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A Critical Literature Review on Impact of Rice


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Construction Industry
Article May 2016

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A CRITICAL LITERATURE REVIEW ON IMPACT OF RICE HUSK ASH AND


STEEL FIBRE CONCRETE IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
Maheshbhai Prajapati1 and Dr. Jayeshkumar Pitroda2
1

Final Year Student, ME C.E.&M., BVM Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India
Assistant professor, Civil Engineering Dept., BVM Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India

Abstract: Concrete is well known is a heterogeneous mix of cement, water and aggregates. Globally
concrete is the backbone for the development of infrastructure, buildings, industrial structures, bridges
and highways etc. In todays situation concrete needs special combinations of performance and
uniformity requirements that cannot be always achieved by using conventional constituents and normal
mixing. It is weak in tension, has limited ductility and little resistance to cracking. Mineral admixtures
such as fly ash, silica fume, blast furnace slag, rice husk ash, are finely divided siliceous materials and
are added to concrete as a partial replacement for cement. The addition of these admixtures also results
in significant savings in energy and cost. The detailed experimental investigation is doing to study the
effect of partial replacement of cement by Rice husk ash with using Steel fiber in concrete. Thus the
present research study includes the experimental investigation of concrete by adding Rice Husk Ash
with using steel fiber different proportion in M30 grade of concrete.
Keywords: Rice Husk Ash, Steel Fibre, Concrete, Construction Industry
I. INTRODUCTION
Globally concrete is the backbone for the development of infrastructure, buildings, industrial
structures, bridges and highways etc. In todays situation concrete needs special combinations of
performance and uniformity requirements that cannot be always achieved by using conventional
constituents and normal mixing. Rice husk is an agricultural residue which accounts for 20% of the
649.7 million tons of rice produced annually worldwide. Burning the husk under controlled temperature
below 800 C can produce ash with silica mainly in amorphous form. Today inspired from the ancient
application of techniques artificial fibers are commonly used now a day in order to improve the
mechanical properties of concrete. Mineral admixtures such as fly ash, silica fume, blast furnace slag,
rice husk ash, are finely divided siliceous materials and are added to concrete as a partial replacement
for cement. The addition of these admixtures also results in significant savings in energy and cost. The
detailed experimental investigation is doing to study the effect of partial replacement of cement by rice
husk ash with using Steel fiber in concrete.
II. CRITICAL LITERATURE REVIEW
Following are some critical literature reviews on various national and international papers on use
of Rice Husk Ash and Steel Fibre into the concrete. This all reviews are on Rice Husk Ash and Steel
Fibre concrete and improvement on the concrete characteristic by replacement of Rice Husk Ash and
addition of Steel Fibre into it.
CRITICAL LITERATURE REVIEWS BASED ON RICE HUSK ASH AND STEEL FIBRE
CONCRETE:
Following are the critical literature reviews on various papers based on experimental research
work on use of Rice Husk Ash and Steel Fibre into the concrete.

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Sorelli et al. (2006) researched that a relatively low content of steel fibers effectively enhances
the load-carrying capacity of slabs on ground and makes the structural response more ductile; volume
fraction of steel fibers higher than 0.38% slightly improve the ultimate load but remarkably enhance the
slab ductility. [13]
Hossain et al. (2011) found that addition of rice husk ash in cement increases its normal
consistency and setting times. It has also been found that addition of rice husk ash in brick does not
affect its shape and size. [1]
Vijai et al. (2011) examined the addition of steel fibers in Geopolymer concrete composites
enhanced its mechanical properties. Compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength of
steel fiber reinforced Geopolymer concrete composites increases with respect to the increase in the
percentage volume fraction from 0.25 to 0.75. [16]
Krishna et al. (2012) stated that applications of Rice Husk Ash as repair mortars, coatings and
soil stabilization. Rice Husk Ash contributes significantly to a green building. [10]
Mohod et al.(2012) found that the workability of steel fibre reinforced concrete gets reduced as
the percentage of steel fibres increases.Compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete goes on
increasing with the increase in fibre content. [17]
Shende et al. (2012) found that compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength
are on higher side for 3% fibres as compared to that produced from 0%, 1% and 2% fibres. [19]
Kene et al. (2012) examined that the addition of steel fibers at 0.5 % by volume of concrete
reduces the cracks under different loading conditions. [24]
Deotale et al. (2012) stated that rice husk ash concrete low workability and fly ash concrete high
workabilityalso increasing fiber content reduced workability. [29]
Nair et al. (2013) studied that the incorporation of Rice Husk Ash in concretes results in
improved compressive strength and flexural strength. Rice Husk Ash-High strength concrete showed a
reduction in density compared with conventional concrete. [3]
Akeke et al. (2013) concluded that, the Flexural strength studies indicate that there is a marginal
improvement with 10 to 25% Rice Husk Ash replacement levels. It is good for structural concrete at
10% replacement level. [6]
Ganiron et al. (2013) investigated that rice husk is applicable to concrete for interior concrete
wall. The wet weather conditions cause deterioration of husks that affect the stability of the concrete. [8]
Farooq et al. (2013) found that the addition of steel fibers at 1.0% by volume causes a
significant enhancement in early as well as long term compressive strength of concrete. The maximum
improvement in 28-days strength was observed to be 29.15%. [21]
Sasikala e al. (2013) identified that Compressive Strength of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete
was 1.35% greater than Recron Fiber Reinforced Concrete. Split Tensile Strength of Steel Fiber
Reinforced Concrete was 0.15% greater than Recron Fiber Reinforced Concrete. [23]
Shah et al. (2013) studied that steel fibers did not recover the compressive strength loss of rice
husk ash.Steel fibers have showed more significant effects on flexural tensile strength at 0.5% to 2.0%
volume fractionsused in this study. [28]
Khatri et al. (2014) carried out rice husk ash on cubic strength of concrete cubes has been
sensitive with 5% and with 15% rice husk ash as a partial replacement of cement.Also cubic strength
increases about 30% at 7days and 50% at 28 days by inclusion of Super plasticizer. [2]
Rao et al. (2014) investigated all the cement replacement levels of Rice husk ash; there is
gradual increase in compressive strength from 3 days to 7 days. there is significant increase in
compressive strength from 7 days to 28 days followed by gradual increase from 28 days to 56 days. [4]
Kulkarni et al. (2014) carried out due to addition of rice husk ash, concrete becomes cohesive
and more plastic and thus permits easier placing and finishing of concrete. Adding 20% RHA gives max,
tensile, flexure & compression strength over normal concrete. [5]
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Volume 03, Issue 05, [May 2016] ISSN (Online):23499745; ISSN (Print):2393-8161

Obilade et al. (2014) found that the compacting factor values of the concrete reduced as the
percentage of Rice Husk Ash increased and the Compressive Strengths of concrete reduced as the
percentage Rice Husk Ash replacement increased. [7]
Khassaf et al. (2014) stated that there is a significant reduction of workability in fresh lining
concrete with the increase amount of Rice Husk Ash content in concrete and adding of Rice Husk Ash to
concrete will decrease the drying shrinkage with the increase of Rice Husk Ash % replacement. [11]
Fathima et al. (2014) stated that fibre reinforced concrete with crimped steel fibre of 25mm
length with aspect ratio 50 yields better flexural strength than hooked end steel fibre of 30mm length
with aspect ratio 50. The polypropylene fibre reinforced concrete yield higher flexural strength with
addition of 0.5% polypropylene fibre by volume of concrete. [14]
Gul et al. (2014) carried out the modulus of elasticity of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete is
observed to increase with an increase in the fiber volume fraction. [18]
Eswaramoorthi et al. (2014) stated that Compressive strength of the Geopolymer concrete with
fibers has increased by 10.70%, then Conventional concrete. Due to geopolymer concrete the
consumption of cement, emission of carbon di -oxide and greenhouse effect are reduced. [20]
Sukumar et al. (2014) stated that the addition of steel fibers to concrete improve not only the
strength characteristics but also the ductility. [22]
Jayalekshmi et al. (2014) concluded that waste material optimum replacement in concrete and
2% addition of CPP40 Polypropylene Fiber provides better results than the conventional concrete and is
economical. [25]
Kumar et al. (2014) found that addition of Rice Husk Ash at 25% decreases the compressive
strength and inclusion of polypropylene fibres into concrete mixes increases the compressive strength at
0.5% fibres content as compared to the control mix. [26]
Dangi et al. (2014) said that Rice husk ash (RHA), Wheat Straw Ash (WSA), Fly Ash, (FA),
Glass powder (GP) mix gives more than 85% compressive strength so all waste mix can be used for
paver blocks select only one material then I will suggest fly Ash with FA30 mix on the basis of
compressive strength because here 30% cement is saved and also it gives better result. [27]
Singh et al. (2014) concluded that Silica Fume gives the highest values of flexural strength and
The compressive and flexural strength of the specimen goes on decreasing as the percentage of Rice
Husk Ash increases. [30]
Bansal et al. (2015) concluded that there was a significant improvement in Compressive strength
of the Concrete with rice husk ash content of 10% for different grades namely M30 and M60. [9]
Meddah et al. (2015) examined the results suggest that a fibre aspect ratio of around 80 is the
most appropriate for toughness performance.The two toughness indices I10 and I30 increased with
increasing fibre length up to 40 mm where the trend of increase became smaller. [12]
Kumar et al. (2015) enlighten that Recron fiber and silica fume with greater fineness as a partial
cement replacing material, by which they can minimise the cost and at the same time achieve the
durability and strength for the production of High Performance Concrete. [15]
Following figure shows Development of Use of Rice Husk Ash and Steel Fibre in Construction
Industry with respect to time.

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International Journal of Modern Trends in Engineering and Research (IJMTER)


Volume 03, Issue 05, [May 2016] ISSN (Online):23499745; ISSN (Print):2393-8161

HITORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF USE OF RICE HUSK


ASH & STEEL FIBRE IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

study on durability and


strength

research on improve
ductility

Research on workability

research on improve
ultimate load

10

study on mechanical
property of concrete

12

studu on compressive &


flexural strenth

14

HITORICAL
DEVELOPMENT OF USE
OF RICE HUSK ASH &
STEEL FIBRE IN
CONSTRUCTION
INDUSTRY

0
2006

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Figure 1: Hitorical Development of Use of Rice Husk Ash and Steel Fibre in Construction
Industry
III. MAJOR FINDINGS FROM CRITICAL LITERATURE REVIEWS ON BACTERIAL
CONARETE
After completion of critical literature review, Following are the various major findings from
critical literature reviews as follows:
1. For addition of Rice Husk Ash in cement increases its normal consistency and setting times also in
brick does not affect its shape and size. [1, 10]
2. Rice Husk Ash in concretes results in improved compressive strength and flexural strength of
Concrete with rice husk ash content of 10% for different grades. [3, 9]
3. For all the cement replacement levels of Rice husk ash; there is gradual increase in compressive
strength from 3 days to 7 days. There is significant increase in compressive strength from 7 days to
28 days followed by gradual increase from 28 days to 56 days. [2, 4, 5 ,6, 11]
4. For low content of steel fibers effectively enhances the load-carrying capacity of slabs on ground
and makes the structural response more ductile; volume fraction of steel fibers higher than 0.38%
slightly improve the ultimate load but remarkably enhance the slab ductility. [13]
5. For steel fibers in Geopolymer concrete composites enhanced its mechanical properties.
Compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength of steel fiber reinforced
Geopolymer concrete composites increases with respect to the increase in the percentage volume
fraction from 0.25 to 0.75. Workability of steel fibre reinforced concrete gets reduced as the
percentage of steel fibres increases. [16, 17, 18, 21]
6. For compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength are on higher side for 3% fibres
as compared to that produced from 0%, 1% and 2% fibres. [19]
7. Rice Husk Ash at 25% decreases the compressive strength and inclusion of polypropylene fibres into
concrete mixes increases the compressive strength at 0.5% fibres content as compared to the control
mix. [27, 28, 29]

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Volume 03, Issue 05, [May 2016] ISSN (Online):23499745; ISSN (Print):2393-8161

IV. CONCLUSION
From the previous research paper study and above critical literature reviews following
conclusions can be made..
1. Compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength are on higher side for 3% fibres as
compared to that produced from 0%, 1% and 2% fibres .
2. Rice Husk Ash at 25% decreases the compressive strength and inclusion of polypropylene fibres into
concrete mixes increases the compressive strength at 0.5% fibres content as compared to the control
mix.
3. Rice Husk Ash in concretes results in improved compressive strength and flexural strength of
Concrete with rice husk ash content of 10% for different grades.
4. Overall performance of concrete made with use of Rice Husk Ash and Steel Fibre was enhanced and
it will lead to .better construction practices in near future.
V. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The Authors thankfully acknowledge to Dr. C. L. Patel, Chairman, Charutar VidyaMandal,
Er.V.M.Patel, Hon.Jt. Secretary, Charutar Vidya Mandal, Mr. Yatinbhai Desai, Jay Maharaj
construction, Dr. F.S.Umrigar, Principal, B.V.M. Engineering College, Dr. L.B.Zala, Head and
Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Prof. J. J. Bhavsar, Associate Professor, Civil Engineering
Department, B.V.M. Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India for their motivations and
infrastructural support to carry out this research.
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Volume 03, Issue 05, [May 2016] ISSN (Online):23499745; ISSN (Print):2393-8161
[12] Luca G. Sorelli, Alberto Meda, and Giovanni A. Plizzari., Steel Fiber Concrete Slabs on Ground: A Structural Matter,
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AUTHORS BIOGRAPHY
Mahesh N Prajapati was born in 1992 in Anand City. He received his Bachelor of
Engineering degree in Civil Engineering from Birla Vishvakarma Mahavidyalaya, Gujarat
Technological University, in 2014. At present, he is Second year student of Master's Degree
in Construction Engineering & Management from Birla Vishvakarma Mahavidyalaya,
Gujarat Technological University. He has published papers in National Conferences.

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Dr. Jayeshkumar R. Pitroda received his Bachelor of Engineering degree in Civil
Engineering from the Birla Vishvakarma Mahavidyalaya, Sardar Patel University in 2000.
In 2009 he received his Master's Degree in Construction Engineering and Management
from Birla Vishvakarma Mahavidyalaya, Sardar Patel University. In 2015 he received his
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) Degree in Civil Engineering from Sardar Patel University. He
joined Birla Vishvakarma Mahavidyalaya Engineering College as a faculty in 2009, where
he is Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering Department with a total experience of 15
years in the field of Research, Designing and education. He is guiding M.E. (Construction
Engineering & Management) Thesis work in the field of Civil/Construction Engineering.
He has published many papers in National/ International Conferences and International
Journals.

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