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Manaakitanga is a Mori principle, that should be valued and represented by all

New Zealand educators. This essay will define and explore the essence of
manaakitanga, explaining how it looks, sounds, and feels like to show and receive
manaakitanga from an individual. The concepts of aroha, mana, and tikanga will
be embedded throughout, showing how these concepts and principle interlink
with one another. With support from education literature this essay will address
how this principle will manifest itself within the classroom and school
environment, discussing how it can be implemented into all learning contexts.

Manaakitanga is one of our five valued Mori principles that is important for New
Zealand teachers to understand and evidence in all Aotearoa classrooms today.
Manaakitanga is one of our key values that underpins tikanga Mori and can be
interpreted as meaning any of the following: to show respect or kindness to; to
give hospitality, or to bestow (Pere, 1982, p.72). The principle manaakitanga is
broken down into three parts. Mana underpins: personal power and prestige that
individuals hold, Aki, is to uplight and encourage, And tanga, treating others how
you would like to be treated, creating respect and self-worth. (Smith, 2006).

Traditionally and today, manaakitanga refers to an expected behaviour that


individuals or groups of people should value and reflect. These behaviours are
the way we want to be treated and how we should treat others. It refers to an
expected standard behaviour, a behaviour that we should all aim to reach (Mead,
2003). Manaaki (hospitality) Is an important aspect of manaakitanga that
underpins the importance to give and receive (McDowell, 2009, p.21). The term

manaaki means to express love and hospitality towards people (Barlow, 1994,
p. 63). Traditionally children were expected to graciously give or accept kindness
and hospitality from the time they were able to help with the preparation of food.
Children were taught to always respect their host. If children did not follow the
traits of manaaki, there was much personal discipline a child had to learn with
the regard to the concept of manaaki (Pere, 1982, p.73). Today manaakitanga is
a value that is applied to all learning contexts, showing manaakitanga to those
who are younger and those who are of age. It is a principle that can be
understood as a basic behaviour that applies to most ceremonies, and should be
a guiding principle for everyone (Mead, 2003, p.27).

This principle is also very important in human relationships. The values of this
principle signifies to care for one another, build up each others self esteem, to
give and receive, and to show respect and kindness towards everyone. Not only
are these important to be implemented by teachers in their classroom it also goes
beyond to whnau, peers, and the wider community.

The te ao Mori concepts of aroha, tikanga, and mana, all link to the principle of
manaakitanga, linking to the core values. Aroha is a te ao Mori concept that has
strong links to my chosen principle of manaakitanga. Aroha which is the Mori
word for love, means to show love, sympathy, and charity towards others (Barlow,
1994). The term aroha is a sacred power that emanates from the gods (Barlow,
1994, p.8). Aroha contains three elements. The elements are p known as the
positive force, k the negative force and h giving energy or force. P is the

male element, k is the female element and h is the aspect of giving power to
the gods (Barlow, 1994). When manaakitanga is valued in the classroom, aroha
will be shown to all of the tamariki. An educator who shows aroha to the children
will demonstrate love to all without any discrimination (Barlow, 1994). When aroha
is shown in the classroom, all children will feel loved and valued.

Mana and aroha are strongly related as love and respect go hand and hand. Mana
is a relevant concept as both Mana and Manaakitanga share the same key value of
respect for one another and self worth. Manaakitanga as a part of mana relates to
the finer qualities of people rather than to what they have in terms of material
assets (Pere, 1982, 72). Mana is the way individuals or groups of people such as
different iwi carry themselves. Mana is a quality that people carry towards others
showing warmth, respect, kindness, and sincerity to everyone. The term mana can
also be viewed as the personal qualities one processes and can make all the
difference to the attitude that one can develop or have towards and individual or
group of people (Pere, 1982, p.72). In relation to manaakitanga these two
interlink showing the importance of showing respect towards one an other,
building up each others self esteem in a range on contexts. In particular for the
purpose of this essay both manaakitanga and mana are shown in the classroom
context, through supporting each other in new learning pathways.

All tikanga are underpinned by the high value placed upon manaakitanga nurturing relationships, looking after people and being very careful about how
others are treated (Mead, 2013, p.29). Hospitality is a high value of

manaakitanga. The tikanga of manaakitanga applies to every social occasion,


having tangata whenua put into the role of looking after visitors (Mead, 2013).
Before visitors arrive to the home of another, certain procedures are undertaken
by the host to make sure the guests are going to feel welcomed, respected and
valued. Placing tikanga into the context of school, Teachers need to demonstrate
on a daily basis that they care for Mori students as Mori being culturally
located. This means to have cultural understanding, knowing childrens local
tikanga. This is important as childrens experiences and beliefs may be different
from other children in the classroom (Bishop, 2009). When manaakitanga is
shown in the classroom the teachers will know the childrens local tikanga
(Ttaiako, 2011) as every whnau has different customs and beliefs.

Todays classrooms require teachers to educate students varying in culture,


language, abilities, and many other characteristics (Richards, 2007, p.64). The
Ministry of Education has a range of initiatives and literature that promotes how
teachers develop Te Reo me ng tikanga Mori in the classroom. Manaakitanga is
one of the five Ttaiako competencies that supports teachers to personalise
learning for and with Mori learners, to ensure they enjoy education success as
Mori (Tataiako, 2011, p.4). Like our core values of manaakitanga, ka hikitia also
stresses the importance of teachers knowing the students identity, language and
culture (Taitaiako, 2011, p.4). As teachers we need to reflect on our own teaching
practices to ensure the culture of all children is respected and represented in our
classrooms. The five key competencies provides guidance showing why each

competency is important and how/why they should be implemented in the


classroom. This document shows how learners and whnau voices would sound if
manaakitanga is valued by their education provider. When manaakitanga is valued
by the educator, the children will be able to see that the teacher respects their
culture, are treated with respect, has their name pronounced correctly, knows
about their local tikanga, understands the childs sense of humor, and encourages
te reo Mori in the classroom (Tataiako, 2011).

Languages and cultures play a key role in developing our personal, group,
national and human identities (Ministry of Education, 2007, p.24). In the
classroom respecting each other, knowing our own and ones identity, (Ministry of
Education, 2009) will be felt in the classroom. This will be felt as individuals will
feel safe in expressing their cultures. An educator that values manaakitanga will
encourage children to use Te Reo Mori in class and encourage students to speak
Mori if they are comfortable (Tataiako, 2011). Creating a culturally safe
environment will also allow the children to identify their peers identities being
familiar with their whakapapa.

The curriculum guideline for teaching and learning Te Reo Mori in englishmedium schools, discuss values that young New Zealanders need to develop to
achieve the curriculum values of becoming confident, connected, activity
involved, lifelong learners (Ministry of education, 2009, p.15). One of these
values is manaaki and awhi where students develop respect for themselves, for
others and human rights (Ministry of education 2009). In advancing the principal

of manaakitanga into the domain of teaching and learning, manaakitanga can


be taken to have several interpretations (Macfarlane, 2004, p.80). These
interpretations are: caring in the classroom, creating culturally safe environments,
and intercultural communication (Macfarlane, 2004). For manaakitanga to be
embedded within the classroom, teachers need to create a loving environment for
Maori and all students where rangatahi can be themselves (Bishop & Berryman,
2009, p.30). In my current school environment of Halfway Bush Primary School,
our main focus at the beginning of our school year was to provide the tamariki
with a caring environment. To establish this in the classroom, we used the
strategy of creating a class treaty. The children discussed the working
environment they need to strengthen mana in the classroom, and the types of
relationships that were needed to build self-worth in others. The children created
their own rules, discussing the environment they need for learning.

When manaakitanga is effectively incorporated into our classroom room


environment, us teachers will be seen as caring for Mori learners as culturallylocated beings treating maori students, whnau, and iwi equitably with sincerity
and integrity (Ttaiako, 2011, p.16). In my current and future teaching practice,
Maori learners and whnau will be treated with sincerity and integrity, through
creating open and trusting relationships. In my future classroom one of my values
that will be evidenced in my classroom will be respect. Not only will respect be
shown towards my tamariki and expected to be reciprocated back to myself, it will
also be shown in my relationships between whnau. Whnau will play a massive

role in our classroom. Whnau will be invited to work in partnership with our
classroom, strengthening our childrens identities through learning.

As teachers we need to know and understand how Mori students see and interact
with the world in different ways. It is important that teachers are able to create
learning relations and interactions where this is fundamental. (Bishop &
Berryman, 2009, p.30) In my classroom we respect and value all cultures. The
cultures in our classroom make

up a huge part of our pedagogical teaching

approaches. All curriculum units are integrated with Te Reo mori, language as
Mori students achieve best when education reflects & values their identity,
language and culture (Ministry of Education, 2013, p.6). Our education program
at Halfway Bush school, values the identity of all cultures. We have created a
environment where children express their identity within the classroom and
respect everyones culture. Children have shared their identities in the classroom
sharing and displaying their whakapapa charts (family trees) around the
classroom.

In my classroom the values of manaakitanga has strong links to the curriculum


areas: physical education and art. Through the arts such as: music, visual art,
dance,

and

drama

cultures

and

experiences

are

valued,

acknowledged

represented, and celebrated (Ministry of education, 2011., para. 2). The children
have opportunities to express and apply their cultures identities, showing their
heritage through the form of art. An example of this was having the children
select a piece of music that best represented their identities, explaining how and

why it reflects themselves and their whnau. This allowed us teachers to gain a
better understanding of the childrens cultures and interests. In health and
physical education the underlying concept of attitudes and values promotes that
students will develop care and concern for other people in their community and
for the environment (Ministry of education, 1999, p.34). The children will show
these developing attitudes applying manaakitanga, showing care, compassion,
and mahi ngkau towards the community and the environment (Ministry of
education, 1999).

Manaaki will also play a big role in my physical education program as children
will be educated to show mana to their peers, supporting and building up one
another self esteem when learning new techniques and skills. Mana will also be
shown through taha whnau, the social well-being dimension of Hauora.
Through Taha whnau children will feel a sense of belonging to their classroom
participating in all activities, they will show compassion towards their peers
creating caring and supportive relationships (Ministry of education, 1999).

Manaakitanga is one New Zealands valuable Mori principles that is broken down
into three parts. Mana means the personal prestige an individual holds, aki, to
encourage others, and tanga treating others how you would like to be treated
(Smith, 2008). As a whole manaakitanga means to show love, respect, and
kindness to everyone. The te ao Mori concepts of aroha, tikanga, and mana all
interlink with manaakitanga holding the same values that make up the essence of
manaakitanga. In the classroom, manaakitanga is represent through showing

integrity, trust, sincerity and equity to all tamarki Titako, 2011, p.16). As
teachers it is our goal to creative a learning environment where all children with
different cultural backgrounds can succeed to the best of their ability. I believe
this environment will be created when an educator values manaakitanga, creating
a loving safe environment for all learners.

References
Barlow, C, (1991). Tikanga Whakaaro key concepts in Mori culture. South Melbourne,
Victoria: Oxford University Press.
Bishop, R, Berryman, M. (2009). The Te Kotahitanga effective teaching profile. SET:
research information for teachers, N/A(2), 2733.

Macfarlane, A. (2004). Kia hiwa ra! Listen to culture: Mori students plea to educators.
Wellington: New Zealand Council for Educational Research.
McDowell, G.( 2009). Manaakitanga: to give and receive. New Zealand physical educator,
42 (2), 21-23.
Mead, H. M. (2003). Tikanga Mori: Living by Mori values. Wellington, New Zealand:
Huia.
Ministry of Education. (1999).Health and physical education in the New Zealand
curriculum. Wellington, New Zealand:Learning Media.
Ministry of Education. (2007). The New Zealand Curriculum. Wellington, New Zealand:
Learning Media
Ministry of Education. (2009). Te Aho Arataki Marau m te Ako I te Reo Mori Kura
Auraki. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Education.
Ministry of Education. (2011). Manaakitanga. Retrieved from http://
seniorsecondary.tki.org.nz/The-arts/Pedagogy/Culturally-responsive-learningenvironments/Manaakitanga
Ministry of Education. (2011). Ttaiako: Cultural competencies for teachers of Mori
learners. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Education.
Ministry of Education. (2013). Ka hikitia-Accerating success 2013- 2017. The Mori
education strategy. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Education.
Pere, R.(1982). AKO concepts and learning in the mori tradition. Monograph. Wellington,
New Zealand, Te kohanga Reo national trust board. 73-79.
Richards, H. V. (2007). Addressing diversity in schools: culturally responsive pedagogy.
Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(3), 6468.

Smith, S. (2006) Manaakitanga: Two further explanations. Blog Spot. Retrieved from http://
geoteachers.blogspot.co.nz/2006/10/manaakitanga-two-further-explanations.html