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Sedimentary Basin Analysis

SedimentaryBasinAnalysis
http://eqsun.geo.arizona.edu/geo5xx/geos517/

Sedimentarybasinscanbeclassifiedbasedonthetypeofplate
motions(divergent,convergent),typeofthelithosphere,distance
fromplatemargins.

Sedimentary Basin Analysis


SedimentaryBasinAnalysis
http://eqsun.geo.arizona.edu/geo5xx/geos517/

From divergent to convergent margins


Fromdivergenttoconvergentmargins

Convergentmargins:collisional andnoncollisional
Basinsrelatedtoconvergentmargins
Peripheralforelandsystem
p
y

Forearc

Backarc

Retroarc

AfterDickinson(1974):

Oceanicbasins
Oceanic
basins
Riftedcontinentalmargins
Arctrenchsystem
h
Suturebelts
Intracontinental basins

TOFORMASEDIMENTARYBASINYOU
NEEDACCOMODATIONSPACE

Subsidenceofthecrustiscausedby:

1) Attenuation
Attenuationofthecrustduetostretchingand
of the crust due to stretching and
erosion(divergentmargins);
2) Contractionoflithosphereduetocooling
Contraction of lithosphere due to cooling
(divergentmargins);
3) Depressionofbothcrustandlithosphereby
D
i
fb h
d li h h
b
sedimentaryortectonicloading(convergent
margins).
i )

Primarymechanismsofbasin
subsidence
b d
Isostasy (changesinlithospheric
(changes in lithospheric
thicknessand/ordensity)
Flexure(loading)
Thermaleffects
Thermal effects

Isostasy
Based
BasedonArchemides
on Archemidesprinciple:
principle:
Abodyimmersedinafluidisbuoyedupbya
force equal to the weight (volume) of the
forceequaltotheweight(volume)ofthe
displacedfluid.
Isostasy assumeslocalcompensation:i.e.the
earthiscomposedoffreefloatingpistons

Depth of compensation
Depthofcompensation
Followingthetheoryofisostasy,amassabove
Following
the theory of isostasy a mass above
sealevelissupportedbelowsealevel,and
there is thus a certain depth at which the total
thereisthusacertaindepthatwhichthetotal
weightperunitareaisequalallaroundthe
Earth: depth of compensation (ca.113km).
Earth:depthofcompensation
(ca 113 km)

Models for local isostasy


Modelsforlocalisostasy
Airy:
Airy:wheredifferentin
where different in
topographichighsare
accommodatedbychangesin
thickness
Pratt:.bychangesindensity

Adjacentblockswithdifferentdensitiesorthicknesswillhave
differentrelativerelief

AfterAngevine etal.,1990

Typicallithospheric structureunder
thecontinentsandtheoceans
h
d h

AfterAngevine etal.,1990

Thermal effects
Thermaleffects
Thermal
Thermaleffectschangethedensityofthe
effects change the density of the
lithospheresothattheisostatic balanceis
changed
Initialcoolingofthelithosphereby
conduction: t1/2
conduction:t1/2
After10sthelithospherewillcool
exponentially(subsidence:becausecolder
i ll ( b id
b
ld
rocksaredenser.)

A.Ifeverythingelseis
equalthetotal
amountofuplift
duringheating(e.g.
intrusiondoming)is
equaltotheamount
l
h
ofsubsidenceduring
cooling.
B.Subsidencecanoccur
incaseoferosion;
thickeningofthe
mantlelidduring
coolingorstretching.

AfterAngevine etal.,1990

FollowingMcKenzie(
Intime2the
li h h
lithospherewill
ill
subsidebecause
ofisostatic
compensation
compensation
(youreplace
densermantlelid
withlessdense
asthenosphere.
Intime3the
lithospherecools
p
andthickensas
warm
asthenosphere
convertsincool
t i
l
lithosphere
(thermal
subsidence)

Examplesofdivergentmargins

Examplesofconvergentmargins

Peripheralforelands
Retroarcforelands

TheAlpineorogeny
p
g y

Foreland

Prowedge

Alps
Foreland

Retrowedge

TheAlpineorogeny
istheresultofthe
collisionbetween
EuropeandAdria
~50Myago,
followingclosureof
theAlpineTethys.
h l
h

AfterStampflietal.(2002)

TheHimalayanorogeny

N
TibeteanPlateau
Himalaya
Foreland

TheHimalayan
The
Himalayan
orogenyisthe
resultofthe
collision
lli i
betweenIndia
andAsia~50My
ago,following
closureofthe
NeoTethys.

Exampleofoceancontinentcollisionandretroarcforeland:

TheAndes
TheAndesaretheresultof
Tertiary crustal thickening and
Tertiarycrustalthickeningand
magmaticprocessesrelated
tothesubductionofthe
N
NazcaplateundertheSouth
l t
d th S th
AmericanPlate.

Cordillera
Altiplano
Puna
Plateau

Foreland

CourtesyIsabelleCoutand

Mechanismsofforelandbasinformation
Peripheralbasins:
Peripheral basins:

ModifiedafterDeCellesandGiles(1996)

Mechanismsofforelandbasinformation
Retroarcbasins:
Retroarc basins:

ModifiedafterDeCellesandGiles(1996)

Slide 28
c1

dynamic slab load is caused by viscous coupling between the subducting slab, overlying mantle-wedge materil and the base of the
overidding continental plate
carrapa, 1/5/2006

Sedimentaryfaciesanddepositionalenvironmentin
p
pheripheralbasins
p

Shallowing
upwardtrend
dt d
upsection

GEODYNAMICS OF FORELANDS
GEODYNAMICSOFFORELANDS

D=flexuralstrength

The
TheshapeofaFB
shape of a FB
andthe
magnitudeof
subsidencelargely
dependonthe
ageandthickness
g
oftheunderlying
crust(i.e.closing
young rift=low D;
youngrift=lowD;
oldcontinental
margin=highD).

Thin versusthick
Thin
versus thick sckinneddeformation
sckinned deformation
Typical
Typical(continuous)forelandbasinsdevelop
(continuous) foreland basins develop
inassociationwiththinskinnedthrustbelts:
i.e.wheresedimentarycoverrocksareshortened
i e where sedimentary cover rocks are shortened
byfoldingandthrustingaboveundeformed
basement.

Thin versusthick
Thin
versus thick sckinneddeformation
sckinned deformation
Broken
Brokenforelandbasins(SierrasPampeanas
foreland basins (Sierras Pampeanas
andLaramidestyle)developassociatedwith
thickskinned
thick
skinnedbasementuplift
basement uplift where
where
crystallinebasementrockstranslatealong
high angle reverse faults
highanglereversefaults.

Preconditionstoformacontinuous
f l db i
forelandbasin

The
Theexistanceoftopographichighsand
existance of topographic highs and
horizontalshortening;
Thepreexistanceofathickpileoflayered
The pre existance of a thick pile of layered
strata.

Inferredpreconditionstoformabroken
f l db i
forelandbasin

The
Theexistanceoftopographichighsand
existance of topographic highs and
horizontalshortening;
Thepresenceofasubductingplatewithvery
The presence of a subducting plate with very
lowangleofdescentintothemantle(i.e.flat
slab or flat subduction)
slaborflatsubduction).

Componentoftectonicsubsidencein
b k f l db i
brokenforelandbasins
In
Inabrokenforelandthecrustissubdivided
a broken foreland the crust is subdivided
intoshortbeamsthatcanrotateabout
horizontal axes relative to one another This
horizontalaxesrelativetooneanother.This
rotationisaprincipalcomponentoftectonic
susbidence (in addition to flexural loading)
susbidence(inadditiontoflexuralloading)

Whatarethecontrollingfactorsforthe
angleofsubduction?
l f bd i ?

Th
Thepreexistingtectonichistoryofan
i ti t t i hi t
f
orogenicbeltandtheshapeofitsplatemargin

Exampleofflatslabandbrokenforeland:Sierra
Pampeanas(Andes)
( d )

IInSouthAmericaalongstrike
S hA
i
l
ik
variabilitiesinthestructureof
theAndesgeneratesalong
strikevariationsingeometryof
forelandbasins

Exampleofbrokenforeland:
theRockyMountains
the
Rocky Mountains
andtheLaramideforelandsystem

ThedepocenteroftheupperCretaceous(A)ineastern
Wyomingistoofarfromthethrustbelttohavebeen
simplycausedbyloadingandflexure.B)Eocenebasinand
ranges;upliftandsubsidencearecontemporaneous;C)
thicknessoftheGreenRiverBasinreflectstiltingand
bendingofthecrustalblocks.

LaramideandSierraPampeanas
comparison
i

Seismicexercise:
thinskinnedorthickskinned?
hi ki
d
hi k ki
d?

Seismicexample:
thinskinnedorthickskinned?
hi ki
d
hi k ki
d?

AfterRamosetal.(2002)