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Assignment 1 Global Radiation Budgets

(Total: 20 Marks)
Preparation:

AttendtheAssignment1Tutorial+Readovertheslides

Worth:

7.5%ofyourfinalmark

Date Assigned:

MondayJune27th

Date Due:

MondayJuly4th,intheEnvirSc1C03dropbox,onthe2ndfloorof
GSBnolaterthan4:30p.m.

Radiation Budgets
Comparingglobalradiationbudgetsofthepresentdayclimate(PDC)toaglacialclimate(GC),
such as existed on earth 20,000 years ago when roughly onehalf of the earth's surface was
dominated by glacial and sea ice, is important for understanding how climate change can
influencetheglobalenergybalance.Shortandlongwaveradiationbalancesinterfacingbetween
theearth'ssurface,itsatmosphereandspaceforthepresentdayclimatecomparedtoaglacial
climatearevastlydifferent.Thisdifferencecanbeextendedtounderstandingvariationsinthe
energy balance of presentday low latitude and presentday high latitude climates, as the
temperatureoftheairathighlatitudesismuchcoolerthanlowerlatitudes.Assumingtherehas
beennochangeintheincoming(extraterrestrial)solarradiation,KEX,orinaveragecloudcover
throughoutEarthsrecenthistory,itwillbeobservedthattheradiationbalancefortheEarthhas
varieddrasticallyovertime.

Assignment Objectives
Inthisassignmentstudentswillusecriticalthinkingskillstodiscusslocalradiationbudgets(ex.
urban heat islands). Students will also calculate radiation budgets for presentday and glacial
climatesandanalysehowandwhytheydiffer.

Youwillbeprovidedwithachoiceoftopictoreflectonduringthetutorial.


Assignment1GlobalRadiationBudgets EnvirSc1C03DATE:____________________

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STUDENTNAME

Reflection

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STUDENT#

(6 Marks)

1. Whichtopicdidyouchoosetoreflecton?
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2. Whatisyourpersonalviewofthechosentopic?Writeyouranswerinthespacebelow.

(2marks)
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3. Whataresomepotentialsolutionstotheissueyouselected?Explaininthespacebelow.
(4marks)

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Radiation Budgets

(14 Marks)

ConsultTable1.1whichgivesthesolarradiation,longwaveradiationandsurfaceheatfluxesfora
presentdayclimate(PDC)andglacialclimate(GC)andcompletethefollowing:

4. Completetheattachedflowchart(Figure1.1)usingtheradiationdatapresentedinTable1.1.
Enterthevaluesforeachoftheradiationvaluesanddifferentiatebetweensolarradiation,long
wave radiation, and the surface heat fluxes by highlighting each with a different colour and
providealegend.

(2marks)

5. InTable1.2entertheradiationdataforthebalancetospace,attheearth'ssurfaceandwithin
the atmosphere for the present day and for the glacial climate. The incoming and outgoing
radiationmustbalanceforeachclimatetype.

(6marks)


Table 1.1: Radiationvaluesforpresentdayclimate(PDC)andglacialclimate(GC).
Thecloudcoverisassumedtobeconstantat5/10.

SolarRadiation
KEX
Extraterrestrialsolarradiation
Cr
Cloudreflectiontospace
Kf1
Cloudreflectiondownward
Ar
Atmosphericreflectiontospace
Kf2
Atmosphericreflectiondownward
Sr
Earthsurfacereflectiontospace
Aa
AtmosphericAbsorption
Kd
Diffused

LongwaveRadiation
La
Longwaveradiationfromsurfaceabsorbedinthe
atmosphere
Ls
Longwavefromsurfacetospacethrough
atmosphericwindow
Las Longwavefromatmospheretospace
Las Longwavefromatmospheretosurface

SurfaceHeatFluxes
Q E
Latentheatofevapotranspiration
Q H
Sensibleheatfluxfromsurfacetoatmosphere

PDC
100
20
8
6
13
4
25
24

GC
100
18
9
5
12
21
19
16

PDC
96

GC
68

17

53
97

49
65

PDC
23
6

GC
16
11


(i)PDC

Kex=

Cr=

ATMOSPHERE

SPACE

SURFACE

(ii)GC

SPACE

SURFACE

Ar=

Sr=

Ls=

Las=

Kd =

Kf1=

Las=

La=

Qe=
Qh=

Aa=
Kf2=

Kex=

ATMOSPHERE

Cr=

Kf1=
Qh=

Ar=

Sr=

Las=

Ls=

Las=

Kd =

La=

Qe=
Aa=
Kf2=

Figure1.1:Incomingandoutgoingsolarandterrestrialradiationforpresentdayandglacialclimates.

Table1.2:SolarRadiationtableforbalancingtheradiationtospace,atthesurfaceandwithintheatmosphere

BalancetoSpace
Flux

Total

PDC

SurfaceBalance
GC

In

Out

In

Out

Flux

PDC

AtmosphericBalance
GC

In

Out

In

PDC

GC

Out

Flux

In

Out

In

Out

6. Whatisthecorrectequationtocalculatenetlongwaveradiationattheatmosphereto
spaceboundary?(1mark)
a. Las+Ls
b. (Las+Ls)Las
c. Las(Las+Ls)
d. (Las+Ls)Kex

7. Whyisthereadifferencebetweenthenetlongwaveradiationattheatmospheretospace
boundaryforthePDCandGC?

(2marks)

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8. Whatisthecorrectequationtocalculatesurfaceheatfluxintheatmosphere?(1mark)
a. Kf1+Kd+Kf2(Qh+Qe)
b. Qh+Qe+La
c. Qh+Qe+La+Aa
d. Qh+Qe

9. WhyisthereadifferencebetweenthesurfaceheatfluxintheatmosphereforthePDCand
GC?

(2Marks)

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