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What is ergonomic?

The word ergonomic is derived from the Greek


language
ERGON + NOMOS WORK + LAWS
ERGONOMIC WORK LAWS

Ergonomic Definition
The study of the design of work in relation to
the physiological and psychological
capabilities of people (matching the work
place to the worker.)
Consist of a scientific principles applied in
minimizing the physical stress associated with
the workplace.
Malaysias Guideline related to Ergonomic

OCCUPATIONAL
INJURIES
Acute vs. Cumulative
Classification of ergonomics
injuries Cumulative
Chronic
Acute
Sub-Acute
Center for Occupational
Ergonomics and Safety

CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS (CTDs)


Injuries cause by forceful or awkward
movements repeated frequently over time.
Other aggravating factors include: Poor posture
An improper designed workstation
Poor tool design
Job stress

Involves damage to the tendons, tendon


sheaths, related bones, muscles, and nerves of
Hands, wrists, elbows, shoulders, neck, back.

Cervical
Radiculopathy

Tunnel
Syndrome

Muscle and
Tendon
Disorder

Nerve and
Circulation
Classifications
of CTDs

Muscle
and
Tendon
Disorders

Tendinitis

irritation on tendon

Muscle damage (myofacial)


Stenosing Tenosynovitis

DeQuervains disease
Trigger finger

Epicondylitis
Ganglion cysts

Accumulation of fluid within the


tendon sheaths

Cervical
Radicul
opathy

Commonly associate with holding a


telephone receiver on an upraised
shoulder while typing.

Cause compression of the cervical


disc in the neck, making it painful to
turn the head.

Carpal tunnel syndrome


Tunnel
Syndrome Radial tunnel syndrome

Sulcus ulnaris syndrome


Cubital tunnel syndrome

Guyons canal syndrome

Nerve and
Circulation

Thoracic outlet
syndrome

When friction or inflammation cause


swelling, both nerves and arteries
can be compressed, restricting the
flow of blood to muscles.

Symptoms pain in the entire arm,


numbness, coldness and weakness
in the arm, hand and fingers.

Raynauds disease

Results from constricted blood


vessel in the hands
Symptoms tingling, numbness,
coldness and paleness in the fingers
Associated with vibration tools

SOME POTENTIAL INDICATORS/SYMPTOMS OF


CTDS
Trends in accidents and
injuries
Incidents of CTD
Absenteeism
High turnover rate
Working conditions
noted by people with
disabilities

Complaints about
musculoskeletal pain
High overtime and
increased work rate
Manual material
handling/repetitive
motion task
Poor product quality

Preventing CTDs

Teach employees the warning signs


Teach employees how to stretch
Teach employees to start slowly
Start an exercise group
Select tool wisely

ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS
Controls such as:
Rotating personnel to jobs
with dissimilar physical
requirements
Establishing work/rest
schedules
Training personnel to use
appropriate work methods
when engineering controls
are not feasible

ENGINEERING TECHNIQUES
Engineering
techniques are the
preferred mechanism
for controlling
ergonomic hazards.
This may entail
redesigning the work
station, work
methods, and

tools to reduce the


demands of the job, such
as exertion, repetition, and
awkward positions.

WORK STATION DESIGN


WORKSTATIONS SHALL BE EASILY ADJUSTIBLE
TO ACCOMMODATE THE WORKER PERFORMING
THE TASK

TRAINING
ELEMENTS OF TRAINING:
- ERGONOMICS DEFINITION AND CONCEPTS
- CTD AND BACKINJURY PREVENTION
- VARIETIES OF CTD, CAUSES, SYMPTOMS,
PREVENTION AND TREATMENT
- ERGONOMIC OF HAND TOOLS
- EQUIPMENT DESIGN, ADJUSTABILITY
AND LAYOUT
- PROPER MAINTENANCE OF FACILITIES,
EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS AS TECHNIQUES
TO MINIMIZE ERGONOMIC STRESS
- HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND JOB ANALYSIS
- IMPLEMENTATION OF TRAINING
- BACKINJURY PREVENTION TRAINING

BACKINJURY TRAINING
SHALL INCLUDE:
- ANATOMY AND
PHYSIOLOGY TO EXPLAIN
HOW THE BACK WORKS
- BIOMECHANICS OF
LIFTING
- WEIGHT CONTROL
- HOW TO AVOID BACK INJURIES
- PHYSICAL FITNESS

PERSONNEL REQUIRED TO HAVE


TRAINING
MANAGERS:
SHALL RECEIVE SUFFIENT TRAINING
ON ERGONOMIC ISSUES TO
EFFECTIVELY CARRY OUT THEIR
RESPONSIBILITIES FOR HEALTH AND
SAFETY OF PERSONNEL.

SUPERVISORS:
REQUIRE TRAINING TO ENABLE THEM TO
RECOGNIZE HAZARDOUS WORK
PRACTICES AND SYMPTOMS OF CTDS
BACK INJURY PREVENTION TRAINING
INCLUDING BENEFITS OF
PHYSICAL FITNESS, HEALTH
EDUCATION AND LIFESTYLE
MODIFICATION IN REDUCING
BACK INJURIES