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If the social circumtances arent good, or we are in bad relationship with our
boss, they will may dismiss us. If we reach a determined age of our life , we will
be pension off . The Hungarian woman can go pension at the age of 62 and man
at the age of 58.

Salaries or wages are the money what the people get the job from their
workplace. There are a lot of things which influence the level of wages and
salaries. The level can depend on the qualification, the type of your
qualification, the type of the job, the time you spend with your job, the number
of people who do the same job and so on.

There are different types of qualification. Maybe thats the best if you have an
university degree, or if you have 2 or more degrees. But it is also important to
have an intermediate or advanced level examination in at least one of the world
languages. Then you can get a higher salary.
You can also earn a lot of money if you have only taken your final exam at a
secondary school and after it you completed a technical course, because you can
start a business alone, or with some partners. For example, there are lot of

joiners, carpenters, bricklayers, decorators who live at a high level, in spite of

the fact that they have only a trade school exam.

Kind of wages:
We can distinguish the workers for two part. These are the white collar
workers and blue-collar workers. The workers are often refferred to as blue-

collar workers. The ones doing mainly brainwork are called white-collar workers.
Most professional and white collar workers receive a monthly salary and the
manual workers receive a wage. The wage may comprise basic wage, overtime,
premium payments and bonuses. You also get extra money if you do overtime or
if you do a dangerous job: it is called danger money. There are jobs where you
do not get fix money, these are called piecework for example the insurance
brokers. They get their money after every concluded insurance. If your job

discountinues and you dont find a job, you will get unemployment dole. The
workers actually receive net-wages or net-salary. It is less than the gross

salary/wage because of various deductions. For example income tax, national

insurance and superannuation contributions, unemployment contribution.

Market Forces:
Mostly every people would like to improve their property line. Some people move
their home to a bigger city or emigrate to an other country to find a better job
and companies that secure their workers and provide flats, cars, mobile phone
and other services for them. In general living in a big city is much more
expensive than in a village or a smaller city. In a bigger, richer country you can
earn much more money than in Hungary, but the costs of living are also higher.

So if you are lucky you get a job that you would like to and earn enough money to
live in appropiate circumstances.

Those people who leave their job, can get redundancy money. Lots of people live
on poverty line or only from the unemployment benefit in Hungary. But if you are
a hard-working man you can a chance to promote. Several people work on the
side to help their family or they do a casual work.

 Szavak s kifejezsek jegyzke:







be pension off




depend on the qualification

a vgzettsgtl fgg














magban foglal







unemployment dole



nett fizets

gross salary/wage

brutt fizets



income tax

jvedelem ad









redundancy money


poverty line




casual work

alkalmi munka

 Fordtsd le a mondatokat a listban szerepl szavak/kifejezsek segtsgvel.

1) Magyarorszgon nagyon sok ember a ltminimum alatt knytelen lni.

2) Az adzs mrtke eltr a jvedelem adnak megfelelen.

3) Nagybtymak mlt hnapban megszakadt a munkaviszonya, ezrt az llamtl

seglyt kap.

4) Steven nem kap a vgzettsgnek megfelel llst, gy alkalmi munkbl l.

5) Be kell mennem a fnk irodjba. Elbocst vagy ellptet?

6) Fejleszteni kellene a vllalat image-t.

7) Mennyit fizetsz havonta a nyugdjjrulknak?

 Kiegszt olvasmny a tmhoz

There are a lot of things which influence the level of wages and salaries for example the
qualification, the type of the job, the country where you work, the age and the competition in the
sector. The things mentioned below are general things.

If you have a higher qualification (e.g. university degree, PhD degree) you can earn more

There are jobs which are much in demand, these jobs are worth more money.

If you work in Western-Europe, you can earn more money, than if you work in EasternEurope.

An older person earns more money than a younger one if they work in a same company
and if they have the same qualification.

If in the sector there is a high competition between the workers for a job, the salary can be
lower, because always there will be a person who will take up the job for lower money, than
the others.

There is a big difference between the wages and salaries. The blue-collar workers earn wages
and the white-collar workers earn a salary. The first category includes the manual workers; the
second category includes the brainworkers (mental workers). The wages are paid twice a month or
at the end of the weeks, the salary is paid at the end of the months. There are gross and net salaries
and wages. The gross is always higher. The personal income tax, health- and superannuation
contributions are deducted from the gross salary (wage) and the remaining amount of money is the
net salary (wage). If you work in the black economy you do not pay the above mentioned deductions,
but it is bad for the economy of the countries. But if the level of the deductions is high, more and
more people will work in the black economy, and it will be worse and worse for the country.

Nowadays in Hungary a lot of skilled workers earn more money than the qualified ones. The main
reason for this is the unequal distribution of the labour market. There are too many graduates and
there are not enough skilled workers. The main problem in Hungary is that the young people cannot
speak foreign languages or they are too shy to use foreign languages. If they want to earn more
money they have to go abroad mainly to Western- and Northern-Europe or to the USA to work
for one or two years and then come back to Hungary and start their life. To work abroad has two
main benefits, the first one is if you can save money, you can start your life more easily, the other

one is if you have working experiences abroad the Hungarian companies do not mind employing you.
I know that there are a lot of incidentals to work abroad, but I think it is worth.

It is true that the older people earn more than the younger ones, but it is really hard to find a
new job over the age of 40. Sometimes I cannot understand the functioning of the labour market,
because everybody wants to employ young people with high-qualifications, with good languageskills, with minimum 2-5 years of experience etc. But when you have the above mentioned things you
are not really young anymore...

In Hungary the people like to choose a job, which is located close to their home. It is almost
unimaginable that a person moves from one part of the country to another. A lot of people rather
commute than move closer to their workplace. It is not rare than a person travels 3-4 hours between
his/her home and workplace.

As far as I know there are three kinds of the structure of wages and salaries. The first category is
when the employee gets only the basic wage, the second is when the employees wage has two
parts, the basic wage and the performance-linked part for example the piecework and the third
one is which only depends on the performance.

If the person works at night or works longer hours or speaks foreign languages or works in
dangerous circumstances he/she gets allowances, because he/she works in unusual working

The money is really important in my opinion, because everybody needs money to buy the goods
for their life. But the money is not importat always. I think it is really important to work for a
company where you like to work, it is important to have good relationships with your colleagues and
with your boss. To work without stress. I think these are the most important things in connection
with the workplace.

 Gondold t alaposan a tmt s vlaszolj a kvetkez krdsekre.

 How can qualification influence the salary?

 What is the difference between blue-collar workers and white-collar
 How can be net salary and gross charakterized?
 Why are people obligated to do a second job?
Why are foreign languages important these days?

What are the disadvantages, if you work in black economy?

What kind of assignments can you get from the employer expect money?
Many young people go abroad, settle there and have a job. Why?
Whats your opinion about unemployment in Hungary? Do elder people get a
job easily?
 What do you know about the structure of wages and salaries?
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Whats the ideal job for you? Why?
 What are your workcircumstantes like?
 Are you satisfied with your boss, colleagues and salary?
 What do you know about the superannuate system?
 How can you find a job these days?
 How do you prepare yourself for a job interview? What do you require?


I am a fourth year student at Budapest Polytechnic. Next year I would like to

work somewhere in the business, bank or IT domain.
I would like to work in logistics or economics domain to a big / multy company.
I like challenge and variety so I would like to have a highly responsible field.
I would like to take part in different kinds of training, because I would like to
improve my knowledge. I hope I will be promoted after the trainings.
The best thing would be if I can work in a friendly and helpful atmosphere.
I would like to work in team-work because I think the results will have been
better by this way. I would like to get on well with my colleagues.

If I work for a big company as a management I will have serious tasks. For
example: I will be responsible for my and my staffs works too.
I will be a white collar worker what is mean I will do mainly brainwork and
maybe I will do some kinds of derical work. So I hope I will get a mounthly salary
early in the appropriate month.

I would like to work flexitime, because if I can dispose my time, I will maybe
more effective in my work. I would like to work in full time not just in secondjob or in part time job. I think sometimes I will do overtime because of the
money or because of I can finish my current work. But I wouldnt like to overdo
overtime because I wouldnt like to be a slave to my work.

These are the ideal working conditions of my work:


clean and spacious office with flowers and modern furniture

there is some modern computers

in the interest of the best result there should be an own room

My starting salary will be not realy a high salary. After few years I hope I can
promote and I will have a resonable salary.
I hope the welfare facilities and the health and safety will be satisfactory.
I like using a computer because it makes my life easier, makes my work faster
and it is a good information source too.

 Trstsd a szvegben flkvrrel szedett szavakat/kifejezseket a megfelel

angol jelentstartalommal.

highly responsible

a) sy. is very busy with his/her work all the time

and isnt interested in something else


b) base of everything


c) more than enough space


d) do/make sg so much, thats can be negative as

well positive

e) field, space


f) circumstances


g) to explore sg


h) with a quiet high responsibility, sy. can relay

you much

i) exercise whichs not so easy to solve


j) sg. that requies much responsibility


k) workmates, colleagues, crow


l) sy. who has a degree and do only brainwork

to be a slave to my work

m) sg. that people own by learning and education


n) have a good relationship with something or


o) sg. is very good and you dont have any troubles

or problems

p) do extra job or work after the normaly

white collar worker

r) class, divide-up

get on well with

s) comfort, well-being

 Fordtsd le kvetkez mondatokat.

1) Az irodm vilgos, sok nvny van benne s tgas, gy van elg helyem az

2) Eleinte nem lveztem a munkmat, de most mr jl kijvk a fnkmmel s a


3) Mlt hten megplyztam egy j llst, mert tbb kihvst szeretnk a


4) t v egyetem utn szellemi dolgoz leszek, egy nagy multinl szeretnk



5) A munkakrlmnyeim meglehetsen jk, de gyakran kell tlrznom.

 Kiegszt olvasmny a tmhoz

I like my qualification, but I think I need other qualification(s) too. I would like to continue studying.
I am interested in human resource management, and I like interior decorating as a hobby. Now I am
not sure, what I would like to do in the future.

I think it is good if I have a job, where I can obtain a lot of new experiences, where I can get
the chance to work in a team, but sometimes I have to work alone. It is really good if in your first job
you can try a lot of things, you can have responsibility, but not so much that you can cause any big
problems for the company if you make some bad decisions. It is also good if you can practise your
language skills and if you can earn enough money. I would like to deal with people. In my opinion
the best thing is when you can do what you want, if you have a job, that you like. It helps a lot in your
work if you have a good relationship with your colleagues and your head of department (boss).

I think in general the workers need to take part in training programmes to perform better in
their job. It is always useful to attend language courses, special seminars, professional trainings etc.
I think it is also important for the leaders to go to further vocational training courses.

For all workers one responsibility is to do their own work as well as they can, according to
their best knowledge and wishes. There are differences in the responsibilities between the different
jobs. The top managers have the biggest responsibility for the company, for the workers, for the
clients etc. I think the responsibility increases with the time, that you spend in the same company, if
you only start your work, you will not have the same responsibility as the other employee has who
has been working for the company for 3 years.

I think every kind of job has promotion opportunities, but of course not the same kind. In
one kind of job these opportunities are very spectacular, and in the other kind they are not. The
promotion manifests itself in wage-increase, a new office etc.

The worst aspects of a job can be bad relationships with the colleagues and the head of
department, too low salary, the lack of the employees appreciation and if you do not like your job.
The best things are the opposites of the above mentioned things, such as good relationships in the
company, good salary etc. There are other benefits e.g. company car, - mobile phone, -laptop etc.,
these things increase your job satisfaction and improve your working conditions.

In connection with the suggestions, I think every employee has the right to work in good
circumstances, to get suitable wages or salary for the work and to go on holiday once a year.

In Hungary the workers usually work 40 hours per week, I think it is not too much and not too
short, the average wages should be higher compared to the Western countries, but compared to the
average price level it is almost not enough, it should be a bit higher.

 Gondold t alaposan a tmt s vlaszolj a kvetkez krdsekre.

 Would you like to work in a low or a highly responsible field? Why?

 How can you improve your knowledge and skills?
 What exercices do you have to attend every day?
 How does overtime work?
 What are your working conditions like at present?
What are you interested in?

What is your communication like? Can you deal with people?

What are your worst experiences about job?



 Helyettestsd be a megadott szavakat/kifejezseket a szvegbe.

disadvantages is not wide-spread fees bills current account payment

cashless currency debit or credit cards

All over the world the trend is the spread of . . . . . . . . . . society. Less and less
cash is used in business and private life. We can pay . . . . . . . . . . in the shops, we
can pay our . . . . . . . . . . with them. This trend has advantages and . . . . . . . . . .

If you use debit or credit card you have to pay different . . . . . . . . . . for the
bank because you have used your card (expect it you buy with it) or you have to
pay interest on the credit.

In addition they can be stolen the same as cash but you can stop . . . . . . . . . . by
card at your Bank. And you cannot pay with card on every shops just the biggers
and which are in a shopping centre.

In Hungary the check usage . . . . . . . . . . . We usually use it at that time if we

pay our overhead costs at post offices. This is the old version of remittance.
The companies use their own . . . . . . . . . . to pay their expenses. It is very good
because you can pay your foreign partner without you change . . . . . . . . . . . The
bank does it instead of you.


 rj mondatokat a szvegben flkvr, dlt bets alhzott szavakkal gy,hogy

azok tartalmilag lefedjk a Business tmakrt.

1) all over the world  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2) less and less  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3) because  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) expect  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5) in addition  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6) without  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7) instead of  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


 Kiegszt olvasmny a tmhoz

Methods of paying
The main methods of paying are cash, cheques, credit- and debit cards.


The cheque has a law-determined content, it is a debt security. It is mainly used between the
companies in Hungary.

Cheques generally contain:

place of issue

cheque number

account number

date of issue


amount of currency

signature of the drawer

As I read the importance of the cheque is decreasing, because of the spreading of the
telephone- and Internet banking and the increasing number of the ATMs. The cheques are mainly
used in the USA. In Europe the cheque is used mainly in the UK and in France, and it is almost not
used in Austria, Germany and in the Netherlands.


cashless method of payment

safe if someone steals it, they cannot use it, because for the usage the original
signature is needed

cheques remain free of charge to personal customers

hard to forget it


not widely spread enough

the importance of the cheque is decreasing

there are only some places where they accept cheques except banks (or: where
cheques are accepted)


The cash has two kinds of forms, the coins and the bank notes. In general the National Banks
have the right to issue the cash. It is illegal for someone else to issue cash. In Hungary it is more
frequently used, than it is necessary.


it is accepted everywhere

fastest method of payment

easy to use you do not have to remember your PIN-code to use it

you can follow the way of the cash


not safe if someone steals it, you cannot do anything, only run after the thief

relatively easy to forget it

Debit card

After you have opened a bank account with a bank, you can require a debit card with your
account. You have to put money into your account to use your debit card. You can use only that
amount of money which is on your account.


you can pay by it free of charge

a lot of places accept the debit card (shops, supermarkets, restaurants etc.)

you do not have to have cash on you

more comfortable

cashless method of payment

if someone steals it you can cancel it


it has a charge if you want to withdraw money from the ATMs

it has a fee to hold debit card

if you write the PIN code next to your card, and someone steals it, he/she can use it
easily you have to remember this code

Credit card

The things which I mentioned in connection with the debit cards are true for the credit cards
too, except that you can use it if there is not enough money on your account. If you want to pay
more than the balance on your account the bank will give you credit. But you will have to pay it back
together with an interest on it.


if you need to buy something, but you do not have enough money, you can do it with

you have to pay back the money later, in instalments


you have to pay interest and some other incidentals, when you pay back the money
sometimes you have to pay back twice as much money as you have borrowed

sometimes you can purchase much more things than the you need, because you
have money...

 Gondold t alaposan a tmt s vlaszolj a kvetkez krdsekre.

 What are the disadvantages of using cash?

 Why isnt cheque-using not so widespread?
 Why is it worth for the banks, if you have a credit or a debit card?

 How do you pay for goods and services abroad?

Are you satisfied with the bank-service in the place of living?

What documents do you need, if you would like to apply for a bankloan?
How often do you use credit card?
What can be done, if your credit/debit card or money is stolen?
Do you order or buy goods, that require a payment in foreign currency? How
does ist work?
 What services do banks offer for customers?



When children are 3 years old, they usually go to nursery school (or
kinergarten), where they learn simple games and solgs, and they do logical
exercieses, they draw or paint pictures which develop their manual skills.
Their first real school is called a primary school. In Hungary children start this
school at the age of 7. Primary school has two sections: junior and senior.
Education is compulsory from 7 to 18 years of age. But it was modified about
half a year, because the age limit was 16 years old.

After the primary school children can go to secondary grammar school or

secondary technical school or vocational school. They can specialize in a lot of

subjects such as: Mathematics, Economics, foreign languages and so on.
Most children go to state schools, which are maintained by the government or
local educational authorities, but some children go to private schools, which can
be expensive.

In the junior section in the primary school children have 4 or 5 lessons per a
day. Between the lessons there are 10 minutes break. A teaching period is
usually 40 or 45 minutes.
In the senior section the pupils have 5 or 6 lessons. The brakes are the same
that I have mentioned.

In the secondary grammar school students have 5 or 7 lessons per day. In the
secondary school there is a compulsory examination, which is called school

leaving exam. There are four compulsory subjects in the exam such as

Hungarian, Mathematics, History and a foreign language. These compulsory

subjects are the ones that everyone has to study.

From this year, the so-called two-level school leaving exam will be introduced.
This means that students who want to stop their studies at the age of 18 can
take a basic level exam but those who want to go on to higher education will have
to do the advanced level. In this way they wont have to take an entrance exam
for colleges or university.

In most schools children dont have to wear special clothes (uniforms).

In the colleges and universities there are 2 semesters. The first semester
starts in September. There are some holidays during the semester, which is
called autumns holiday, winters holiday. The first semester ends in January. At
the end of the semester is the examination season, it takes 5 weeks. In the
second semester there is the springs holiday. The longest holiday is in summer.
This is between June and September.

At colleges and universities there are examination periods after every semester.
Some years ago the credit system was introduced, which means that you can go
on with your studies even if you failed in one or more subjects. You can try
these exams again in the following semester. But I dont know this system well,
because I share in a traditional instuctions.

Punishments and rewards:

Unfortunately the Hungarian school system is punishments-centered in my
opinion. Thats why most children hate or dont like going to school. As far as I
know, it is different in England. There, children are motivated by rewards to


learn better. And so they usually like their teachers and enjoy going to school.
There are several kinds of

punishment: bad marks, extra tasks, and special

information send to parents about their child. Corporal punishment is naturally

forbidden by law. Rewards are used by teachers mostly in the junior section of
the primary school. Children can get red scores, colored pictures and stickers.

At colleges and universities students are motivated by grants. The better they
learn the higher grants they will get.

 Tltsd ki a tblzatot a rendelkezsedre ll informcik alapjn.


 nursery school

 junior section

 senior section







 Fordtsd le a kvetkez mondatokat.

1) Az ltalnos iskolban a dikok elszr als, azutn fels tagozatban tanulnak.

2) Ha fiskoln vagy egyetemen akar valaki tanulni, akkor emelt szint rettsgit
kell tennie.

3) A felsoktatsban minden flvben vizsgaidszak van.


 Kiegszt olvasmny a tmhoz

At first the parents can decide whether they want to send their child to crche or not. Children start
to go to crche at the age of 1,5 or 2. From the age of 3 the children start to go to kindergarten, it is
compulsory for them. Usually it is 3 or 4 years, it depends on whether the child is mature enough to
go to school or not. In the kindergarten the children learn songs, play a lot of skill improver games
etc. They learn the letters and the numbers and sometimes foreign language too. Naturally they
learn these things not so strict as in the school, rather playfully.

Children start to go to school at the age of 6 or 7. The general school system lasts for 12 years
and it is divided into 3 parts. The primary school is the first 8 years. It is divided into two parts, the
first 4 years are the junior classes. In there the children learn to read, to write and to count. There
are several extra classes, these depend on the school. Some schools offer swimming, folk dance etc.
instructions. Almost in every school the children can learn foreign language(s) from the first year.
After the primary school kids go to secondary school. Most of the children finish the primary school
at the age of 14. But if they apply to 6- or 8-class grammar school, they can finish the primary school
at the age of 12 or 10.

If the children choose the 4 year long secondary school, they can choose between different
types. One is the above mentioned grammar school, the others are the vocational secondary school
and the technical school. At the end of the fourth year of the grammar school and the vocational
secondary school the students have to take the final exam. The two types of secondary schools differ
in the taught subjects. In both type of the schools the students have to learn Mathematics,
Hungarian Literature and Grammar, History and Foreign Language. All of them have to take the final
exam in these subjects. The students learn every kind of subjects such as Chemistry, Physics,
Biology etc. in the grammar school. Sometimes they learn all the subjects in a foreign language. In
the vocational secondary school the students learn subjects in a given area such as economic-,
technical-, medical- etc. area. I attended an economic vocational secondary school, so I mainly learnt
economic subjects, in the first two years basic economic subjects and the last two years Accounting,


Marketing, Finance etc. and I had to take the final exam in addition to the basic subjects in
Economics too.

The students have several possibilities after the final exam. They can start to work, if they
find a job. If they attended a vocational secondary school, they can stay there to get a secondary
qualification such as manager assistant, administrator. If they have good results in the secondary
school they can attend the higher education.

The final exam system was changed in the last year. When we finished the secondary school,
we had to take different exams, if we wanted to attend to the higher education. One was the final
exam in the compulsory subjects and Economics and the other was the entrance exam in two
different subjects to get in to the higher education. Now the students can choose between the A and
O level final exams, the A level is the more difficult, but if they want to attend a higher educational
institution, they need to take it.

There is another change in the educational system in Hungary, this change is in the higher
educational system. The Hungarian government has introduced the BSc and MSc system for the last
year. BSc means Bachelor of Science, it is 3 years. It is more or less the same as the college system
was. The next 2 years are the MSc. It means Master of Science it is the same as the university degree
used to be.

In the higher education the students can get the chance to study abroad by ERASMUS
scholarship. It is a good chance to live in a foreign country, to meet with a lot of different people etc.

Children can stop studying at the age of 16, before that it is compulsory for everyone. I think
nowadays a GCSE (general certificate of secondary education) is not enough to get a good job, so I
think it is a bad idea to leave the school at the age of 16, before the final exam... Nowadays the
school system is free, so if you want to study you do not have to pay for it, except if you want to go
to a private school. Maybe from the next year it will change, the student will have to pay for the
higher education as the government plans. (nowadays the first diploma is free of charge).

The normal school hours in the primary school, in the junior classes are 4 or 5 classes per day.
One class is 40 or 45 minutes long and between the classes there is a break, which is 15 minutes. In
the middle school there are 6 or 7 classes, but sometimes only 5. The secondary school is the same
I think as the middle school. In the higher education the school hours depend on the students,

because they make their schedule. In the primary and secondary school the classes are finished at 3
oclock at the latest, but in the higher education there are lectures in the afternoon too.

Nowadays the compulsory clothing is not typical in the public schools. I think it is typical in
the private schools and the schools which are owned by churches. When I attended to primary
school, the cloak was the compulsory clothing, but only in the first two years. In the secondary
school we had to wear leotard on the PE and on the school celebrations we had to wear black skirt
and sailor blouse. In the technical lectures/classes the students have to wear cloak to protect their
clothes and body.

The corporal punishment is forbidden by the law in the schools. If students do something
wrong, e.g. talking on the lesson, the teacher can write the complaint about the student in the
students mark book. The teacher can give marks to the students. In Hungary the best mark is the 5
and the worst is the 1. The teachers can grade the students performance, such as examination
papers, essays, answers, homeworks etc. In the junior classes the teachers give dots, black dots, if
the childs performance is bad and red dots, if the childs performance is good. Sometimes the
teachers reward the students in the junior classes with stickers, pictures, stamps etc. At the end of
the year the good students get books, for the good performance. In the higher education the main
reward is the scholarship, which depends only on the performance of the students.

In every season there is a holiday. The summer holiday is the longest, it lasts around 2 and a
half months. The others are around a week. The winter and spring holidays are next to the traditional
occasions, such as Christmas and Easter. The autumn holiday is a new habit in Hungary. There are
some days in the year which are national holidays.

 Gondold t alaposan a tmt s vlaszolj a kvetkez krdsekre.

 What skills are children taught in the kindergarten?

 Which schoolform do you have to chose, if you want to study at university?
 How can teachers reward and punish?
 What are the main changes in the hungarian education?
Which is better? Attend a secondary school or a vocational school?


Are breaks and holdiday during the school-period enough? Whats your opinion
Is it difficult to get a degree in BSc and MSc?
What kind of skills do you need for the final exam?
---------------------------------------------------- What schools did you attend?
 In which subjects did you do well?
 What kind of out-door activities did you do during the school years?
 Tell you some informations about your collage/university education.
 Language-learning and language exam are very important factors today. Why?
 Should Hungarian education systen be changed in any way?



I have some conception what I would like to do in real life: I would like to work
in economics or in logistics. But I dont mind if I can work in store and transport.
Young people starting out on career meet with many difficulties.
Firstly I would like to get experience as an employee at a big firm. A few years
later maybe I will be a group leader or a middle manager. There are some people
who do their own business. They can dispose of their time as they want. But its
true that their responsibility is huge.

I am very afraid of working, because I dont know what kind of expections will
my boss has. I would like to work in team work because I think we may get
better result in team work.

Now I am studying at Budapest Polytechnic, Keleti Kroly Faculty of Economics.

I specialise for Economics and Information Technology. I will get my degree in
the beginning of the next year.
I was studying lots of subject on the college. For example: Business English,






Logistics, Market Research and many kinds of programm languages e.g.: Oracle,
Pascal etc.
This education lasted for 6 semesters. The last semester is an internship. We
study on the college one day a week and the other days we have to work in a firm
or another workplace. Now I work at the Budapest Labour Center on computer
studies department.


I have some difficulties because of the distance. I live in Miskolc, which is 200
kms from Budapest. The way home is about 3 hours by train. Train tickets and
living in sublet costs are expensive.

Our education is supplied by the state. But we have to pay for the books and
lecture notes. Or if we fail one of our exam we have to pay resits cost for the

second exam.
We can ask for a special credit, it is called students credit. With this credit
the State would like to help for poor student. So child of poor family may get
chance to study at University or Collage.
This education gives varied knowledge of Ecomomics and IT. This education
prepares us not just theoritically but also in practice.

If I could start all over again, I would make the same choices, because I like
what I am studying in the college.

 Talld meg a szvegben kiemelt szavak/kifejezsek megfelel angol

magyarzatt s llaptsd meg a magyar jelentsket is.


a) some problems or troubles

students credit

b) the highest result you get after

performing a college or university


c) this job is theoretical as practical

as well, e.g. is it worth for a






several products
sublet costs

d) you must spend some years in a

workplace to apply for better job




e) to fear or feel frightened


f) in your workplace you have to

fulfill several exercises and do them


g) idea or theory of sy./sg.


h) fee that must be paid because of

pervious failed examination


i) if you are a student and have to

move because of a collage /university, you rent a flat and pay a fixed
sum monthly
be afraid of

j) leave collage or university and

start a job

k) financial assistance for students

of disadvantageous circumstances
resits cost

l) white-collar worker or blue-collar


m) get a certain exercise and have

to do on the spot
in practice

n) a job which is made by white-

collar workers, who cares about

money and finance

o) all the skills that you learned by

market research

p) some training out ofthe college or



 Kiegszt olvasmny a tmhoz

Now I am studying at Budapest Tech, Keleti Kroly Faculty of Economics. I am in the field of
Economics and IT, specialized in commerce. I am working for an electronic security service company
as a trainee in this semester. I am working as a manager assistant. I will finish my school at the end of
this semester, so I have to write my thesis too.

My profession would be good and useful, if I was good enough in the IT sphere. I think I am
better in the Economics part, so I will need to have some other qualifications too. But now I do not
know, in which area. I like the interior decorating, but only as a hobby. If I finish the school, I think I
will have a break in the next year, I will not apply for a higher educational institution. Maybe I will
obtain the driving licence or I will learn a foreign language, maybe Finnish. Because I was in Finland
and I studied Finnish for a semester, so maybe I will continue it.

Nowadays it is really important to speak in several languages. If you want to get a good job,
you need to speak in addition to your mother tongue at least in English and in another EUlangauge. I think nowadays it is normal if someone starts to work in Hungary then they go to work

 Gondold t alaposan a tmt s vlaszolj a kvetkez krdsekre.

 Are you studying at the moment? Where and in which field?

 Do you live at home or rent a flat? Please tell some information about it.
 What experiences do you have in connection with higher education?
 Do you plant to obtain some other knowledge as well?
 Have you ever won a sholarship or become a financial support from the college
or university?
How many foreign languages do you speak? Is that skill important for you?

What are your ideas for the next semester/year?



Novadays more and more super and hypermarkets are open for 24 hours a day.
For example: Tesco or simply little night and day shops.

What are its advantages?

Most people work late in the afternoon and the ordinary shops are closed by
that time. These people shouldnt be worried about the opening hours, they can
do their shopping when they have suitable time. Next to pleasure it can relieve

pressures on family time.

There are other advantages for the staff. They can work more so they can get
money for working overtime. If anybody wants to get extra money, he/she can
work in the evening in part-time jobs. The employer can realise more business
and greater profits by the longer hours.

The night and day shopping congestion at rush hours. The rush hours are about
from 16 pm. to 18 pm. If you go home after the work (for example you can take a
shower, have dinner etc.) and you go shopping after 18 pm you can avoid the rush
hours. You dont have to quene up for long in front of the check out.

But there are many disadvantages, too.

Those customers who do their shopping at night may disturb the family life.
Most families are only together in the evening. But if they spend their time to
do the shopping, they will interfere with the recreational activities.


If somebody does his/her shopping in the evening it is possible that she/he will
be attacked on the street. So we have to take careful.

Those people who havent got a car dont do their shopping at night because
havent public transport.

These shops / supermarkets have higher prices than the traditional ones. For
the staff may be required (szksg van) to work longer hours or accept the

unwanted shift work.

The employer must pay higher staffing and overhead costs. They must employ
more staff than the normal shops. The night and day shopping doesnt absolutely
provide more trade for the employer. But they may be forced into staying open
only to compete with others.

With our family we often do the shopping in the afternoon or in evening. We like
Auchan and Cora. But we dont prefer to do our shopping in Metro because some
products only can buy in package.


 Csoportostsd a kvetkezket aszerint, hogy elnyt vagy htrnyt jelentenek.

non-stop opening hours sometimes crowded discounted prices not enough

parking facilities several advertisting rearrangement wide choice several
departements self-service noisy pay by credit card

advantages (+)

disadvantages (-)

 Fordtsd le a kvetkez mondatokat.

1) Hogyha az ember szeretn elkerlni a cscsforgalmat, idben el kell indulnia.

2) A hipermarketek gyakran tlzsfoltak.
3) A szupermarketben a munkaer jszaka is dolgozik.


4) Nem tancsos jszaka egyedl menni bevsrolni, mert megtmadhatnak s

5) Sok fiatal mellkmunkaknt dolgozik bevsrl kzpontokban.

 Kiegszt olvasmny a tmhoz

There are different kinds of places where you can do your shopping at night. There is shop
department at the petrol stations. These are expensive, but sometimes really comfortable and useful
shops. These shops are really good, if someone drives at night, and feels that he/she needs time to
have a rest and to drink a coffee or he/she observes that his/her car needs motor oil etc. These shops
do not deal with the selling of basic foods, they sell excised products (alcohol, cigarette and fuel),
buffet foods e.g. hot coffee, sandwiches, newspapers, magazines, soft drinks and candies and
certainly tools for the cars and motorway stickers.

There are traditional shops, which sell only foods. They have a big disadvantage, they sell the
foods quite expensively and not only at night time. I think it has two reasons: they sell only foods and
in small quantity, because usually these shops are located in relatively small places. The other reason
is that they have higher overheads and staffing cost, than the shops which operate only in the

There is a big British hypermarket chain, Tesco. Most of the Tesco hypermarkets are/stay
open for 24 hours a day. There are departments of the Tesco which are not available from 10 p.m. to
8 a.m., these are the departments which require sellers (electrical things and the butchers (meat
counter) etc.). These hypermarkets sell almost everything that you need e.g. basic foods, clothes,
household items, electronical things and alcohol.


There are other hypermarket chains in Hungary, Auchan and Cora both of them are French.
They also have longer opening hours compared to the traditional shops. These hypermarkets are
open for 7 days a week, usually from 7 a.m. to 10 p.m. The traditional shops are open from 7 a.m. to
6, 7 or maximum 9 p.m. and usually they are more expensive than the hypermarkets.

The 24 hours opening hours have an effect on everybody on the customers, staff and the
employers. These long opening hours have both advantages and disadvantages.

I think these long opening hours are mainly good for the customers, because they can buy
everything whenever it is good for them. If somebody does not like to buy in the peak time, because
he/she hates the overcrowded places, she/he can buy in the evening or at night as well. If somebody
works in night shift, he/she can buy after his/her working time, because the shops open at night and
in early morning too. Sometimes these long opening hours make shopping a common family
programme. There are also some disadvantages for the customers. Probably these shops are more
expensive, than the others, because they have higher operational costs, and the owner frequently
shifts these costs to the customers. The other problem which arises is maybe the car parking, it is not
as safe at the night as in the daytime. People who want to go shopping at night have to take more
care of themselves.

For the staff the longer opening hours rather mean disadvantages. I think if someone works
for the Tesco it means that she/he has to work at night or at weekend, and it is not so favourable in
every case, e.g. it causes a really big problem for the person who has little child. The other problem
arises because the hypermarkets do not want to shift the extra operating costs to the customer
which is good for the customers , that is why they pay a lower salary to their staff. I think they pay
more if someone works at night or at weekend, but it is not a high salary either. In my opinion by the
longer opening hours the number of the overtimes increases. The advantages of the longer opening
hours are they need more employees that is why the hypermarkets offer workplaces to the students
who wants to work and earn some money. As I know they offer part-time jobs, which are good for
the parents, who wants to work, but they have to be at home with their young children too.

An advantage for the owners/employers is the customer satisfaction is higher, because

maybe the shops with longer opening hours are not as overcrowded as the others, because the
number of the customers spread evenly. I am not sure whether these shops have higher profit,
maybe they have higher income, but because they have higher costs, I think their profit is not really
higher than the others.

I think the customers have the most advantages from the long opening hours, so the shops
which have long opening hours are really customer-centred, or they have some kind of secret profit
or other benefit from that.

 Gondold t alaposan a tmt s vlaszolj a kvetkez krdsekre

 How often do you go shopping?
 What do you usually need day by day?
 Which daytime do you prefer for shopping?
 Why do so many people think, shopping is a family programme?
 Do you prefer small shops e.g. grocers or big departement stores?
Tell some information, how supermarkets and hypermarkets work.

Does parking cause a lot of problems?

Do you know about store-maerketing?


I like reading newspapers very much because I can know the news from it. There
are a lot of newspapers, for example national, international, local and advertising
The articles in the different type of newspapers are about different things and
they are written for different people. Hungary has a lot of foreign newspaper
which is good because the tourist can read the news and this newspapers reading
is usefull if we learn foreign language.

The common attribute is that the articles are about current events. For
example about political, cultural news or other news of public interest. In most
of the newspapers there are advertising column, but there are specially
advertising newspapers too.

Well known newspapers are: Npszabadsg, Magyar Nemzet, Magyar Hrlap,

Nemzeti Sport, Hvg, Npszava, Blikk and Mai Nap.

Npszabadsg, Magyar Nemzet, Magyar Hrlap and Npszava are politican

newspapers. They provide information about politics and national news. We can
group these newspapers on the basis of political turn of mind.

There are

newspapers with a right-wing bias and with a left-wing bias. I think all of them

distort the facts. I dont like them because I am not interested in politics.

Hvg is business magazin which is very usefull for every person who works in the
business world. I like this magazin because contain lot of interesting article.

Blikk and Mai Nap are goship paper. The news are not real true nowadays
because just the sensations and scandals are important for journalist especially
in these newspapers.
Advertising newspapers are very popular in our country. This newspaper is called
Express. People can offer jobs, real estate and advertise everything which we
would like to sell. Or some people would like to find a partner or get married by
the newspapers advertisement.

A newspaper contain many of column. These are political, sports, weather

forecast, horoscopes, crosswords, cartoons, advertisements etc.
The newspapers have 3 groups: The daily newspaper which come out every day.
For example Npszabadsg, Blikk. The weakly newspaper appear once a week.
For example HVG. And there are magazines which appear periodically. There are
weakly, mounthly and guerterly magazins. I like reading magazins especially the
Best and Story magazins which appear every week.

We can subcribe to a lot of newspapers in the post office. I think newspapers

are too expensive in our country so a lot of people cant read them.

In spite of the fact that almost all of the housholds there are television and
Internet access too, newspapers have survived, because I think televisions and
computers cannot replace newspapers. In my opinion that people demands read
them for example next to the breakfast or after work. And newspapers are
comfortable, because we can take it with ourselves when we travel.

Medias effects on business life:

Product advertising is an important part of the marketing mix. Its aim is to
increase sales by making a product or service known to a wider audience and


grow its positive qualities. A company can advertise in a variety of ways,

depending on how much it wishes to spend and the size and type audience it
wishes to target. The different media for advertising include television, radio,
newspapers, magazines, the Internet and direct mail. The design and
organisation of advertising compaings is usually the job of an advertising agency.


 Tltsd ki a tblzatot a szvegben foglaltaknak megfelelen.

 many kinds of newspapers e.g.

 charakteristik of articles

 charakteristik of political papers

 gosip papers

 advertisting papers

 construction of a newspaper

 3 groups of newspapers

 purchasing of newspapers

 aim of product advertisting

 importance of the newspaper and

the mass media

 Kiegszt olvasmny a tmhoz

The newspaper is the traditional way to get news and information, but it has not lost its value with

We can group the newspapers in many different ways, for example who are the readers,
which is the target market, how often is it published, where is it published.

There are several groups in connection with the target market. There are newspapers which
provide the actual news, these publications are published for everyone. There are specialized
newspapers for different occupational groups such as doctors, engineers, economists. There are
magazines for men, women, children and teenagers too. Colleges and universities may have their
own newspapers, sometimes also companies publish the company-news for the staff.


In genereal the newspapers which provide information about the current events come out
every day. In this category there are rightist- and leftist publications, and there are some not really
serious daily newspapers too, which deal with mainly gossips and sensation reports. If a person
wants to see clearly the daily events, he/she needs to read newspapers from the Right and from the
Left too, because the daily newspapers in Hungary have a big disadvantage, they like to write the
truth in that way, which is favourable for them.

Another category, which comes out every day is the advertising newspaper, which is not
specialized in only one field, so it contains the advertaising of real estates, cars, jobs etc. The name of
this newspaper is Express. The specialized advertising newspapers, which deal with only one sphere
are published mainly weekly or more rarely.

There are newspapers which are published every week on the same day. They are called
weeklies. These are the economic publications (e.g. HVG, Figyel), the gossip magazines (e.g. Story,
Best), the car-motorcycle magazines (e.g. Aut-Motor), the above mentioned specialized advertising
magazines, the teenagers magazines (e.g. Bravo) etc.

There are newspapers which come out monthly. These are the magazines for women (e.g.
Cosmopolitan, Glamour) and for men (e.g. FHM, CKM), the film-magazines, the IT-magazines, the
home-magazines and a lot of other kinds of specialist journals.

There are international newspapers which come out in a lot of countries, in the language of
the country (e.g. Cosmopolitan, FHM) and there are international newspapers which are publised in
their original language in many countries such as The New York Times. It is good for the tourists
and for the students who study foreing languages too. There are newspapers which are published in
Hungarian, but abroad, mainly in the neighbouring countries, for the Hungarian minority.

By the spreading of the Internet, the popularity of the newspapers has decreased. The main
reason for this decrease in my opinion is that it is really easy to access the newspapers and the
news via the Internet. To read the news on the Internet is cheaper than to buy the newspapers,
because a lot of newspapers have their website on the Internet. Nowadays the newspapers are more
and more expensive in Hungary, but I think it is true for everywhere in the world. On the other hand,
it is easier to read a newspaper when someone travels or has breakfast etc., so in my opinion it is
necessary to buy and read newspapers in the 21st century, because it has a special atmosphere. But


if people read less newspapers, it means that fewer trees are needed to make paper, so it is an aid
for the saving of the forests.

The newspapers are a good way for the companies to advertise themselves. It is really chaper
than an advertisement on TV. It is a good way to advertise special things for a special audience in a
specialist magazine. But if you have a product and you want to make it widely known, you can
advertise it in the daily publications. It is not as effective as advertising on TV, but I think the costeffectivity ratio is almost the same in the two different categories.

Usually I do not buy daily newspapers, because I read the news on the Internet, or I watch
the news on TV. I buy sometimes women- and economic magazines, but I am not a regular customer
of these kind of newspapers. Some years ago I used to buy homedesign magazines, because I was
really interested in this topic. But nowadays I do not buy them, becuase they have a quite high price
to collect them.

 Vlaszolj a kvetkez krdsekre sajt szavaiddal. Hasznld a szvegben

tallhat fbb informcikat.

 What kind of newspapers can you buy in Hungary?

 How can you get newspapers?
 Why is it usefull to buy/read foreign newspapers?
 Why do people advertise in newspapers?
 Only few people read business and political papers. Why?
Whats your opinion about goship papers?

Tell some information about your newspaper reading habits.

Which effects can mass media have on business life?
How much are you influeced by mass media?
What kind of roles do mass media play in your life?


 Do you think newspaper will survive, according to the increase of Internet

access and waching TV?
 How often do you read a newspaper? (what kind, where, interested in etc.)
 Who are specialized magazines for? Whats the aim of them?
 Can you tell some information about the reading habits of the youngsters in



The Internet is a very useful service. This service is available throughout the
world. Every public institution, organization, every bigger firm have a website.
If you or your firm would like to be successful in business, you will have to make
a website and you have to use the Internet too.

The Internet is a source of information. It keeps you up-to-date in business

information, because you can find many kind of information on the Internet. For
example: it informs about the competition, about the demand and supply. You can
find information about tenders, new markets, market leader firms etc.

The Internet is a source of buying materials. You can do the shopping on the
Internet too. You can pay with debit or credit card on the Internet, but I think
its dangerous because of the hackers.
With this facilitiy you can contact the firms directly. You can avoid the costs of

middlemen and agencies. You can save time, save paperwork with it. You can
order on the Internet by email. It is the fastest way to send written orders.

By the Internet you can reach new customers easily. If you provide a website,
you will save money, because the websites costs are lower than the
adverisements costs. A website is available throughout the country and maybe
you can find new customers from foreign countries too. If you have website,
where customers can see your catalogue and price list and they can order, you
wont have to open shops all over the country.


On the Internet you can find a lot of advertisements. For example: job
advertisements. If you advertise a job on the Internet, you wont have to put

ads into different newspapers, agencies and it save a lot of money for you.
Maybe a lot of people will see your ad and you can choose the most suitable
It can cut the costs of advertising and printing. If you buy something on the
Internet, you will avoid the costs of middlemen, agencies. You can save time and
paperwork. If you advertise something on the Internet, you will save money,
because your ad can be seen all over the country, so you can find new customers
or staff. More person will see your ad on the net than in newspaper.

The Internet is a non-stop service. If you have a computer and Internet access,
you can do business all over the world, 24 hours a day.

You can keep in touch with your business partners or your friends by the
You can make any kind of banking transactions. You can check your balance. It
makes correspondence easy and fast. You can keep video conferencing. If
somebody else have a webcamera the connection is more practical, you not just
talk with your partner you can see his/her face.

 Talld meg a szvegben szerepl szavak ill. kifejezsek megfelel magyar

jelentst, majd tetszs szerint rj velk mondatokat.


a) levelezs

inform about

b) hirdetst feladni

keep up-to-date

c) kzvett


d) kapcsolatban tart

source of information

e) Internet hozzfrs

cut the costs of

f) kpben tart esemnyekrl

keep in touch with

g) tjkoztat vmirl.


h) informci forrs


i) lecskkenti vmi. kltsgeit

public institution

j) elrhet

put ad

k) beszerez, nyjt, gondoskodik


l) kzintzmny

Internet access

m) alkalmas


 Tltsd ki a tblzatot a sajt vlemnyed, tleteid alapjn.

use for




I and the

 Kiegszt olvasmny a tmhoz

The Internet is the network of the networks. It includes a lot of smaller domestic, academic, business,
and government networks. We can write e-mails, chat on-line to each other, we can chage our files

The importance of the Internet started to increase from the middle of the 90s in the
everyday life in the world, in Hungary it started from the end of the 90s. Nowadays a lot of people
can use the Internet. They have Inertnet-access on their workplace, school or at their home.

As a source of information

It is really important for the companies. It has two different aspects why it is important.
On the other hand it is useful for the companies, because they can get cheap and fast information
about everything, if they use the Internet efficiently; because there is a lot of misleading information
on the net. They can use the Internet to get information from the international press and they can
choose from the wide range of the media-websites. A carrier company can use the Internet to follow
its cars all over the world by GPS (Global Positioning System). On the other hand the Internet is
useful for the companies because they can advertise themselves cheaper and more efficiently, than
on TV. They can put catalogues, product-descriptions on their websites. They can make on-line
connection with their customers or their partners. They can create electronic shopping (e-shopping)
opportunities too. The Internet is the easiest and the cheapest way for the companies to keep
contact with their partners and customers via e-mail (electronic mail) or the Internet phones etc.

They can check the actual currency exhange rates, they can check the timetables of the
plains, trains etc. They can follow the current events in the world and they can follow the operation
of the competitors too...

Unfortunately this function information source has some disadvanages too. For
example the disadvantage of the using of e-mail systems is the SPAM (Send Phenomenal Amounts of
Mail), which is a kind of Internet-rubbish. The other disadvantage is sometimes undesirable people
can contact the company. The third problem which arises is if the companys connection is mainly
based on the Internet and the Internet-service is stopped for a while, it causes huge problems for the


company. The solution is the company has to subscribe to more than one Internet connection from
different Internet-service providers.

As a source for buying material

The popularity of the electronic shopping increases in everyday life and I think in the
business sector too. If companies want to make their purchasing more comfortable, they can buy the
materials via the Internet. They can arrange both ordering and paying by the Internet, but at first
they have to make sure of the partners reliability, because sometimes there are cheaters on the

I think avoinding wholesalers is almost impossible, because the producers do not want to
deal with individual customers, because it is not worth for them. So only the wholesalers can buy
from the producers directly and I think the Internet cannot change this situation. But for example
the companies can buy from the wholesalers directly via the Internet, and maybe they can avoid the

The advantage of the e-buying is sometimes the buyer can get discounts, because he/she
uses the Internet for buying. So the companies can save money, if they buy on the Internet.

I generally buy books on the Internet, because I can buy at a discount price and the
bookstore transport the books free of charge if I buy over a certain amount of money. So it is cheaper
and more comfortable, than to buy in a bookshop.

There are some other advantages of the Internet.

You can check the companies, who sell the things that you need, which one is the
most suitable for you, which is the cheapest one, who offers the most favourable
conditions etc.

Catalogues and price lists can help you in your decision.

There are websites, where you can buy things on-line, you do not have to leave your
office to do the shopping.

If you prefer, you can book the things that you need, then you can go to the shop to
buy the booked things.


You can pay by credit card via the Internet.

The identification of new markets cheaply

You can expand your company globally, without you having to open a new office in another
part of the world. You do not need to make expansive market research. At first you need a good idea.
Then you only need to create a good website, which offers e-shopping possibility, and you need to
make contracts with transportation companies. Then you receive the orders and carry them out. If
someone needs your service, he/she will find you on the Internet. You can use the Internet for
advertising your service too.

You can check your business partners around the world on the Internet. There are companydatabases, where you can find information, for free. You can find average information, but if you
need detailed information about a company, you can buy it.

It gives a wide opportunity for staff recruitment thus reducting staff advertisment costs

There are several possibilities to advertise jobs on the Internet.

You can put job advertisements out on your website, the inquirers will find it. Usually
the SMEs advertise in this way.

The bigger companies usually have internal job searching system. The inquirer can
upload his/her CV, and she/he can mark the job type, the starting date, the country
etc. on the companys website, than the inquirer gets an SMS or an e-mail, if there is
a suitable job for him/her, then the company decides whether they want to apply
the inquirer or not. E.g. Bosch or Nokia.

There are job advertising websites, which can help the demand to meet with the
supply. The operators can sift out the inquirers based on basic criteria.

There are electronic personal consultant companies, which can sift out the most
suitable inquirers for the company who needs the staff.


It can cut the costs of advertising and printing

The advertising on the Internet is the most efficient way of the advertising. You can follow
easily who, when and how often saw your ads in a week/month etc.

You can buy advertising for per clik and for surface. You can make pop-up ads or banner ads.
You can choose, where you want to put out your ads, the middle of the site or the bottom of the site
etc. You can count your costs easily. You can advertise only on the specialist sites, or common
websites, wherever you want. If you advertise on several websites, at the end of the month you can
check the efficiency of your ads, and you can discontinue your ads on the websites, where it was not

There are possibilities to advertise free of charge on the websites of the classified
advertisements. The advertising on the Internet is available for everybody.

Business can be conducted, anywhere in the world, 24 hours a day, throughout the year

The biggest advantage of the Internet is it never closes. You can find what you need 24 hours
a day and 365 days (or 366) a year. If you have time only in the middle of the night, you can book
your flight at that time easily.

It is good for the companies because someone from the other side of the world can find their
website, they can receive orders at night as well as in daytime. If they get an order at night the
system records it, than in the morning the employees process it.

In addition:




E-shopping, e-commerce



Stay-at-home/couth potatoes lifestyle


Addiction to the Internet

Sometimes the Internet can be dangerous e.g. children can access adult videos, there are
bomb recipes etc. on the Internet

 Gondold t alaposan a tmt s vlaszolj a kvetkez krdsekre.

 Why is it important to keep up-to-date via Internet in business life?
 How can multies and companies advertise on the Internet?
 What are the most important advantages, if a company has an Internet
 How can you use the Internet as an information source?
 How can companies keep contact with the customers via Internet?
Have you ever bought on the Internet? How does it work?

Todays job advertistement on the Net a widely spread method. Whats your
opinion about this?
How can you Internet help to detect new markets?
What kind of accessories can you use in connection with the Internet?
What do you know about e-learning, chat, Skype and Internet safety?



I have own TV in my room, so I often watch it in the evening if I am not busy,

but I rather watching TV at weekends, if I am at home. In the mornings I
usually switch on the teletext channel and read the TV programmes for the day.
There is usually quite a rich choice of programmes.

There are lot of TV channels, commercial channels and public channels where are

broadcast many kind of programs. Some channels is specialised in only one kind
of program like programs on nature or music or movies. For example: National
Geography or VIVA TV or HBO.
I am interested in action films, romantical films, comedies. I usually watch talk

shows and I like series, but not the Brazilian soap operas. For example I watch
the Bartok kzt every weekday. This is an excinting Hungarian series. I never
miss the 6.30. pm. news either. If there isnt a good programme on the TV we
can borrow films in the videotheque.

There are two largest competitive channels in Hungary: the RTL KLUB and TV2.
Their programs dont different greatly, if either start a new sort of program,
the other will make a similar one. Nowadays RTL KLUB is the market-leader.

The advertising on TV is necessary, mainly on the commercial channels, because

their main source of benefit are TV commercials. I dont like advertisements
because when I am watching a good film and when the film has its exciting part,
there will be an advertisement-break. Its fact that there are many ads during


films, especially in the evening, because in the peak time a lot of people watch
TV. At that time the costs of advertisement for companies is higher than other
time. The TV advertising makes people buy such things that arent necessary for
them. Sometimes advertisement could be good, because they give some
information about new products. I think those are good ads which are amazing
and suggest me to buy.
On one hand the TV is very useful. You can inform current news and happens by
it, you can learn a lot by documentaries or quiz shows. When we come home from
work exhausted, we sit down in front of the TV and we can relax and we forget
our business problems.

But the other hand that because of TV a lot of people have given up their
hobbies and dont often go out either.

Recently we have heard more and more times that children have become very
rude and agressive or have lost their sense of reality because they watch TV
too many times.
Unfortunately this is a true and existing thing a lot of young people kill or hurt
another person because they saw on TV in the same way.

When I was a child there arent such many films and programs with full of

 Olvasd el a szveget s tltsd ki a tblzatot a krt informcikkal.

advantages (+)

disadvantages (-)



 Magyarzd meg a kvetkez programkategrikat angolul.


soap opera

weather forecast


premier movies



reality shows

 Kiegszt olvasmny a tmhoz

I have my own TV in my room but I do not watch it so much. I usually watch the evening
news, because it is important to know what happened in the world. Mainly I choose the news on the
public service television channel, because in my opinion it is more independent than the
commercial TVs news, and it does not deal with only the sensations, but it always deals with useful
and important things. Sometimes I watch series, but I am not a series addict. I like the American
series, such as Desperate Housewives, Prison Break but I do not like the Brazilian soap operas.

In Hungary there are public service televisions and several commercial televisions. Nowadays
the commercial TVs are the more popular ones. The two main commercial channels are TV2 and RTL
Klub. As far as I know the RTL Klub has the highest tune-in. There are channels which have
specialized programmes, for example children-, documentary-, sports-, film-, history-, fashion-, music

In Hungary the number of the channels in a home depends on the package which the licence
holder buys. In general there are three types of packages. The first type contains the main Hungarian
channels and the two others contain more and more channels. The price of these packages depends
on the in size. In Finland the licence holder can have some free channels as I know the main Finnish
channels and in addition the person can buy the channels one by one. I think this is a better system,
than the Hungarian one.

Another interesting thing in Finland is that the people watch the films in the original language
with Finnish subtitles that is why the Finnish people speak mainly American English and in
Hungary we watch the films in Hungarian, so all the films, which we can watch on TV are translated.

In Hungary the reality shows and the soap operas have the highest tune-in. Nowadays the
reality show is a really fashionable programme type. Both biggest television companies have it. It is a
normal thing in Hungary if one of the biggest TV companies makes a new kind of programme, the
competitive channel makes a similar one in the similar running time. They always try to make better
and better programmes, but they always force the viewers to choose between the channels.


There are some channels which are available from the neighbouring countries too. The most
favourite channel in these parts is Duna TV. It has quite a lot programmes for the people who live
beyond the frontiers.

I think advertising on TV is the most expensive way to make a product popular, and not the
most effective one in every case. For example if the product has special customers, it is not the best
way to advertise on a national TV channel. The price of the advertising depends on the TV channel,
the most expensive ones are the national commercial channels, mainly TV2 and RTL Klub. The price
depends not only on the channel, but the running time; the peak time is the most expensive,
because in this time most of the people watch TV, so probably in this time the most people see the
ads. There are two types of the commercials: one is between the programmes, and the other is
between the parts of the programme, the name of this is commercial break. Most people do not like
the second kind of the advertisements, because they hate if the programme is interrupted by

I think the most effective advertisement contains humorous elements, but also tells a lot of
useful information about the product. Most people do not like the comparative ads, because this
kind of ads are not exciting enough.

The advantages of the TV are the following:

The documentary films are good to learn some new things and to see new places.

The foreign language movies are good to learn/practice the language.

The films are good to make the people relaxed such as romantic-, action-,
animation films and comedies.

The news is good to see the current events in the whole world.

The tales if they are fables are good for the children to learn, which the good and
the bad things are in life.


The disadventages of the TV are the following:

The violence in the films has a bad effect on the children and their later behaviour.

Too much TV watching makes the people stay-at-home /couch potatoes.


The TV watching habits of the children have to be controlled by the parents. If a child
watches too many violent movies, it will have some bad effects on the later life of the child; it makes
him/her more aggresive, than normal. It is one of the reasons of the juvenile delinquency.

 Gondold t alaposan a tmt s vlaszolj a kvetkez krdsekre.

 What kind of programmes can several channels provide you?

 Is there any limitation according to the age?
 Today are soap operas and reality shows quite popular in Hungary as well.
What are their effects to young people?
 How can channels attract you to watch different kind of programmes they
 What are the harmful effects on children and youngsters?
Why is it worth to watch TV every day?

Whats your opinion about advertisements during the films?

How can be someone addicted by watching TV?
Which programmes can you offer for the children?
In which period of the day should violent programmes run? Do you think,
parents can stop the negative effect of watching TV?
---------------------------------------------------- How much do you watch TV in average?
 Which programmes do you prefer?
 Do you sometimes read about a film or programme in the newspaper?
 What do you do, if theres an interesting programme you cannot watch
because of work, but you would like?
 Can you tell some disadvantages of watching TV?



In the 21st century, a new way of communication has become available for the
general public. With mobile phones we become able to call anybody at anytime
and from anywhere.
Nowadays all the companies, that provide us this service, have made

mobilephoning available everywhere. This means that no matter which supplier

you belong to, you can talk to anybody who has mobile phone.
Other positive thing is that if you have urgent calls such as emergency calls you
can do them either.

Mobile phones let us store a lot of phone numbers in a little appliance. It makes
it easier to arrange meetings.

There are a lot of disadvantages at the same time.

Due to the costs of building the infrastructure, mobile phoning is not so cheap.
In the beginning it is very expensive. Although the prices are going down by-andby, we can say, that mobile phoning remains expensive compared to other ways
of communication.

Using mobile phones can be very annoying for the others. The loudliness of the
appliances and the pesky ring tones can make people nervous. It can be more

nerve-racking, when the user speaks loudly about his or her things without

knowing (or the worse case, when he or she knows) that nobody cares about,
what he or she is talking about.

There are possible health risks of mobile phones as well. Scientists have shown
that the radiation of the phones might have long-term effects such as potency

troubles, and so on. We hear in the TV and the radio opposite opinions about
that, so we dont really know, what the real effects could be.

It is also dangerous to phone while youre driving. It is not accidental that its
forbidden to do it while driving.

In our days the range of the services offered by mobile phones are getting
wider. We can use the phones not just for sending sms and calling others, but
for using the internet, sending pictures, taking photos or videos, and in
developed countries watching TV. The manufacturers intention is to make an

all-in-one set and sell it to us.

I have a mobile phone too. I use it only for calling others and sending sms-es.
The importance of the mobile phones depends on the user. If you get lots of
calls all the day from important clients, or friends, it is essential that you have
one more more.

As far as Im concerned I dont use my appliance too often. I could live without


 Tltsd ki a tblzatot a szveg tartalmnak megfelelen.



urgent calls
arrange meetings
mobile phone prices

pesky ring tones




all-in-one set
using the internet
sending pictures
send a message (sms)
taking photos or videos

 Gondold t alaposan a tmt s vlaszolj a kvetkez krdsekre.

 Why is it important to have a mobile phone in business life?

 Have you got a mobile phone? Tell some information about it.
 Do you agree with the opinion/statement: children should have mobile phones
in an early age?
 Using a mobile phone can have harmful effects. In which aspect?
Which applications of mobile phone do you use every day?

Have you ever heard about mobile phone etiquette? Tell some information
about i.

What are the differencies beetwen traditional phoneline and mobile phone?
In which circumstances are mobile phones annoying? Could you name some



First of all I want to decide where to go and make the preparations accordingly.
Fortunately by now we have unlimited possibilities to go anywhere in the world if
you have enough foreign currency .
Before you travell it is a good idea to check exchange rate because they

fluctuate day by day.

If you travel abroad you need a lot of money. I always plan my holiday well in
advance and make a lot of arrangements.
I must take money preparations before a holiday. For example: I have to
contact a travel agent. I have to extend my passport on time. If its necessary
I must apply for a VISA. If I want to sure to my accomodation I will reserve it
in advance. It will be a hotel, a motel, a private rooms, a boarding house, a guest
house or if I have a little money it will be a camping-sites too. I will book my
tickets. I can travel by train, by airplane, by ship, by coach or by car.

I have to take out a travel insurance. You can, and I think you must insure your
money too. But the best if you pay attention to your money, thats the most
effective method against stealing .

If I go to abroad I will exchange money for foreign currency. I can change

money at a bank, money exchange office or a travel agency.
If I go on a pleasure trip, and I want insure my money the best thing is if I buy
a travellers cheque. Travellers cheque is personal and it isnt transferable. So
nobody can misuse it if you lose these cheques.

If I go on a study trip or a business trip abroad the embossed card or VISA

card is the best choice. With these cards I always and anywhere in the world
can receive money.
If I work abroad I must open an abroad usuable account .

If I lose my credit card, or it will be stolen I must call my bank immediately.

They will prohibit my card.
The bank transfer between countries is also possible way of taking money

I can make enquiries to obtain the best exchange rate. The exchange rate
shows how much money I can get when I change to another currency. But
exchange rates are never favourable for the traveller.

 Egsztsd ki a mondatokat a szvegben megadott kifejezsekkel.

first of all accordingly - fortunately is a good idea day by day in advance

for example its necessary the best if

 Before travelling you have to make some preparations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

 It . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to keep contact with a travel agency.
 Therere different kind of insurances, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . health, luggage etc.
 You can chose between several accomodations, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . you stay in
an apartement or in a youth hostel, because they arent expensive.
 You must apply for a visa, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . where you want to travel.
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . there are a lot of magazines and brochures, so you can
chose your destiny easier.


 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . you have to decide your travelling route, if youd like to

make an individual holiday.
With traveller cheques you can pay in restaurants, petrol stations, hotels . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to take several documents with you.


 Tltsd ki a tblzatot rtelemszeren a szveg alapjn.

in the text




your own ideas




travellers cheque


Kiegszt olvasmny a tmhoz.

I think there are two ways to organize a holiday. One way is to go to a travel agency, the other is if
you organize it by yourself.

In a travel agency there are really kind assistants who help you to choose the appropriate
journey for you. The journeys from travel agencies are more expensive, but more comfortable than if
you organize your whole holiday by yourself. They help you to arrange everything what you need
before and during your trip e.g. insurance, visa, foreign currency exchange, accommodation,
travelling and programmes. If you cannot speak foreign languages, at least English, it is better to ask
them to organize your holiday. (package holidays)

If you organize your trip by yourself it is more exciting, but you need a lot of time to arrange
everything. First you have to decide where you want to go. The first question arises is whether you
want to go abroad or not. If you do not want to go abroad it makes the planning and arranging
easier. You do not need to exchange money and to get a visa etc.

If you go abroad you should think over the following things:

Do you need a visa? If you go to Russia or the USA, you do.

Is your passport valid? If it is not, you have to go to the document office to have its
validity extended.

Do you need a passport or only your ID card is enough to pass the border? In
the EU your ID is enough.

Where and when do you want to exchange money?

Which kind of insurance do you need? Traveller-, baggage insurance?


Where do you want to make your insurance?

What kind of transport do you want to use? Train, coach, plane, ship or car?


What kind of accommodation do you need? Hotel, hostel, boarding house, campingsite, private room? (bed and breakfast)

Do you have any kind of allergy? If you have, what kind?

Do you have any special requests?

Do you need any kind of serums against special illnesses?

Do you want to use travellers cheques?

If you need a visa or your passport is not valid you need a longer time and more money to
arrange everything. If you need a visa you have to fill in a visa application form. It is worth booking
the return-tickets and the accommodation in advance. If you have any kind of allergy you have to tell
your host about it, because he/she needs time to prepare for the special circumstances. If you
choose any kind of board only breakfast, half- or full board it is better if you tell in advance if you
are a vegetarian.

If you go abroad, you need foreign currency. If you have time it is good to look around,
because there are big differences between the prices of the foreign currency. Not in every case is it a
good thing to wait until the last day to exchange the currency, because if the exchange rate is
increasing you can lose a lot of money by waiting. But if the exchange rate is decreasing you should
wait to exchange your money at the best price.

To exchange cash money is more expensive than to exchange money between bank
accounts, but because it has some incidentals, it is not cheaper in every case, than the first type.

Travellers cheque: it was established because of the increasing number of the travels. It is a
safer method to pay abroad, than to keep a lot of cash in your wallet. It is acceptable in several
places such as hotels, restaurants, shopping centres, travel agencies and banks. The advantages of
the travelers cheque are: it has an unlimited validity; if you lose it, it is easily replaceable
everywhere in the world free of charge, safe (you have to sign it when you buy it and you have to
sign it when you buy by it).

The other safe paying method is paying by credit cards. Usually the Master Cards and the
VISA Cards are acceptable credit cards all over the world. It is a good solution to pay by credit card,
because it is free of charge. But if you want to take money from this abroad it is quite expensive.


Gondold t alaposan a tmt s vlaszolj a kvetkez krdsekre.

 What documents do you need, if you want to travel abroad?

 What kind of ensurances do you know? Which is the most important of them?
 Why is it advisable to go into a travel agency?
 What adventages do individual trip have?
 What kind of accommodation do you prefer?
 Travellers cheque are much more common in use than credit cards or cash.
Whats your opinion about it?
 How can you get foreign currency?
What are your travelling experiences?




I live in the middle of Europe. Hungary is an agrarian country. It has a beautiful

country side, thermal and medical waters and castles everywhere in the country
which remind us of the Hungarian history. Medical waters are in Harkny,
Bkkfrd, Pard, Hajdszoboszl, Gyula, Hvz, etc.

The capital of Hungary is Budapest, with 2.1 million inhabitants; it is the

political, economic, commercial and cultural centre of the country. It is also one
of the most important railway junctions in Europe.
The biggest river is the Danube, which extends 470 kilometers in Hungary.
The highest point in Hungary is a peak in the Mtra Mountains called Kkestet,
1015 meters above sea level.
Lake Balaton is the largest lake in central Europe.

I live in Miskolc. It is in the North-East of the country. There are many sights
there. For example: the castle of Disgyr. It was built by King Louis the Great
but since then it has been rebuilt many times. Nowadays it is a little ruined, but
it can be visited. Sometimes it organises programmes. For example tournaments
or cooking-competitions or performances etc. But if you want, you can have your
wedding reception there.
I think its good because if I got married I would like to keep my wedding
reception here.


The other sight is Lillafred castle. This castle is a special one because of its

environment, the Bkk hills. In front of the castle is lake Hamor. Its a rowerlake, but you mustnt bath there because its too dangerous.
Here is the highest waterfall of Hungary. In winter the waterfall gets frozen,
so they can organise an ice-climb competition. It is very interesting. There are
many walking-path in the Bkk, which are amazing .
The foreign currency is brought into mostly Miskolc-Tapolca. We say its an

invisible export, because its a service and we dont see it. There are many
hotels and apartments with a lot of connecting services like restaurants, shops,

spas, healing water etc. The overseas visitors most favourite place is Cave-Bath
in Miskolc-Tapolca which is beautiful. About a few weeks ago I was there with
my boyfriend and my sister and we enjoyed ourselves.

I think tourism promotes economic activity. For example a lot of visitors come
here by buses or by airplane so they use the Hungarian public transport system.
They buy souvenirs which is a good advertisement for the country. But I think
tourism in Hungary should be promoted more. Because we are far behind other

We must develop our infrastructure, like better and more roads, traffic
vehicles, airports etc. It is good for the Hungarian economy, because if we build
new roads, airports etc. we will create a lot of new jobs.
The profits which the village, the town and the country get from the tourism

taxes is an important fund . And if the local government spends it well it will
develop the standard of living for local people.

After UNIO accession a lot of foreign investors are interested in coming to

Hungary and I think this is an advantages because this creates new jobs and
brings foreign currency into the country.

Tourism is labour intensive. It creates many jobs in hotels, restaurants. Those

people who work in this line of business dont have any free time in the main

season. They work day and night. So it is very hard work especially in summer,
when a lot of tourists come to Hungary. These people say, that every year is
harder than the previous and the main season is shorter.

When a Hungarian family goes on holiday somewhere in the country, they must

face that the prices are high for their pocket. The worst thing is that the
prices every year are higher and higher than before.There are seasonal prices,
but they are usually valid throughout the whole year.

Unemployment in Miskolc:
Heavy industry used to be highly developed during the socialist times. After the
change of regime almost all the factories and mines were closed. Unfortunately
a lot of people loose their jobs.

 Szavak s kifejezsek jegyzke:



country side

vidk, terlet

medical water


















nevezetessgek, ltnivalk






szervez, rendez


lovagi torna






csnakz t




stl tvonal



invisible export

lthatatlan export

connecting services

kapcsold szolgltatsok






tmogat, elsegt


teremt, alkot, ad

tourism taxes

idegenforgalmi ad


forrs, tke

interested in

rdekben ll, rdekldik vmi. irnt



main season

f szezon


szembesl vmivel.


heavy industry


change of regime




 Tltsd ki a tblzatot vals adatokkal, rtelemszeren, kulcsszavakkal.


capital city
& some bigger cities

number of inhabitants
largest river(s)
largest lake(s)
highest mountain
charakteristik of the surface


important transportation


tourists attractions

weather and climate

political sytem, parties



agriculture, industry



 Kiegszt olvasmny a tmhoz

Foreign currency is brought into the country This is an invisible export

I agree with this statement. If tourists come to Hungary, it means that they bring money to
Hungary and they spend that money. They have to travel, to stay. They usually want to visit the
famous places in Hungary and all of these things cost money. This is an invisible export, because
they take some souvenirs home. They bring money to Hungary, and then they go back to their own
country with souvenirs, or at least with memories. When they tell stories about their holiday in
Hungary, it is an advertisement for Hungary. If they enjoyed their holiday, it is a good advertisement,
so we have to do everything to make their holiday better.

Tourism is labour intensive It creates many jobs in hotels, restaurants, entertainment etc.

I agree with this statement. The tourism requires well-qualified labour force speaking foreign
language. If a person wants to work in the tourism sector he/she has to speak I think at least two
foreign languages. In Hungary these two languages are English and German, but it is good if someone
speaks other foreign languages too.

If the number of the tourists increases, the number of the service staff has to increase too.
More labour force is needed in the hotels (e.g. porters, chambermaids, cleaning staff), restaurants
(e.g. chefs, waiters, kitchen staff) etc. We should think about making entertaining programmes for
the tourists, such as plays, cultural and traditional shows etc. in English and/or in German.

It promotes economic activity such as the making and selling of souvenirs, providing transport

I agree with this statement, because tourists like to buy souvenirs for their family, friends etc.
I think it is mainly true if the producer makes some kind of special souvenirs, not only a T-shirt with
text (Budapest, Hungary...). The other thing is the transport; it is connected to the tourism. If
someone spends a holiday in Hungary, he/she would like to see Budapest (the Castle, the Parliament,
Heroes Square etc.), Balaton and the most popular spas (e.g. Hvz) in general, and if someone would
like to see quite a lot of things in Hungary, he/she needs transportation. Unfortunately the public
transport is not fast and comfortable enough for long distances (e.g. Balaton-Budapest).


It provides a market for a local farm produce thus stimulating local agricultural and other

I disagree with this statement, because if tourists visit Hungary they may go to the Market
Hall, where they meet the local agricultural products, but I think the connection between the
agriculture and the tourism is only this. Or maybe they taste some Hungarian wine... In my opinion
this kind of connection between them is nothing to influence the Hungarian agriculture.

It encourages foreign investment in airports, hotels etc.

The increasing number of tourists increases the number of the foreign investments in the
tourism sector. It is good to Hungary in that case, if there are no Hungarian investors in that area, but
it is not good if the foreign investors take the chance away from the Hungarians. The foreign
investment is also good in that case if it creates new workplaces for Hungarian unemployments.

In December of 2005 the British BAA bought the using right of Ferihegy (Budapests airport)
for 75 years, they paid more than 450 billion forints. They planned to develop the airport and
increase the number of the passengers. New civil airports are being developed (e.g. Srmellk).

The facilities for tourists are available for local people

It is true, because I think the tourists from abroad and the tourists from Hungary stay in the
same hotel, visit the main sights (e.g. Visegrd, Esztergom, Hollk etc.), buy the same souvenirs etc.
I think the only difference is that the Hungarian tourists in Hungary eat goulash soup at home and
not in a restaurant.

The profit from tourism can be used for the benefit of local people

The government gets one part of the profit from the tourism, so it depends on the leaders of
the country whether they spend this income on the local people or whether they want to decrease
the national debt etc. The other part of the profit goes directly to the local people, e.g. the owner of
the hotel, the trader. They spend their profit on things that they want.


 Gondold t alaposan a tmt s vlaszolj a kvetkez krdsekre.

 Why is tourism important for the country?

 How can be tourism improved in your own country?
 What services could you name in the tourism-sector?
 What do you know about wellness-tourism?
Provincial tourism is wide-spread in our are as well. Why?

What kind of tourist attractions do we have, which other countries dont?

Which of the sights can you show a foreigner in the capital city?
Which tourist attractions can you offer in Hungary?
---------------------------------------------------- In which part of the country do you live?
 What is the sourranding like?
 Do the village/town/city have any sights?
 Did a famous person live there?
 Did it happen any important historical event(s)?
 Are there any recreation facilities in your village/town/city?



I would like to speak about the transport for the individual in Hungary. The
transport in Hungary can be divided into two parts: local transport, vehicles for
longer journeys. There are facilities which cant be reached in Hungary (for
example sea transport).

First I would like to speak about the longer journeys. I live in Miskolc and I
learn in Budapest. So I have two facilities to travel to Budapest. These are the
coach and the train. I prefer to travel by train because it is faster, cheaper and
more comfortable than the coach. I must buy a seat reservation if travel by
InterCity train. It costs 480 Ft and of course I must buy the student ticket
too. It means that students have got a discount from the full price. We only pay
67,5 per cent of the price of the ticket. I like to travel by InterCity train
because I can choose a non-smoking compartment and I can book my ticket in

advance. So I am sure that I will be a seat. The other advantage is that there
are a buffet car so if I am hungry I can eat hamburgers, sandwiches, chips,
sweets etc. Or I can drink a cup of coffee or tea.

If I travel by IC train the journey lasts two hours but if I travel by coach it
lasts more then three hours. But some developments would be nessesary on
trains. In the fast train and the slow train the carriages should be cleaner and
should have better heating, better lighting and more ventilation too.
The disadvantages of train are not only the dirty. You cannot reach every place
by it or you cannot reach big towns without you would change trains so the

network of railway line has to be improved.


On train you can transport animals and cycles, but you have to buy tickets for
them which is quite expensive.

If I want to travel abroad, I can choose the Ferihegy I. and Ferihegy II.
airport, train, car or bus. I have never flown, firstly because I am a little bit

afraid to fly. Secondly I think that air fares are much more expensive than rail
or coach fares. But once I would like to try it.

Because we havent got any sea we can only go by ship on Lake Balaton and the
river Danube. I have travelled several times on Lake Balaton. I enjoyed the smell
of the water, and white sailing boats on the water and the surrounding hills and

The ordinary Hungarian people havent got enough money to choose air transport.
So we mostly travel by bus or car or train if we go abroad.

The other way of travel is local transport. In Budapest I use the public

transport. It contain the underground, buses, trams, suburban trains, trolleybuses and the cogwheel . You can reach every point whatever you want maybe
faster than by car.
I think the pulic transport is catastrophic in Budapest. The number of public
vehicles is small, and on the roads there are traffic jams all day. The only usable
means of transport are the undergrounds and trams. I like travel by metro,
because it is the fastest but I like listening my surrounding when I travel. Now
there are 3 subway lines, but by the year 2008 the local government of
Budapest want to build a new line.


The cost of public transport is high compared to the average salary, but you can
get discount if you are a student or a pensioner. Because I am a student my

season ticket cost 2050 Ft.

Because of higher fares a lot of people dodge because there arent a lot of
conductors on buses and trams. On the underground there are more, but
especially in the begining of the month. If they catch you, you can pay


I think developments also should be expected. Two years ago BKV = Budapest
Transport Company bought some new trams and and last year they bought about
50 pieces Volvo buses. They should pay more attention to fare dodgers because
this amount of money would be useful for the improvements.

There is a very important point of this topic, the protection of environment.

Because we know the disadvantages of cars. The exhaust fume is also

responsible for the greenhouse effect or global warming. We hear a lot about
this, but we havent done anything yet to stop it.
Bicycle lanes were built in Budapest last year. It is very useful because we can
protect the environment by using bicycles intead of cars or public transport.


 Egsztsd ki a tblzatot a szksges informcikkal (hasznlj kulcsszavakat)

a szvegben foglaltak s az egyni vlemnyed alapjn.

advantages (+)

disadvantages (-)

 local transport
 bus/trolley bus




 vehicles for longer







 Kiegszt olvasmny a tmhoz

Local transport

I live in Budapest, that is why I mainly use the public vehicles of BKV (Budapest Transport
Limited). I live in an outer district (in the 22nd, in Nagyttny). Where I live there were only buses,
but in the last autumn the MV (Hungarian State Railways Company) handed over a new station,
close to my home. I have not used it yet, because I was in abroad in the last semester. I think it will
be really good for me, because I will work close to the Kelenfld railway station. To reach the

company, where I will work, it takes around an hour by bus and it is around half an hour by train. The
train is faster, than the bus, but the bus goes more frequent than the train.

If I go to school, I use bus and tram too. Usually my lectures are in Tavaszmez Street, but
sometimes I have to go to buda. Unfortunately I have not got driving licence yet, that is why I
mainly use the public transport if I have to arrange something. I usually use the public transport to go
shopping or if I have to meet with somebody. I go by car to somewhere if I have common programme
with my parents or sometimes with my boyfriend.

In general (or: generally) the public transport in Budapest is effective and efficient too. It is
not so efficient if there are traffic jams in the city centre, because in this case the cars use the bus
lane, although they are not allowed to. In daytime the frequency of the vehicles is almost good, but
in the rush hours the main services are always overcrowded. I think it is almost impossible to run
these services more frequently, because sometimes they touch each other. At night there are new
services, because the Budapest Transport Limited tried to reform the night-public transport. I do not
know whether it is better now or not, because I use the night transports so rarely.

The building of the fourth underground line in Budapest is delying, compared to the plans,
because a problem arose in Kelenfld (there is a property, where they wanted to dig the line, but the
owner did not want to sell it, only if the company paid 20 times as much as the real value), so they
had to change the plans.

Budapest needs one or two more underground lines, but at first I think it is more
important to finish the M0 ring road, which will help the cars to avoid the main and most busy roads
in the centre. If they started to build the fifth underground line, before they finished the ring road, it
would cause huge traffic jams all over the city. But if they finished the ring road, the capital would be
able to bulid new underground lines.

As I saw in Helsinki there are special machines in the buses to check the tickets. If the
passenger does not have ticket, he/she cannot use the vehicle. I think the BKV should have this kind
of checking system too. Because a lot of fare-dodgers use the public transport in Budapest.
Nowadays if a ticket inspector catches a fare-dodger, he/she has to pay fine. But the fare-dodgers
are really rare caught, so they make a loss for the BKV.


The public transport in Budapest is owned by the Budapest Municipal council. There are
services which are provided by e.g. hypermarkets, you can use these buses if you want to go to their
shops. Originally you are not allowed to use these buses for private purposes (e.g. to go from a stop
to another).
There is a big advantage of the BKV is owned by Budapest Municipal council. The price of the
season ticket is subsideized by the Budapest Municipal council. I think if private companies owned
the city transportation, it would not be better, because the price competition would not be strong
enough to make the price-level lower, than the current.

As I said the price of the season tickets is subsidized. In spite of the subsidy the price level is
high compared to the average standard of living I think. For example a 3 day tourist ticket has the
same price in Budapest and in Helsinki too, but as I know the standard of living of the two countries
is not at the same level.

The BKV gets help from the Budapest Municipal council and from the Hungarian government,
because they pay the building of the fourth underground line for the BKV.

Transport in general

In Hungary several modes of transport are available. We have buses, trams, suburban lines,
cog rail, cable railway and chair-lift in Budapest.
For long distance transport in the country we have coaches and trains. The centre of the
trains and coaches is Budapest; because Hungary has a spiders web transport system.

We have some airports for the transport between countries; the most important one is
Ferihegy. The importance of the air-transport has arisen in the last years, more and more people use
plains for the transport between countries, because the ticket-prices are less lower, than some years
ago. There are several cheap-flights from Budapest to several cities in Europe.

Unfortunately we do not have a sea that is why we do not have sea transportation. There are
ship transports on the Danube and the Balaton, but it is not the same.


 Gondold t alaposan a tmt s vlaszolj a kvetkez krdsekre.

A) Transport in general
 Which modes of transportation can you use in Hungary?
 What kind of vehicles can you use in public transport?
 What do you think about fares and prices for season tickets?
 What kind of improvements is the capital city planning to make transportation
better, faster and more comfortable?
Which is the most common form of transportation in big cities and why?

Tell some information about air and see transportation. In which countries are
they wide-spread?
Whats your opinion about Hungarian railway-system and transportation?
How can you avoid paying punishment?
----------------------------------------------------B) Transport for the individual
Which vehicles do you use day by day?
 What are the traffic circumstantes like in your village/town/city?
 Do you prefer public transport instead of walking or cycling?
 Have you got a driving license and an own car? Tell some information about it.
 What are the advantages of using public transportation?
 How do you travel, if you have to travel abroad?
 What do you think about petrol prices these days?



In my opinion the level of the transport in our country isnt satisfactory. Roads
need improvements. The quality of roads is deteriorating too fast. There isnt
enough money to improve the roads and I think that the roads are very crowded
and it isnt an easy task to solve the problem of the diversion of the traffic.
Pot holes are very dangerous and cause a lot of proplems. In darkness or in
pouring rain they are hardly noticable, and a large pot hole may damage the car.
The road works may cause big traffic jams.

I think motorway is very useful, because you can go fast, traffic jams are rare
and they are safer and better than roads.

The new section of M3 motorway is being built. With this motorway the
transport to the East will be faster. Perhaps the most important roads would be
the ringroads around big cities and towns to keep traffic and air pollution away
from the inhabitants.

Unfortunately there are very few cities in Hungary which are surrounded by
ringroads. The other important development would be to establish connection


between the capital and the Eastern, Western, Southern and Northern regions
should be connected with each other too.
I was at the Ferihegy Airport, but unfortunately just a visitor (I didnt travel.)
It was very modern, nice and clean. As far as I know the designs for a third
terminal are being prepared and the new terminal will be built quite soon.

The public transport in Budapest isnt up-to-date. The vehicles are old, used up
and overcrowded. The local government of Budapest is planning to purchase a lot
of new trams and buses and hopefully the construction of the new
undergroundline will be started soon. There are still discussions about the route.

Especially in the early hours there are a lot of cars on the roads, and they cause
traffic jams. At this time the public transport is faster. If the public transport
would be up-to-date and comfortable, more people would use it.
I dont support our governments transport policy, because it doesnt take care
of roads.

As to motorway tolls, they are rather high in Hungary as compared to other
European countries. There are several kinds of tolls, for example four-day,
weekly, monthly and yearly stickers. In the future the tolls will be lower,

because we are the member of the EU. I think it is a good idea to pay for the
roads, because this is an incomes for the government. The govenment will
improve the roads from this money.

Lets be optimistic! Hopefully our EU accession will contribute to the faster

development of Hungarian transport infrastructure and we will get significant
financial support.

 Alkoss a szvegben kiemelt egysgekbl ms szfaj elemeket.

satisfactory (adj.)

Im very with
the local transport of my hometown.

improvements (verb)

Roadconditions have
a lot recently.


Public transport level
in many cities.

solve (noun)

The best ., if the






diversion (verb)

Local transport is .,
to keep nois and traffic jam away from
the city.

noticable (verb)

In case of bad weather, you cannot
.. pot holes on the

damage (noun)

The insurancell pay, if .
is caused by a careless driver.

pollution (adj.)

Our environment is ...
by several chemicals, litter and gases.

surrounded (noun)

In the . you cant
find any hills, lakes, rivers or forests.

establish (noun)

The best solution is the .
of a new public transport network.

connection (verb)

The bridge the old
town with the airport.

purchase (noun)

The .. of a monthly
ticker is easier for those, who travells day
bay day.

construction (verb)

The city council are going to
some new bus stops.

compared (verb)

I spend two years in Canada and when I
came home, I .. our
transport system with the canadian one.


 Kiegszt olvasmny a tmhoz

In the last few years there were a lot of infrastructure developments in Hungary. Mainly I know that
improvements which are connected to the capital city, because I live there. I know only some things,
which are connected to the whole country. 500 kilometres long motorway was built in the last years.
This is twice as long as before, so I think it is a really good thing, and if it was countinued, it would be
really useful for the country, for the Hungarians and for the people, who spend their holiday here as
well as for the transit trade. The Hungarian government started to introduce the motorway stickers
after 2000. In this year we can buy the stickers, not only from the petrol stations, but via SMS and
the Internet too.

MV (Hungarian State Railways Company) bought new trains, which run between Budapest
and Esztergom. They plan to buy others to change the InterCity trains and to improve the quality of
the using of the trains. The Budapest-Vienna line and some stations were renovated in the last years.
Next to my home a new station was handed over last autumn, and some existing ones were
renovated in the last year as well, these statinons are on the Budapest-Szkesfehrvr line.

There were some changes in connection with the Hungarian airports too. The right of using
Budapest Airport was sold to BAA at the end of 2005. They promised improvements in the airport,
when they bought it , but as I heard now maybe they want to sell it. The other change was an airport
in Srmellk opened around a year ago. This is a small airport next to the Balaton. There are cheap
flights from and to the UK and Germany.

There were a lot of changes in Budapest in the last few years. A lot of roads were renovated.
In general (Or: Generally) it made a lot of troubles in the capital such as traffic jams and traffic
restrictions. But now we have a lot of roads in quite good condition. BKV (Budapest Transport
Limited) bought new Volvo buses and new Siemens trams. Both of them caused some unpleasant
moments for the BKV (air conditioning system, contact-wire and door problems). Before the BKV
started to install the new trams, they had the stops renovated. There was another change in
connection with the trams as I remember the route of the tram number 18 was extended. They
reformed the night bus services. As I know now the night buses run more often. They bought new
trolley buses, but they have not caused any problems yet. The BKV sold their last two river ships. The
biggest investment in the last few years was the Metro4. At first the subways were built, which are


used only by the pedestrians until the metro will be built. There was another improvement in
connection with the underground lines, it was the renovation of the Metro2.

There are a lot of renovations and improvements which have not been finished yet. The
building of the Metro4 is one of them. Now they are drilling the hole for the underground line. The
other thing which is under construction is the renovation of the Metro2, there are some stations
which have not been renovated yet, but most of the stations have been finished already.

The building of the bridge in Dunajvros was started some years ago, and it will be finished
in this year, according to the plans. The governments of Hungary and Slovakia are planning to build a
new bridge between the two countries on the Danube.

In spite of the lot of things that have happened in the last few years, there are a lot of things
which should happen in the next few years.

The BKV should improve their ticket checking system, because a lot of fare-dodgers use the
vehicles. I think if the BKV set up some automatons on their vehicles (which check the tickets), it
would cause less costs, than the fare-dodgers cause to them year-by-year. If they set up these
machines, the fare-dodgers would not be able to use the public transport system. It should be also
good if the BKV and MV tickets should be purchasable by credit card on the vehicles.

In the last few years the BKV bought trams and buses which have an air conditioning system.
It would be good, if they used these systems on the warm summer days. Both MV and BKV should
pay more attention to the cleanness on the vehicles. The MV should improve the railroad system,
because the trains are relatively slow in Hungary.

In my opinion the government should have built more motorways in the Eastern part of
Hungary, because Hungary would be a good logistics centre, because of its location.

I think one way of the improvements of the public transportation is everybody would have to
pay fee, if he/she wanted to use the city centre by car this kind of system operates in London and in
Stockholm too. In this way more people would use the public transport. If the Budapest Municipal
council got the fee, they would be able to develop the public transport system. Due to these
developments the public transport would be more comfortable, cleaner, safer and less overcrowded,
than now.

Businesses, who have the most benefits:

Tourism if Budapest had good-quality airport- and railway systems, it would attract more
and more foreign people and companies to Hungary

Transit trade if Hungary had better-quality road- and motorway systems, it would increase
the transit trade in Hungary

Carrier companies with a well-developed road system, they would be able to carry out their

The police, the fire brigade and the ambulance if the transport was well-developed, it
would be easier to go across the city

Business, who have the least benefits:

Car dealers if the public transport system was well-developed, the people would buy fewer

Car mechanics because the roads in bad condition, cause a lot of damage on the cars and it
provides work for them.

Basically the direction of the developments in the country is good, but the way, where they
improve the things is not the best in all cases.

 Gondold t alaposan a tmt s vlaszolj a kvetkez krdsekre.

 In which way should be bus transportation improved?

 Do you have some information about Hungarian air-transport-developments?
 Whats the situation with fees, ticket prices?
 How can be dodge regulated much more efficient?
 What was/is wrong with transport conditions in buses, trams, trolleys?
What are the road conditions like in Hungary? Have you got personal


The building of Metro4 is in progress. What difficulities do this development
Do you think, more ring-roads and bridges should be built in Hungary? Why?


Unit 15. USE OF CARS

The use of cars had many advantages and disadvantages. Despite the lots of
disadvantages cars have been indispensable conditons of our life.

First lets see the cars advantages:

Everybody likes it because of the fastness. If you choose this way of the
transport you dont have to wait for the public transport and you can go
wherever you want. Cars are comfortable and we dont have to adjust to the
public transport. We can travel individually.
The use of cars has got some economic benefits. For example: the car industry
and the associated industries provide employment for many people. Therefore
appear the car showrooms, car washes, motor sports, car races, oil industrypetrol stations etc. The oil industry has developed massively the supply fuel.
The use of cars has potentiated people to live outside towns spreading the

But whats the disadvantage of the use of cars?

Unfortunately it has lots of disadvantages. If we want to buy a modern car we
need much money. Because cars are too expensive to our purse. The other
disadvantage is that cars pollute the environment. The main problem the air
pollution but hereafter the noise pollution has appeared too. Can we solve the
pollution problem? The solution will be provided by the electricity or the hybridcars or maybe the solar energy. But how can we implement it? It is the question
of the future. There is another effect of environmental pollution, this is the
climatic change.
The use of cars partly causes the global warning and the greenhouse effect too.


If we want to drive a car we need lots of petrol. But the oil production isnt

unlimited. So the oil supplies may become more scarce in the future. We must
economize with the valuable oil or spare oil.
Unfortunately the high cost of fuel is increased every year.

There are many dangers if you use a car. Your car may have a breakdown on the
motorway. You have an accident or you can fall into a traffic jam. So you must
always be watchful and you must survey the road conditions too. If you search a

detour you have a chance to avoid the rush hours.

If you drive at more than 80 km an hour or you exceed the speed limit or you

violate the traffic regulations, you can easily fall into a road accident.
Nowadays a lot of people are killed in an accident with head-on collision .

 Trstsd a tblzatban megadott idegen kifejezsekhez a megfelel magyar



a) kerlt


b) felmr


c) frontlis tkzs


d) okoz, elidz


e) teljesteni


f) kzlekedsi szablyok


g) krltekint, vatos


h) takarkoskodni


i) fejlett



j) ipar

head-on collision

k) termels

traffic regulations

l) pnztrca


ly) azutn


m) ijeszt


n) nlklzhetetlen


o) lls


p) meghalad, tllp


r) elsegt


s) hatrtalan


t) ezrt


v) sszekapcsolt


u) megszeg, thg


v) vmi. ellenre


w) ad, nyjt, knl


q) egynileg


y) gyorsasg


z) igazodni


 Kiegszt olvasmny a tmhoz

Since Mr Henry Ford invented the Ford T-model the cars are essential part of the life. I think
people are not able to live without cars... But the cars have at least as many disadvantages as

Firstly the advantages. I think the first two statements are connected to each other. They
mean that you can go wherever and whenever you want, you are a flexible person if you have a car.
You do not depend on the public transport, the timetables of trains and coaches. That is why the cars
are really comfortable. The newest cars contain stereo system (if you want you can read in your
car, due to the audio books), GPS (General Positionig System) and DVD player for the passangers. The
newest cars are not only comfortabe, they are also entertaining and due to the modern technology
their consumption decresases. The newer cars have lower consumption, than the older ones.

If you go on holiday and you have e.g. 5 days to see everything, it is easier by car, than on
foot, or with public transport. You can drive to places which do not have bus connection or which are
so far on foot.

Cars are really good against the cold. I lived in Kemi, in Northern Finland for half a year (this
is a small a city, next to the Gulf of Bothnia). This city does not have public transport system, it has
only coaches between the surrounding cities. The winters are very cold there, and you can choose
from the car, the bicycle and your legs if you want to go from a place to another. I think everybody
who has the chance chooses the car... Unfortunately we did not have this chance.

The third statement is really important in Hungary. We have some factories in these
industries. We have an Audi plant in Gyr, they got some favours from the Hungarian government
when they settled in Hungary, they got tax allowance, but from this year the government stopped
this allowance. Instead of this they get allowance in connection with the research and development.
We have a Suzuki plant in Esztergom, this plant is the only one Suzuki plant in Europe. And we have a
Bosch plant in Budapest, which has the research and development part of carelectronics here. In
connection with the associated industries, Hankook which is a Korean tyre factory started to
build new plant in Dunajvros, the expected handing over is in this year. They will settle here

production- and research and development departments too. The half of the employees will be
Korean, but the other half will be Hungarian. I think we will receive new know-hows in the tyreproduction. In my opinion the car industry and the associated industries would be able to give a new
direction of the economic development of Hungary, because we have experiences and knowledge in
these industries (e.g. Ganz and Ikarusz) and the Hungarian government tries to help these industries
by settling them down in Hungary. It may be a good direction of the developing, because all of the
world-leading countries have excellent car and connecting industries.

The oil industry has developed with the car industry. Until the car industry will have a huge
role as nowadays, the oil industry wont have any problems, I think.

I do not agree fully with the fifth statement. I think if the motorists have to pay a fee for
using the citycentre by car like in London or Stockholm and the government spends the income
from this fee for the developing of the public transport and for the building of P+R (park and ride) car
parks in the outer districts, it solves this problem. I know that in the first time it would make some
troubles, if it was carried out, but I think it would be worth.

The last statement is absolutely true for Budapest, because 2 million people live here, but 3
million people work here. I think people who have the chance to live in the surrounding towns or
villages, they live there, because it is more healthy and calmer, than to live in the city.

Now the disadvantages. At first I would like to mention some disadvantages which are not
mentioned on the paper. The depreciation is not linear, the fact that every company uses the linear
depreciation allowance in their accounting. A new car loses around the one quarter part of its value
in the first year, but e.g. there is not a big difference between the price of a 10 and a 12 years old
car... The other problem arises in connection with the decreasing of the number of the cars. It is
almost impossible to decrease the number of the cars, because cars have a strong status symbol
meaning. So there are a lot of people who do not want to use the public transport, because what will
the other people think about them...

I think the last two statements and the third, fourth and fifth stamtements are connected to
each other.

At first I would like to speak about the last two statements. Because of the increasing
number of the cars, there are huge traffic jams in the city centre of Budapest. Sometimes it is slower

to use the cars, than to use the public transport to go from a place to another. But sometimes the
public transport is also slow, because there are a lot of cars in the city which use the bus lane,
although it is forbidden... There are not enough parking places in the city centre, that is why many
cars in Budapest try to find a vacant parking place, and sometimes they help the formation of the
traffic jams.

Nowadays the world market price of the oil is decreasing, but this price is really vulnerable,
because the Iraqi crisis. In addition to the oil explotation in Middle-East, there are several others (or:
other oil sources) in the world like in Russia, Norway, the USA and some African countries.

I think there are some ways of the solution of the pollution problem, but sometimes it is
expensive or time-consuming, and sometimes it is not the interest of the world-leader countries. I
think the pollution problem would be solved, if the price of the oil suddenly rose, because in this case
a lot of people could not buy it. But nowadays to find the solution is not so important for the
countries, because the oil-price is affordable...

The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement about the protection against the pollution problems. It
contains that the members reduce the emission of the pollutants. Until December 2006 it had 169
members (countries and other governmental entities). The USA and Australia signed the agreement,
but they declined the ratification as I read.

Other suggestions against the pollution problem:

If the number of the P+R car parks increased, fewer people should use their car in the
city centre, and the air pollution would decrease.

If motorists had to pay for the use of the roads in the city centre, the traffic would
decrease there.

There is chance in Finland to use the trains by car. Before the passanger wants to use
this service, he/she has to request a railway carriage. I think it is a good way to
decrease the air pollution, if travelling by train is as fast as by car, and if it is cheaper.

For the transportation of the goods there is a procedure, called ROLA (rolling
highway), it means that the lorries use the train for transportation. It is good, if the
trains are fast and cheaper, than the cars.


Another question arises in connection with the pollution, where do the cars withdrawn from
circulation disappear?

Effect on the climatic change. The cars burn hydro-carbons and the smoke of these burnt hydrocarbons is toxic. Due to the toxical gases the ozone layer is getting thinner. The dangerous UV
radiation can go through the ozone layer and causes skincancer and global warming. The ice of the
North- and South Pole starts to melt. If the white surfaces dissappear, the global warning will be
faster and faster, because the white surfaces can reflect light and the dark surfaces absorb light. The
climate zones will change if the global warming starts.

About the future of the cars. Nowadays the hybrid cars are available all over the world. They
use the mixture of the fuel and electricity. The first model was improved in Japan. They would spread
if the fuel was really expensive. An interesting thing in connection with the hybrid cars is that, in
London motorists who want to use the road in the citycentre they have to pay fee for it, except if
they have electronic- or hybrid cars.

The electronic cars will be available in the future due to the developing of the batteries. If we
think about the developing of the mobile electronic appliances, the spreading of the electronic cars
would be not so far. Nowadays these electronic batteries are used in warehouses in electronic

Advantages of the electronic cars:

there is no smog in the cities

more silent


you can charge the batteries at home, you do not have to go to a petrol station

Disadvantages of the electronic cars:

not as fast as the normal cars

more expensive

there is no wide range of them yet...


 Gondold t alaposan a tmt s vlaszolj a kvetkez krdsekre.

 Could you name some advantages of using a car?

 Is public transportation more environmental friendly that travelling by car?
 What do you know about car industry or car production in Hungary?
 In which measure are car racing and car-racing developments important?
 What is the situation of car saloons nowadays?
Do you know any alternative form of using fuel?

How do hybrid-cars work? Is it a great invention? Whats your opinion?

How can you use a car environmental friendly?
What are the main problems between passengers/cyclers and drivers?
Is there any regulation of using cars and lorries in the traffic?
---------------------------------------------------- Could you explain about driving lessons?
 What kind of arrangements do you have to do in connection to cars?
 What effects can cars have on environmental changes?
 How can you see the future of cars?




I am a fourth year student at Budapest Polytechnic that is why I would like to

speak about the conditions of my college. I am studying in the Tavaszmez and
the Nagyszombati sites of the college.

There is central heating in our college. Sometimes it is out of order but other
times they heat too much.
There is strip lighting , it is cheaper than light bulbs. In some lecture rooms the
lighting of the board isnt appropriate. Artifical light is tiring for the eyes so I
think natural light should be the best for our eyes.

In our lecture rooms we havent got air condition, except some lecturers
offices. When the weather is hot especially in May and June the ventilation
of the rooms is almost impossible.
The college hasnt got suitable public address system. So we dont hear well the
soft-speaking teachers.

Fire safety is controlled by strict laws. As I know fire regulations have to be

put out in every lecture room in the college. It includes that nobody is allowed to
smoke in the institute. In spite of this rule, lots of students are smoking in the
If you hear the fire alarm you have to follow the escape plan which can be found
on the walls of the corridors . You can find fire extinguishers also hanging on
the walls.


The welfare facilities in our college arent very good. There used to be a
doctors surgery in the college site where we are studying. But you can find it in
the Bnki site now. It isnt a good distance away from the Tavaszmez site, but
it is in special cases. If there is emergency then first aid is very far away. In
these cases we have to call the ambulance.
We have 80 minute lectures. There are breaks between two lectures, but I
find them brief. We are studying in two sites of the college. The Tavasmez site
is located in Jzsefvros and the other site in Nagyszombat street is located in
buda. If public transport is good, it takes 45 minutes to go from the one site
to the other site. So the travellling between them causes a lot of time

There are a buffet and a canteen in Tavaszmez site where we can have our
meals. The buffet is really small. Hamburgers, sandwiches, hot-dogs, chips,
biscuits, sweets and a wide range of soft drinks are sold there. In spite of the
buffet hot dishes are sold in the canteen. The dishes are delicious and students
have got price reduction from them.

 Tltsd ki a tblzatot a szvegben megadott informcik segtsgvel.

What kind?

good (+)/bad (-)


air condition

public address system

fire safety


welfare facilities

eating facilities

 Kiegszt olvasmny a tmhoz

Heating, lighting, ventilation

The suitable temperature of the workplace contributes to the appropriate working

performance. In the winter time it is necessary to heat the office and the school; it demands that the
heating system should be maintained regularly. If the office or college has air-conditioner system, it
needs regular maintenance too. In most of the newly-built buildings there is air-conditioner system.

In the older buildings of Budapest Tech there is only a heating system, but in the new ones
there are heating and air-conditioner systems too. Against the cold there are hot-drink machines, so
you can get coffee, cappuccino, tea and hot-chocolate, and if the weather is too hot there are softdrink automatons.

The suitable lighting is as important as the suitable temperature. In Budapest Tech there is
strip lighting. I think this is the cheapest and the easiest type to light up huge halls. If all of the strip
lights work it is a good solution. In a school it is important to light up the blackboard appropriately.
The natural lighting is better, because the artificial light tires the eyes.

Fire and safety regulations

The fire and safety regulations are strict in every school, college and official buildings. There
is a ban on smoking in these buildings except on the appointed places. There is an escape plan in
case of fire, which has to be put up in every classroom or in the corridors. The telephone number of
the police, the fire brigade and the ambulance also have to be put up. I think there should be a fire
extinguisher in every corridor.

There is a fire drill in every semester. Because we have several computer rooms in our
school, in every semester the teacher tells us the most important things in connection with the fireand accident protection in the computer rooms.

I think in every workplace, school and nowadays more frequently in a private building there is
a fire detector, which immediately starts to sound the siren, when it observes the fire or smoke.


I think at the beginning of every semester the teachers should tell us the main fire and
accident protection rules in the school. In a workplace, I think on the first workday the new worker
has to get a fire drill. The smokers have to have enough self-control to smoke only on the appointed

Welfare facilities

There must be a surgical bag in every school and workplace. If a bigger accident happens the
ambulance has to be called.

If a person works too long, it makes him/her more tired and more inattentive. It may cause
accidents or maybe fires it depends on the type of the workplace. In every hour the people who
work with a computer have to keep a 10 minutes break to avoid the problems.

 Gondold t alaposan a tmt s vlaszolj a kvetkez krdsekre.

 Why is it important to work in adequate working conditions?

 Which form of lighting do you know?
 How can you get protection from an insitute in cold weather circumstances?
 In which period of the year is ventilation the most important?
 Could you name some fire regulations?
 How can you be cared in case of light or several accident in the institute?
What do you have to take care about during studying or working time?
Have you any problems with your studying or working circumstances? Tell
some information about it.
Have you got any negative experiences in connection to the topic?



I think a lot of companies move from the rich countries to the developing
countries but just some subsidary of the whole company. For example the

assemby department. Intellectual occupation (white collar job) stay in the rich

Hungary doesnt belong to the category of developing countries, but in reality

there are a lot of similarities between them. There are lots of industrial
companies from England, Germany, Scotland, America etc.
The manpower and the materials are cheaper, the salaries and the taxes are
lower, the costs (of transporst) are cheaper too than in the rich countries.

Trade unions should also be mentioned. They play on important role in protecting
workers interests in highly developed countries. They are not active and
international companies can exploit the local workforce. Nobody protects their

As for employment laws, I think working hours, holidays, health and safety are
not regulated in developing countries which means that workers work much
longer hours, do not get paid holidays (or can not afford to go on holiday) ,
nobody cares about their health and safety. They work there unofficial, often
they working conditions are not good and they havent a social insurance.

Since education in poor countries is not at a high level, the management and
office workers come from other countries and the manual workers are local
people. This may cause problems between the management and the staff.


Nowadays the education standard are becoming higher and higher because a lot
of college and university professors/lectures go to work to developing countries
and several student from there countries go to study to the west.

The education is very good in Hungary but I think these companies dont need
Hungarian white collar workers because the dispatch from the mother-country
those whom they need.
Companies want blue collar workers, unskilled workers but I think these
companies exploit them. They get the minimum wages.
Those companies which come here can get 5 years tax exemption but when the

time is up the companies slope off to the next developing country. Consequently
workers will be unemployed.

What problems do companies face when they move to developing countries?

In the developing countries the infrastucture is not appropriate and often there
are dictatorships, where the government works in their own interests and they
dont care about the population.

Do you think that companies should be stopped from moving to other

Its good for the developing countries because they can reduce the member of
unemployed people but just for a short time. It doesnt mean a permanent
sollution. So in my opinion they should be stopped from moving preferable laws
or regulations.


Which industries in your country have been affected by this (either

positively or negatively)?
In Hungary almost all industries have been affected by this axept agriculture.
(industry, trade, services)

Are there any types of industry that you think will always stay in rich

The department of the companies stay in rich countries which makes intellectual
product. For example: project, software, developing, ideas.

 Szavak s kifejezsek jegyzke:





belong to

tartozik vmihez.







local workforce

helyi munkaer

protect the

vdi vki./vmi.



care about

trdik vmivel.

social insurance


cause problems

gondokat okoz


vlik, lesz


vmik./vkik. kztt



elkld, tnak indt



tax exemption


time is up

az id lejr



in the own

a sajt rdekben


cskkent, redukl






rintve van

 Egsztsd ki a mondatokat a listban szerepl megfelel szval.

1) A lot of companies and industries employ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,

because of cheap manpower.
2) Multies have their own . . . . . . . . . . . . and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in each countries.
3) White-collar workers are often employed by the . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4) In developing countries the state doesnt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . of the workers.
5) There are several problems between companies and blue-collar workers, e.g.
the . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6) My opinion is, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . should be regulated, because each
company does in the own interests.
7) Big companies leave the country, when . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and settle in
another contry.

 Kiegszt olvasmny a tmhoz

A lot of companies move their production department to developing countries. There are many
things in these countries, which create favourable conditions for production there. The first thing is
the labour force. Nowadays the labour costs in Europe (mainly in Western Europe) or in the USA are
really high, but in the developing countries these costs are incomparably low. The main problem is
the people, who work for these companies, have to accept the low-level wages, because they really
need the money. If they do not accept it, the companies will find other people instead of them. These
companies employ only blue-collar workers from the developing countries, and in every case the
management of these departments is from their mother-country.

I think these companies always leave the top management, the financial and accounting-, the
R&D- etc. departments in the mother-country. These departments never move to a developing
country. It has two main reasons in my opinion. The first one is the ratio of the well-qualified
people is really high in the highly-developed countries and these companies want to provide jobs for


them. But there is a lack of the manual workers, so they can employ people from the developing
countries for these jobs. The other thing is these jobs require well-qualified people, who have
experience and the quality of the higher education is better in the highly-developed countries. The
problem with this behaviour (of the companies) is the quality of the higher education in the
developing countries will not be better if they do not help them, because it is not in their interest.

The other good reason for the moving of the companies is, it is cheaper to buy an empty
building plot and to build a new factory in a developing country, than to pay the rent for a plant in
Western-Europe or in the USA. The other thing is the price-level of the transport, the overheads and
all the costs in connection with the plants and production. The level of the taxes is much lower, than
in their home countries.

The other thing which arises as a benefit is there is no regulation in these countries, in
connection with the environmental protection, the labour force etc. Or if there are regulations, they
are less strict than in the home countries. That is why sometimes they use child labour, longer
working hours etc. Sometimes these plants are not safe enough to work in and there are inhuman
working conditions. Usually they exploit the workers. Unfortunately they can do it. And there are no
Trade Unions to protect the workers interests.

The companies face problems in these countries. The main problem which arises is the poor
level of the infrastructure. The transport- and social infrastructure are in very bed condition. The
health care- and educational system are very underdeveloped. The service sector is also
undeveloped. In Africa, in Asia and in South-America there are autocratic political systems. The drugand arms trade is very significant. There are civil wars and violence in many of these countries. There
are no economic- and political stability. So an investment in a third world country has a lot of

The main problem is not that these companies move to the developing countries, the main
problem is that these companies exploit the developing countries; they make huge profit from these
countries. If these countries moved to the developing countries and they provided the fair
conditions, it would be a really good thing for the third world countries.

These companies move their different departments not only to the developing countries, but
to Eastern- and Central- European countries too. After the socialism, the ex-socialist countries
provided good investment opportunities for the highly-developed countries. Due to the privatization


these countries/companies were able to buy plants and business parks. At that time the labour costs
were really cheap compared to their countries. But in the last several years a lot of things have
happened. The main changes started with the preparation for the EU-accession. A lot of things had to
change according to the regulations. This meant that these countries started to invite the same
regulations and rules as the highly-developed countries had. In May 2004 seven and in January 2007
other two ex-socialist countries joined the EU.

There were a lot of subsidiaries in Hungary before the EU-accession, but some of them
closed after it. Many companies got assistances from the Hungarian government to move plants to
Hungary. They try to make favourable conditions for the well-developed companies, to attract the
foreign capital to Hungary. They have been offering 5 years tax exemption. A lot of companies
accepted this offer, but after the 5 years many of them left Hungary. Nowadays (after the EUaccession) there are multinational subsidiaries in Hungary; most of them are in the car
manufacturing sector and the associated industries as well as in the electronical sector.

There are brands, which are related to different countries and/or luxury goods such as Rolls
Royce, Ferrari, Scotch whiskies, Swiss wristwatches etc., the production of these things never moves
to the developing countries.

 Gondold t alaposan a tmt s vlaszolj a kvetkez krdsekre.

 Why is it worth to settle abroad for a multinational company?

 What is the rate of high-educated white-collar workers and blue-collar
workers in aspect of employing?
 Do you think, foreign companies do well in Hungary?
 What should be working circumstances like?
What do you know about subsidiaries?

Could you name some examples for inhuman working conditions?

What does privatization mean?
What are the EU-regulation for business?


What are the main problems in aspect of environment in companies, factories?

 Could you summarize your workplace-politic?




Unfortunately there are lots of countries which the food supply is inadequate
and the standard of living is low than in a normal ones. These countries havent
got enough medical goods and welfare facilities are impossible. For example:
Nigeria, Somalia and some South-American countries are in this situation. The
political system isnt democratic in these countries. There is anarchy.

The richer nations can help to these countries. They can give grants, loans or

development assistance to them. For example student exchange grants, this is

a real assistance because students will be the next generation and if they can
study, they will improve their society.
Loans are a short-term solution because they have to pay back this money. So
economy cant be developed by loans.

International Organisation like Red Cross that collect money and clothing or
medical supplies, it distribute between poor countries. These organisation

donate food surpluses, equipment, cloathing, medical supplies etc.

Highly developed countries provide educational facilities for skill training.

Authorities cant always control the situation they dont organise self-help.
There is no guarantee that assistance will be used wisely.

Hungary is not a highly developed country so we cant realy assistance the poorer
countries. But in Hungary live some people who help these poorer countries and
they are private investments too. For example George Soros is a private


investment. He makes foundations, invests in education and welfare. He gives a

lot of assistance but of course he makes a lot of profit by it.

These countries have been in bad situation because of the natural disasters and
wars. In these areas are often earthquake. Lots of people become homeless
after a big earthquake. Sometimes there are floods or droughts so they cant
produce the most necessary vegetables and cereals. Several people famish in
these areas.

They are in hard situation because of wars. I think they fight for the better
circumstances but I think they wont reach the suitable standard of living with
this method.

 Mely szavak/kifejezsek magyarzatt adjk a kvetkezk?

the area doesnt get enough money, so plants

hardly can grow there
organizations maintained by the state
not enough, not the best
events, which arent caused by people and theyre
often unpredictable
expedient not for long time
in brainy wise
encouragement in form of money or equipment
there arent enough food
a group from a country come to visit and spend few
days or weeks in another country and vica versa


water donts stay in its own channel, caused by

much raining
an individual, who supports people, organizations
etc. and is independent from state
reserve of nutriment
give as charity fo those, who are in need
products which are used in healing, e.g. plasters,
vaccination, medicaments
several methods for helping whitout the state
make much better or efficient
a limit which can be very different according
wages, salaries, expenses etc.
financial support from banks
materials, accessories
financial support to improve some fields

 Kiegszt olvasmny a szveghez

The develpoing countries are also known as the countries of the third world. These countries are in
Africa, Asia and South America. As I know more than 25,000 people die of starvation every day, and
more than 800 million people are chronically undernourished I guess these people do not live in
Europe or in North-America. In the developing countries in addition to the starvation there are
several problems such as civil wars, arms- and drug trade, natural disasters, AIDS and undrinkable

The interests of the population and the leaders of the country are usually not the same in the
developing countries. It is good for them if there is a civil war in their country, because the illegal
arms trade makes a lot of money for them. The fighters always need more and more arms. So
sometimes the civil wars are directly influenced by the governments.


There are a lot of organizations which try to help the developing countries. The following
organizations try to help them:

The World Trade Organisation (WTO) makes preferential custom tariffs with respect to the
developing countries.

The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development tries to help the world trade
position of these countries, and tries to help the economic development.

There are organizations which try to help them with distribution of food, clean water, clothes
etc. These are the Red Cross, Baptist Aid etc. They try to protect the human life and health.

There are a lot of private people who try to help the poor and the starving people. For example
actors, actresses, media stars such as Roger Moore, who is the UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador,
Angelina Jolie who adopted a baby from the 3rd world or Lady Diana, she always helped the people
in poor countries in her life.

There are several forms to give assistance. If an organization give loans to a developing country,
it may be good, if the country gets soft-term loans (with favourable conditions and for a long time)
and if the country invests into the infrastructure or the education, so invests in that kind of sector
which reproduces the invested money. Because if the county invests the money in those kinds of
sectors which never reproduce the invested money, it can be impossible to pay back the loan.

If the country gets grants or assistance it should spend the money on the development of the
country, it should make some kind of plan for the spending of the money. I think the organization or
the country who gives the grant to the developing country should give help for the planning of the
spending of the grant. But it is really important that the developing country should want the
development of the country, the economy.

The other kind of the help is the trade with them. There are a lot of agricultural goods in Africa,
and South America such as coffee and cocoa. It is really important to pay a fair price for the goods,
for the workers to get fair wages etc.

For the younger generation there are exchange programs to Europe or to the USA. I think if a
student from a developing country gets the chance to study abroad it gives him chance to help his

country. I was in Finland for a semester and I had classmates from Nigeria, Kenya and from China. I
had never heard them complain about their homecountrys poverty.

 Gondold t alaposan a tmt s vlaszolj a kvetkez krdsekre.

 What are the main problems in the developing countries?

 Why are governments responsible for the bad living circumstances in these
 How can other countries help to the people, to the nation of the third world?
 Could you name some Hungarian initiations to support poor nations?
 How can mass media and celebricities giving help?
What do civil wars cause? Have you ever heard about child-warriors?

How can be education improved in developing nations?

How can be poor nations supported financial?
How can trade with the third world help for people?
Whats the main problem between developing countries and the rest of the



Hungary joined for the European Unio 1st of May in this year. I think in the
short term there will be a lot of problems, mainly in the agriculture. Our prices
is growing, but our wages or salaries only growing in the long term. People earn
not enough money to buy all the things, that they need. It means, raising salaries
and prices of several goods arent proportional. I think that wages and salaries
will be grow within 10 years.

In the long term there will be a lot of advantages. We travel unlimited in every
countries of the EU. Some years ago you needed passport or visa to step across

the border. Today if you would like to travel into countries in the European
Union, you dont need to have these, only your ID card is enough. We can get a
job in abroad.You have to speak a foreign language or several foreign languages,
it depends on, what kind of job youre looking for. To get the citizenship e.g. in
Britain - you must live and work 5 years and make a citizenship exam.
There will be several student exchange programmes. If a student win a
scholarship, he/she can study several years abroad. We can settle down abroad.
These situation will be favour for mostly the young people, because in Hungary
there arent many chances to get an adequate job, unfortunately.

They will introduce the Euro approximatly in 2015 in Hungary. It will help to be a

unified monetary system in Europe.

We hope that with our join, Hungary will develope and our property line will be


 Tltsd ki a tblzatot rtelemszeren a szveg informcii s egyni

vlemny alapjn.
border crossing



wages and salaries

job and citizenship


economy and finance


 Kiegszt olvasmny a tmhoz

The EU and Trade

The European Union is the worlds
biggest trading block, accounting
for 20% of global imports and
exports. Open trade among its
members launched the EU nearly
50 years ago and has brought





member states.
The EU is working effectively to
open up world trade for the benefit of rich and poor countries alike. Increased trade, in fact,
is likely to boost world growth to everybodys advantage. It brings consumers a wider range

of products to choose from, and competition between imports and local products lowers
prices and raises quality.
The EU believes that globalisation can bring economic benefits to all, including the
developing countries, provided appropriate rules are adopted at the multilateral level and
efforts are made to integrate developing countries in world trade. That is why the European
Union is negotiating with its partners to open up trade in both goods and services.
The EU seeks to help developing countries by giving them better access to its market in the
short term, while allowing them more time to open their own markets to European
products. At the same time, the EU is reforming its agricultural policy and this too will
benefit developing countries.
The EU is also a firm supporter of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), which lays down a
set of rules to help open up global trade and ensure fair treatment for all participants. The
EU's trade policy is closely linked to its development policy. The two come together as the
Union assumes its share of responsibility to help developing countries fight poverty and
integrate into the global economy.

The EU and the WTO

The EU is one of the key players in the World Trade Organisation
(WTO). This is because the EU has a common trade policy,
where the European Commission negotiates on behalf of the Union's 27 Member States. As
such, the EU is one of the driving forces behind the current round of multilateral trade
negotiations in the WTO, the Doha Development Agenda (DDA). The DDA comprises both
further market opening and additional rule making, underpinned by commitments to take
measures necessary to integrate developing countries into the world trading system,
notably by strengthening assistance to build capacity. The main objective of the New Round
is to put development at the heart of the world trade system in a way that will help them
combat poverty.

Internal Market
The European Union is perhaps the worlds biggest single market. The Union brings together
nearly 500 million citizens and four of the worlds seven largest economies. It now has a
common currency for 16 of its member states, covering 320 million citizens.
In this borderless Europe, people and products can move freely from one place to another.
This means that, as a citizen, you can travel to any EU country without a visa and many
without a passport. It also means that people and businesses can buy and sell goods
wherever they want without having to pay special customs duties or taxes.

Internal Market - Your Rights

The EU maintains services which can assist both citizens and
businesses to understand and exercise their single market rights.
If when trying to exercise your Single Market rights, you have encountered unjustified
obstacles in dealing with national or regional administrations, you can get help in solving
your problem from a network of offices located in the Member States. These are called
SOLVIT Centres.

 Gondold t alaposan a tmt s vlaszolj a kvetkez krdsekre.

 Why has got EU a lot of advantages in point of unlimited border-crossing?

 How can be educational changes improved by European Union?
 Many young people leave the country and try to find a job and career abroad
nowdays. Have they got better changes in the EU? Whats your opinion?
 In Hungary people use Forint as payment form. Euro is going to introduce
several years later. Will that changing cause any problems?
What is WTO and what are its main scope of duties?


Have you ever heard about SOLVIT? Tell some information about it.
EU is single market and internal market as well. Can you explain that?