%+6.11

Problem 1 (Page 4)
m =().76 4.7

F'zilIn 'the com puied values.

b = (4.4.)(14.2 )-(2 6)(234.)


5(142 )-(2 6)2
Slm plipy +he exp-esspon.
b =4..8 2 3 5
F'iliin 'the values op slope (m ) ond y -fniercep: (i)) in'to 1he slorhe
y -znleecep: Porrnulch.
y = ().7 6 4.7 x +4..8 2 3 5

P ro b lem 1
X

27

29

27

28

27

32

2%

27

2%

33

27

32

27

27

33

2 4.

33

3 ()

The shope o.p +he besi Pi# regresson Ine can be Pound uslng *he Porm ula

(=70 x)(=7n

m =n(7/ xy)- ' ' ' 'y)


(n(7/ xa)-(7/ x)2
.

n(77 xy)-(7C x)(77 y)


(n(7C xz)-(Mp x)z
The y -inlercepc op Ahe bes: P;+ regresspon Iine can be Pound uszng +he

Problem 1 (Page 2)
Porrnulcti)= (v;- y)(7,
- xa)- W .X'W 'XY' .
(n(=.
9.
P xa)-(=.
9
.P x)a
.

b= (*Vly)('7lxz)-('Flx)(-> .
'xy)
(n(W x2)-(W x)2
.

Surn up +he values op &he Pprs'k colum n o.p dowa (x ).

W x=27+27+27+2%+2%+27+27+33+33
Snnplpl'y 1he expresspon.

W x=2E;%
Sum up The v olues o.p Ahe second coIum n o.p dclto (y ).
'V- '

z .y = 2 % + 2 8 +3 2 +2 7 +3 3 +3 2 +2 7 +2 4.+3 ()

Spm plppy '/he expresspon.

W Y=262

Problem 1 (Page 4)
F'pllIn +he com puied volues.

%(7518)-(25%)(2 62)
P0= %(75()5)-(2 5%t2

Slm pllpy 'the expression.


r.fl= -().4.2 2 4.

F'IIIin &he connpuied volues.

b = (2 62 )(7S()S)-(2 S%)(7S18)
%(75()5)-(2 5%)2
Sinnplppy 'the expresslon.
b =4.1.2 6 7 2
F';IIin +he values op slope (m ) ond y -Inmercep't (i)) zn'to '
the slope
y -pn'
tercep- Porm uro.
y = -().4.2 2 4.x +4.1.2 67 2

Problem 1 (Page 2)
Sum up +he vaiues o.p +he Prs'p colum n o.p do'ra (x ).

W x=32+33+3()
Sfm plhpy &he expresspon.
'L-'x = ;s

Sum up +he volues op *he seconcicolum n o.p do':a (y ).

W y=2%+27+15
Spm plppy 1he expresspon.

W y=71
Sunn up +he v olues oP x .y .

W xy=32.2%+33'27+3()'15
Spm plppy 1he expresspon.

W xy=226%

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