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Conceptual Modeling: Data Integration

and Presentation
Ann Robertson
Robertson-Tait
Tait
Geothermal Exploration
Best Practices Launch Event
stanbul, 27 March 2013

Outline
Everything you always wanted to know about
Conceptual Models

What is a conceptual model?


What is it made from?
How could your company benefit
from having one?
What data should be included?
Who needs to understand it?
Whats the best way to present it?

Bee prepared
p epa ed too participate!
pa c pa e
2

Where do we begin?
With some basic information

Geology, topography, location of hot spring or fumarole (active or


extinct)

What kind of geologic model can we develop from this info?

Could we site wells on this basis?


3

Basin & Range system example a shallow heat


anomaly
l but
b t what
h t iis th
the plumbing?
l bi ?
Silica
sinter
deposits

Linearity suggests fault control, but is that


the whole story?

Which interpretation is correct?


The Project Geologist:
G th
GeothermEx:
E

Seismic cross-section shows the fault and bedding clearly, but . . .


Drilling into the foot wall has not been successful, but . . .

What is a conceptual model?


A geologic
l i model
d l (framework)
(f
k)
A hydrologic model (fluid flow and permeability)
A geochemical
h i l model
d l (fl
(fluid
id flflow andd mixing)
i i )
A heat resource model (temperature distribution)
A work in progress ALWAYS! (until the last well is shut in at
the end of a project)
A process off iintegrating
t
ti ddata
t ((especially
i ll iinterpreted
t
t d ddata)
t )
A method of visualizing the resource
A useful
f l way to
t convey resource information
i f
ti to
t experts
t andd
non-experts
A RISK REDUCTION TOOL
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What is it made from?


Publications
Inventory of thermal features
Interpreted geological data
Interpreted geochemical data
Interpreted geophysical surveys
Experience and imagination
Drilling data
Well logging data
Well testing data
Produced fluid chemistryy data
Experience and imagination
Operating experience
Tracer testing
Decline analysis
Routine geochemical analyses
E
i
i ti
Experience
andd iimagination
7

A fine conceptual model with many useful elements

Lithology
gy
Stratigraphy
Where would you drill, and why?
Structure
Wells
Temperature distribution
8

Another conceptual model with many useful elements

Lithology
Stratigraphy
Where would you drill, and why?
Structure
Wells
Circulation losses
(but no temperature distribution)
9

Temperature distribution helps us understand the geothermal system much better

Where would you drill, and why?


10

Temperature distribution is an important element of visualizing


the quantity we seek

11

And for correlating with drilling results to help us drill


more effectively

12

And for resource quantification via numerical simulation


(actual temperature data are matched by the simulator as the
first calibration)

13

How can your company benefit from having a


conceptual
t l model
d l off your resources??
It guides decisions about additional exploration
It guides
id drilling
d illi ddecisions
i i
(where,
( h
how
h ddeep, what
h t di
diameter)
t )
IT REDUCES THE RISK OF LOW-PRODUCTIVITY WELLS
It provides
id a rational
ti l bbasis
i ffor a hheat-in-place
ti l
estimate
ti t
It provides a rational basis and calibration parameters for a
numerical model
It creates a platform for common understanding of the resource
by experts and lay people alike
It supports decisions about obtaining additional licenses or
dropping existing licenses
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Land position is of prime importance - 1

15

Land position is of prime importance - 2

16

Land position is of prime importance - 3

17

What data should be included?


As much as possible!
Information from ppublished ppapers
p / literature
Regional geology / local geology
Geochemistryy of hot springs
p g and cool surface waters
Regional and local geophysical data
Drillingg data,, if wells are present
p
(may
( y not be geothermal
g
wells))
Drilling parameters, geology, completion, circulation losses, test data, fluid
chemistry, etc.

Non-resource data are important too . . .


License areas, neighboring license holders/areas, off limits areas for
i
t l or other
th reasons
environmental
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Who needs to understand the conceptual model?


Geologists and other geoscientists
Drillingg engineers
g
Power plant engineers
Environmental analysts
y
Civil engineers
Construction teams and pproject
j managers
g
The local community
INVESTORS
Company owners, equity partners, insurers, lenders

19

Whats the best way to present it?


There are many ways (maps, cross-sections, block models, and
3-D models)
Even a sketch can work reasonably well as a starting point
Need to show the geologic framework, supported by
geophysical
h i l data
d t as appropriate
i t
Use geochemical data to shed light on fluid flow paths
O l temperature
Overlay
t
t contours
t
to
t understand
d t d more about
b t flfluid
id
flow and future drilling targets
Si l synthesis
Simple
th i maps andd cross sections
ti
th
thatt presentt th
the
high-level concepts work best with a variety of audiences
3D models enable improved visualization
20

Temperature data and well productivity data were key


t developing
to
d l i this
thi 33-D
D block
bl k model
d l

21

Conceptual modeling almost always requires an intermediate


geochemistry step

22

To refine the conceptual model

23

Another example of geochemical data integration


leading to a field-wide model of fluid flow

24

Even a sketch - without any wells can illustrate a


conceptt

25

3-D modeling platforms are becoming more widely


available
il bl andd more commonly
l usedd
. . . . And theyy facilitate
understanding of the
resource by non-technical
people

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In Conclusion
An integrated, multi-disciplinary approach is required to
understand the plumbing
p
g of ggeothermal systems
y
Conveying the message is facilitated by having an in-depth
understanding of
The controls on permeability (geology, geophysics)
The fluid flow paths through the system (geochemistry, temperature
distribution)
The results of any drilling (for geothermal, water, or oil & gas)

The model needs to target various audiences


For many, a high level, non-technical message is best
(even though the underpinning is highly technical)
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