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Leadership plays a strong role in these rules. Lead your men from the front... not the treeline!

Contents

1. Introduction

P. 3

2. Unit Organisation

9. Skirmishers

P. 45

10. Leaders

P. 47
P. 50

& Basing

P. 4

11. Special Unit Abilities

3.

Unit Statistics

P. 5

12. Artillery, Elephants &

4. The Turn Sequence

P. 6

Chariots

P. 52

5. Movement

P. 8

13. Army Morale

P. 55

6.

P. 11

14. Points

P. 56

Missile Fire

7. Melee

P. 16 15. Generic Troop Types

P. 57.

8. Morale

P. 41 Sample Scenario

P. 58

1. INTRODUCTION
The aim of these rules is to accurately reflect the differing skills and abilities of troops and
armies in battle yet still remain fun to play. Any rules set are a trade off between realism and
playability hopefully I am at least close to the right balance between the two.
I have chosen to use stands rather than individual figures as the basis for units for three
reasons. The rules represent units of troops and not individuals as such it isnt that
important where your standard bearer or officer is so long as the unit is fighting they are
assumed to be taking part somewhere. The second reason is that I dislike rules systems
that try to represent large battles with skirmish rules mechanisms, complicated special
formations and abilities, with the odd super characters thrown in. Most importantly though
I like the simplicity of moving, organising and playing with stands of figures and think they
also happen to look damned nice.
The rules should allow armies from widely differing time periods to fight against each other
and the points system given at the back of the book will remain consistent throughout. You
may have some problems with a Norman army fighting against a Macedonian but they will
at least both use the same rules.
DESIGNERS NOTES
Throughout the rules youll find these little boxes that briefly explain the
reasoning behind rules mechanisms and game play.
I would like to think that the system used will discourage gamey tactics. If you find there
is something that gives your troops a distinct advantage in the game but feels wrong then it probably is. I didnt want to have to write a 200 page rulebook that tried to cover
every single situation that might crop up within a game its probably impossible to do that
anyway. If in doubt use common sense or roll a dice.
The rules are always developing and I
will be more than happy to hear peoples
comments and suggestions. You can
write to me at Crusader Miniatures or
drop me an email. If you have questions
about the rules please try to frame them
in such a way that I can send back a
yes/no answer.
You can also check out the Crusader
Miniatures Yahoo web site where there
will be a section devoted to these rules
it will provide updates, army lists and
a FAQ section among other things. All
of the details can be found at:
www.crusaderminiatures.com

Mark Sims
Crusader Miniatures

2. Unit Organisation & Basing


These rules are primarily designed for 25-28mm figures as that is what I game with! They can, however, be
easily modified for 20, 15, 10 and 6mm without too much trouble. In these cases you can either keep the base
sizes the same and have differing numbers of figures on them or work out your own system. Changing inches
to centimetres or halving all distances are obvious adjustments that spring to mind for smaller scales.
The ideal base sizes are simply 40mm to 50mm square for infantry, 50mm square for cavalry. Chariots and
elephants should be roughly 60mm by whatever depth is needed. Some flexibility may be required for larger
figures, chariots and elephants. The exact frontage and depth of the base is not a hugely important factor in
these rules so you are welcome to use whatever you have available.
This basing system should allow you to use figures based for other popular rules with very little difficulty. You
can either re-base figures onto stands, put them on temporary movement trays or keep them as they are and
just assume they are based correctly - Ive used all three methods. Whatever you choose it isnt hard to
represent a unit and as the rule mechanics use stands to determine combat rather than figures you can even
get away with 2 armies based slightly differently though this is obviously not ideal.
Unit sizes are pretty much up to the players depending on the figures that you have and the army list guidelines.
Unless the army lists state otherwise the minimum unit size is 4 stands and the maximum is 8 stands for
cavalry and 12 stands for infantry.

UNIT FORMATIONS AND ORGANISATIONS


Basically the units are made up of stands of troops. Some units may be of mixed troop types but the vast
majority will consist of stands of the same troops who are armed and armoured in the same way. Each unit
is assumed to include a command stand this costs no extra points and fights exactly the same as the
remainder of the unit.
There is no set formation for your units. They can be as many stands wide or deep as you like. Youll obviously
work out for yourselves which formations are most suitable for combat and movement for various types of
troops.
To count the depth for formations in melee the unit must be 3 or more stands wide and also have more than
half of its back rank of stands. So a unit 3 stands wide would need to have a second rank of 2 stands to count
as 2 ranks deep.
Any unit that is more stands deep than it is wide counts an in March Column and is immediately shaken when
it contacts any enemy forces. Certain scenarios may call for troops to arrive on table in column.
Some units will have the
ability to form into skirmish
order. These troops must
still keep in base to base
contact
with
another
member of the same unit
but within those constraints
they may be positioned
in whatever formation
the player likes. Skirmish
stands
are
generally
represented by having less
figures per stand and have
appropriate modifiers in
the rules.

Units may snake to go


around terrain, line hill
contours or river banks
and such but otherwise
will remain in ranks and
files during movement and
combat.

3. The Unit Statistics


Each troop and command stand will have a set of statistics that youll use to work out if it passes a morale
test, how far it can move, how well it fights in combat and such. The stats for each unit are represented in the
following order:
Unit Name, Number of Stands, Morale Class, Combat skill, Bow skill, Wounds, Hand to Hand Attacks, Missile
Attacks, Training and Leadership, Movement, Armour, Notes & Weapons. These are abbreviated on the stat
line as follows.

Unit (stands)

Morale

CS

BS

Wnd

Hatk

Matk

T&L

Move Armour Notes

Unit Name
Name of the unit (well duh!).
Stands
The number of stands that the unit starts with.
Morale
The morale class of the unit from worst to best: Dregs, Levy, Trained, Regular, Seasoned, Veteran, Elite. Most
troops will fall into the Trained to Seasoned classes.
CS
The combat skill of the troops within the unit. All stands will have the same CS even in mixed formations and
command stands. The skill levels are good, average and poor.
BS
The Bow skill of the unit reflects how good it is with missile fire or thrown missile weapons (Bow skill is easier
to say than Ballistics skill). Skill level can be good, average or poor.
Wnd
The number of wounds that a stand can take before it is removed. Skirmishers will have 2, normal formed
troops 3. Veteran and Elite morale class troops gain an extra wound per stand.
Hatk
The number of hand to hand attacks that each stand gets in combat. Skirmishers have one and normal
formed troops two. Elite will get an extra attack per stand for hand to hand combat.
Matk
The number of missile attacks that the stand will have. Formed troops get 2 attacks per stand, skirmishers
get one attack per stand. Morale class does not affect the number of missile attacks in the same way that it
does for Hand to Hand attacks.
T&L
The Training and Leadership level of the unit. This will be used to determine how long the unit takes to carry
out orders, reform, its chance to recover from being shaken and such. The higher the better.
Move
The distance in inches that the unit can travel in a normal move. This distance is doubled for charge, rout and
march moves and is modified by die rolls for flee moves.
Armour
There are 5 types of armour: None, Light, Medium, Heavy and Extra Heavy. Youll find various examples of the
differing armour classes in the Army Lists at the back of the book.
Notes
This is where the weapons, special abilities or any other notes are given for the unit.
Points
Not technically part of the stat line the points value of each stand is often given afterwards. Simply multiply
this by the number of stands for a units final points cost. There are no extra points for command stands within
a unit each is always assumed to include a command stand.

SAMPLE UNIT STATS


Unit (stands)

Morale

CS

BS

Wnd Hatk

Matk T&L Move Armour

Saxon Huscarls (6)

Veteran

Good

N/A

NOTES

Shieldwall, Steadfast, 2 Handed Weapons

Unit (stands)

Morale

Norman Knights (5)

Seasoned Good

NOTES

Shock, Mounted, Lance

Unit (stands)

Morale

CS

BS

Wnd Hatk

Matk T&L Move Armour

Fyrd Archers (8)

Trained

Poor

Av

NOTES

Bow

Unit (stands)

Morale

CS

BS

Wnd Hatk

Levy Slingers (6)

Levy

Poor

Poor 2

NOTES

Skirmishers, Slingers

CS

Medium

BS

Wnd Hatk

Matk T&L Move Armour

N/A

Medium

None

Matk T&L Move Armour


1

None

DESIGNERS NOTES
The rules are specifically designed to emphasise the quality and abilities of troops through their
training, leadership and morale level rather than dwell on the details of armour or weapons.
Youll find veteran and elite troops are excellent, levy and dregs terrible no matter what
weapons or armour they may have.

4. The Turn Sequence


What follows is a brief outline of the basics of the game and the turn sequence. Ill go into all of this in more
detail later. The army that you control will be made up of individual units, from a small battle with 3 or 4 units
a side to larger battles only limited by your space and figure availability. Leaders are an important part of
these rules. They are not super fighting machines with extraordinary statistics but can add significantly to the
morale, motivation and manoeuvrability of units. Adding Alexander to the front of your Companion cavalry
may well tip the balance in any combat.
A commander will find that they can affect the manoeuvrability
of units before contact is made with the enemy, after that control
will begin to break down and they may be better suited to direct
command of units at important points of the battle. This has
proved to be a pretty good representation of the loss of control
that commanders had after the initial deployment of the army.

DESIGNERS NOTES
I have found that activating units, carrying
out all of their actions and then moving on
to the next gives a much more fluid game
than one constrained by movement,
firing, combat and morale phases.

Initiative is determined and the first player will begin their turn. The most important thing youll need to
understand about the game system is that each unit is activated and acted with in its entirety before moving
onto the next unit. It may charge, fight a combat, win and break through, fight another combat, lose that, break
and flee - all in succession.
There are no separate movement, firing, morale or combat phases. Instead one player will activate all of their
units in turn and then the other player will do so. It may take a couple of turns to get used to the fact that you
move a unit and then fire straight away or that the melee happens right now not after youve moved everyone
else. In a couple of games time itll be second nature.
A players turn can end in two ways. Firstly they can simply act with all of their available units and have nothing
left to move or fire or fight with. Secondly they can attempt an action that results in one of their units being
routed, either by losing a melee, failing a morale test, being wiped out entirely or whatever. This will be the end
of that players turn and represents their loss of initiative and impetus.
INITIATIVE
Both sides will roll a D10 and add the best commanders T&L modifier and the highest result will have the
option to go first or second. Re-roll ties without the command modifier applied to the die roll. Both sides will
then take alternate turns throughout the rest of the battle.
ACTIVATING UNITS
Each unit has a Training and Leadership (T&L) level, the higher the better. This reflects its ability to manoeuvre
and act under its own initiative. During the players turns they will need to activate each unit before it can act.
Units will automatically activate when making a simple move, charge movement OR when they want to shoot
at an enemy that they can target in their turn. BUT when they want to change facing, formation, sidestep or
retire they will need to pass a T&L test to do so.
The basic T&L number is modified by certain circumstances which are defined below. A unit may only carry
out one formation or up to TWO facing changes per turn and it must do so at the start or end of its move. If
done after it has moved and it fails its T&L test it may not carry out the manoeuvre or fire. Units manoeuvring
may retire or sidestep but may not combine such a move with any other formation or facing change. If the unit
fails its T&L test then it may not do the formation or facing change or choose to do anything else. It may still
react later in the turn if charged but its move is now effectively over.
Within Command Radius (6) = Add Commanders T&L modifier
Commander attached to unit = Only fails test on a roll of 12
DESIGNERS NOTES
The T&L rolls for awkward manoeuvres represent the different capabilities of units and the difficulty troops would face
changing facings and formations or retiring in good order before an enemy. The rules are very restrictive on purpose and
youll find that when units get into difficult positions they have trouble getting out of them. This does mean that if you
have badly trained troops you need to think of a simple plan and stick with it likewise if you can put your opponent
off balance by turning a flank or punching a hole in their line you will have an advantage that you can exploit. Use your
troops to outmanoeuvre if you think they are good enough keep things simple if not. If troops fail a T&L test while
attempting a manoeuvre they do nothing else that turn. This doesnt mean that they are just standing there watching
the world go by it just means that an amount of disorder has resulted, orders have not got through to everyone or the
unit is simply slow to manoeuvre.

5. Movement
Units will each have a Tactical movement value this is how far they can move over open terrain with no
obstacles when within engagement range of the enemy. When a unit is charging or marching its basic
movement distance is doubled. Marching is only allowed outside engagement range (6)

BASIC MOVEMENT
TROOP TYPE
Light & Medium
Heavy
Extra Heavy
Skirmish Order
Evade
Charge/March/Rout

INFANTRY
4
3
3
+2
2D6 inches *
X2

CAVALRY/CHARIOTS
8
7
6
+2
3D6 inches *
X2

* Though the maximum distance may not be more than double the normal move no matter what the die rolls
are.
For example: Byzantine Psiloi in light armour with the feigned flight ability. 4 basic tactical move, 8 charge,
march or rout move. Flee 2D6 (to a maximum of 8)
PROXIMITY TO THE ENEMY
Unless your unit is carrying out compulsory movement, routing or conducting breakthrough movement it may
not move closer than 1 to any enemy unit or individual stand. Command stands do not count for this rule.
While charging a unit may move closer than 1 to other enemy units. Where possible you should try not to
charge across the face of enemy formations. This is an impossible rule to quantify so please just use common
sense and play to the spirit of the rules rather than the letter.
OBSTACLES AND ROUGH GROUND
It takes half the move of the troops to cross linear obstacles. This is half of the total move and you can march
over these. Rough terrain is crossed at half speed for the most part though some troops in certain terrain may
move faster or slower than this again you can march over or through rough ground.
There are some terrain features that certain troop types cannot cross or enter and some troops take more
penalties for crossing obstacles than others. The terrain table opposite gives details of this.

TERRAIN EFFECTS
Troops movement will be affected by terrain types and obstacles. Whether the unit is cavalry or infantry,
skirmishers or formed determines how badly they are affected. The terrain table lets you know how much
a units movement is reduced by either half or quarter speed or an amount that is taken off the move per
contour. Hills only reduce movement speed when you are going up them.

TYPE OF TERRAIN MOVEMENT EFFECT


Light Woods
Skirmish infantry no effect
Formed inf. & skirmish cavalry half move. 50% shaken if charged
Cavalry half move. 100% shaken if charged
Dense Woods
Skirmishers half move 50% shaken if charged
Infantry half move. 100% shaken if charged
Skirmish cavalry half move. May not charge
Other cavalry quarter move. May not charge
Gentle Hills
No effect
Steep Hills
All skirmishers ascending hills -2 per contour
Other Infantry up hills -2 per contour. 25% shaken if charged
Other Cavalry up hills -2 per contour. 50% shaken if charged
Stream, ford
All half move speed through rough ground
Formed infantry 25% shaken if charged
Formed cavalry 50% shaken if charged
Obstacle, wall etc.
Infantry 50% shaken if charged
Cavalry 100% shaken if charged
MOVEMENT AND FORMATION CHANGES
Troops may not march during a turn that they are carrying out any type of manoeuvre that requires a T&L.
WHEELING TROOPS
Can wheel as part of their move and the distance travelled is measured as the outermost part of the wheel.
Troops wheel like an opening or closing door so be sure not to cut corners or have them sideslip too much.
This might not make a huge difference to units in column but a long line of troops will find it very slow going
wheeling about the battlefield.
ABOUT FACE
It takes a unit a quarter of its movement to change facing by 90 or 180 degrees. The unit will have to pass
a T&L test to about face or it will simply remain in place and may not carry out any further movement that
turn. Drilled troops can about face once for no movement penalty so may about face and still move their full
distance. Note: this free about face for drilled troops still counts as movement for firing purposes and still
requires a T&L test. Any unit may about face more than once per turn but only at the beginning and end of its
movement.
CHANGE FORMATION
The unit changes its entire formation and/or facing to anything that it likes. If the unit doesnt have space to
reform then it cant change to the new formation. This is not a movement option to shuffle units about! Troops
take the entire turn to reform and may not fire missile weapons (though may still use defensive fire) they need
to pass a T&L test to do so otherwise remain in place.
CHANGE RANKS AND FILES
A unit takes half a turn (drilled a quarter turn) to expand or contract its frontage by up to 2 stands. T&L test
required.
SIDESTEP OR RETIRE
Half speed, T&L test needed. All troops can retire or sidestep at half speed. You cannot combine a retire move
with a forward move in the same turn but you can still wheel, incline etc.
MARCH MOVES
If the unit starts its turn more than 6 away from the enemy then it may march. It may not change formations,
facings, ranks or retire but it can wheel as much as it likes measuring the wheeling distance as you would

normally. If a unit uses a march move it must stop at 6 away from any enemy forces and may not move closer
as part of this march move.
As an example this would mean that a unit with an 8 march move that is 9 away from the enemy could not
march to within 1. It could, however use its normal tactical move distance and simply advance 4 and so
ending its turn 5 away. Put simply units outside of engagement range dont have to use march moves.
OBLIQUE
The unit may drift either side of straight ahead for no movement penalty. Measure the distance as usual. Note
that this doesnt let the unit sidestep. Troops may incline at up to 45 degrees. Basically for each 1 of forward
movement it may move 1 sideways.

10

6. Missile Fire
Troops armed with missile weapons may fire so long as the target is in its front arc of fire 45 degrees for all
troop types, except skirmishers (see skirmish rules later).
If line of sight is blocked or some of the target is in range and some out then only roll for the bases that can
actually see or reach the target. However, if some firing stands are in one range band and some in another
then use the firing modifiers of the majority of the firing unit. Targets that are in cover need to have more than
half of their bases in/behind cover to count the bonus effect. Measurements are taken to the nearest point of
the target unit. Some common sense will no doubt be needed here.
Massed or overhead archery fire can be used by formed troops. Each stand in back ranks of the unit gets to
fire but with half the normal number of missile attacks - make sure that the stands are in range of the target.
Hills and elevated positions will allow units to fire over the heads of friendly and enemy troops but still dont
allow every stand to fire - massed archery may still be used but otherwise only the front rank on hills may fire.
This even applies if some of the bases in the unit are on ground level and others on the hill terrain model. Think
units not just figures.
There are 2 levels of hills low and high. If on a low hill there is an amount of dead ground equal to the
distance between the firing unit and the farthest point of the obstacle. If on a high hill the dead ground is equal
to half the distance between the firing unit and the farthest point of the obstacle. This is most easily explained
by a diagram!
The missile troops A are on a hill. Measuring to the farthest point of the obstruction (Unit B) they find it is 8
away. This means there is another 8 of dead ground beyond unit B if the firers are on a low hill, 4 of dead
ground beyond unit B if the firing troops are on a high hill.
In this example the archers are on a low hill and they may not target unit C as it is in dead ground because
of the unit B, had they been on a high hill they could have.

11

All missile weapons are assumed to have unlimited ammunition. Bows, crossbows, slings and handguns are
ranged weapons for all troops. Javelins, darts, spears etc are ranged weapons for skirmishers.
Javelins, thrown spears, heavy pila, thrown axes and the like are all classed as melee weapons for formed
troops and are used in the first round of combat effectively being hurled just before contact is made with
the enemy see the combat rules later for the use of these. This is important as they will not allow missile or
defensive fire under any circumstances.
TARGETS AND SPLITTING FIRE
Units may freely choose up to 2 targets to shoot at if they like. Any stands that do not have a target in their
range or arc of fire may not shoot.
It is suggested that players try to fire the entire unit at a single target if possible this cuts down on time spent
measuring distances and calculating modifiers.
MOVING AND FIRING
All troop types may move and fire though formed troops will lose some effectiveness when doing so. Movement
is completed first and then the unit will fire from where it ends its movement. The only exception to this is the
parthian shot special ability which allows firing part way through movement.
Whereas normally you can always shoot without needing to pass a test when you want to change formation
and fire you need to make a T&L test as normal. If you fail the unit may not move or fire it is assumed to still
be carrying out its move order.

DESIGNERS NOTES
Why can crossbows move and fire? As these rules represent units of troops
and each turn can be anything from 10-30 minutes long it seems ridiculous
to penalise a crossbowman for taking 12 seconds to load his weapon as
opposed to 6 seconds for one armed with a bow. All troops can move and fire
but formed units get a minus to their attack roll, this represents the time spent
moving rather than shooting and ranging in on a target.
MISSILE FIRE EXAMPLE
Archer unit A has two targets to its front but cannot fire the entire unit at either one some of the cavalry are
out of fire arc and the line of sight of some of the stands is blocked by the cavalry unit.
The player could opt to fire 4, 3 or 2 stands at the cavalry and the remainder at the skirmishers. For the sake
of this example he chooses to fire 3 stands at each enemy unit.
The cavalry unit is a target in Heavy armour -3, the firing unit has just moved -1 for a total modifier of -4.
This means that as each stand has 2 missile attacks it will have six D10 rolls needing 10s to hit (10-4=6, the
number required to score a hit.) If the unit had not moved it would roll needing 9 or 10 on D10 to hit.
The other half of the unit now fires at the skirmishers. Measuring the range the player sees that one stand is in
medium range but the other 2 are in long range all 3 stands will use the long range modifiers.
Target is skirmishers -2, target is at long range -4, firer moved -1 for a total of -7. Obviously its impossible to
get a modified result of 6 or more on D10 if you -7 off the roll so instead halve the number of attacks with 10s
hitting. In this case the player would roll 3 dice and need 10s to score a hit.
Next turn the skirmish slingers move forward 6 into their medium range bracket. They fire at the archer unit
A with the following modifiers. Target has Light armour -1, firing at medium range -2, shooter has poor missile
skill -1 (moving does not apply to skirmish fire so no modifier there) for a total of -4. Skirmish stands get one
missile attack each so this unit will roll 4 dice needing 10s to hit.
LINE OF SIGHT
For a unit to be able to shoot at a target it must be able to see it. This is true of all missile fire even for
engines and bombards that may not fire in a direct line at the target. The firing arc for all missile armed units
is 45 degrees either side of straight ahead. The only exception to this is skirmishers and individual stands like
elephants and war wagons etc that have a 360 degree arc of fire but the other stands within their own unit still
block line of sight.

12

MISSILE FIRE AND COVER


Cover may well protect against missile fire. There are 2 types of cover Hard and Soft. All terrain features
must come into one of these categories. To benefit from any cover bonus more than half of the stands in the
unit must be under cover or the firing unit can only target stands that are in cover.
REMOVING CASUALTIES
Casualties are removed from wherever in the unit the player wishes, though if the troops are in a single line it
does make sense to remove bases from the end that was hit by the missile fire. A player can remove stands
so that the unit reduces either its depth or frontage.
As an example a 6 stand unit that is in 2 ranks of 3 stands takes losses of 2 stands, the player can either make
the unit 3 stands frontage with one stand remaining behind (which wouldnt count as a rank by the way) or
they could take both stands from one side and make the unit 4 stands square (again this would mean it has
no rank bonus).
DEFENSIVE FIRE
Defensive fire occurs when a missile armed unit is charged. Its stands may shoot at the attackers as they
come in so long as the chargers are within their normal arc of fire. Move the charging unit to within 4 of the
target, decide which defending stands have the target in their missile fire arc and then carry out the defensive
fire.
The fire of all stands that are eligible to shoot is assumed to be taken at 4 so there are no range modifiers,
but there is an additional -1 to hit for troops that are being charged whilst firing. If the charge happens to start
closer than 4 then the fire is carried out as soon as the charge is declared.
The point where the fire is carried out is also the point where the
attacker will take their morale test so if they rout it will be from this
point not where they started their charge (unless starting within
4 of the target obviously). Likewise if a unit is halted shaken by the
defensive fire this is the point at which they will halt.
This defensive fire is in addition to any other actions that the unit
may have taken or will take later in the turn. Shaken troops may
use defensive fire though they will obviously suffer from the effects
that being shaken has on their ability to hit. Skirmishers may use
defensive fire if they opt to stand and receive a charge.

TYPES OF COVER
Hedge - Soft
Wall - Hard
Building of any type - Hard
Light Woods - Soft
Heavy Woods - Hard
Wooden Fence - Soft
Gorse Bushes - Soft

13

Missile Fire Tables


WEAPON
Bow/Light Crossbow
Crossbow
Late Handgun
Early handgun
Sling
Staff Sling
Short/Horse Bow
Longbow
Javelin/Darts
Light Cannon/Bolt Thrower
Heavy Cannon

CLOSE
6
8
6
5
5
6
5
6
5
10
15

MEDIUM
12
16
12
10
10
12
10
12
N/A
20
30

LONG
24
32
24
20
20
24
20
24
N/A
40
60

MISSILE FIRE TO HIT MODIFIERS TO D10 DIE ROLL


Poor skill -1
Good skill +1
Target Light armour -1
Target Medium Armour -2
Target Heavy Armour -3**
Target Extra Heavy Armour -4**
Medium range -2
Long range -4
Firing at skirmishers -2
Formed troops (not skirmishers) moved and fired -1
Light cover -1
Heavy cover -3
Defensive fire -1
Firing while shaken -2
Firing crossbow, longbow or handgun at close or medium range +1*
Cannon/BT at close, medium, long +3/+2/+1*
* Longbows, Crossbows and handguns these missile weapons will give a +1 to hit rolls
but only at close or medium range. Cannons or Bolt throwers +3 at close range, +2 at
medium, +1 at long. None of these apply when firing at skirmish targets.
** Cannon/bolt thrower Heavy and Extra Heavy armour modifiers will be reduced to -2.
MISSILE WEAPON FIRE RESULTS
5 or less
= miss
6 or more
= 1 hit

If the modifier to shooting is -5 or worse then you wouldnt normally be able to hit. In
this case halve the number of attacks (round down) with 10s hitting as normal.

14

TAKING MORALE TESTS DUE TO DEFENSIVE FIRE


If a unit is hit by Defensive fire it must take a morale test if the fire causes losses equal to the number of hits
per stand that the target unit has - even if the charging unit is at full strength. For example a skirmish unit with
2 hits per stand would take a morale test if defensive fire caused 2 wounds; an elite formed unit would take a
morale test if defensive fire caused 4 wounds.
Note: This fire will also have taken a stand off the charging unit but it is not the stand loss that actually causes
the test rather the number of wounds inflicted.
DEFENSIVE FIRE EXAMPLE
In the example below the owner of the 2 cavalry units is the active player. Both have already lost one stand
and so are at 25% losses. He elects to charge the archers with unit C who are just 3 away from the nearest
point of the target A. As the charge is starting within 4 the cavalry are not moved yet, instead defensive fire
is carried out at this point. Only 3 of the Archer units stands have the target within their firing arc at this point
so the fourth will not be able to fire.
Rolling for 6 attacks at close range unit A is lucky enough to score 3 hits, the charging cavalry must take a
morale test as they have taken defensive fire from a unit which has caused casualties equal to their wounds
per stand. If they had taken 2 wounds they would not need to take the test. The cavalry get a failure on their
morale test that makes them halt, shaken, where they are. If they had routed they would rout immediately from
this point and this would cause the active players turn to end.
As the first unit did not go in it is decided to charge with cavalry unit B who start the move 9 away from the
enemy. After the charge is declared they are moved forward untill the nearest part of the attacking unit is 4
away from the archers (you do not need to line up units).
The archers conduct defensive fire at 4 with the entire unit firing as they all have the cavalry in their front
firing arc. All defensive fire is always carried out at close range no matter what the missile weapon used - even
though many of these stands may be more than 4 away from the target at this point. This fire results in 2
casualties so this time the cavalry unit does not need to pass a morale test and will charge home. The cavalry
are now moved the final 4 forward and into contact with the archer unit and combat ensues.

15

7. Melee
MELEE OVERVIEW
As the main focus of any ancient rules is melee combat it is necessarily the most in depth part of them so a
brief overview of the combat system will help explain some of the details in this chapter.
There are 4 main phases to each melee:
(1) The charge - where the units are moved into contact there may be some defensive fire and morale tests
and some troops may have the option to try to evade. When it is determined that the charge goes in you
move onto the next phase.
(2) The attacks - are made by stands that would get to fight in the melee. You will roll D10s to inflict damage
on the enemy unit, there are no saves or wound rolls.
(3) The combat resolution - this is where you are actually going to determine who has won the fight. It is
based upon the damage inflicted in the previous round, comparing the various situation modifiers that the
units have and a bit of luck.
(4) The combat results - a table that will determine how well you have beaten the enemy and what the effect
of the melee is. This may be anything from just forcing them back to routing the unit completely. The results
may force morale tests for nearby friends and may allow the victor to make extra breakthrough movement.
MELEE
The only way for a unit to get into combat is for it to charge or be charged this may be as a declared charge,
a breakthrough move or a counter charge. When units charge they can move up to double their normal move
distance normal terrain modifiers apply.
Charge arc for the unit is 45 degrees either side of straight ahead and is measured from the nearest point of
the charging unit to the nearest point of the target the same goes for charge distance. This may result in part
(in some cases a large part) of the unit moving farther than its normal charge movement distance but that is
OK.
There may be cases where a charging unit would bump into another enemy formation or impassable terrain
before it reached its target if this is the case then you may not charge the target but must either manoeuvre
so that you can do so in later turns or declare a charge against the blocking unit.
The target of the charge has a few options. They may either stand and shoot if armed with missile weapons
and are facing the correct way they may elect to counter-charge if possible or they may if they have the
feigned flight ability or are skirmishers elect to flee from the chargers. (See special troop abilities later in
the rules). Other formed troops do not have the option to run away from a charge! Infantry may not counter
charge cavalry.
CHARGING INTO CONTACT
The charging unit should ideally aim for the front centre of the target - though this obviously cannot be the
case all of the time. Players are encouraged to charge unit to unit and it is definitely against the spirit of these
rules to aim to clip targets to gain advantages for combat, morale or breakthrough.
The charging unit does not have to align to the front of its target upon contact. As soon as any part of the
attacking force meets any part of the defending then movement stops and this is the position that the units
occupy for the ensuing melee.
This is important as the facing and position of the units determine their breakthrough targets and also the
friends that may have to take morale tests in case of routing or destroyed units.
STAND & SHOOT
Standing and shooting is pretty self explanatory and is covered in the firing rules so long as the firing stands
have the chargers in their firing arc then they may shoot at the attackers as they charge in. If the chargers
are outside this arc then the defending stand does not get to shoot even if the charging unit would end up
in base to base contact with the front of the firers it is simply assumed that they came from too awkward a
direction.

16

With defensive fire the chargers are moved to within 4 of the target, it is determined which stands may fire
and then it is carried out (if the charge starts closer than 4 then the fire is carried out before the chargers
move).
The unit then takes any appropriate morale test (see defensive fire rules) and may or may not complete its
move into contact with the target.
If the charge would count as a flank attack then the defenders will not get to fire defensively or counter charge.
This is the case even if there is a full stand within the front 45 degree facing as in the example above with
the cavalry unit on the left. It has one full stand behind the flank of the slingers when the charge is declared
allowing it to count as a flank charge and one full stand in the front 45 degree arc which would allow the
defenders to shoot or counter charge. The flank attack overrides and cancels the defensive fire and counter
charge options.

SKIRMISHERS
Skirmish or units that have the feigned flight ability have the added option to flee from attackers. These will be
looked at in in more depth in the skirmish and special abilities sections of the rules.
COUNTER CHARGE
This is an option if the attackers would contact the front of the target unit the attackers charge has to have
started in the front 45 degree arc as for defensive fire above. The counter charging unit does not move on the
tabletop but is simply assumed to have countered as the attack goes in. The counter charging unit may make
a breakthrough move if it wins the combat as normal otherwise it would have to stand no matter what the
winning result.
The counter charging unit cannot get any bonuses for cover, defensive positions, special formations that
give defenders a bonus and would also have to take any tests for charging in disordering terrain if that was
applicable.
The unit gets any charge bonus that would normally apply for specific weapons, for shock troops charging
and can use thrown melee weapons as normal in the first round of combat.
As with defensive fire above any flank attack will override the defenders option to counter charge.
CHARGING IN ROUGH TERRAIN
When troops elect to charge they have a chance to become shaken if they do so in rough terrain or over
streams or up steep slopes etc. In this case roll for the chance to be shaken as soon as the unit reaches the
obstacle or if already in rough going as soon as the charge is declared. You can find this information on
the movement and terrain table.
Becoming shaken by going through bad terrain will not stop a charge in itself but the morale of the unit will
be effected from the point where it has become shaken. This may be important if the unit is under defensive
fire.

17

BREAKTHROUGH MOVES
Breakthrough moves occur when a charging (or counter charging) unit wins a combat and follows up. If the
winning unit contacts another target then the combat is immediately resolved as any other charge with the
following exceptions. The newly contacted unit only has the option to counter charge or stand it may not fire
and may not flee even with the feigned flight ability or if it is a skirmish unit. Also neither unit gets to use any
thrown missile weapons that they are armed with as they would do in the first round of a normal combat.
Breakthrough movement does not stack up so work out how far the breakthrough is from the first combat
only. You may want to make a note of which units can be hit if the breakthrough carries on its full distance or
place a marker at the spot where the breakthrough move would end if it goes full distance.
If a unit forced to take its breakthrough leaves the table it may return on following turns. It is activated like any
other unit and if the player forgets or loses the initiative then they will have to wait for next turn.
When a unit comes back on it may not charge or fire but may make a half move. It must return within a half
move distance of where it left the table (mark the point with a counter of some sort).
Once it has been determined that a unit will take its breakthrough move they must take all of it and may not
voluntarily stop mid way through.
Breakthrough moves must be taken in a straight line forward, the unit may not wheel, incline or move
obliquely.
WHO CAN FIGHT
The basic idea behind who can fight is that units engage each other not individual figures or bases. However,
this does not mean that all troops on both sides will be able to attack.
The smallest frontage in bases is assumed to attack with the entire front rank of the unit. The opposing wider
unit will fight with the same number of bases plus one overlap on each flank if they have the extra bases
available.
It does not matter where the units engage along their front if only a single base touches then both units will
still fight; it is assumed that both sides will pile into the combat without you having to move the stands on the
table.
As stated before it is still preferable for units to engage as much as possible even though the number of
stands actually touching is unimportant. Chargers should, where possible, aim front centre to front centre
when carrying out a charge.
As an example, if a 4 stand wide unit engages one that is 8 stands wide then the smaller unit will attack with
4 stands, the larger with 6.
Even though stands may have different base sizes you still calculate who fights by bases. In the example
above if the 4 stand unit were cavalry they would still only fight 6 bases of the enemy infantry unit. This is
why it is not hugely important what basing system you use so long as you can calculate the amount of bases
that would take part in the combat.

THROWN WEAPONS IN COMBAT
Javelins, darts, pilum, throwing spears or axes all are used as melee weapons by formed troops but as
missile weapons by skirmishers. With formed units these are weapons that are hurled just before contact with
the enemy as such they are used in the combat phase only and will never confer any defensive fire ability
to the unit.
Troops that are noted as having thrown weapons will get to re-roll some of their attack dice if they miss.
Thrown weapons will allow a re-roll for any die result of 1 on D10. The attack modifiers remain exactly the
same as before.
This re-roll applies to any number of combats that they may be in throughout the game except for breakthrough
combat thrown melee weapons are never used in breakthroughs by either side.
Skirmish units with thrown weapons do get the re-roll in combat as well as the ability to use them as missile
weapons.

18

THROWN MELEE WEAPONS EXAMPLE


A unit of 6 Republican Roman Hastati stands armed with thrown weapons (pila) are engaged in combat with
3 Carthaginian spearmen stands. Both have average weapon skill and both have medium armour there are
no other modifiers.
As the Carthaginians have only 3 stands the Romans will get to fight with 5 stands, giving them 10 attacks.
The modifiers to their attack rolls (-2, target has medium armour) mean they will hit on rolls of 8, 9 or 10.
Ten D10 are rolled and result in 1, 2, 2, 4, 5, 7, 7, 8, 9 and 10 which gives 3 hits. The D10 result of 1 is re-rolled
and if this comes up with 8, 9 or 10 then will give another hit. Any other result is a miss.

COMBAT
Once you have got your units into base to base contact it is time to work out who wins and loses the melee.
This is a combination of the casualties that are inflicted from both sides, the starting morale grade of the units
and the advantages or disadvantages that they gain from their situation, numbers, flank attacks and the like.
The first part of the combat is to determine how many casualties are caused. This is done by having the bases
that can fight carry out attacks on each other. Combat is simultaneous so both sides will get to attack before
casualties are removed.
Bases will have either one two or three attacks each and a D10 is rolled for each attack from each base. You
need to get a final modified result of 6 or more to hit.
Each stand will have a combat skill which reflects how well they can fight. They will be at Good, Average or
Poor skill level. The relative combat skills, armour and weapons will all be taken into account to determine the
final modifiers to the D10 attack roll.

Formed troops get 2 attacks per stand, skirmish order troops will get one attack per stand. Elite troops gain
one more melee attack per stand.

ATTACKERS SKILL

TO HIT MODIFIERS

-1
Target in Light Armour
-2
Target in Medium Armour
-3
Target in Heavy Armour
-4
Target in Extra Heavy Armour
-2
You are Shaken
+1
You are Charging with Lance, Xyston or Kontos (mounted only)
+1
You are Fighting with Heavy weapons
+ or -
Compare the weapon skills on the table below.

DEFENDERS SKILL
SKILL
GOOD AVERAGE

POOR

GOOD

+1

+1

AVERAGE

+1

POOR

-1

MODIFIED D10 RESULT



5 or less = missed

6 or more = 1 hit
If the modifier is -5 or more then you
wouldnt normally be able to hit. In this case
halve the total number of attacks (round
down) with 10s hitting as normal.

WEAPON TYPES
Cavalry with Lance, Xyston or Kontos when mounted troops charge with these they give a +1 modifier to
the attack chance. If cavalry do not charge they do not get this bonus.
Heavy Weapons Two handed weapons, polearms etc give a +1 to the attack roll
Longbows, Heavy Crossbows and handguns these missile weapons will give a +1 to but only if the fire is
given at close or medium range. This bonus does not count when the unit is firing at a skirmish target.
Pikes As the stands and units represent hundreds of men it would not make sense to have pikes and spears
fighting in multiple ranks. The bonus for pike armed troops is that they have a greater chance to win the

19

combat rather than killing masses more of the enemy. Pikes will gain a +4 in the combat resolution against
cavalry and +2 against infantry. This bonus only applies if the pike unit is fighting to its front.
Long Spears As pikes above but the bonuses are less. Infantry with long spears gain +2 vs cavalry and +1
vs infantry.
Thrown weapons How these weapons are used depends on the type of troops using them. In the case of
formed troops javelins, pila, thrown axes etc are all assumed to be hurled just before contact with the enemy.
In this case they will give a re-roll in the first hand to hand combat of the melee but have no other missile
value. Formed troops may not use thrown melee weapons for defensive fire.

Javelins and thrown weapons for skirmishers Skirmish troops use javelins, thrown spears or darts as
actual missile weapons in the same way that they would bows or slings. Skirmish troops may use thrown
missile weapons for defensive fire.
CONTACTING THE ENEMY
When you declare a charge and move to contact the enemy you should aim to charge the front centre of your
unit towards the front centre of the enemy - though this will not always be possible and is not mandatory.
You do not need to align bases when you contact the enemy unit you should actually keep the chargers
facing the direction they have charged and this will most likely mean that only a small part of the 2 units will
touch. This is important because of the direction that any breakthrough movement will take see the example
at the end of this chapter.
MELEE RESULTS
Once both sides have inflicted casualties then you will need to decide who has actually won the combat. This
is a combination of the casualties inflicted in the previous phase, the relative situation of the opposing units,
their morale classes and a little bit of luck.
If for any reason a unit is wiped out, is reduced to one stand or only 25% of their starting strength from attacks
then the melee is an automatic victory for their opponents. Any remaining stands are immediately removed
and this will cause morale tests as with any other routing or destroyed unit. Results for the winner are as
though the enemy unit is routed and they will get a breakthrough of 3 if infantry and 6 if cavalry. If fighting
against multiple units then all of the enemy must be wiped out or automatically broken for this rule to apply.
CALCULATE THE WINNER
Both sides will now total up their melee modifiers form the table below. Just apply the points to your own side
and all of the amounts are positive. For example, fighting against shaken troops gives you plus 2 points rather
than minus 2 points from the enemy score.
Finally each side adds a D6 die roll to their score and this is their final melee value for this combat. You now
compare the difference in the 2 scores and apply that amount to the victory table to see how well the battle
has been won and lost. If at this stage both sides have exactly the same amount then both roll another D6 with
no modifiers. The winner of this dice off is assumed to have won the melee by one point.

20

MELEE RESULTS MODIFIERS


+ The morale level combat value (+1 to +7) E
+1 For each wound that has been inflicted on the enemy in this combat E
+2 Attacking flank or rear E
+2 Enemy unit shaken E
+2 Defending cover or obstacle E
+1 Outnumber enemy by 50% or more in stands *
+1 Shock troops charging or counter charging
+1 Steadfast troops defending
+1 Deeper ranks than the enemy *
+2 Enemy unit in skirmish order
+1/+2 Long spear versus infantry/cavalry*
+2/+4 Pike versus infantry/cavalry*
+? Commanders inspirational rating E
+2 Unit in phalanx formation.*
* Only applies when the unit is fighting to its front
E In a melee involving elephants on either side only these modifiers apply
VICTORY TABLE
Start with the difference between the melee results from above and then apply the following modifiers
depending on what % of losses the losing side has sustained so far.
+5
+2
+2

The losing side is at 50% or more losses in stands.


The losing side is at 25% but not yet 50% losses in stands.
The losing side is formed troops beaten by elephants.

1-2
3-4

5-6


7+

Recoil - Move back 2 for infantry or 3 for cavalry facing the enemy.
Retire back 4 for infantry or 6 for cavalry facing the enemy.
The unit becomes shaken.
Retreat back 6 infantry or 9 cavalry, facing enemy.
Unit becomes shaken.
Winners get a breakthrough move of 2 for infantry or 4 for cavalry.
Rout 8 infantry or 12 cavalry, facing away. Side loses initiative.
Winners get a breakthrough move of 3 for infantry or 6 for cavalry.

VICTORY RESULTS
As you can see the higher the number obtained on the victory table the more effectively the enemy have been
beaten.
1-2



Recoil - the unit moves directly away from the enemy the full distance stated infantry/cavalry.
Units that are forced to recoil end their move facing the enemy they retired from. If they end their
move on top of friendly troops they are simply placed beyond that unit even if this means they
move back farther than their indicated distance. Troops that are forced to recoil off table are lost as
are troops that are forced to retire into any formed enemy units.

3-4

Retire Shaken - As above but retires farther and the unit is shaken as well if it is already shaken
then no additional effect applies.

5-6


Retreat - As above but farther still. The winning unit will get a breakthrough move of infantry/
cavalry distance. The distance is measured from where the combat was fought and any units that
are within charge arc and range may be attacked as part of a breakthrough move. To refrain from
taking the breakthrough movement the winning unit must pass a T&L test.

7+

Rout - Unit is routed from combat, fleeing the required distance facing away from the enemy and
will continue to rout until rallied, it disperses or it leaves the board. This counts as a rout for morale
and loss of initiative purposes. If the active player was the loser and routs then their turn is over.

The Victory table may not go below Retire or above Rout no matter what the melee result or the number of
steps up or down.

21

As an example take a unit of Spears are already at 25% losses. They lose a combat by 4 points so they will
start at 3-4 Retire but will add +2 to the level of their defeat for being at 25% losses. This will make the final
result 6 so becomes 5-6 Retreat.
It is sometimes possible for 2 units to fight each other to breaking point if they both lose casualties that take
them to 75% or more losses for example. In this case both units will disperse and they both count as routed
for loss of initiative and morale purposes. Basically they fight each other into the ground.
MORALE TESTS DUE TO ROUTING OR DESTROYED UNITS
As a result of combat some units may be routed or destroyed entirely. In this case they cause an immediate
morale test on any friendly units within 8 of the point where the unit was routed/destroyed. This morale test
is taken immediately after the unit is destroyed or if routed immediately after the routing unit is moved and so
it occurs before any breakthrough movement.
TERRAIN AND COVER IN COMBAT
Some troops may be in cover, buildings or behind walls when fighting. Some terrain types may also disorder
the attacker or be disadvantageous to the defender. For combat purposes if any part of the unit is in bad
terrain then the whole of the unit counts as in it. Likewise if any of the attackers are forced to go into the terrain
then the whole unit takes the penalties. It is possible for one side to count as being in bad terrain but the other
does not - hen a unit is attacked crossing an obstacle or leaving a wood for example.
Common sense is definitely going to be required here!
FLANKS AND REAR
You will need to determine if some attacks come from
the flank or rear of units. Draw a continuous line across
the front of the unit and down either side and this will
determine where the units front, flanks and rear are.
Skirmish units do not have flanks or rears. There will
be cases where a formed unit may be conforming to
the edge of a terrain feature and so is not in a perfect
formation as right. In cases such as this you are going
to have to use your own judgement and trust to the
sportsmanship of both sides please dont turn the end
bases excessively just to keep your flanks safe!
As you can see by the diagram below at least one full
stand of any attacking unit needs start the charge behind
the flank or rear line of the unit it is charging to get the
bonus.

22

FLANK AND REAR ATTACK


When a formed unit hits another formed unit in the flank or rear as part of a charge it will immediately cause
the target to become shaken. As skirmishers are not formed troops this rule does not apply to them either as
the targets or the attackers.
MELEE EXAMPLE
In the example to the right (Stage 1) the
cavalry unit B is about to charge. It cannot
charge the enemy C as it would bump
into the infantry unit A if it tried to do so.
It charges directly forwards to contact the
spear unit A.
Charging units do not have to conform to
the enemy as the actual number of bases
physically touching is not important to the
combat it is assumed that the units fight,
not individual figures. See Stage 2.
So, the actual position of the charging
unit is as above. This is where the combat
will occur and it is from this point that
breakthrough, routs and morale tests will
be resolved.
Both of the units have taken casualties.
The Spearmen are down to 4 stands from
6 AND the cavalry unit B is at 3 stands
from a starting strength of 4.
Both sides attack simultaneously and in
this case the Norman cavalry will fight
with 3 stands and have 6 attacks while the
Spearmen will fight with 4 stands and have
8 attacks.
The Norman modifiers are target in medium
armour -2, difference in weapon skill (good
against average) +1, cavalry charging with
Lance +1 for no modifier to their attack rolls
they will need 6s on D10 to hit. They roll
2, 2, 5, 7, 8,10 for 3 hits. These are marked
next to the spear unit but no stands are
removed yet.
The Saxon spearmen modifiers are target in heavy armour -3 and that is it. So, they will roll 8 D10s needing 9
or 10 to score a hit. They end up with one hit. Again this is marked against the Norman unit.
Now, once all attacks have been carried out the stands are removed (but keep track of the number of hits you
did they are part of the combat resolution). If, at this point, a unit is reduced to a single stand, is at 25% or
less of its starting strength then it is immediately removed. In this example a Saxon stand is removed and a
hit marked against the Normans but no stand is removed from their unit.
Unit (stands)

Morale

CS

BS

Wnd Hatk

Matk T&L Move Armour

Saxon Thegns (6) A

Seasoned

Average N/A

NOTES

Shieldwall

Unit (stands)

Morale

CS

BS

Wnd Hatk

Matk T&L Move Armour

Norman Knights (4) B

Veteran

Good

N/A

NOTES

Shock, Mounted, Lance

Medium

Heavy

23

Melee results modifiers are now totalled for each side. Normans have +6 for their morale level of veteran, +3
for wounds inflicted on the enemy, +1 shock troops charging. For a total of +10.
Saxons have +5 for seasoned morale class, +1 for wounds inflicted for a total of +6. Both sides now roll a D6
and add the score to their total. This results in a final match up of 14 for the Normans and 8 for the Saxons
a difference of 6 points.
The difference of 6 points is applied to the Victory table. However, the spear unit is now at only 50% strength
so 5 is added to the final result this takes it to 11 which means that the Saxons rout and gives the winning
cavalry a breakthrough move of 6.
The spear unit routs away from the combat towards its own base line. This causes an immediate morale test
for any friendly units within 8 with the results applied straight away. The Norman cavalry unit then decides
what it wants to do about the 6 breakthrough.

Most units will have the option to try to stop taking their breakthrough moves. They need to roll a T&L test if
they do not want to breakthrough, otherwise they must follow through even if there are no targets to charge
onto.
In this example the Norman cavalry have the enemy cavalry unit C within their breakthrough distance and it
is also within the front facing of their current position so they decide to keep on going. Unfortunately they lose
the combat and rout so this ends the turn for the Norman player.
MULTIPLE MELEE COMBAT
As you can only activate one unit at a time there can only ever be multiple units on one side, not both. In these
cases you average out the modifiers that affect the combat, including the average for morale, deeper ranks
etc but you total all of the stands for determining if one side is outnumbered by 50% or more.
For example, one enemy unit contacts two spear units, one of which is shaken and the other is steadfast. The
attacker will get +1 instead of +2 for the shaken enemy and + for the steadfast (rounded up to +1).
Use common sense when determining which stands will attack which units if in doubt split them half and
half this may well result in you having to work out 2 different sets of modifiers.
The side with multiple units will still only have a single value for its melee results and will still only roll a single
D6 for the random modifier.
CONTACTING THE SIDE OF A UNIT
While it is ideal to have two units contact each other front centre to front centre this does not happen all the
time. There will be cases where a charging units front only contacts the side edge of an enemy formation. This
still counts as the units being involved in a melee and will only count as a flank charge if a full stand started
behind the enemy flank as normal.

24

RULES EXAMPLE
What follows is a blow by blow
account of two game turns as a
Norman force squares up to some
Saxons. The forces are representative
of those you will find on the tabletop
in any Dark Age game. The text and
maps will show how the units move,
engage each other (missile and
melee) and how wounds and morale
are handled.
FIRST GAME TURN
Saxon Turn 1
Saxons win the initiative and will now act first and
for the rest of the game with the two sides taking
alternate turns initiative is only rolled once at the
start of the battle.
The Saxon skirmish slingers are just out of their
20 range so decide to advance out of the tree line
and shoot at the mounted Pueri. The range is 18 so the
modifiers are Long range -4, target is in light armour -1,
firer has poor missile skill -1 for a total of -6. As this would
make any hit impossible with a modified D10 roll needing
a final result of 6 or more you halve the number of attacks
with 10s hitting. Skirmishers only get 1 attack per stand
normally so their 4 attacks is halved to 2 attacks in this
instance, both of which miss.

The Saxon player now moves onto the Fyrd Archers who
decide to remain where they are and shoot at the Norman
Knights. The range is 22 so the modifiers are Long range
-4, target is in Heavy armour -3 for a total of -7 which
again is half attacks, hitting on 10s. The archers would
normally have 12 attacks, which is halved to 6 attacks,
and they roll two 10s, so they score 2 hits on the Norman
knights. There are no saves or wound rolls so the 2 hits
are marked against the unit and when it receives one more
hit it will lose a stand.

25

The Thegns and Huscarls both pass on movement,


electing to remain where they are and so does the
General. That is the end of the Saxon Players turn.
You will notice how long range missile fire against
armoured troops is pretty poor. As you get closer,
fight good quality archers or have lightly armoured
troops as targets youll discover missile fire gets a
lot more deadly. However, most battles still come
down to units standing toe to toe and beating hell
out of each other.

Norman Turn 1
The Normans have a simple plan head straight for
the enemy in front of them. The Pueri advance at
march speed, allowing them to double their normal
move. In this case their 16 move would take them
to within 2 of the skirmishers, but a unit is never
allowed to come closer than 6 of any enemy unit
during its march move so it must halt at 6 away
from the Skirmish slingers.
Both of the spear units advance their full 8 and the
General moves over and joins the Milite unit. The
General stand itself does not fight and adds no
attacks to the unit so it doesnt matter where the stand is
placed so long as both sides know that he is attached.
The Milites now advance and wheel slightly, lining
themselves up for a charge against the Saxon Huscarls
in the centre.

SECOND GAME TURN


Saxon Turn 2
It is the Saxon players turn again. The skirmishers fire at
the Pueri from 6 away medium range and cause one
hit. The Fyrd Archers shoot at the Milites and manage to
do 2 more hits this removes a stand and carries one hit
over.
Losing this stand has 2 immediate effects firstly the Saxon
player gets to roll for leader casualty. For each stand that
has been removed 2D6 are rolled. A result of 2 means the
leader is dead, 12 means he is severely wounded. In this
case an 8 is rolled and there is no further effect.
The second consequence of this unit losing a stand is
that it will have to take a morale test because it has now
reached 25% losses in stands. This morale test is taken
immediately and has the following modifiers: Milites are
Seasoned so their starting morale is +3, they have now
lost 25% of the stands in their unit but not yet 50% so -2,
the commander is attached and he has a +1 morale value.
The total modifier is therefore +2 to a D10 die roll. If the
roll is 1, 2 or 3 then the Milites will become shaken, any
other number and they will carry on as normal. The D10
roll is 1, the final result is 3 which means the unit becomes
shaken.
Now that the Milites have become shaken the Saxon player
decides to advance with his Thegn and Huscarl units and
both move as far forward as possible: the Thegns 8 and

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the Huscarls 6. The Saxon command stand moves up


with the line but does not attach to either unit.

Norman Turn 2
The Norman player decides to risk charging the Saxon
Huscarls with his shaken Milites unit. There is a chance he
may lose this combat and if the cavalry break it would end
his turn so he decides to do the safe moves first.
Both Spear units are just outside their 8 charge distance
so simply advance 4 closer to the Thegns.
The Pueri charge the skirmish slingers who decide that
fleeing for their lives is the best bet. The distance between
the two is 6 and the Pueri have a 16 charge move; the
edge of the light woods is 3 behind the skirmishers.
Skirmishers move through light woods at full speed while
cavalry move through at half and are automatically shaken
if they charge into/through woods.
The Skirmishers flee 2D6, their roll is just 5 so they are
moved back 3 to the edge of the wood and 2 further into
it. Now the Pueri work out if their charge will take them
into contact with the fleeing unit. If it does they have to
carry out the charge, if not they have the option to either
halt at the spot where the skirmishers fled from or to carry
on their full charge move distance. It is 9 to the edge
of the wood and the 2 through the wood actually costs
them 4 of their movement so with only 13 of their 16
movement used they carry on and charge.
As soon as the Pueri enter the edge of the woods they
become shaken, the skirmishers have no chance to fire
defensively so the units are placed in contact and melee
ensues.
The Norman player works out his attacks first as he
charged, but all attacks and casualties are actually

simultaneous. The only modifiers are of the relative combat


skills average (Pueri) versus poor (skirmishers) gives a
+1 and the cavalry are shaken 2 for a final modifier of
-1 on each attack. Each stand has 2 attacks so 8 D10 are
rolled, hitting on rolls of 7 or more. The actual rolls are 1, 3,
3, 6, 6, 7, 9,10 as the Pueri are troops armed with thrown
missile weapons they get to re-roll any attack rolls of 1.
The re-roll is a 7 so 4 hits are done to the skirmish unit.
The skirmishers get to attack back before these casualties
are taken off so will get 4 attacks (1 per stand). The Pueri
has light armour -1 and that is the only modifier so attacks
will hit on a roll of 7 or more as well. Only 1 hit is done to
the cavalry.
At the end of the fight the cavalry have inflicted 4 wounds,
the skirmishers only 1. Two skirmish stands are removed
and it is time to calculate who has won the combat. Both

sides work out their own Melee Results Modifiers. The


Normans are regular +4, inflicted 4 wounds on the enemy
for +4, fighting against skirmishers +2, outnumber enemy
by 50% or more stands +1 for a total of +11.
The Saxon skirmishers are Dregs +1, inflicted one wound
on the enemy +1, fighting a unit which is shaken +2 for a
total of +4. Both sides now roll a D6 and add this to their
melee results. Normans roll a 2 for 13 in total, Saxons a 6
for 10 in total.
The Normans have won the combat by 3 points so now the
players consult the victory table a difference of 3 points
would normally mean the loser retires but in this case the
skirmishers are at 50% losses so add 5 more taking them
up to 8 which means they rout. The skirmishers are routed
8 away and the Pueri have the option to breakthrough 6
or try to pass a T&L test and hold their ground.
The Norman player would like them to hold so that
they can wheel back into the fight and take the
Thegns in the flank next turn unfortunately the
T&L test required a 6 or less on 2D6 and the roll
was 10 so the unit has to take its breakthrough and
follow the routers. The cavalry are at half speed in
the woods so are moved forward another 3.
Lastly the Norman player moved onto the Milites
and declares a charge against the Saxon Huscarls.
There is no defensive fire so the cavalry are simply
moved into contact with the Saxons. The Huscarls
cannot counter charge as they are infantry being
charged by cavalry.
Again, the Norman player calculates his attacks
first. Target has Heavy armour -3, cavalry charging
with lance +1, attackers are shaken -2 for a total of
-4. The 6 Norman attacks will need to be rolls of 10
or more to hit, with a bit of luck on their side they
get 2 hits.
The Saxons calculate their attacks Target has
heavy armour -3, attacking with 2 handed weapons

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+1 for a final modifier of -2. They will get 8 attacks


needing rolls of 8 or more to hit and end up with 2
hits on the Normans.
The 2 hits are marked on the Saxon unit and a stand
is removed from the Norman cavalry immediately
this is done the Saxon player rolls to see if he can
kill or wound the Norman general the roll is a 4 so
no effect.
Now both players calculate their melee results. The
Normans are seasoned +5, inflicted 2 wounds +2,
commanders combat modifier +2, shock troops
charging +1 for a total of +10. The Saxons are
Veterans +6, inflicted 2 wounds +2, are fighting
a shaken unit +2, outnumber by 50% or more in
stands +1, steadfast troops defending +1 for a
total of +12. Both sides add a D6 to their score
the Normans roll 2, the Saxons 2 final result is
Normans 12 to Saxons 14 so the Huscarls win the
combat by 2 points.
On the victory table this would result in the Cavalry
recoiling 2 facing the enemy but as the Norman
knights are now at 50% losses they add 5 to this
score and will rout with a final result of 7. The Milites are
turned around and moved 12 away from the Huscarls
this in turn will cause immediate morale tests for any
friendly troops within 8 of the point where the unit routed
from in this case both spear units are within 8.
Morale tests will be the same for both units start with a
trained morale level +2 and no other modifiers so if they
roll 1-3 on a D10 they will become shaken, anything else

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passes OK. This time Spears 1 passes and Spears 2 fails


with a roll of 2 and is shaken.
Note: For the time being the Norman general is caught up
in the rout of the Milites. At the start of the next Norman
turn he can either stay with them and may try to help rally
the unit or leave it. If he stays and fails to rally them he is
carried along with the unit and if it leaves the table he will
be lost with them.

Teutonic
Knights

28mm scale Late Crusade Teutonic Knights from Gripping Beast. Mostly
mounted on single bases these figures have been easily assembled into units
that work with the Crusader rules. With plenty of character these beautifully
painted miniatures are set off superbly on this wintery backdrop. The shield
and banner transfers are from Little Big Man Studios.

29

Command
Stands
The commander of your army can be represented
by a vignette base as seen on this page or
something as simple as your favourite single figure.
We tend to use round bases as the ideal size for
our commanders, with larger vignettes being the
overall army General and smaller round bases or
single figures being used as, for want of a better
word, Brigade commanders.

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ABOVE: The Saxon huscarl unit have been caught in the flank by a unit of charging armoured Norman Knights. The
Saxons are immediately shaken by being charged in the flank.
BELOW: Revenge! The Normans themselves are taken in flank by the Light cavalry probably the only way the lighter
armoured and less well trained cavalry would have a chance of winning this match up. All figures from Crusader
Miniatures.

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OFF TO WAR!

READY FOR BATTLE: A selection of figures


from the Crusader Miniatures ranges based
on 40mm square bases for infantry and 50mm
square bases for cavalry. The temporary base
of the Norman commander is an old Roman
Tower from the excellent Grand Manner range
of resin scenery.

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Saxon Archers use the terrain to orchestrate an ambush on some Norman knights. The bad news for the cavalry is the
terrain is not at all well suited for them and attacking the archers will be tricky. Their best option is simply to flee.

33

In the picture above we see 10mm scale Parthian mounted troops (Manufacturer: Magister Militum) on the
move towards the army of Crassus during the Battle of Carrhae. These minis are based on 40mm x 20mm
stands but sliding two together makes them perfect for use with the Crusader rules. Miniatures painted by
Alain Padfield and from the collection of Wargames Journal (www.wargamesjournal.com)

BACKGROUND TO THE GAME

The Battle of Carrhae was a decisive battle fought in the


year 53 BC near the town of Carrhae, now the presentday ruins of Harran, Turkey. The battle brought an army
from the Roman Republic, under the command of
General Crassus, to war against the Parthian Empire, with
its troops at Crassus under the command of Spahbod
Surena. The result of the battle was an overwhelming
victory for the Parthian Empire.
Although heavily outnumbered by the Romans, the
Parthian army was composed of 1,000 cataphract
cavalry and 9,000 horse archers. Against it stood 35,000
Roman legionnairies, 4,000 cavalry and 4,000 light
infantry. At end of this epic affair there were apparently
20,000 dead Romans scattering the hot sands.

ABOVE: Rich Jones from Wargames Journal runs


players of all ages through the game mechanics.
It wasnt long before Richs Roman infantry
were feeling the full shock impact of Parthian
Cataphract, courtesy of an 11 year old!

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The game was played on a 11 x 5 5 gaming table


and used 10mm figures from Magister Militum and
Pendraken. The figures were based on 40mm x 20mm
bases and two of these formed the basis of a stand
within the Crusader rules.
The Roman Legionnairies units were made up of 6 stands
and with 16 figures to a stand the total of 96 miniatures
made each unit look impressive. The Parthian mounted
units were 4 bases strong for the cataphract and this
meant each unit has 24 figures in it. The whole game
features just over 4,000 10mm scale figures.

These miniatures come from Musketeers


Armies of the Caliphates range which
covers the period 650 1055 AD. That
said, Bill who owns the company says
the figures could easily be used to
represent forces fighting the invading
Crusaders! Although mostly based
individually these figures have been
quickly rebased on movement trays or
temporary card to make them perfect
for use with the Crusader rules.

35

ABOVE: A good sized gaming table: 6 x 4 using simple terrain elements. Such a game can be thrown
together quickly and these rules will allow a game to be completed in two hours. BELOW: A typical Norman
Starter Army could consist of 1 General, 4 units of cavalry, 2 units of spear and 1 unit of crossbow.

36

ABOVE: A unit of slingers moves forward


cautiously, creating a screen for the core
infantry behind. RIGHT: Armoured Norman
spear prepare to engage the skirmishers,
looking to force a gap in the line for mounted
knights to pour through. BOTTOM: A General
looks on in dismay as his troops fail to
capitalise on a mistake by the enemy. If only
hed been closeer to lend a hand with the T&L
rolls!

37

ABOVE: The core units of the army above move forward to engage the enemy. As you can see the
crossbow unit has reformed to a line to allow all bases to fire at the enemy. meanwhile the spears have
stayed as a 3 x 2 block of stands to make movement easier around the table. BELOW: The General rallies
his troops as the enemy approaches.

38

ABOVE: Nothing like intimidating your enemy. Here this war band of warriors have been based on 50mm
x 50mm bases and six figures used to give a more irregular look and feel. BELOW: The killing potential of
the crossbow allows this army commander to string them out in front of his troops, keeping his opponent
at bay. The slingers to the right will be better off in the rugged terrain to the front right because they dont
suffer any negatives for moving through such terrain, unlike other troops.

39

Some games just lend themselves to being over the top Here we have a massive Saxon assault on a Norman held town. The figures
are based upon 20mm x 20mm bases for foot and 25mm x 50mm bases for cavalry, but they have been temporarily re-based upon
40mm x 40mm (foot) and 50mm x 50mm (cavalry) bases to make them work with the Crusader rules. This game had over 1,000
miniatures on the table and was completed within 5/6 hours using the Crusader rules, the larger basing making it easy for this
staggering number of figures to be moved around. The majority of the minis are Gripping Beast. Buildings by Grand Manner.

40

8. Morale
The morale grade of the unit will determine how much damage they can take before they give up and flee their
chance to rally, to charge and to stand when the army around them starts to crumble.
WHEN TO TAKE MORALE TESTS
There are various times that morale tests are taken throughout the turn:
When a unit has lost 25% casualties in stands - taken immediately.
When a unit has lost 25% or more of its stands then it must take a morale test for each time it receives one
or more casualties from missile fire after that.
When a unit within 8 is destroyed by missile fire or in combat, is forced to rout from combat, routs due to a
failed morale test of any kind or disperses because of losing 75% or more of its starting number of stands (or
being down to only a single stand). However, a routing unit that disperses because of the extra stand it loses
each turn does NOT cause a test it has already done so when it first routed.
Routed or destroyed skirmishers do not cause tests on friendly formed troops only other friendly skirmish
units and individual stands.
When an army loses its commander all units in the army will roll.
When the Brigade commander is lost all units that were in his command will take morale tests.
A unit may be forced to pass more than one morale test in its turn.
In the example below all of the units are at 50% losses in stands but none of them are currently shaken.
During the opposing players turn the cavalry unit A is fired upon and takes a single hit. As it is already at
more than 25% losses this means it takes a morale test which it rolls and becomes shaken. Later in the turn
the opposing player shoots at it again, causing another test which it fails and subsequently routs. This will
immediately cause the other units Cavalry B and Spears B to test as well.
Cavalry B pass their test but Spears B rout. This rout will in turn cause another test for Cavalry B and also
Spears A as they are within 8 of a friendly routing unit so will have to test too. Spears A pass their test with
the aid of the commanders morale bonus as they are within his 6 command radius.

41

Note that units only cause tests on friends at the point when they actually rout they do not cause tests on
subsequent turns just by being within 8 or if they disperse as a result of the extra stand losses that routers
take when they do not rally.

UNIT DISPERSES
When a unit is reduced to one stand or less than 75% of its starting number of stands it will automatically
disperse. This will cause morale tests to friends within 8 as normal and will lose the owning side the initiative
if it is currently their turn. The exception being if an already routing unit disperses this does not cause a
morale test on friendly units, nor does it lose that side the initiative. The unit is simply removed from the table
when it gets to one stand or 25% remaining of its starting strength, there is no need to move the unit on the
tabletop.

COMPULSORY MOVES FOR ROUTERS
Routing units must be the first that you activate when it comes to your turn. You may still choose which
order to activate your routing troops and may also activate commanders first. Apart from those exceptions
you cannot activate any other unit until all of the routers have attempted to rally and been moved or have
dispersed. To pass a morale check the unit needs to roll a D10 and will add its starting morale value to the roll,
+1 for dregs, +3 for veterans etc. The results are then as follows.

Starting morale values according to morale class
+1
Dregs or levy
+2
Trained or regular
+3
Seasoned or veteran
+4
Elite
Morale modifiers
-2
Unit is shaken (does not apply if the unit is trying to rally from routing)
-2
Unit has already lost 25% of its starting strength in stands
-5
Unit has already lost 50% of its starting strength in stands
+?
Commanders morale value if attached or within command radius
+D10 Plus the value of a D10 die roll
+?
Plus the morale value of the troops according to their quality

A unit may take more than one morale test in a turn if it is fired on more than once and takes a hit, if it is within
8 of more than one friendly routing unit etc. It is possible to shake a unit by firing at it from one unit then fire
at it again with another unit and break it.
Final Total
0 or less
1- 5
6+

Result
Broken rout
Shaken
Continue on

SHAKEN
As units get shot at, charge in or through rough terrain, lose combats or fail morale tests they may become
shaken. This represents the loss of confidence, cohesion or leadership within the unit. It is also used to
represent units that become disordered but for the purposes of these rules and the sake of simplicity both
effects are treated in the same way.
Effects of shaken are the same for all units no matter the type.
Shaken units suffer combat and morale penalties -2 to attack rolls, the enemy gets +2 for fighting shaken units
and the unit suffers a -2 morale modifier.
Shaken troops may still fire defensively or counter charge.
RESULTS OF MORALE TESTS ON CHARGERS
Defensive fire is carried out at 4 but is always calculated as though the missile fire were at the close range
band of the weapon. Formed troops force a morale test on chargers if the fire does damage equal to the
number of wounds per stand of the target unit even if the unit is at full strength. If the attackers are forced
to halt or rout then that is the point in their move where they will stop or flee from.
If the charge happens to start within 4 of the target then the attacking unit remains where it is while the
defensive fire is carried out. If halted or routed then it does so from the point where it started the turn.
To contact the enemy the attackers need to get a result of continue on which is 6 or more. If they fail

42

to do this then they will halt, shaken, at


whatever distance they were fired at. It
is possible to rout the charging unit with
defensive fire if they get a final morale
result of 0 or less.
In the example above the cavalry have
declared a charge on the archer unit
who will fire defensively. The cavalry are
moved forward until they are within 4 of
the nearest part of the archers it is at
this point that the fire is carried out.
The cavalry unit is seasoned and started
the battle with 4 stands it now only has
3 so is at 25% losses. The defensive fire
is carried out with 3 archer stands firing
and inflicts 3 losses on the cavalry the
chargers will now need to pass a morale
test as the defensive fire was from
formed troops and has caused enough
casualties this would be the case even
if the cavalry were at full strength.
The cavalry start at seasoned which gives them +3, they now have 50% losses in stands after this defensive
fire but not yet 75% so have a -5 modifier. This gives them a final modifier of -2 which they then add to a D10
die roll. If they roll 1-2 they will rout, roll of 3-7 means halt at 4 and become shaken. If they roll 8-10 they will
charge home and combat will ensue as normal. If they had rolled 1 or 2 on the D10 they would have routed
from this point. This would end the turn for the active player and cause an immediate morale test on the
friendly spear unit.
RECOVERING FROM BEING SHAKEN
A units training and leadership affects how well it responds to commanders orders, how well it performs when
away from direct command and how easy it is to control and to re-organise when things start to go badly.
To recover from being shaken the unit must simply roll and pass a T&L test. All normal modifiers apply
including commander within 6 command radius or attached to the unit.
If it does this it may then remove its shaken marker but may do nothing else at that time. If it fails to remove
its shaken marker then it is still in the process of recovering and reorganising and may not choose to make
any other action instead just as though it had failed trying to carry out an awkward manoeuvre. A unit does
not have to try to remove its shaken marker it can still act while shaken, bearing in mind the penalties and
restrictions listed above.
CHARGING ROUTING TROOPS
Routing units are valid targets for charges. The routers must opt to flee from the charge even if they are not
skirmishers and do not have the feigned flight ability. All of the usual fleeing rules apply with the exception
that if the routing unit is contacted by the chargers it is immediately wiped out. Unlike when routing troops
disperse this will cause morale tests for friendly units.
ROUTING UNITS
When units are forced to rout they will move their rout movement distance as described in the movement
table. For purposes of the distance travelled over obstacles and rough terrain the unit is treated as though it
were skirmishers. There must be a base sized gap or more for the unit to flee through that is not occupied by
enemy troops or impassable obstacles.
A unit can flee through friendly units if it has to but if there is no gap as described above then it will shake
any unit that is interpenetrated if that unit does not pass a T&L test. The exception being drilled troops and
skirmishers who do not need to make this roll. Skirmishers are not shaken if they are interpenetrated nor do
they shake other units if they are the routers.
If the routing unit cannot flee its full move then it is destroyed at the point where it was stopped. If a fleeing
unit exits the table for any reason it is lost and may not return. Troops will flee directly away from an enemy
that they lose to in combat OR directly to their own base line whichever makes more sense at the time. In

43

subsequent turns they will flee towards their own base line just like all other routing troops. This may well
cause your troops to appear to rout in the wrong direction at first but this is only the initial flight from the
enemy in combat.
If routed by missile fire they will rout towards their own base line immediately.
RALLYING UNITS
Trying to rally routing troops is the first thing that you must do in your turn. If they do not rally they immediately
lose a stand and the unit is now down to 1 stand or at 25% or less of its starting strength then it immediately
disperses and is removed from the table. Note in this case the dispersal does not cause extra morale tests
on nearby troops.
Otherwise it will continue to move at rout speed towards its own edge of the board. If they exit the table
they are removed from play for the rest of the game. To rally a unit you have to get a final result of 6 or more
continue on on the morale table. Use all of the usual modifiers for the units starting morale, % of losses,
commanders being in command radius but NOT the unit being shaken.
If the unit does rally it is immediately reformed into any formation the player likes, facing any direction but is
shaken. It takes its full action to rally and reform so may not fire missile weapons or do any other action though
it can still fire defensively or counter charge as normal later in the turn. Even though it has rallied it will still be
shaken so effectively it takes at least 2 turns to bring a unit back to full effectiveness after routing.

44

9. Skirmishers
Skirmishers are light troops whose job it is to fight in rough terrain, soften up the enemy with missile fire and
generally be annoying. They do this by being manoeuvrable and able to avoid contact with heavier, slower
enemies but at the expense of combat ability. Skirmish stands have to remain in base to base contact but
they can snake around obstacles, units and along terrain features. Skirmish stands have a 360 degree arc of
fire but they must still have a line of sight to their target other skirmish stands within the same unit do block
LOS.
Leader stands may join skirmish units.
Skirmishers may not have heavy or extra heavy armour.
Skirmish units may not use massed archery fire.
Skirmishers are declared as such at the start of the battle they may not change during the game.
For skirmishers the flee options are automatic reaction moves they do not need to make a T&L test.
Skirmishers always have the option to flee from chargers. Skirmishers that elect to flee from a charge are
moved their normal flee move and then can end up facing any direction they like.
If the fleeing skirmishers are caught they will automatically have to fight the combat. The attackers will not
get any rear attack bonus as skirmishers have no flanks or rears.
Skirmishers may charge formed troops from the front if you really want but expect them to get wiped out
except against the weakest of foes. They may also stand and receive a charge from formed troops.
Skirmish units can fire defensively and counter charge.
Any friendly troops may move through skirmishers but may not fire through them or charge through.
Skirmishers may pass through any friendly unit though they may not end their turn on top of or mixed in with
other units.
Skirmish stands get one less hand to hand attack per base and they still get the extra attack for combat if
they happen to be elite.
Skirmishers get one missile attack per base. The number of missile attacks is not modified by the troops
morale class.
Skirmishers do not have to take T&L tests to change formation, facing or move to the side or rear. They have
the freedom to move in whatever direction or formation they like so long as no individual stand moves father
than its allotted move distance.
In the example that follows five skirmish stands are aligned along the edge of a hill. In this case three of those
stands would be able to shoot at the cavalry unit and the other two would be able to target a separate enemy
unit. Dont forget you can only split fire between 2 enemy units. Skirmishers are the troops that are most likely
to flee from a charge. They must opt to stand and shoot or flee as soon as the charge is declared against them
and determined to be valid (within charge arc, no obstacles and can reach).
If the Skirmishers decide to fire defensively then carry out the melee as any other normal charge with the
exception that skirmish defensive fire is less likely to cause a morale test on the chargers (see defensive fire
rules). Should the skirmishers decide to flee then youll need to see whether the chargers will catch them or
not. The unit should flee as directly away from the charge as possible. It may pass through friendly units but
is still blocked by enemy units and impassable terrain (see routing rules).
First measure the distance that the chargers will have to move to contact the fleeing unit. Then you determine
what dice score is needed for the fleeing troops to outdistance the chargers basically they need to be able to
flee beyond the full charge distance of the enemy or be able to put an intervening unit between them and the
chargers. Roll the dice according to whether the fleeing troops are infantry or cavalry. In the case of infantry
they may flee 2D6, for cavalry it is 3D6. In both cases though the maximum distance they can flee is double
their normal movement.
If the chargers have been outdistanced after the flee movement they will get to complete their charge towards
the spot where the fleeing unit ran from. They may not redirect their charge onto other units but may follow
through onto newly revealed units if they are directly in front of the charging unit the same as if the chargers
were taking breakthrough movement after a victorious combat. As an alternative the charging unit may opt to
halt at the spot where the fleeing troops ran from.

45

If the fleeing unit are still within charge range then the charge carries on as normal and you will fight a melee
with the fleeing troops caught in the rear at the point their move ended (skirmishers do not have flanks or rears
but formed troops with the feigned flight ability do). The fleeing unit caught in this way may never counter
charge or fire defensively.
In the example above there is a cavalry unit 5 inches away from skirmish slingers lining the edge of a gentle
hill. The cavalry declare a charge and the slingers opt to flee. The full cavalry charge move is 16 and the
skirmishers flee move is 2D6. The slingers need to add 11 inches to the distance the two units are apart to
take them beyond 16. Should they roll 11 or 12 they will be moved outside the charge move of the cavalry
there are no new targets revealed by this flee move so the cavalry can either simply continue its full charge
move 16 over the hill or halt at the top of the hill where the skirmishers were.
Had there been a friendly spear unit just behind the hill the skirmishers would have fled round it and the cavalry
charge could have continued onto the spearmen if the player had chosen to (though fanatic or impetuous troops
would have had no option but to charge the spearmen). The combat would have been carried out straight
away the same as any other breakthrough melee note that this means there is no defensive fire, fleeing or
thrown weapons as this new target follows the rules as though it were hit in breakthrough movement.
They roll their 2D6 and get 7 taking them back 7 the figures are then moved away and the cavalry are moved
forward the 12 inches and the combat is fought at this point as with any other melee.

46

10. Leaders
A leader on his own may not initiate a charge or enter combat under any circumstances. If charged they must
flee 3D6, if advanced towards they must give way before the enemy and stay 1 away. They do not count for
engagement range for enemy units being able to march. If they flee but are still caught they are immediately
captured and are removed from play. This will cause a morale test for the entire army.
Leader stands do not have any combat ability of their own, they can add to the fighting ability of units they are
with simply by the encouragement and leadership that they give to their followers. In effect the leader stand
represents the General, bodyguards, messengers, aides and assorted hangers on.
To attach to a unit the command stand must be able to move to touch any part of the unit. After that he is
assumed to be with that unit until the player moves him somewhere else. He will be in danger of becoming a
casualty, may be swept up in a rout and will charge and move with that unit.
Command radius this is 6 from any part of the command stands base unless started otherwise in the
army lists or as a special scenario rule. If the commander is attached to a unit then he has no command radius
and only affects the unit that he is attached to. Any player making huge command stands to exploit this rule
should be pointed at and ridiculed.
Leaders may be targeted by a charge if they are within range but may never be targeted by missile weapons.
If a leader is charged they must flee directly away from the chargers. If they leave the table they are lost for the
remainder of the battle and will cause morale tests on all units under their command. Leaders bonuses only
apply to units that are subordinate to that leader. A large battle may have a commander in chief and brigade
commanders. The C in C will be able to influence all troops on his side the brigade commanders only those
units that are part of their command.

RANDOM LEADER SKILL GENERATION


Leader Stats - Random D6 roll
1
Training & Leadership Modifier
Morale Modifier
Melee Modifier
Command Radius

2-5

+1
+2
+0
+1
+0
+1
All 6 inches

6 (+6) roll 6 then 6

+3
+2
+2

+4
+3
+3

The Morale modifier is applied to any unit he is attached to or is within his command radius of 6. The Melee
modifier applies to the combat resolution if the leader is attached to the unit and it is involved in any melee.
The Training & Leadership modifier applies to all units within command radius of 6. If attached the unit he is
with will only fail its T&L test on a roll of 12 on 2D6.
Note that the commander will lose his command radius both when he moves and when he is attached to a
unit.
A leaders T&L and morale bonuses apply from where he is at the start of his turn before he moves. If he moves
in any way he effectively loses his command radius for the rest of that turn. He can apply modifiers to units
within 6 and then move and attach himself to a unit and still affect that units morale, combat and T&L.
Basically this means that you cannot have your commander standing next to half the army giving bonuses
and then run over to the other half and do the same you need to think where he is going to be needed and
will do the most good.
A commander is activated slightly differently to other units. They may be activated even before compulsory
units (like routers). A commander may also still be activated if your side loses the initiative though this is
obviously the last thing youll be able to do in this turn. This basically allows commanders to leave or join
routing units or to move out of the way of obviously dangerous situations. A commander may attach himself
to any unit that is within his movement range. If the unit he joins has already activated then that is the end of
the commanders move. If he joins one that has not yet activated then he will move with those troops when
they are activated, this may well mean that the commander moves farther than he would otherwise be allowed
to, but thats OK.

47

Once the commander has attached to a new unit he must remain with it for the rest of that turn, even if this
means he routs from the table and is lost. A commander may detach from one unit and attach to another in
the same turn but only if the unit he is detaching from has not yet been activated.
LEADER CASUALTIES
When leaders are attached to units and that unit takes casualties then there is a chance that the leader will
be among them.
For each stand that is removed due to missile fire or hand to hand combat then roll once on the leader
casualty table below. This does not apply to stands lost as part of a rout or when a unit is removed because
it disperses. In cases where the unit disperses or is wiped out entirely then the commander is simply placed
at the point where the unit was removed.
2D6 Roll of 2 = Dead
2D6 Roll of 12 = If in combat he is captured, if missile fire he is severely wounded.
Dead - All of the units under that leaders command will take an immediate morale test. Any units that rout
because of this test will lose the active side the initiative and will cause additional tests for nearby friends.
In addition to the above none of the units under his command will be able to roll to recover from being shaken.
Once a unit is shaken then it will have to stay that way for the rest of the battle unless the unit has another
leader that they are subordinate to. This usually only applies in large battles with multiple wings/battles under
a supreme commander.
Captured or severe wound all of the units under that leaders command will still take a morale test but they
will not suffer the may not rally from shaken penalty that they would if the leader had been killed.
For example: Alexander is attached to his companion cavalry and charges some Persian Archers. During
defensive fire the archers manage to remove a stand and so the Persian player gets to roll on the leader
casualty table. Should he manage to kill or wound Alexander then an immediate morale test is made for the
entire army (this even interrupts the charge) and Alexanders figure is removed and will play no more part in
the battle.

48

In this example Alexander survives to get into


combat where the Companions lose another 2
stands (OK so thats unlikely) and the Persian
player will roll twice more on the leader casualty
table, again applying any effects immediately if
the leader becomes a casualty or is captured.
COMMAND RADIUS EXAMPLE
In the example below both of the cavalry units
are within command radius of the leader so long
as he has not moved yet. The Spear unit at A
is outside command radius but if it moves to B
it will be within and be able to benefit from the
leaders bonuses from that point onwards.
If the leader then moves to attach to the spear
unit at B after it has moved then he will
immediately lose his command radius but will
still affect the unit he has attached to. This will
also be the last thing he will be able to do this
turn as the spear unit has already activated.
Neither of the cavalry units have acted yet so if
the leader attached to one of them then he will
be moved and activated with them but may not
leave the unit again this turn.

49

11. Special Unit Abilities


Some troops will have historical abilities and quirks that cannot be reflected in the main rules and so they are
detailed here instead.
Steadfast +1 combat resolution when defending. The unit is particularly well suited to solid defence, robust,
tough fighters who dont give an inch such as Saxon Huscarls and Spartan Hoplites.
Shock +1 combat resolution when charging or counter charging. The initial charge of these troops is their best
weapon, the berserk rage of fanatics or the crushing weight of heavy knights.
Drilled may interpenetrate other drilled formed units without penalty. Drilled take half as long to expand or
contract ranks and get an about face move for free. Also drilled troops may allow friendly routing units to pass
through them without any chance to become shaken. Republican Roman Hastati, Principes or Triari would
count as drilled.
Feigned Flight May opt to flee from charges even if not skirmishers. Normally formed troops may not opt to
flee from a charge; with the feigned flight ability they can do so. The unit will flee its normal flee/rout distance
but if it is contacted by the chargers it counts as being hit in the rear. It may not count any charge bonuses for
the combat, may not fire defensively and may not breakthrough if it wins.
Fanatic Troops never become shaken from any morale tests. These troops have sworn to die to the last man
or have worked themselves into such a battle rage that they have no fear of death. They may still be shaken by
terrain, will be shaken if they are contacted in the flank or rear by formed troops, if they have just rallied from
routing etc. It is only morale tests that ignore shaken results. Fanatic troops are also Impetuous and follow all
of the rules for that as well. In addition a fanatic units random die roll in combat can never be lower than its
enemies. If the actual die roll is lower then adjust it so that it matches the roll that the enemy made.
Impetuous As part of the compulsory move phase just after routers have been moved each impetuous unit
must make a T&L test with all the usual modifiers.
If the unit fails a T&L test it must immediately charge the nearest enemy unit if within range and charge arc
or advance to get as close as possible to the nearest enemy in its front facing. Note that it will not change
direction and move towards enemy units that are on its flank and rear this only applies if it has enemy to its
front. Having failed its test and moved towards the enemy means that the unit has acted this turn and may not
be activated later on it may still counter charge, flee etc as normal.
If the unit passes its T&L test then it does not need to do anything and can be activated as normal throughout
the turn. Impetuous troops must always take their full breakthrough move they may never try to roll a T&L
test not to take it.

50

Parthian shot The troops can move their full normal move but may shoot part way through it. Normally
movement must come before firing. In the case of units with parthian shot they may move part of their
distance, shoot and then move the remainder of their normal move. They may not fire and charge and no
stand may move farther than its normal movement distance.
Stakes Sharpened stakes rammed into the ground and chained together. As a deployment option the unit
may set up behind a line of defensive stakes. If they move in any way the unit loses the benefit of these and
they are effectively removed from the table. The unit counts as defending an obstacle for melee purposes
so gets +2 combat resolution and means that cavalry will automatically be shaken upon contact with the
obstacle and unit.
Phalanx The unit forms a solid mass of men, spears or pikes. To count as a formed phalanx the unit must
have at least 4 stands. If it falls to 3 stands or less it immediately stops getting the advantage of being a
phalanx though it obviously keeps any other benefits of weapons and such. Cavalry may charge a phalanx
but they will immediately become shaken upon contact with the front of it. Likewise if a phalanx charges
cavalry the cavalry become shaken, the same applies for counter charges, breakthrough moves etc. Basically
cavalry contacting the front a phalanx in any way become shaken immediately.
Shieldwall and Pavisse When stationery the unit may opt to form into shieldwall. It does not have to pass a
T&L test this is a free automatic action so it may still fire missile weapons and will not count the 1 modifier
as it would if it had moved. If it moves at all it immediately loses the benefit of shieldwall. While in shieldwall
the unit counts as being in heavy cover for missile attacks from the front 2 to the attackers chance to hit.
Troops in cover will not gain any additional benefit from being in shieldwall cover modifiers do not stack.
Shieldwall and Pavisse does not provide any modifiers or benefit to troops in melee combat.
Light troops Move through rough going as skirmishers but fight as formed. The troops will only take the
penalties that skirmish units do when moving through rough going or over obstacles etc but otherwise fight
and act exactly as any other formed unit. Roman auxiliaries are a perfect example.
Mixed formations There may be some cases where part of the unit is armed with a different weapon mix to
the rest. Byzantine archers deploying as the back ranks of the spear blocks for example. In these cases the
following rules apply.
Where the troops have different armour then in all cases - except movement - use the average armour type
rounded down. In the case of movement use the slowest speed for the entire unit.
Use the best weapon type for attacking or melee resolution but the average weapon skill (round down) in hand
to hand combat.
In cases where the 2 troop types are different morale classes the entire unit will act as though it is the average
morale class round down. This may result in Veteran stands losing their extra wound for example if mixed
with Seasoned or lower classes. T&L is also averaged rounded down.
If either of the two troop types in the mixed formation is archers then they are always assumed to be firing as
though using massed or overhead fire even if the unit is only one rank of stands deep. So you will calculate
the amount of stands that count as missile armed, work out how many missile attacks they would have and
then halve it (round down).
Stands are removed from both troop types in equal numbers, but it is up to the controlling player which type
of stand they remove first.

51

12. Artillery, Elephants &


Chariots
RULES FOR INDIVIDUAL STANDS
Unless stated otherwise Elephants, Bolt Throwers, Cannons will follow the rules for individual stands. Chariots
are either formed or skirmish units and follow all the usual rules for units unless stated otherwise.
An individual stand does not count towards the army break point either in the original calculation or when it
is routed or destroyed.
Individual stands will not cause any friendly units to take morale tests when they are routed or destroyed, nor
will they lose the active player the initiative if it is their turn when an individual stand is lost.
Individual stands will take morale tests when either formed or skirmish friendly units are routed or destroyed
within 8 the same as everyone else. They will also take morale tests from defensive fire, when the army
commander dies etc.
They do NOT take morale tests for losing % casualties, nor do the % losses affect their morale tests in any
other cases. No matter how many wounds the stand has taken it effectively counts as being at full strength all
the time.
Individual stands do not have front, flank or rear for purposes of combat. They are free to change facing and
formation like skirmishers. Individual stands may not march.
An individual stand is routed by any losing melee and may not rally simply remove from the board in the
case of elephants check for stampede and then remove.

CHARIOTS
Chariots are divided into Light and Heavy types. Light being used primarily as missile platforms and heavy for
melee as you would heavy cavalry. These are generalisations and its up to you how you use chariots within
the constraints of the rules.
Light chariots may be designated as skirmish or formed troops, heavy chariots are always formed. Chariot
stands are grouped together into units the same as any other and follow most of the same rules as everyone
else.
Their statistics line will be no different to other units and they will get the same number of wounds, attacks
etc as other stands depending on whether they are formed or skirmish troops. They will also have flanks and
rears, follow the same rules for manoeuvres, T&L, morale tests and so forth. In effect just treat them as any
other unit with the following exceptions.
ARMOUR
Any chariot counts as having light armour as a minimum it may not have None as its armour type. When the
crew are also armoured or shielded then their armour is added onto light. Chariot armour may not go higher
than Extra Heavy.
As an example a chariot has crew that have light armour, this will be added to the light armour the chariot
automatically has and so the stat line will indicate that this stand has medium armour. The points cost will be
the full 10 per stand for medium armour.
OBSTACLES
Chariots take an entire turn to cross linear obstacles and treat all terrain as though they were cavalry (either
formed or skirmish depending on the formation your chariots are in).
All Chariots have a base move of 8, those that have Heavy or Extra Heavy armour count as Heavy chariots
and must be formed units, those that have Light or Medium armour count as light and may be either formed
or skirmish units. Skirmish units will add +2 to their movement as usual.
Heavy and Extra Heavy Chariots will always be able to have the Shock ability added to their statistics for the
usual points cost.

52

For rules with regards to weapons and special effects all chariots count as cavalry. This means that they will
fear elephants, become shaken when they contact a phalanx, use the cavalry breakthrough in combat etc.
Formed chariot units will get the re-roll for thrown missile weapons, skirmish units will get this and be able to
throw them at range etc.
SAMPLE CHARIOT STATS

Unit (stands)
Morale

CS

BS

Wnd Hatk

Light Chariots (5)

Seasoned Average

NOTES

Chariot, Thrown Weapons

Unit (stands)

Morale

Light Chariots (5)

Seasoned Average

NOTES

Chariot, Skirmishers, Thrown Weapons

CS

Average 3

BS

Matk T&L Move Armour

Wnd Hatk

Average 2

Medium

Matk T&L Move Armour

10

Medium

CANNONS & BOLT THROWERS


For purposes of these rules there is no distinction between how a cannon works and how a bolt or stone thrower
works. All are individual stands and follow the basic rules for as described at the start of this chapter.
Artillery stands have a stat line just like other units this is the basic line for all Cannons and Bolt throwers.
Unit (stands)

Morale

CS

BS

Wnd Hatk

Matk T&L

Cannon & Thrower

Varies

Varies

Varies

NOTES

Chariot, Skirmishers, Thrown Weapons

Move Armour

Varies 4

As Crew

All artillery stands count as skirmish targets when targeted by missile fire and as skirmishers when attacked in
melee combat. They have 3 wounds per stand, one Hand to Hand attacks and 2 missile attacks which count
as being from formed troops for purposes of defensive fire.
Any artillery stand will have a movement of 4. To Limber will take an entire turn and they must make a T&L
test to do so. To Unlimber they take the entire turn but do not need to pass a T&L test. To change facing they
must pass a T&L test, will remain on the spot and may still fire that turn but at 1 as though they were formed
troops that had moved.
The Artillery will take an entire turn to cross any linear obstacle and pass through rough terrain as though they
were formed cavalry.
Artillery may target enemy units through enemy skirmish screens so long as the enemy skirmisher unit is
greater than 6 away from them.
Artillery crew may opt to flee from chargers, the guns will be lost and the crew may not re-man them.
Artillery fire uses the same modifiers as other missile fire with the exception that a target that has Heavy or
Extra Heavy armour only gets a -2 modifier rather than its normal -3 or -4.
Like crossbows, longbows and handguns a Cannon or Bolt Thrower will get bonuses at certain ranges which
apply when firing at formed troops or elephants but not against skirmish targets. At Long range the modifier
is +1, at medium range +2 and at close range +3.
ELEPHANTS
As with Artillery these stands count as individuals and are not formed into units. Each elephant stand will have
its own statistics like any other but follows a few unique rules.
An elephant stand that routs for any reason may not be rallied and also at the point where it routs it may
stampede instead. If the elephant does not stampede then simply remove it from the table when it routs.
To see if an elephant stampedes it must roll and pass a T&L test when it routs. If it passes then just remove
the stand, if it fails it will stampede instead.

53

STAMPEDING ELEPHANTS
Turn the stand around facing 180 degrees away from the cause of the morale test, roll a D6 and consult the
stampede direction template this is the direction that the stand will go in. Roll 3D10 for the distance in
inches. Any unit along this line will be stampeded through no matter whether they are friendly or enemy units.
The only thing that will block this stampede line is terrain that is impassable for the elephant.
A unit that has a stampeding elephant pass through it is shaken as soon as it is contacted by the elephant
and must then make a morale test. Drilled troops may roll a T&L test to avoid the effects of being stampeded
through, if they fail they are affected like any other unit.
Once the elephant has stampeded this once it is removed from the table. Each elephant rolls separately for its
chance to stampede and then its distance and direction.
STATISTICS FOR ELEPHANT STANDS
Elephants have a basic stat line as detailed below. Elephants are always regular morale, they always count
as having good combat skill. They have 5 wounds and 3 hand to hand attacks and a move of 6 no matter
what armour they have.
Crew armour and tower will add to the basic armour of an elephant but it may never be more than Extra
Heavy.
Elephants do not have missile attacks. Even when armed with missile weapons the crew use these in combat,
not as big lumbering skirmishers!
ELEPHANTS IN COMBAT
Combats that involve elephants do not follow all of the usual rules for melee. Firstly the maximum armour
modifier that can be applied against the elephant is -2 so when an elephant is attacking troops in Heavy or
Extra Heavy armour it will suffer -2 to hit rather than -3 or -4.
Secondly not all of the melee results modifiers apply either, only those that are listed with a capital E after
them. Namely Morale class, Commander, number of wounds inflicted, shaken, flank or rear, defending
obstacle and the random D6 value. Nothing else applies to either side in a fight involving elephants.
If an elephant loses a melee by any amount it will rout and will have to test to stampede.
Any formed troops that lose a combat to an elephant will suffer an additional +2 modifier on the victory
table making it more likely that they will rout and will at the very least become shaken by the losing combat.
Skirmishers do not suffer the extra +2 if they lose to elephants. Charging or counter charging elephants may
cause any unit that they hit to become shaken upon contact.
The target of the charge must take a T&L test as soon as it is contacted by a charging elephant if it fails the
roll it is immediately shaken and must fight the ensuing melee as shaken.
Skirmish units, other elephants and drilled troops are exempt from this rule.
Elephants that win a combat must always take their breakthrough.
CAUSE FEAR
Elephants will cause fear in cavalry that do not count as used to elephants. All cavalry needs to make a
morale test to charge these at 4 exactly as if it had taken casualties from defensive fire. In addition the cavalry
unit is automatically shaken upon contact exactly as though it had hit a phalanx.
If elephants charge cavalry then the cavalry must take a morale test as soon as the charge is declared. If they
pass with 6+ continue on they can then opt to counter charge or flee if they have that option. If they become
shaken 1-5, Shaken they must remain at the halt to receive the charge or if they fail the 0 or less rout test
then they break and rout. If the Cavalry unit is skirmishers then the cavalry may always opt to flee and has
no need to pass a morale test, otherwise it must try to pass and abide by the morale test results the same as
formed cavalry.
No matter the result of the morale test any cavalry unit that fears elephants is shaken upon contact with the
elephant stand. Cavalry that are used to elephants are not automatically shaken and do not need to take a
morale test for fear but may still be shaken if they fail their T&L test as per the elephants in combat rules.

54

13. Army Morale


Armies will not stand around and fight to the last man and the last unit chasing each other about the battlefield.
When things start to go badly units will falter and troops will start to think about saving their own skins rather
than winning the battle.
The number of formed and skirmish units that you have in your army will determine the breaking point of that
force. It does not matter the size or quality of the unit and commanders plus individual stands like elephants
and artillery do not count for army morale purposes.
Each formed unit is worth 2 Army Points and each skirmish unit is worth 1 Army Point. Total up and then halve
the Army Points (round up), this is the Army Break Point (ABP).
As you lose units you keep track of how close you are to the ABP of your force. Each formed unit brings you 2
points closer and each skirmish unit 1 point, as you can see this effectively means your army can suffer 50%
losses before starting to lose morale. When an army reaches its ABP it is considered at breaking point.
A unit is not lost until it is removed from the table. Units that are currently routing but may still rally are not
counted as lost for purposes of this rule, neither are units forced to pursue off table. The instant that a unit is
lost and removed from the table you check to see if the army has reached its break point.
When the army has reached its breaking point none of its units may roll to recover from being shaken and
so they must remain that way for the rest of the battle. Units that are not currently shaken are fine until they
themselves are shaken in the normal course of the game after which they may not try to recover from being
shaken.
As an example your army consists of 4 formed units (8 Army Points) and 3 skirmish units (3 Army Points) your
ABP would be 6 (8+3, divide by 2 and round up).
Towards the end of a battle this force has lost 1 formed and 2 skirmish units no longer on the table. It has
currently lost 4 Army Points. It could lose 1 more skirmish unit and still be OK but if it lost a formed unit it
would have reached its ABP and immediately reach breaking point.
Next turn it does lose another formed unit, this now means that any shaken units are stuck that way and any
of the remaining units that become shaken in following turns are also unable to recover.
Both sides may be at their army break point during a game, the only detrimental effect is that units may not
roll to recover from being shaken. Within these constraints it is still perfectly possible for the shaken army to
carry on and win the battle.

55

14. Points
The points system will remain consistent throughout the rules. A light armoured veteran Ancient Egyptian
spearman will cost the same as a Wars of the Roses light armoured veteran spearman.
The starting points per stand is based on its morale class.
Dregs
Levy
Trained
Regular
Seasoned
Veteran
Elite

10 pts
20 pts
30 pts
40 pts
50 pts
70 pts +1 wound
90 pts +1 wound, +1 hand to hand attack

THE ARMOUR VALUE


Light
Medium
Heavy
Extra Heavy

5 pts
10 pts
15 pts
20 pts

WEAPON SKILL AND MISSILE WEAPON SKILL


Only give the stand a missile weapon skill if they have a missile weapon. Formed troops with thrown weapons
do not need a missile skill.
Poor
Average
Good

0 pts
+5 pts
+10 pts

TRAINING & LEADERSHIP


Multiply starting T&L by 2 for the pts cost
Special abilities 5 pts per skill
Mounted or chariot plus 10 pts
Elephant 100 pts
Skirmishers calculate the total unit points as normal and then halve cost
WEAPONS
Thrown weapon for formed troops +4 pts
Heavy Weapons if on foot, Lance, Xyston or Kontos if mounted +10 pts
Crossbow +15 pts
Longbow, Late Handgun +10 pts
Javelins/Darts/thrown weapons for skirmishers - Free
Bow, Light Crossbow, staff sling, Early Handgun +8 pts
Any other missile weapon +5 pts
Pikes +10 pts
Long Spears +5 pts
Light Cannon or Bolt Thrower +30 pts
Heavy Cannon + 40 pts

56

15. Generic Troop Types


The following statistics on this page illustrate some of the many different types of troops that can be used within the
Crusader rule system. Like most rules ANY troops can be modelled and for many gamers this will be something they want
to do, customising the rules to their own style of games.
In future we will be supporting the Crusader rules with army lists, campaign modules and supplements, some of which will
Here
are a fewas
generic
troop types
should
give a basicmaterial.
idea of theAny
qualitty
and abilitiesthat
of forces,
. want to make to these rules
be
available
downloads
and that
some
as published
contributions
players
using
these
as
guidelines
should
help
to
design
your
own
army
lists.
There
are
more
lists
would be welcome and we would genuinely like to receive your lists and ideas. Check www.Crusaderminiatures.com for
planned and if you visit the Crusader Web site at www.Crusaderminiatures.com there are some available as free downloads.
the most up to date information.
I would very much welcome submissions of lists from players and hope you like the rules well enough to want to get involved
in their development.
Troop type

Morale

CS

BS

WND

ATT

T&L

MOVE

Armour

Points

Irish Kerns

Dregs

Poor

Poor

None

18/2

Medium

94

None

52

Med

116

None

78

Hand Weapons, Skirmishers


Upgrades May be Levy (+10 pts), T&L to 5 (+2 pts), may have slings (+5 pts)
May have Javelins (Free)

Milites

Seasoned

Av

Shock, Mounted, Hand weapons


Upgrades To Veteran (+20 pts, wnds to 4), To Elite (+40 pts, wnds to 4, attacks to 3), T&L to 8 (+2 pts) T&L to 9 (+4 pts)
Combat skill to Good (+5 pts), Armour to Heavy (+5 pts, move to 7), May have Lance if Norman (+10 pts)

Dark Ages Foot

Trained

Av

Av*

Hand weapons (* - if no missile weapon given to these troops then no BS so -5pts cost)
Upgrades To Regular (+10 pts), To Light armour (+5 pts), to Medium armour (+10 pts), To T&L 7 (+2 pts)
May have Bow if not in Medium armour (+8 pts), May have Crossbow if not in medium armour (+15 pts)

Huscarls

Veteran

Good

Hand Weapons, Steadfast, Shieldwall.


Upgrades. To Elite (+20 pts, Hand to Hand attacks to 3), Armour to Heavy (+5 pts, move down to 3),
Leadership to 9 (+2 pts), add 2 Handed weapons (+10 pts)

Jinettes

Trained

Av

Av

Hand Weapons, Thrown melee weapons, mounted, Feigned Flight, Light Troops
Upgrades To Regular (+10 pts), To Seasoned (+20 pts), T&L to 8 (+2 pts), May have lIght armour (+5 pts)
May be Skirmishers (Half pts cost, wounds to 2, h to h and missile attacks to 1, move to 10)

Longbowmen

Trained

Av

Av

None

64

None

67

LongBow, Hand weapons


Upgrades To Regular (+10 pts), To seasoned (+20 pts), T&L to 8 (+2 pts)
Armour to Light (+5pts), Armour to Medium (+10 pts)

Crossbowmen

Trained

Av

Av

Crossbow, Hand Weapons


Upgrades To Light Armour (+5 pts), To Med Armour (+10 pts)T&L to 7 (+2), to Regular (+10 pts), Pavisse if not skirmishers (+5 pts)
May be Skirmishers (Half pts cost, Wounds to 2, missile attacks to 1, Hand to hand attacks to 1, move to 6)

Hoplites

Trained

Av

Light

69

Long Spear, Phalanx, hand weapons, Shieldwall


Upgrades To Regular (+10 pts), to Seasoned (+20 pts), T&L to 8 (+2 pts) T&L to 9 (+4 pts)
Armour to Medium (+5 pts)

Cretan Archers

Regular

Av

Good

None

74/2

Av

None

59

Hand Weapons, Short Bow, skirmishers


Upgrades To Seasoned (+10 pts), T&L to 8 (+2 pts)

Medieval Halberdiers

Trained

Heavy Weapons, Hand weapons


Upgrades To Regular (+10 pts), To seasoned (+20 pts), T&L to 8 (+2 pts), T&L to 9 (+4 pts)
Armour to Light (+5pts), Armour to Medium (+10 pts), Armour to Heavy (+15pts, move to 3)

57

16. Sample Scenario


THE BATTLE OF HASTINGS - 1066
As we all know the course of history in England changed in 1066
with the arrival of the Norman feudal system. The climatic battle
at Hastings put paid to Saxon rule and heralded in William as
Englands conqueror.
Historically: The battle started with an archery barrage from the
Norman archers and crossbowmen, but this was ineffective and
so most shots either failed to penetrate the housecarls shields
or sailed over their heads to fall harmlessly beyond. This left the
Norman Army with no other choice than to charge the Saxons
time and time again, only to be repulsed time and time again!
The Norman infantry/cavalry advance was led by the Duke and
his half-brothers: Bishop Odo and Count Robert of Mortain.
Along the entire battlefront men-at-arms and cavalry came to
close quarters with the Saxon defenders, but the long Danish
axes were formidable and after a prolonged melee the front of
the Saxon line was littered with a plethora of cut down horses
and the dead and dying. BUT the shieldwall remained intact,
and the Saxons shouted their defiance with Olicrosse! (holy
cross) and Ut, ut! (out, out). The Normans responded with Dex
ae! (Gods help).
Suddenly things went badly for the Saxons. On the left wing,
where the slope of Senlac Ridge is gentlest, the Breton cavalry
came into contact with the shieldwall. Whether it was planned
or not the experienced Bretons broke and fled. The English right
wing broke ranks and pursued the Bretons down the hill, a wild
unformed charge that was ill advised. On the flat open ground,
no shieldwall to defend them, the Saxons were ridden down and
butchered.

58

Duly noted by the Norman commanders this feigned flight


tactic was employed time after time. This dragged on throughout
the remainder of the day, each Norman attack weakening the
shieldwall and leaving the ground littered with dead.
Toward the end of the day, the Saxon defensive line was depleted
and the line of armoured housecarls was thinning out, leaving
the lower quality troops to plug the gaps.
Another volley from the archers inflicted heavy casualties and
here we have the most famous archery wound ever: as depicted
by the Bayeux Tapestry Harold received a mortal wound to the
right eye.
The Normans now reached the top of the ridge and as the wings
weakened the Norman troops started to envelop and roll up the
Saxon flanks. As the Saxon troops learned of their kings death
morale broke the men. Harolds personal guard died fighting to
the last as a circle of housecarls surrounded the kings body and
his battle standards - the Dragon standard of Wessex and the
Fighting man, his personal standard.
The Battle of Hastings was over.

GAMING THE BATTLE


So how do you go about fighting this mighty battle? Using the
rules it is simple enough to simulate the Saxon shieldwall that is
strung out across Senlac Ridge. If you play on a 6 x 4 gaming
table using 28mm miniatures you should deploy the following
Saxon forces, remembering that they are an abstract of the
forces there on the day:

Frontline: 5 units of skirmisher slingers, 4 bases per unit


Shieldwall: 4 units of Fyrd and 4 units of Thegn all units 6
bases

Archers and Infantry: You can play the game with 4 units of
archers OR 2 units of archers and 2 units of crossbow 4 bases
per unit. Interspersed with the missile units should be 3 units of
armoured Norman foot 6 bases per unit.

Rear: 2 units of Huscarls (Kings Bodyguard) and Harold


Godwinson 6 bases per unit

Rear: 5-6 units of mounted Norman cavalry (4 bases per unit)


and behind these William and Standard.

The Saxons should arrange themselves along the crest line,


taking advantage of the hill for combat. The shieldwall should be
compacted as it would have been on the day.

Check out the web pages at www.crusaderminiatures.com for


an even more detailed breakdown of the troop types involved
in this battle. These web pages will be used to support the
multiplicity of armies and unit types that can be used as the
backbone of your wargaming armies.

The Normans are advancing on the shieldwall and must fight


uphill against the defensive wall of Saxons, a sight that must
have been truly awesome on the day. The Norman force should
be as follows:
Frontline: 3 units of skirmisher slingers, 4 bases per unit

THE WARGAMING TABLE


Not all gamers are going to have a hill large enough to play Senlac
Ridge correctly, but if you can manage to create a 4/5 feet wide
ridgeline that has multiple contours then go for it! We played the

Western Frankish or Norman 900 - 1100 AD


Troop type (Notes)

Morale

CS

Milites (1) (2)

Seasoned

Av

BS WND ATT

T&L

MOVE Armour Points

Medium

94

Shock, Mounted, Hand weapons


Upgrades To Veteran (+20 pts, wnds to 4), To Elite (+40 pts, wnds to 4, attacks to 3), T&L to 8 (+2 pts) T&L to 9 (+4 pts)
Combat skill to Good (+5 pts), Armour to Heavy (+5 pts, move to 7), May have Lance if Norman (+10 pts)

Pueri (2)

Regular

Av

Av*

None

72

Medium

77

Hand weapons, Mounted, (* - if no missile weapon given to these troops then no BS so -5pts cost)
Upgrades To Seasoned (+10 pts), Armour to Light (+5 pts), Armour to Medium (+10 pts), T&L to 7 (+2 pts)
If skirmishers may have javelins (free), Breton Pueri may have Feigned Flight (+5 pts)
May be skirmishers (Half pts cost, Wnds to 2, hand to hand and missile attacks to 1, move to 10)

Dismounted Milites

Seasoned

Av

Hand weapons
Upgrades To Veteran (+20 pts, wnds to 4), T&L to 8 (+2 pts) T&L to 9 (+4 pts), May have 2 handed weapons (+10 pts)
Combat skill to Good (+5 pts), Armour to Heavy (+5 pts, move to 3)

Liberi (3) (4)

Trained

Av

Av*

None

52

Hand weapons (* - if no missile weapon given to these troops then no BS so -5pts cost)
Upgrades To Regular (+10 pts), To Light armour (+5 pts), to Medium armour (+10 pts), To T&L 7 (+2 pts)
May have Bow if not in Medium armour (+8 pts), May have Crossbow if not in medium armour (+15 pts)

Coloni (5)

Dregs

Poor Poor

None

18

Hand Weapons
Upgrades To Levy (+10 pts, hand to hand attacks +1), T&L to 5 (+2 pts), If skirmishers may have Javelins (free)
May have light armour (+5 pts), May have bows if not in light armour (+8 pts), May have slings (+5 pts)
May be skirmishers (Half pts cost, Wnds to 2, hand to hand to 1, missile attacks to 1, move to 6)

Notes
1
2
3
4
5

No more than one Elite milite unit per army


You must have at least 1 Milite and 1 Pueri unit in the army
May not have more than half Liberi units armed with missile weapons
May not have more Crossbow armed Liberi stands than Bow armed Liberi stands.
May not have more than half Coloni units armed with Bows

59

Dark Ages Saxon


Troop type (Notes)

Morale

CS

Huscarl (1)

Veteran

Good

BS WND ATT

L'SHIP

MOVE Armour Points

Med

116

Light

64

None

52

Hand Weapons, Steadfast, Shieldwall.


Upgrades. To Elite (+20 pts, attacks to 3), Armour to Heavy (+5 pts, move down to 3),
Leadership to 9 (+2 pts), add 2 Handed weapons (+10 pts)

Thegn (2) (3)

Regular

Av

Hand Weapons, Shieldwall


Upgrades. To Seasoned (+10 pts), Armour to medium (+5 pts), Leadership to 8 (+2 pts), Steadfast (+5 pts)
Combat Value to Good (+ 5 pts), May be mounted (+10 pts, move to 8)

Coerls (4)

Trained

Av

Av

Hand Weapons.
Upgrades. To Regular (+10 pts), Armour to Light (+5 pts), Leadership to 7 (+2 pts)
May have Bow (+8 pts, if bow armed may not have light armour), Shieldwall (+5 pts, only if have light armour)

Geburs (5) (6)

Levy

Poor Poor

None

30

Hand Weapons
Upgrades. To leadership 6 (+2 pts), Armour to Light (+5 pts), Bow (+8 pts, may not have light armour), Sling (+5 pts)
May Skirmish (Half pts cost, h to h and missile attacks to 1, move to 6), Javelins (+0 pt, only if skirmishers)

Lesser Fyrd (5) (6)

Dregs

Poor Poor

None

18

Hand Weapons
Upgrades. May have slings (+5 pts), Leadership to 5 (+2pts), Javelins (+0 pt, only if skirmishers)
May Skirmish (Half total pts cost, missile attacks to 1, hand to hand attacks to 1, move to 6)

Notes
1
2
3
4
5
6

Only one Huscarl unit allowed per leader with the army and only one at Elite
You may not have more Thegn units than Coerl units in the army.
No more than half the Thegn units may be mounted.
You may not have more than half the Coerl units armed with bows.
You may not have more than half the units in the army made up of Gebur or Lesser Fyrd.
No more than half of the total number of Gebur and Lesser Fyrd units may be armed with bows or slings

test games for this scenario on a 6 x 4 table and actually used


a green gaming mat that was laid over four layers of polystyrene
that had their edges chamfered down. This allowed us to play
the ridge line as four levels with miniatures on all of them. We
kept a 6 inch wide gap (this is a rough measurement as the
ridges undulated over the board) on each ridge which allowed
for units to stand and fight. Each ridge was roughly two inches
high, which meant that units could engage each other and not
fall off the ridge!

The game will start with automatic initiative going to the


Normans who then have 2 rounds of missile fire. After this has
been depleted the army will be commanded to charge into the
shieldwall.

The tracks marked on the map are a nice terrain feature but NOT
essential to the scenario. The trees are needed for the scenario.

From Turn 6 of the game the left flank of the Norman army must
roll a D6 and on a roll of 5 or 6 the Breton unit will flee away from
the Saxon army. As soon as this unit flees the first three Fyrd or
Thegn units in the Saxon right flank MUST roll against their T&L
rating to prevent themselves from breaking ranks and following
the cavalry.

DEPLOYMENT

WINNING THE GAME

The Norman archers should start the game just within missile
range of the Saxon shieldwall. The idea here is to simulate the fact
that at Hastings the extreme range missile fire of the Normans
was mostly ineffectual and that in order to inflict wounds and
base losses the Norman army must move forward.

60

SPECIAL RULES

Hastings was a slogging match and there is only one way to fight
this scenario: to the death! Its an uphill struggle for the Normans
(pun intended!!) but it is possible for them to win even if they
dont take Harolds eye out.

FAST PLAY SHEET 1


1. Movement
Charge/Rout
March
Flee charge

Double basic move distance


Double basic move distance when more than 6" away from enemy
2D6 inches for infantry with a max distance of double basic move
3D6 inches for cavalry with a max distance of double basic move

2. Unit Activation

If the unit wants to change formation,


change facing, retire or sidestep then it must
roll 2D6 and get equal to or less than the
Training & Leadership (T&L) value of the troops
Commander in 6"
Commander attached

+ Commander's T&L Modifier


Only fail on a roll of 12

Leader Casualty Table Roll 2D6 per stand lost

2 = Dead
12 = Serious wound if from missile fire
12 = Captured if in hand to hand combat

3. Missile Ranges
Missile Weapons
Bow/Light Crossbow
Heavy Crossbow
Sling
Staff Sling
Short/Horse Bow
Longbow
Late Handgun
Early Handgun
Javelins (^)
Light Cannon
Bolt Thrower
Heavy Cannon

Close Medium Long


6
12
24
8
16
32
5
10
20
6
12
24
5
10
20
6
12
24
6
12
24
5
10
20
5
10
20
40
10
20
40
15
30
60

^ - Only used as missile weapons by skirmishers

4. Missile Fire to Hit Modifiers


-1
-2
-3
-4
-2
-1
-2

Target is
in light armour
in medium armour
in heavy armour*
in extra heavy armour*
skirmishers
in light cover
in heavy cover

-2
-2
-4
-1
+1
-1
-1

Firing unit
is shaken
shooting at medium range
shooting at long range
has poor missile skill
has good missile skill
is being charged
Moved (not skirmishers)

Firing Weapon is
+1 Handgun, Hvy Crossbow or Longbow
at close or medium range
* Maximum armour modifier of -2 when
being fired on by Cannons & Bolt throwers

If the final modifier is +3 to -4 then roll a D10 for each attack, add or subtract the modifier and
you need to get a final result of 6 or more to score a hit.
If the final modifier is -5 or worse then halve the number of attacks and only rolls of 10 will hit.

5. Hand to hand Combat Modifiers


-1
-2
-3
-4
+/-?
+1
+1
-2

Target has light armour


Target has medium armour
Target has heavy armour*
Target has extra heavy armour*
Difference in weapon skill
You are cavalry charging with lance or kontos
You have 2 handed weapons
You are shaken

Attacker's
Skill

Defender's skill
Good Average Poor

Good

+1

+1

Average

+1

-1

Poor

* Maximum armour value against elephants is -2

If the final modifier is +3 to -4 then roll a D10 for each attack, add or subtract the modifier and
you need to get a final result of 6 or more to score a hit.
If the final modifier is -5 or worse then halve the number of attacks and only rolls of 10 will hit.
If troops armed with thrown missile weapons re-roll miss rolls of '1'

61

6. Melee Results Modifiers


+?
+?
+1

Variable modifiers :your combat value depending on morale E


commander's combat modifier E
for each wound you inflicted on the enemy this combat E

+2
+2
+2
+1

You are fighting an enemy unit :which is shaken E


in the flank or rear E
which is in skirmish order
which you outnumber by 50% or more in stands**

+1
+1
+1
+2

Your unit is :in deeper ranks than the enemy**


steadfast troops defending
shock troops charging or countercharging
defending cover or obstacle E

+1
+2
+3
+4
+5
+6
+7

Dregs
Levy
Trained
Regular
Seasoned
Veteran
Elite

+1
+2
+2
+4
+2

You are formed infantry :with long spear vs infantry*


with long spear vs cavalry*
with pike vs infantry*
with pike Vs cavalry*
in phalanx formation*
* Not if fighting to flank or rear.

+D6 both sides roll a D6 and add the result to their total E

'E' Only these modifiers apply to combats involving elephants


** These modifiers do not apply when attacked in the flank or rear

If the melee totals are the same then both sides roll 1D6 with no modifiers - highest wins melee by 1 point
otherwise calculate the difference between each player's score and apply to the table below.

7. Victory Table
Start with the difference between
the melee results scores above
and then modify by :+5
+2
+2

Losing side at 50% losses


Losing side at 25% losses
Formed troops lose to elephants

1-2 Recoil - Move back 2" for infantry or 3" for cavalry facing the enemy.
3-4 Retire back 4" for infantry or 6" for cavalry facing the enemy.
The unit becomes shaken.
5-6 Retreat back 6" for infantry or 9" for cavalry, facing enemy.
Unit becomes shaken.
Winners get a breakthrough move of 2" for infantry or 4" for cavalry.
7+ Rout 8" infantry or 12" cavalry, facing away. Side loses initiative.
Winners get a breakthrough move of 3" for infantry or 6" for cavalry.

8. Morale Modifiers
+?
-2
-5
+?
+D10
-2

Plus the morale value of the troops according to their quality


Unit has already lost 25% of its starting strength in stands
Unit has already lost 50% of its starting strength in stands
Commander's morale value if attached or within command radius
plus the value of a D10 die roll
Unit is shaken (does not apply if the unit is trying to rally from routing)

+1 Dregs or Levy
+2 Trained or Regular
+3 Seasoned or Veteran
+4 Elite

9. Morale Results
0 or less Unit will rout
1 to 5
Unit becomes shaken. If routing then the unit continues to rout. If charging will halt shaken.
6 or more Unit carries on as normal. If routing then the unit will rally.
If the unit is already routing and it fails to rally then immediately remove one stand.

Elephant Stampede
Template
Roll a D6 and consult the template.

62

Rulebook designed and printed by Rebel Publishing Ltd


Cover artwork by Adam Todd and inside graphics by Stephen Rhodes
Photography by Wargames Journal (www.wargamesjournal.com)

63

Crusader is a set of wargames rules that allow you to game some of the
greatest battles in history from Biblical times to the Medieval period. Although
written with 28mm figures in mind the rules are stand-based and so easily
translate to any scale of model. The rules cater for many popular basing
methods so there is absolutely no need to rebase your figures to be able to
play Crusader.
At the heart of the rules is the concept that you are representing units of
troops in battle rather than individual warriors. Dispensing with the traditional
phases within a turn the unit-based mechanics allow for a fluid game that
simulates the quality and training of troops rather than the abilities of a few
super characters.
The rules have been created with the flexibility to allow armies from widely
differing time periods to fight against each other through the use of a
consistent points system. So if you want to fight William the Conquerors
Norman Army against Alexanders Macedonians feel free!
Check out the Crusader Miniatures web site where you will find updates,
army lists and a F.A.Q. section among other things. All of the details can be
found at www.crusaderminiatures.com

Email: crusaderminis@aol.com