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I

t V O L . LVI. No. 1. JANUARY, 1950 Pl«i:nii:t, Television Extensions A s
t V O L . LVI. No. 1. JANUARY, 1950 Pl«i:nii:t, Television Extensions A s

t

VOL.

LVI.

No.

1.

JANUARY,

1950

Pl«i:nii:t, Television Extensions

Assoon as data has been collected on the

working of the new Birmingham television

station the last remaining

excuse will have

in formulating-if not for

-clear-cut plans for devel-

does exist

disappeared for delay

putting into execution

oping

the British television service to a stage where

it will provide a signal for the majority of the

population. True, a plan

(we publish

in this issue) , but many

details are incomplete and, in particular,

information as to when

the various stations will

out this knowledge, the industry cannot, in its

turn, make long-term plans for producing receiv-

the demand for which is closely linked with

ers,

the number of homes served by available trans-

missions.

Apart from these questions of delay, the basis

on which coverage

has been planned

best possible compromise between the many fac-

a summary of it elsewhere

of the

there is as yet no precise

come into operation. With-

of the major part of the country seems in general to represent the

tors that must obviously

Clearly, the general

possible proportion

be taken into

account.

idea was to provide the largest

of the population with a signal,

subject to certain economic and technical limita- tions.

The location of stations in any large-scale system of distribution is always interesting, and it is rather surprising that the details have not been more

widely discussed in technical circles.

In general,

the distribution of the stations is very much what

one would anticipate, though at first sight it would

seem that the Tyneside station could have been

better sited on a vantage point at the northern end

of the Pennine chain. By increasing at the same

of the station, it would appear that

time the power

one of the more obvious gaps in our national cover-

age could have been filled in at relatively low extra cost, as the counties on the western side of the Pennines would stand a chance of enjoying a fair

signal.

Admittedly, however, the additional area

WIRELESS WORLD, JANUARY. L950

that would then be served is one of low population density.

problems of providing for East Anglia and

Wales are, as a glance at our map on page 14

much less simple, though it is to be

expected that the more densely populated parts of South Wales will come well within the service area

of the Bristol station, presumably on the Mendip

Hills. It should be stressed

the plan is tentative, and so may be revised in the

light of experience

THE

will

show,

that part at least of

Midlands.

gained from the

No doubt there

will be protests from sections of

country that stand to be poorly served. While

the

sympathizing with them, we hope they will derive

that our distribution

rational and equitable

suffer merely from the accident of

geography. We hope the B.B.C., in its turn, will

basis, and they

system is organized on a

some comfort in the thought

not allow the action of energetic "pressure

to deflect it from sound principles.

merits and demerits of our

groups'

Whatever the

system of broadcast

distribution may be, it does at least make orderly

development

possible. Difficulties of the post-war

years have

of an early

reason

THOUGH

tended to offset our initial advantage

start in television, but there is no real

why we should not now make up for the ground that has been lost.

the delays that have arisen in extend-

be deplored, there is

television

ing the service

are to

nothing to make us

will fail

think that British

to develop in a steady and healthy manner.

it; that view is confirmed

figures, which show for the first

The public has accepted

by recent licence

time that the monthly increase in the number of

viewers exceeds the number of newly licensed listeners to sound broadcasting. We are more than ever convinced that our moderate-definition stand-

ards represent the best possible compromise, allow- ing both cheap receivers and a transmission service

that can be extended at reasonable cost.

I

American Hearing Aids A m e r i c a n " A c o
American Hearing Aids A m e r i c a n " A c o
American Hearing Aids A m e r i c a n " A c o

American Hearing Aids

American Hearing Aids A m e r i c a n " A c o u

American "Acousticon " hearing aid, Model A-I20.

tN dealing with this subject, I must of necessity

hearing

which I am most familiar ; that is,

confine

aids

myself

to

a

discussion

of the

with

American hearing aids in general,

larly those manufactured by

of New York.

and more particu-

Acousticon International

Essentially,

a hearing aid consists of a microphone,

more of these

The overall

performance of the hearing aid can be adjusted or

essential

The most important consideration is that the final

hearing aid must be based upon the

evaluation of a

total performance of the entire instrument as judged

components.

altered by

amplifier, receiver and power supply.

varying one or

by a deaf person.

two or more

so

It has been found

that out of

express

a

identically

far as quantitative measurements are concerned,

instruments which perform

person can frequently

a hard-of-hearing

very definite preference

others.

for one instrument over the

Looking for pointers

lem,

prob-

Acousticon turned to a series of reports issued

for

research into this

Though the views expressed

at variance with conclusions

example,

in this article are often

arrived at in this country

Council Special

(see, for

Medical Research

"

Hearing

Report No. 261,

published by

indication of hearing aids

an

Aids and Audiometers,"

it

as

H.M. Stationery Office) we publish

of present

on

the

trends in the development

other

side of the Atlantic.

Current Practice in Design

By

and Fitting

A. DINSDALE

Health Service in 1938 on the

results of a mented by

Willis C. Beasley,

passing, it is interesting to

covered the fact that Jo per cent of the population

nation-wide survey of deafness, supple-

by the U.S. Public

several articles published in 194o by Dr.

the director of this survey.

In

note that the survey un-

from loss of hearing in

measurements, the survey

of the United States suffered

some

form.

Based

on audiometric

established three stages of partial deafness.

Stage 1.

Stage 2.

Can understand direct conversation with-

Has difficulty in hearing ordinary

con-

out difficulty, but has difficulty in hearing properly

in church, theatre, and in groups.

hear on the

telephone. Stage 3. Cannot hear direct conversation unless

shouted directly into the ear, but can hear with hearing aid or amplified telephone.

versation unless voice is raised, but can

The

survey

also revealed three

general types

of

hearing

loss : -

(I) Relatively greater loss for frequencies above

1,50o c /s in varying degrees of intensity.

(Nerve

deafness.)

(2)

Relatively greater loss for frequencies below

1,500 c /s.

(Conductive deafness.)

loss for all frequen-

Dr. Beasley recommended various patterns of

acoustic gain, in varying degree, to compensate for

losses. The essential principle

these various

with normal hearing

with a hear-

(3)

cies.

Approximately uniform

(Mixed deafness.)

types of

out is that all speech

to a person

loudness.

brought

frequency, appear

sounds, of whatever

to have equal

But to a person

ing loss, some speech

frequencies are

heard normally,

others faintly or not at all.

hearing has

hearing

hearing.

loss

Accurately

balanced

is

most

with normal

A person with a to have unbalanced

wide range

losses, it is held that a variety of hearing

A person

hearing.

likely

to rebalance

for

an

hearing in a

accurate

of hearing

aids with

made available, and provision must be made in the

fitting

a wide range of characteristics should be

procedure

diagnosis

of

a

particular loss, and for the selection of equipment

with the

ately

fically,

proper characteristic to compensate accur-

loss and thus restore the balance.

for that

the

Acousticon maintain a policy of providing

variety of hearing-aid responses to meet the essential

a wide

Speci-

requirements

There are

three

supply) of various powers, to which may be connected

of the hard-of-hearing

current

public.

Acousticon

` Constellation "

models provide 36 different combinations.

" transmitters "

(microphone -amplifier-power

a

2

WIRELESS WORLD, JANUARY. 1950

m i c r o p h o n e -amplifier-power a 2 www.americanradiohistory.com WIRELESS WORLD,
m i c r o p h o n e -amplifier-power a 2 www.americanradiohistory.com WIRELESS WORLD,

12

receivers

(earphones) of different characteristics

The three transmitters

are known as A-120, A -13o

and A-14o, which are designed for Stage 1, Stage 2,

and Stage 3 degrees of dearness, respectively. Maxi-

mum

model numbers, are 120 db, 130 db, and 140 db

The first two

peak

acoustic

outputs,

as

suggested

A -14o

by the

requires

relative to the threshold

are self-contained

outside batteries.

The

A -120

of hearing.

the

instruments ;

(illustrated) measures 4in x tin x tin,

complete with batteries. Mallory mercury cell, will

and weighs six ounces,

The "A" (1.t.) battery, a

give 8o-go hours of service. The service life of the

15 -volt

" B "

(h.t.)

battery

depends upon the volume

control

setting and

with a drain

of

220

to

300µA

will vary between 25o and 45o hours.

 

The A -13o

is

slightly longer,

to accommodate

a

I 22h -volt " B "

The A-14o is

ment,

battery.

a much

"A" battery life is the same.

smaller and

lighter

compartment has

Ii-volt

zinc-type

been

"A"

The

3o-volt

The

giving a life of 150-300 hours.

" B " battery drain varies from 500 to 800µA,

instru-

because the battery

The

external

omitted.

battery will give 70 -75

hours' service.

" B " battery drain ranges between 85o and I,35oµA,

giving a battery life of 150 -300 hours.

As

stated

above,

the

choice

of

transmitter

is

governed by the degree

of loss, and the amount of the patient hear properly.

in

use is

as

follows :

power required to make

The percentage of instruments

A -120, 65% ;

A -13o,

32%

;

A-140,

3 %.

Individual Characteristics

To compensate for the characteristics of individual

hearing, there are nine air receivers and three bone

conductors of various characteristics. These are listed below by type number, peak frequency re- sponse, and percentage ratio of use:-

Type

Feak Frequency

Per Cent

(c/a)

In Use

M4

400

2.5

M6

600

1.7

N

goo

3.1

E

II00

8.7

5

1600

14.9

T

2000

19.5

L

1100-2400

I2.7

p

3000

I I.O

U

Uniform

400-3000

10.3

To peak these receivers at any desired

of

rejects

is

high.

frequency,

the diaphragms are mechanically loaded to achieve

the requisite damping.

percentage

is difficult and expensive, because the

The manufacturing process

Each receiver is individually

checked, and must conform closely to specifications.

Thus, there is a

random and

The three

temptation to reduce the number of

receivers.

as indicated by percentage figures of use, do not

permit of any reduction.

chosen at

from six Type S receivers of

But the demands of the hard of hearing,

Response curves obtained

each

type,

superimposed, are shown.

bone conductors are classified

as low,

medium and high and

percentages in It has not so far been

possible to devise suitable equipment to measure the

the

8.2, 5.2 and 2.2 respectively.

use

are

WIRELESS

WORLD,

JANUARY,

1950

response

applied to the mastoid bone behind the

car, under considerable pressure supplied by a head - hand. Where conductive deafness (due to middle

the patient can often hear

bone

of

a

bone conductor accurately.

A

conductor is

ear disease) is indicated,

better with a bone conductor than with an air re- ceiver, and in severe cases of conductive deafness,

it may be the only way to make him hear.

be

The performance of any

varied

slightly by

given " transmitter " can

of a 4- position tone

control. The first position provides no alteration

of basic response. The second position attenuates

low frequencies. The

signal enters the second

amplifier tube.

This suppresses high -level back-

ground noise which would otherwise mask reception of desired speech. This feature is extremely help-

ful when in a noisy place, such as a restaurant, city

tion is introduced before the

frequencies. In the fourth

means

third position attenuates high

position, uniform attenua-

street, or while riding in an automobile.

The Analytic Speech Test

(and still is)

customary in America to use an audiometer as an

For a number of years

it has been

aid to the fitting of hearing aids.

An audiometer

is

an

excellent

diagnostic

an

is considerable doubt, even

tool in

the

hands

of

ear specialist, but there

among those who use it, as to

purpose of fitting a

for the

hearing aid properly. After all,

its efficacy

the ultimate criterion

speech.

of an effective hearing aid is

how well it will permit the wearer to hear and under-

stand

Acousticon therefore devoted many years of re-

search

into

the

problem

of

devising

an

effective

method

mental

of testing with speech.

work

done

by the

The extensive experi-

Bell Telephone Labora-

tories

provided

much

useful

information

to

start

with.

However, the various standard word tests,

composed of random assortments of all speech

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Showing inter -connections between hearing

aid " trans-

mitter " and auxiliary radio receiver unit.

3

mitter " and auxiliary r a d i o r e c e i v e
mitter " and auxiliary r a d i o r e c e i v e
mitter " and auxiliary r a d i o r e c e i v e

American Hearing Aids

sounds, failed

Acousticon

sought

to

to reveal the hearing unbalances which

needed

identify.

What

was

was a test which would reveal the relative ability of

a hard-of- hearing person to perceive

having

speech sounds

high-

predominantly

low- frequency

and

frequency content.

As finally

developed,

the Acousticon speech test

consists

of two

lists

of monosyllabic words, one

in

the

low- frequency

range,

and

one

in

the

high -

frequency range.

In the

1.f.

range

like roar,

war,

home; in the h.f.

there are words words like

range,

patch, cease, chief. score, as in previous

vides two scores,

Thus, instead of one average tests, the Acousticon test pro-

one in each frequency range.

For example, a phonetically balanced (PB) word

list may provide a score of 50% at a given intensity,

when

given the

score

a

as

shown

in

Fig.

i(a).

The

same

subject,

up

Acousticon test,

might

come

with

of 75% in the low- frequency range, and 25%

in the high-frequency range,

This

it reveals

the

restore

as shown in

as with the PB

hearing

Fig. i(b).

list, but

loss, and

averages

out

at 5o

clearly the nature of the

steps which

balanced

must be taken to correct it and hearing.

given

in Fig.

From the indications

hearing

aid with

score up to'roo "o.

Fig.

roo

i(a), it would

appear that all that is needed is a universal type of

enough acoustical gain to drive the

h.f. score up At that end

to correct the h.f. defi-

cause acute

This is the brute-force method.

i(b) is studied, it becomes clear that

When

enough

to

of the scale, sufficient power

ciency will overpower distress.

brute force will drive the weak

%.

But what of the 1.f.

end ?

the patient

and

If the

patient persists

in

wearing

a hearing aid

which

is

misfitted in

this way,

he

will eventually

become

a

nervous wreck,

and

the

strain

on

the

nervous system, in turn, is likely to produce various

disabilities. will suggest that the

commonsense procedure, before

discriminately, is to apply correction to the h.f. end

The ideal correction would

to restore the balance.

raise the h.f. score to 75 %.

more -or -less serious physical

Further study of Fig.

i(b)

applying power in-

This having been accom-

plished, it is then safe to apply just sufficient power to overcome the degree of loss.

Fitting Procedure

The

Acousticon

fitting

procedure

is

designed

to

achieve the results

graph, by enabling

the

proper fitting (receiver) and transmitter which, in

hearing to

as nearly normal as the age and severity of his dis-

ability will permit.

combination,

the

described in

the preceding para-

patient's

in the

the examiner to determine exactly

and select

nature and extent of the loss,

will

restore

the

The equipment

employed consists of a hearing aid

and a pair of headphones.

transmitter, a " coupler," The characteristic

transmitter rises slightly

curve

of - the amplifier

from the

1.f.

to

the h.f.

end. The coupler

this curve to a uniformly

quencies. Thus, when testing,

contains a filter which flattens

flat response

at

all

fre-

the gain is the same

patient's ears.

Also included in the coupler is

a switch by means of which the operator can direct

his speech

at

all

frequencies.

into either or both of the

4

150

120

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FREQUENCY

(cfs)

Response curves of six Type S receivers taken

at random.

Measured cn

an artificial

ear

of

2 c.c.

voiLmetric

capacity with

a constant

electrical input

of

coo

mV.

Fig.

sults

1.

of

(a)

Re-

normal

phonetically

an_ed

(b)

(PB)

tal-

test ;

Acousticcn

word

test.

1001

501

75%

L.F.

H.F.

25,

(a)

(b)

In preparation

totally

for the test, the operator talks to

of power required for each ear.

alike, either in degree

the patient (both ears), using adequate power to be

heard easily.

Then he switches first to one ear and

then the other, to determine whether one ear may be

deaf, and to measure by the volume control

setting the degree

The two ears are very seldom

or nature of loss.

Having selected one ear to start on, the operator

then slowly reduces power until the patient can just

barely understand him

light

from the transmitter.

prevent the patient

and no more. Incases of very

loss, this may involve moving several feet away

from reading

his lips,

the

Then, using a silken lip mask

to

lists, waiting for the

patient to call back each word-if he can identify it.

word is scored. The process

other ear. Then the scores are

operator reads over the word

Each correctly repeated

is repeated for the

added up and reduced to percentages.

Wherever " bad "

possible,

Acousticon

ear. The reason for

ear open to

leave the " good "

thus reinforce

the "assisted

prefers

to

ear,

to

do

to

fit

so

the

is to

what it can, and

trying

hear

" bad "

provide

better overall hearing,

sense. However, in

cases, the " good

and some degree of directional extreme cases, it is not always

possible to provide understanding of speech through

the " bad " ear, due to irretrievable damage

In such

scores and evaluated

them with respect plus consideration

operator

preferred

The preferred and alter -

fitting and an alternative.

native. fittings are tried and the patient is asked to

In cases of conductive

score), the operator will also try

" ear must 132 fitted.

Having studied the patient's

decides which ear to fit.

fitting (receiver),

a

special

slide

say which seems best to him.

deafness

(low l.f.

to high- and low-frequency

of the degree of loss in each

loss,

ear, the

To find the correct

he transfers the score figures on to

rule,

which indicates the

WIR&LESS

WORLD,

JANUARY.

1950

a bone conductor to determine whether the patient

can hear better with an air receiver or a

conductor. There is a weakness at this

If he

has been hearing

is not always

much trouble in the past.

a reliable witness as to

any sort of

be the incoherent

how well he hears may be

bone

point

which has caused

he hears.

The patient

bow well

badly or not at all for some years,

him.

improvement

to

Or he

opinion

it seems

seems wonderful to

may

is used

only

fitting

But his judgment

seriously

impaired.

as

type, who cannot

hears, or how well.

So the patient's

guide.

selected,

When

don't balance,

or lower in

is

applied

he will

usually

express intelligently just what he

as a rough

that the best

has been

this time

the word test is applied again,

the medium of the complete

thereby

supplied.

through

the correction

correct, the l.f. and

hearing aid and

If

the

fitting

is

If they

h.f. scores will balance.

then another receiver is chosen, higher

The test

pitch as indicated by the score.

again,

and

if the operator is an expert

hit it this time.

The important

patient

strate how

point is that when he has finished,

well he bears.

As

a

knows for certain.

on the doubtful judgment

the operator

of the

of his

Next come sentence tests and distance tests, to prove

that he is properly fitted, and demon-

to the patient

result

does not rely

as

to how

scientific check-back, he

well he can hear.

All this seems simple

in

enough hut, as with all things,

Many

factors

patient

there is danger

caused by the psychological

over -simplification.

but

it

condition of the

this is no place

to

say

that

and must be

enter into the picture,

such

logical

problems.

problems

Suffice

to discuss

the psycho-

are very real,

They

by an

call

taken

for expert handling and

into consideration.

sound judgment

There is one

experienced operator.

other physical factor which must be

When

a patient

begins

to

first time,

using

an air

in his hearing.

fitting becomes

changed

for another,

now

reveals as

instrument

will

usually

that

During

may be neces-

changes.

a

subject

of

But it

by the

taken into consideration.

wear a hearing

receiver (this

changes

aid for the

take place

the

be

does not apply with bone conduction),

Thus,

original

gradually

the first

a

re -check

If the

day

after

unsuitable,

few weeks,

and

it

must

which

correct.

steadily,

with word tests

patient

after

day,

will wear this

his hearing

three months.

of fitting

four or five

this

is

stabilize

period,

within two or

exact cause

one or two changes

extreme cases,

of

sary-in

The

change

in the United

medical controversy

seems apparent

that

direct application

the ear canal

the hearing

changes do

for.

gust,

States.

the stimulation provided

of properly-corrected

changes

of

sound into

some sort in

fact is that

does produce

mechanism.

take place,

the

in

The important

must

and they

hearing

spite

of

of

the

be compensated

in dis-

the

and

and

another

Otherwise,

or

worn

aid is discarded

its

inadequacy,

to

patient's

nervous

policy

than

to sell

just

ultimate

physical

That

maintain

hearing

during

to

readers

Various

detriment

health.

aid.

is why it is Acousticon's

good

hearing,

There is

rather

no charge for changing fittings