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Introduction

In mathematics, function is a relation whereby


every input gives a unique or exactly one output. The
output of a function depends on the input which means
in put quantity is an independent quantity whereas
output of a function is a dependent quantity. For
instance, the function that relates each real
number x to its square, x2. The output of a
function f corresponding to an input x is denoted by f(x)
(read "f of x"). In this example, if the input is 3, then
the output is 9, and we may write f(3) = 9. Likewise, if
the input is 3, then the output is also 9, and we may
write f(3) = 9. There are four possible ways to represent
function; verbally, numerically, visually (Graphically)
and algebraically.
i) Verbal :
When expressing a process mathematically, people
often develops a verbal description of the problem.
As an example, 3+2x can be represented as three
added to twice x or double x and add three
ii) Numerical :
This can be expressed as a list of value pairs or in
coordinate form, as in (1, 5) which means that if 1
as an input and the outcome is 5. This can
reorganized as (x, y) in graphing.
iii)
Visual (Graphical) :
This involves modelling a function in a dimensional
overlay. Scientific data is often recorded in a visual
format. Example includes seismograph reading,
electrocardiogram, and oscilloscope readings.
iv)

Algebraic :

This is the most common way used by us,


example: f(x) = 3+2x . x in the f(x) means input or
domain while f(x) represent the output or
codomain.

1.Differences between relation and function


Relation is simply a set of ordered pairs. A
relation from a set X to another set Y is the
linking of elements of set X to the elements of
set Y. The elements in set X are known as the
domain whereas the elements in set Y are
known as the codomain.

The mapping above shows a relation from set


A into set B. this relation consist of ordered
pairs (1,2), (3,2), (5,7) and (9,8)
The domain is {1,3,5,9}.
The range is {2,7,8}. (3,5 and 6 are not
part of the range)
The range is the dependent variable.
Relation are classified into 4 types
i.
ii.

iii.

One-to-one relation: Each element in the


domain has only one image in the range.
One-to-many relation: Each element in the
domain might has more than one image in
the range.
Many-to-one relation: There are element
in the domain that have more than one
image in the range.

iv.

Many-to-many
relation:
There
are
elements in the domain that have more
than one image in the range and there are
elements in the range that are linked to
more than one element in the domain.

The differences between function and relation


are function has a specific object and image
whereas objects of a relation can more than
one image.
Example:

The figure shown above is a parabola, which is


a relation. When a vertical line pass through
the graph, it intersects the graph twice which
means it has two image when x=5.
There are numbers that are related to each
other in every relation. There could be a large
variety of numbers in the domain for a given
range. For example, if x is equal to 23, then y
could be equal to 46 or 11.5, depending on the
factors that are being played into the domain.
In a function, the numbers will always be able
to relate back to a single number out of the
range of numbers. It can be concluded that if x
equals 13, then y will always equal 26. There

may be many numbers in a domain that lead


to the same range in a function, but there will
never be more numbers in a range than a
domain. If the number of x changes to 14,
then
y
will
change
to
28.
Many
mathematicians use the term "well behaved"
for numbers that are part of a function.