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UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE SAN AGUSTIN AREQUIPA

FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA DE PRODUCCIN Y SERVICIOS


ESCUELA PROFESIONAL DE INGENIERA ELECTRNICA

ESTABILIDAD DE LOS SCA

CURSO
ALUMNOS

: Teora de Control Automtico I


: Dueas Guardia Vctor
Chambi Mamani Pedro Omar

2009

Criterio de Routh-Hurtwitz (R-H): Determine si G (s) es


estable usando el criterio de R-H
N ( s)
G ( s) 3
s 3s 2
i)

1.

s3
s2
s1
s0

-3

Sistema es inestable
>> roots([1 0 -3 2])
ans =
-2.0000
1.0000
1.0000
k * N ( s)
G(s) 5
4
s 2 s 24 s 3 48s 2 25s 50
ii)

s5

24

-25
(2 s 4 48s 2 50)
8s 3 96s
s

s
s3
s2

s1
s0

48

-50

0(8) 0(96)
24

-50

112.7

-50

Sistema es inestable
>> roots([1 2 24 48 -25 -50])
ans =
0.0000 + 5.0000i
0.0000 - 5.0000i
1.0000
-2.0000

-1.0000
2. Criterio de R-H: A partir de la ecuacin de caracterstica
(s) , determine si el sistema es estable usando el criterio de
R-H.
( s) s 3 2s 2 s 2
i)

s3
s

s1
s0

(2 s 2 2)
4s
s

0(4) 0
8

Sistema es estable
>> roots([1 2 1 2])
ans =
-2.0000
0.0000 + 1.0000i
0.0000 - 1.0000i
>> num=conv(2,[1 0 1])
num =
2
0
2
>> dem=conv([1 0],[1 0 1])
dem =
1
0
1
0
>> sys=tf(num,dem)
Transfer function:
2 s^2 + 2
--------s^3 + s
>> pzmap(sys)
>> num=1
num =
1
>> den=[1 2 1 2]
den =
1
2
1
2
>> sys=tf(num,den)
Transfer function:
1
------------------s^3 + 2 s^2 + s + 2
>> pzmap(sys)
>> grid

Pole-Zero Map

1.5 0.86

Imaginary Axis

0.5

0.76

-1

0.5

0.34

0.985
2

1.5

0.5

0.985

0.94

0.76

-1.5 0.86
-2.5

-2

0.64
-1.5

0.5
-1

0.34
-0.5

Real Axis

ii)

( s) s 4 12 s 2 36

s
s3
s2

s1
s0

12

36

0(4) 0(24)

( s 4 12s 2 36)
4s 3 24 s
s

0
(6s 2 36)
12s
s

0(12)

36

0.16

0.94

2.5
0

-0.5

0.64

36

Sistema es estable
>> roots([1
ans =
0 +
0 0 +
0 >> num=1
num =
1

0 13 0 36])
3.0000i
3.0000i
2.0000i
2.0000i

0.16
0

0.5

>> den=[1 0 13 0 36]


den =
1
0
13
0
>> sys=tf(num,den)
Transfer function:
1
----------------s^4 + 13 s^2 + 36
>> pzmap(sys)
>> grid

36

Pole-Zero Map
0.25

0.18

0.125

0.085

4
0.055

2.5

0.38

Imaginary Axis

2
1

1.5
1

0.65

0.5

0
-1

0.5
0.65

1
1.5

-2

0.38

2.5

-3
-4
-1

3
0.18

0.25
-0.8

0.125
-0.6

0.085
-0.4

0.055

0.025 3.5

-0.2

40

Real Axis

iii)

( s) s 5 2s 4 4 s 3 8s 2 5s 10

s5

s
s3
s2
s1
s0

0.025 3.5

10

0(8) 0(16) 0
4

10

-4

-10

(2s 4 8s 2 10)
8s 3 16 s
s

0.2

Sistema inestable
>> roots([1 2 4 8 5 10])
ans =
-2.0000
0.3436 + 1.4553i
0.3436 - 1.4553i
-0.3436 + 1.4553i
-0.3436 - 1.4553i
>> num=1
num =
1
>> den=[1 2 4 8 5 10]
den =
1
2
4
8
5 10
>> sys=tf(num,den)
Transfer function:
1
---------------------------------------------s^5 + 2 s^4 + 4 s^3 + 8 s^2 + 5 s + 10
>> pzmap(sys)
>> grid

1.5

Pole-Zero Map
0.7

0.82

0.56

0.42

0.28

0.14

0.91

Imaginary Axis

0.5 0.975
2
0

1.75

1.5

1.25

0.75

0.5

0.25

-0.5 0.975

-1

-1.5
-2

0.91

0.82

0.7
-1.5

0.56

0.42

-1

0.28
-0.5

Real Axis

0.14
0

0.5

iv)

s4
s3
s2
s1
s0

(s) s 4 s 3 s 2 s 2
1

Sistema es inestable
>> roots([1 1 1 1 2])
ans =
-0.9734 + 0.7873i
-0.9734 - 0.7873i
0.4734 + 1.0256i
0.4734 - 1.0256i
>> num=1
num =
1
>> den=[1 1 1 1 2]
den =
1
1
1
1
>> sys=tf(num,den)
Transfer function:
1
----------------------s^4 + s^3 + s^2 + s + 2
>> pzmap(sys)
>> grid

1.5

Pole-Zero Map
0.6

0.46

0.34

0.22

0.1

0.74

1.2
1
0.8

0.86

0.6

0.5
Imaginary Axis

1.4

0.4

0.96

0.2

0
0.2

0.96

0.4

-0.5

0.6

0.86
-1

-1.5

0.8
0.74

0.6

0.46
-1

-0.8

0.34
-0.6

0.22
-0.4

0.1
-0.2

1.2
1.4
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

Real Axis

3. Diagrama de Nyquist: Un amplificador tiene una ganancia


de 200 en lazo directo.
Su funcin de transferencia (en lazo directo) tiene 3 polos con
parte real negativa a 1MHz, 2MHz, 4MHz. Use el diagrama de
nyquist para determinar si el sistema en lazo cerrado es
estable. El factor de atenuacin de lazo inverso f=0.05.

i)

C ( s) 200k
H ( s ) 0.05

si
F (s)

k 1

C ( s )G ( s )
1 C ( s )G ( s ) H ( s )

G ( s)

1
( s 6283185)( s 12566371)( s 25132741)

10
s 43982297 s 5.52697842685 *1014 s 1.98440165336 * 10 21

F (s)

s3
s2
s1
s0

5.52697842685 *1014

43982297

1.98440165336 *10 21

5.07479652213 *1014

1.98440165336 *10 21

Sistema es estable
Para todos los valores de k
C ( s ) 200k
H ( s ) 0.05

F (s)

1
( s 6283185)( s 12566371)( s 25132741)

C ( s )G ( s )
1 C ( s )G ( s ) H ( s )

F ( s)

s3
s2
s1
s0

G ( s)

10
s 43982297 s 5.52697842685 *1014 s 1.98440165336 *10 21 10k
3

5.52697842685 *1014

43982297
1.98440165336 * 10 21 10k
43982297 * 5.52697842685 * 1014 (1.98440165336 *10 21 10k )
0
43982297
1.98440165336 *10 21 200k

43982297 * 5.52697842685 *1014 (1.98440165336 * 10 21 10k )


0
43982297

k 2.23245190148 *10 21
>>
>>
>>
>>

C=200;
num2=1;
den2=conv([1 6283185],conv([1 12566371],[1 25132741]));
G=tf(num2,den2)

Transfer function:
1
--------------------------------------------s^3 + 4.398e007 s^2 + 5.527e014 s + 1.984e021
>> H=0.05;
>> sys=series(C,series(G,H))
Transfer function:
10
--------------------------------------------s^3 + 4.398e007 s^2 + 5.527e014 s + 1.984e021
>> rlocus(sys)
>> gris
>> rlocfind(sys)
Select a point in the graphics window
selected_point =
-2.0142e+005 +2.2981e+007i
ans =
2.1036e+021

Root Locus

x 10

0.84

0.72

0.58

0.44

0.3

0.14

3
0.92

Imaginary Axis

2
1

6e+007
0
-1

0.98
5e+007

4e+007

3e+007

2e+007

1e+007

0.98

-2
0.92
-3
-4
-6

0.72

0.84
-5

-4

0.58
-3

0.44
-2

Real Axis

0.3
-1

0.14
0

1
7

x 10

Root Locus

x 10

0.84

0.72

0.58

0.44

0.3

0.14

3
0.92

Imaginary Axis

2
1

0.98

6e+007
0
-1

5e+007

4e+007

3e+007

2e+007

1e+007

0.98

-2
0.92
-3
-4
-6

0.72

0.84
-5

-4

0.58
-3

0.44
-2

0.3

0.14

-1

1
7

Real Axis

x 10

21
Es estable el sistema si 0 k 2.232 *10

4.Lugar de Races: Sea el sistema de control definido por el


diagrama de bloques de la figura siguiente. Realice el grafico
del lugar de races; y segn este grfico, determine para que
valores de k este grafico, determine para que valores de
k el sistema es estable.
G(s)

i)

C ( s) k

F (s)

C ( s )G ( s )
1 C ( s )G ( s ) H ( s )

F (s)

k ( s 2)( s 3)
(1 k ) s 2 (1 5k ) s 6k

( s 2)( s 3)
s2 s

H (s) 1

s2
s1
s0

1 k

6k

6k

6k 0
k 0

k [0,

>> C=1;
>> num2=conv([1 2],[1 3]);
>> den2=conv([1 0],[1 1]);
>> G=tf(num2,den2)
Transfer function:
s^2 + 5 s + 6
------------s^2 + s
>> H=1;
>> sys=series(C,series(G,H))
Transfer function:
s^2 + 5 s + 6
------------s^2 + s
>> rlocus(sys)
>> grid
Root Locus

1
0.8

0.95

0.9

0.82

0.7

0.52

0.3

0.978

0.6

Imaginary Axis

0.4 0.994
0.2
3.5
0

2.5

1.5

0.5

-0.2
-0.4 0.994
-0.6
-0.8

0.978

-1
-3.5

0.95
-3

0.9
-2.5

-2

0.82
-1.5

Real Axis

>> rlocfind(sys)

0.7
-1

0.52
-0.5

0.3
0

Select a point in the graphics window


selected_point =
-0.9579 - 0.0093i
ans =
0.0194
>> rlocfind(sys)
Select a point in the graphics window
selected_point =
-2.9899 - 0.0031i
ans =
570.2846
Root Locus

1
0.8

0.95

0.9

0.82

0.7

0.52

0.3

0.978

0.6

Imaginary Axis

0.4 0.994
0.2
3.5
0

2.5

1.5

0.5

-0.2
-0.4 0.994
-0.6
-0.8

0.978

-1
-3.5

0.95
-3

0.9
-2.5

-2

0.82
-1.5

0.7
-1

0.52

0.3

-0.5

Real Axis

ii)

G(s)

C ( s) k

C ( s )G ( s )
1 C ( s )G ( s ) H ( s )
k
F (s) 3
2
s 3s 18s k
F (s)

s3
s2
s1
s0

18

3
54 k
3

k
0

1
s ( s 3s 18)
2

H (s) 1

54 k
0
3

54 k 0

54 k k 0
k 54 k 0

k 0
k 0

k [0,54]

>> C=1;
>> num2=1;
>> den2=conv([1 0],[1 3 18]);
>> G=tf(num2,den2)
Transfer function:
1
-----------------s^3 + 3 s^2 + 18 s
>> H=1;
>> sys=series(C,series(G,H))
Transfer function:
1
-----------------s^3 + 3 s^2 + 18 s
>> rlocus(sys)
>>grid
Root Locus

10
8
6

0.68

0.8

0.56

0.42

0.28

0.14

0.91

Imaginary Axis

4
2

0.975

12
0
-2

10

0.975

-4
-6
-8

0.91

0.8

-10
-12

0.68
-10

0.56
-8

-6

0.42

0.28

-4
Real Axis

0.14
-2

>> rlocfind(sys)
Select a point in the graphics window
selected_point =
-0.0379 - 4.2547i
ans =
52.9436
Root Locus

10
8
6

0.68

0.8

0.56

0.42

0.28

0.14

0.91

4
Imaginary Axis

0.975

12
0
-2

10

0.975

-4
-6
-8

0.91

0.8

-10
-12

0.68
-10

0.56
-8

0.42

-6

0.28

-4

0.14
-2

Real Axis

k
s
iii)
C ( s )G ( s )
F (s)
1 C ( s )G ( s ) H ( s )
C (s)

F ( s)

s3
s2
s1
s0

k ( s 1)
s 4s 2 ks k
3

2
k
2

G ( s)

s 1
s ( s 4)

H (s) 1

k
0
2
k 0
k 0 k 0

k [0,

>> num1=1;
>> den1=[1 0];
>> C=tf(num1,den1)
Transfer function:
1
s
>> num2=[1 1];
>> den2=conv([1 0],[1 4]);
>> G=tf(num2,den2)
Transfer function:
s + 1
--------s^2 + 4 s
>> H=1;
>> sys=series(C,series(G,H))
Transfer function:
s + 1
----------s^3 + 4 s^2
>> rlocus(sys)
>>grid

Root Locus

0.64

0.5

4
0.38

0.28

0.17

3 0.8

2.5
2

1.5

0.94
Imaginary Axis

0.08 3.5

0.5

0
0.5

-1

0.94

1.5

-2

2
2.5

-3 0.8
-4
-4

3
0.64
-3.5

0.5
-3

-2.5

0.38
-2

-1.5

Real Axis

>> rlocfind(sys)
Select a point in the graphics window
selected_point =
-1.0095 - 0.0373i
ans =
79.3650

0.28
-1

0.17
-0.5

0.08 3.5
40

Root Locus

0.64

0.5

4
0.38

0.28

0.17

3 0.8

2.5
2

1.5

Imaginary Axis

0.94

0.5

0
0.5

-1

0.94

1.5

-2

2
2.5

-3 0.8
-4
-4

3
0.64
-3.5

0.5
-3

0.38

-2.5

-2

-1.5

Real Axis

k
1
G ( s)
s
s2
i)
C ( s )G ( s )
F (s)
1 C ( s )G ( s ) H ( s )
C (s)

F ( s)

s3
s2
s1
s0

0.08 3.5

H ( s)

1
s4

k ( s 4)
s 6 s 2 8s k
3

6
48 k
6

k
0

48 k
0
6

48 k 0

48 k k 0
k 48 k 0

>> num1=1;
>> den1=[1 0];
>> C=tf(num1,den1)

k 0
k 0

k [0,48]

0.28
-1

0.17
-0.5

0.08 3.5
40

Transfer function:
1
s
>> num2=1;
>> den2=[1 2];
>> G=tf(num2,den2)
Transfer function:
1
----s + 2
>> num3=1;
>> den3=[1 4];
>> H=tf(num3,den3)
Transfer function:
1
----s + 4
>> sys=series(C,series(G,H))
Transfer function:
1
----------------s^3 + 6 s^2 + 8 s
>> rlocus(sys)
>>grid
Root Locus

0.76

0.86

0.64

0.5

0.34

0.16

Im aginary Ax is

6
4

0.94

0.985

12
0

10

-2

0.985

-4

0.94

-6
0.86
-8
-12

0.76
-10

0.64
-8

-6

0.5

0.34

-4

0.16
-2

Real Axis

>> rlocfind(sys)
Select a point in the graphics window
selected_point =
-0.0379 + 2.7578i
ans =
45.0615

Root Locus

0.76

0.86

0.64

0.5

0.34

0.16

Imaginary Axis

4 0.94
2 0.985
12
0

10

-2 0.985
-4 0.94
-6
0.86
-8
-12

0.76
-10

0.64
-8

-6

0.5

0.34

-4
Real Axis

0.16
-2