Sei sulla pagina 1di 20

DEF Example 1: Find the dimensions of a rectangle

with perimeter 100 cm that has maximum area. Find


the maximum area.
(i) Draw a picture.
x
y

(ii) Known Quantity: Perimeter = 100 cm.


(iii) Unknown Quantities: The length, width, and area
of the rectangle.
(iv) Define Variables to be used:
Let x length, y width, and A Area.
(v) Set up equations that connect the variables:
Constraint Equation: 2x + 2y = 100
Optimization Equation:
A = xy.
(vi) Decide which variable is to be minimized or
maximized: We want to maximize area, A.
(vii) Express A in terms of One Variable Only by
using the equations in step (v).
2x + 2y = 100
Then,
y = 50 x.
We can eliminate y in A by substituting
y = 50 x into A = xy.
Since A = xy and y = 50 x, we have
A = x(50 x) by substitution.

A = 50x x2.
(viii) To find critical number(s), differentiate A with
respect to x using differentiation rules.
A(x) = 50 2x
Set A(x) = 0 and solve for x. We have
0 = 50 2x
x = 25. (Critical Value of A.)
(ix) Verify your result by using the first or second
derivative test.
In this example, we use The Second Derivative
Test.
Since A(x) = 50 2x, it follows that A(x) = 2
Then, A(25) = 2 < 0.
By the Second Derivative Test, A has an absolute
maximum at x = 25.
If x = 25, then y = 50 x = 50 25 = 25.
Answers: The dimensions of the rectangle are 25
cm by 25 cm, and the maximum area A = xy = (25)
(25) = 625 cm2.

SORTA Example 5: Find all functions f such that

2 x5 x
f ( x) 4 sin x
x
.
Note that this is a differential equation because it
contains the derivative of an unknown function f.
First, re-write f (x) in a form such that we can apply
the appropriate integration formula.

2 x5 x
f ( x) 4 sin x
x
2 x5
x
4 sin x

x
x
=
= 4sin x + 2x4 x1/2.

f ( x) f ( x)dx

1
2

4
(
4
sin
x

2
x
x )dx

2 x5
4 cos x
2 x C
f (x)
5
=

DEF Example 7: A particle moves with acceleration function


a(t) = 6t + 4. Its initial velocity is v(0) = 6 cm/s and its initial
displacement is s(0) = 9 cm. Find its position function s(t).
Since v(t)

= a(t), it follows that

v(t ) v(t )dt a (t ) dt (6t 4) dt


2
3
t
4t C
=

To find C, we use the initial condition: v(0) = 6.


V(0) = 3(0)2 + 4(0) + C = 6.
Thus, C =6, and v(t) = 3t2 + 4t 6.
Since s(t)

= v(t), it follows that

s (t ) s(t )dt v(t )dt (3t 2 4t 6) dt

= t3 + 2t2 6t + C1
To find C1, we use the initial condition: s(0) = 9.
s(0) = (0)3 + 2(0)2 6(0) + C1 = 9.
Thus, C = 9, and s(t) = t3 + 2t2 6t + 9.

Area Problem

SORTA Example 1: We want to ESTIMATE the


AREA of the region S, where S is bounded by
function f and the vertical lines x = 1 and x = 5, and
the x-axis.

x=1

S
x=5

x0 = 1

x1 = 2

x2 = 3

x3 = 4

x4 = 5

We will use FOUR RECTANGLES and RIGHT


ENDPOINTS.

f(2)=0.5

x0 = 1

x1 = 2

x2 = 3

x3 = 4

x4 = 5

The sum of the areas of these Four Right


Rectangles is denoted by R4.
We subdivide the region S into 4 strips of equal
width. The width of [1 , 5] is 5 1 = 4, and so the

5 1
4

width of each of the 4 strips is


= 1.
These 4 strips divide [1 , 5] into 4 subintervals: [x0 ,
x1], [x1 , x2], [x2, x3], [x3, x4],where x0 = 1 and x4 = 5.

The right endpoints of the subintervals are


x1 = x0 + 1x = 1 + 1(1) = 2
x2 = x0 + 2x = 1 + 2(1) = 3
x3 = x0 + 3x = 1 + 3(1) = 4.
x4 = x0 + 4x = 1 + 4(1) = 5
Lets approximate the ith strip Si by a Right
Rectangle with Width x and Height f(xi).
Then, the AREA of the ith Right Rectangle is f(xi)
x.

The area of S the sum of the areas of these 4


right rectangles
R4

f ( xi )x
i 1

= f(x1)x + f(x2)x + f(x3)x + f(x4)x


= [f(x1) + f(x2) + f(x3)+ f(x4)]x
= [f(2) + f(3) + f(4)+ f(5)](1)
= (1/2 + 1/3 +1/4 + 1/5)]
= 1.28 (correct to 3 places of decimals)

Is R4 an underestimate or overestimate for


the true area of region S?
Since f is DECREASING, we obtain an
UNDERESTIMATE by using R4.
DEFSKIS

Possible shortcut?

Get hella integral programs on


the calculator
Integral rules on calculator
Memorizations from
Get on calc page

Must get limit


calculator
-substitution
-lh rule

-the other one


Defskis:
Example 18:

1 cos( 2 x)
dx
2

sin
xdx

2
=
1
[1 cos( 2 x)]dx
2
1
sin( 2 x)
(x
)C
2
2
x sin( 2 x)

C
2
4

Defskis:
Total distance traveled and displacement by
taking integral of velocity

Prob:

Defskis:

The LEARN page

(probs)

DEFSKI:
Implicit differentiation

Get calculator?

DEFSKIS:
U-SUBSTITUTION

14 x2

DEFSKIS
Find tangent at (1,3) of f(x) = (e^x)/ (x^2)

Just make sure you know Riemann Sum

Especially with midpoints