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Line Follower Vehicle.

Professor: M.C Joaqun Saucedo Barajas.

Course: Advanced programming.
Torren Technological University.
3th Practice:
Line follower vehicle.
Yahaira Cristina Alans Hernndez.
Israel Domingo Hernndez Ramos.
Sal Alejandro Padilla Ros.
Winers Roberto Enrquez Orozco.
Abraham Pedroza Flores.

Line Follower Vehicle.

1 Goals
To get knowledge about the digital processing fundamentals.
To identify the component soft he vision systems.
To understand Histograms and its properties.
To under stand the pixel processing and properties.
To know about Contour processing and identification.
2 Equipment and material
This section is intended for the student to write the list of materials
and equipment used to realizethis project.
3. Theoretical background (cada uno de los integrantes)
1-.What is a line follower vehicle?
Israel Henndez: It is an automatic system which is able to follow a
line of a specific color, it moves by motors, which are driver by a
microcontroller and optical sensors.
Winers Enriquez: Line follower is an autonomous robot which follows either black
line in white are or white line in black area. Robot must be able to detect particular
line and keep following it.
For special situations such as cross overs where robot can have more than one
path which can be followed, predefined path must be followed by the robot.
Abraham Pedroza: They are robots or automated elements that meet
a single function that is transportation on a track.
2.-What applications can you give to a line follower vehicle?
Israel Hernndez: We could use a line follower to do cut tools for
example, where I actually work, we could use a line follower to do cut
precision on the electrical cabinet that we build.
Winers Enriquez: Industrial Applications: These robots can be used as automated
equipment carriers in industries replacing traditional conveyer belts.
Automobile applications: These robots can also be used as automatic cars running
on roads with embedded magnets.
Domestic applications: These can also be used at homes for domestic purposes
like floor cleaning etc.
Guidance applications: These can be used in public places like shopping malls,
museums etc to provide path guidance.

Line Follower Vehicle.

Abraham Pedroza: In industry the application of the line follower
vehicle, could be used to transport materials from one point to
3.-What are the advantage and disadvantage for a line follower
Israel Hernndez: As the main disadvantage we could find is that the
ideal operation of the line follower is with a DC battery, if we wish to
transport a heavy load on the line follower to an industrial application,
it would be impossible with DC batteries. The main advantage is that it
has a cheap cost and you can use the line follower as a didactic
Winers Enriquez: Advantages of Line Follower Robot
Robot movement is automatic.
Used for long distance applications.
Used in home, industrial automation and Health Care.
Cost effective.
Simplicity of building.
Disadvantages of Line Follower Robot
Line follower robot follows a black line about 1 or 2 inches in width on a white
Line tracing robots are simple robots with an additional sensors placed on them.
It always needs a path to run either white or black since the IR rays should reflect
from the particular path.
Slow speed and instability on different line thickness or hard angles.
Abraham Pedroza: Advantages: the structure is simple.
As a robot allows a vision of automation in some processes in the
the concepts are easy and practical to implement them.
disadvantages: lack of imagination for good design.
as the track has more variations, more sensors should have.
4.-What knowled did you get with the realizing of this Project, and
how can you apply them career?
Israel Hernndez: We combined knowledge to different subjects, for
example, programming to program the microcontroller, motor drivers
to do the driver motor design with the L293D.
Winers Enriquez: The as a small project can be complicated and there are
many good ways to apply it in the race, one of them to transport materials to and
from practice would not be so serious and costly.

Line Follower Vehicle.

Abraham Pedroza: Well a line follower vehicle allows us to apply a
funny way, apply knowledge and theory, whether of electronics and
programming, as well applied physics in its design. It is purely for
entertainment purpose but at the same time is the theory put into
4 Producer and development
A line follower vehicle has to be developed. This vehicle has to be capable to follow
a White line over backround.
Objective of the project
Build a follower shopping line that works through sensors using
basic electronic components at low cost, propose possible
applications, further study and technological development,
4.1 Considerations
Make a table that list every single part used to build this car, add the
picture of the element, its cost and why that part was chosen.


Part Number



Control equipment
Microcontroller Atmel
ATmega168 or
Digital I/O Pins 14 (of
which 6 provide PWM
Analog Input Pins 8
DC Current per I/O Pin 40
Wide Supply-Voltage
Range: 4.5 V to 36 V
Internal ESD Protection
Output Current 1 A Per
Channel (600 mA)
Peak Output Current 2 A
Per Channel (1.2 A)
Main application: DC
Motor drivers


Arduino Nano






Line Follower Vehicle.

The QRD1113 and
QRD1114 reflective
sensors consist of
an infrared emitting diode
and an NPN silicon
mounted side by side in a
black plastic housing.



Switch ON-OFF
Jumper conector
Terminal block
Plastic tire



Gear Motor



Power supply
9V Battery
Phonelic board





Material description.
Switch ON - OFF
The main function of this switch is let us take the control about the power supply of the
system. Due to the line follower is an automatic system (it means, that we cant decide

Line Follower Vehicle.

when the line follower start to move) we have to take the
control of the line follower whit the switch.

QRD1114 Sensor
We could say the QRD1114
sensors are the eyes of our
line follower, its main and only
function is send to the
microcontroller Boolean values, which indicates when the line
follower is above the line, thanks to the Boolean values that the
sensors send to the microcontroller, our line follower knows where the line is.

We selected this chip as a motor driver because it is
more compact than others motor drivers, also, this chip
can take the control of two motors at the same time,
and it support an acceptable current range, if we
compare the cost of this chip with other devices that we
had could use, this is more expansive, but, we think the
L293 Chip is a good inversion.

Line Follower Vehicle.

Gear motors
As we know, gear motors offer us a
better torque and a stable speed, if the
line follower moves too fast it couldnt
follow curves lines.

9V Battery

We select this kind of battery due to its

size, we did the line follower design as
lightweight as possible. Also it can give
enough energy to supply the gear
motors and the microcontroller.

Arduino Nano 3.0

As we mentioned before, we selected all the
components to build the line follower as small

Line Follower Vehicle.

as it was possible. Arduino Nano was the perfect option, it has enough inputs and outputs
to control the line follower. We selected an Arduino because is easier to programming
than a microcontroller without a platform like Arduino.

2. Show the electric diagram of the entire system and explain every module.

3. Show and explain every step done to build this vehicle, you may include pictures
of every stage of the building process.

4. Show the picture of the line follower vehicle.

5. What control Processor (Microcontroller) are you using? Why did you choose it?

Line Follower Vehicle.

Show the code used in the microcontroller and explain every par to fit.
5 Observations
Israel Hernndez: I think our main problem trough the build of the line follower was

the missing of a work schedule, if we had planned all the activities that we had to
do, it means, if we had had a plan to build the line follower, we had saved a lot of
Abraham Pedroza: Eventhough it seems simple task to make a line follower
vehicle, the truth is that it is the opposite. The experience with the programming
and management controller represent a major factor for the proper functioning of
the follower, to the skills assembly have a certain degree of difficulty, but today it is
easy to get guidance on the internet and peers fully able to achieve whatever.
Yahaira Alanis.
I could observe that the line follower isnt a difficult robot, nonetheless we made it
difficult because we didnt pay the attention necessary to the PCB and we assume
than the line follower will work efficiently.
6 Conclusion
Israel Hernndez: I think we knew how to work as a good team because we didnt
need a lot of time to do the line follower, we knew how to divide the activities and
finally everybody in our team was a very important piece of the project.
Abraham Pedroza: Thanks to the knowledge acquired along the racecar has been
a practice where criteria have been applied topics seen in class, the realization of
the truck showed each of the issues, and seen generally the theoretical knowledge
were polished by practice .
Yahaira Alanis Hernandez. I can conclude that we couldnt complete all the goals
because we had a lot of problems, so in the nextest projects we are going to try to
improve and be more careful with every part of the projects.