Sei sulla pagina 1di 34

Pumped Refrigerant

Economization and Title 24


fred.rebarber@emerson.com

Agenda
Fundamentals and the Operation of the Pumped

Refrigerant Economizer System


Design Considerations and Optimization
Data From the Field
The Title 24 Approval Process, Method and

Documentation

System Overview

iCOM Thermal System


Manager
Liebert EconoPhase
First ever pumped
refrigerant economizer

Liebert MC
Intelligent, high
efficiency condensers

Liebert DSE Indoor Unit


Next generation data
center cooling system
3

System Components
Digital scroll compressors match cooling to IT load
Staged evaporator coil reduces compressor power and

Fixed

Fixed

Digital

Digital

optimizes economizer performance


Electronic expansion valve for part-load and low
ambient efficiency
EC plug fans match airflow to server needs

Reduced compressor power


through iCOM optimization

High-Efficiency Air-Cooled Condensers


Variable
speed fans

Efficiency
(COP)

Sound Power
(dBA)

Refrigerant Charge
(lb)

Footprint
(ft2)

Weight
(lb)

Fin/Tube

Liebert MC

+/-

31

47

+ 52%

77.3

73

- 4.3 dBA

22

- 73%

39.8

33.6

- 15%

670

400

- 40%

Liebert iCOM Control


CAN bus communication with
indoor unit to maximize efficiency

EconoPhase Pumped Refrigerant Economizer


Liebert EconoPhase
Module

Liebert DSE
Indoor Unit

Liebert MC
Condensers

EconoPhase module is installed in


series with the compressor circuit,
with no need for additional coils
or heat exchangers.
6

DX Operation Mode

Cooling
Mode

Outdoor
Temp

Cooling
PUE

Full
Compressor

95

1.28

Condenser: 3.9 kW

Pump 1: 0 kW

Pump 2: 0 kW
Refrigerant
Pump

Electronic
expansion valve

Evaporator

Condenser

Compressor

Evaporator: 3.2 kW

Compressor 1: 8.5 kW

Compressor 2: 8.5 kW
7

Cooling
Mode
Full
Compressor
Partial
EconoPhase

Full and Partial Economization

Outdoor
Temp

Cooling
PUE

95

1.28

65

1.17

Condenser: 3.9 kW

Pump 1: 0.6 kW

Pump 2: 0 kW
Refrigerant
Pump

Electronic
expansion valve

Evaporator

Condenser

Compressor

Evaporator: 3.2 kW

Compressor 1: 0 kW

Compressor 2: 8.5 kW
8

Cooling
Mode

Full and Partial Economization


PUE as low as 1.05
Full Economizer Mode

Full
Compressor
Partial
EconoPhase
Full
EconoPhase

Outdoor
Temp

Cooling
PUE

95

1.28

65

1.17

45

1.09

Condenser: 3.9 kW

Pump 1: 0.6 kW

Pump 2: 0.6 kW
Refrigerant
Pump

Electronic
expansion valve

Evaporator

Condenser

Compressor

Evaporator: 3.2 kW

Compressor 1: 0 kW

Compressor 2: 0 kW
9

EconoPhase 100% Free-Cooling Capability

At 70% load and 85F, full


economization is
available at 50F outdoor

Annual free-cooling hours increase at higher return air conditions and lower unit loads:
Percentage of Annual Hours with 100% Free-Cooling Available
Location

85F Return Air

95F Return Air

San Francisco, CA

42%

70%

Chicago, IL

55%

62%

Charlotte, NC

36%

45%
10

Economization Hours in San Francisco


DSE 125 at 90F RAT, 70% Unit Load

11

End-to-End Thermal Management Solution


Liebert EconoPhase
Pump
Speed

EconoPhase
Unit Status

Refrigerant
Temperature

Pump
Head

Liebert MC Condenser
Condenser
Fan Speed

Liebert MC
Unit Status

Ambient
Temperature

Head
Pressure

Liebert DSE Indoor Unit


Unit
Capacity

Room
Humidity

Room
Temperature

Evaporator
Fan Speed

Liebert
iCOM

Liebert DSE with iCOM Benefits:


Maximizes free-cooling hours
through automatic
economizer transition control
Minimizes power
consumption by optimizing
component operation for
lowest total system power
Provides built-in diagnostics
to ensure proper system
operation
Provides interface to Liebert
data center management
systems

12

EconoPhase Automatic Diagnostics


Integrated economizer control with automatic diagnostics

iCOM monitoring of pump operation


Automatic changeover on loss of free cooling
Pump unit serviceable without loss of mechanical cooling

13

MC Condenser and PRE Skid

14

Liebert DSE Models


Technical Data

95F DB, 52.3 DP

Total Capacity kW (net)


Sensible Capacity kW (net)
Full-load SCOP @ 95F ambient
SCOP @ 35F ambient (kW/kW)*

DA080 (1)
88
84
3.2
10.5

85F DB, 52.3 DP

Total Capacity kW (net)


Sensible Capacity kW (net)
Full-load SCOP @ 95F ambient
SCOP @ 35F ambient (kW/kW)*

85
77
3.0
9.1

Model
DA085 (1)
DA125
100
146
94
146
3.1
3.8
10.1
17.5
92
83
2.7
8.7

130
130
3.4
12.2

DA150
170
170
3.2
13.0

DA165
181
181
3.1
12.8

153
153
2.9
12.0

163
163
2.8
11.7

*Economizer mode operating at 100% DX capacity


Note: Capacity data is rated and factory-certified per ASHRAE 127-2012 with a 5% tolerance
(1) Available in UPFLOW units as well as downflow

Basic Dimensions - Downflow Units


Model
DA080
DA085
DA125
DA150
DA165

Length (A)
100"
100"
144"
144"
144"

Width (B)
35"
35"
47"
47"
47"

*Add minimum 18" height for separate filter plenum, plus floorstand height

Height (C)
76"
76"
76"
76"
76"

FIELD SUPPLIED DATA

Real World Data Compared to Predicted

Partial Economization Begins at 70F

18

Liebert DSE Beta Test Upstate NY


800

DSE Economizer Monthly Run Hours 2012-2013

700
600
500

2012 Temperatures

400
2013 Temperatures

300
200
100

Unit #1
Econ Hrs
4,018Hrs

Unit #2
Econ Hrs
5,354Hrs

0
Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct

Liebert DSE Cooled Data Center Performance


400

1.40

Power History

300

1.30

250

1.25

Cooling PUE

1.35

KW

350

Data Center Total Avg.


KW
UPS Total Avg. KW

200

1.20

Actual Avg. Cooling KW


150

1.15
Avg O/A Temp
Cooling PUE

100

1.10

50

0
29-Aug-12

1.05

18-Oct-12

7-Dec-12

26-Jan-13

17-Mar-13

6-May-13

25-Jun-13

14-Aug-13

3-Oct-13

22-Nov-13

1.00
11-Jan-14

Driver Improved PUE


Initial Interest - ASHRAE

Allowable Conditions (20%


RH to 62.6 F. Dew Point)
Reality - Most Customers

prefer ASHRAE
Recommended Conditions
(41.9 F. Dew Point to 60%
RH)
DSE is an indirect system

and not sensitive to tight


inside humidity tolerances.

21

THE ROAD TO TITLE 24


APPROVAL

22

Executive Summary CEC Submission


Report
At the time the Energy Code was written, the

refrigerant economization method was just being


released into the market place to meet high
efficiency needs
Since 2012, over 1500 of the Liebert DSE

systems have been installed throughout North


America, South America, Europe and Australia
52 systems are installed in California data

centers.

23

CEC Economization Requirements


The Energy Code requires all Data Centers to

meet the efficiency requirement of either one of


two prescriptive economization methods (outside
air economization or water economization). This
now includes pumped refrigerant economization.
Or demonstrate through the Exceptional Design

Compliance method the proposed solution meets


or exceeds the energy efficiency of the
prescriptive methods.

24

Title 24 Section 140.9 (a) Prescriptive


Requirements for Computer Rooms
Economizers
(A) air-side with full capacity at 55F DB outdoor temp
(B) water-side with full capacity at 40F DB outdoor
temp
Exceptions
Room under 5 tons
50 tons of new equipment in an existing room in existing bldg
20 tons of new equipment in a new room in existing bldg

25

Title 24 Time Dependant Valuation


TDV is quite simple. It holds the total cost of
energy constant at forecasted retail price levels
but gives more weight to onpeak hours and less
weight to offpeak hours. This means that energy
efficiency measures that perform better onpeak
will be valued more highly than measures that do
not.
Source:
http://www.energy.ca.gov/title24/2013standards/prerulemaking/document
s/general_cec_documents/Title24_2013_TDV_Methodology_Report_23F
eb2011.pdf

26

The Path To Approval


Baseline energy budget created using the Energy Commissions

public domain software CBECC-Com (Build 717).


The proposed Liebert DSE model was created using the CBECCCom software, by extracting the IDF model (IDF is a format used by
EnergyPlus) and then adding custom curves for the Liebert DSE
equipment.
The custom curves were developed from a regression analysis of
Liebert pumped refrigerant system data, following the AHRI 1360
standard used for determining the efficiency rating.
We then simulated the proposed model. Once both models were
created and simulated, the results were extracted to the Exceptional
Design Compliance - End-Use Summary Comparison spreadsheet.

27

End-Use Summary TDV Margins

Source:
http://www.energy.ca.gov/title24/2008standards/special_case_appliance/ref
rigerant_economizer/2015-0609_Emerson_Proposal_to_Include_Refrigerant_Economizers_in_T24.pdf
28

Pumped Refrigerant Approved in 14 of


16 Climate Zones

29

Energy and Water Savings


A cooling system with a water economizer uses

an average of 4.2 million gallons of water per


year for a data center with an IT load of 1.2 MW.
The Liebert DSE pump refrigerant economization

system utilizes less energy based on the TDV


calculation methods for 14 of these 16 climate
zones

30

Water Reduction in All Climate Zones

31

Project Approval Process


The CEC approved the inclusion of the Liebert EconoPhase pumped

refrigerant economizer as a prescriptive option on September 9,


2015, as shown in the CECs Blueprint newsletter, Issue 111.
The approval to use pumped refrigerant economizers is an
alternative to the use of water-side economizers per Section
140.9(a)1B, and is specific to pumped refrigerant economizers
installed in climate zones 1-9, 11-14, and 16.
The Liebert EconoPhase economizer system is not yet accounted for
in the CECs performance software, so engineers and others wanting
to use the Liebert DSE with Econophase pumped refrigerant
economizer in California should follow this guideline:

If the project is complying using the performance approach, then the


cooling system serving the computer room should be specified as a
basic, efficient chilled water plant, with an integrated water economizer.
The compliance documents can be used to show local government
jurisdictions that the efficiency of the Liebert DSE is equivalent or better
than the chilled water system and acceptable as a prescriptive
alternative.
Source: http://www.energy.ca.gov/2015publications/CEC-4002015-031/CEC-400-2015-031.pdf

32

Refrigerant Economizers
Approved as Alt. Comp. Pkg. for Title 24

Source: http://docketpublic.energy.ca.gov/PublicDocuments/15-MISC03/TN206117_20150916T095116_Resolution_of_the_Energy_Commi
ssion_re_Refrigerant_Economizers.pdf

33

Questions?

34