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Seminar Report


Submitted to
Department of Civil Engineering
In partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of
Bachelor of Technology In
Civil Engineering

Institute of Engineering & Technology, Lucknow

(An Autonomous Constituent college of U.P. Technical University)

Sitapur Road, Lucknow- 226021

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Certified that seminar work entitled Light Weight Concrete is the bonafidework carried
out in the seventh semester by in partial fulfilment for the award of Bachelor of
Technology in Civil Engineering from Uttar Pradesh Technical University during the
academic year 2014-2015. Who carried out the seminar work under the guidance and no part
of this work has been submitted earlier for the award of any degree.

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Lightweight concrete can be defined as a type of concrete which includes anexpanding agent in that
it increases the volume of the mixture while giving additionalqualities such as nailbility and
lessened the dead weight. It is lighter than theconventional concrete. The use of lightweight
concrete has been widely spread acrosscountries such as USA, United Kingdom and Sweden.
The main specialties of lightweight concrete are its low density and thermalconductivity. Its
advantages are that there is a reduction of dead load, faster building ratesin construction and lower
haulage and handling costs.
Lightweight concrete maintains its large voids and not forming laitance layers orcement films when
placed on the wall. This research was based on the performance ofaerated lightweight concrete.
However, sufficient water cement ratio is vital to produceadequate cohesion between cement and
water. Insufficient water can cause lack ofcohesion between particles, thus loss in strength of
concrete. Likewise too much watercan cause cement to run off aggregate to form laitance layers,
subsequently weakens instrength.
Therefore, this fundamental report is prepared to study activities andprogress of the lightweight
concrete. Focused were on the properties of lightweight concrete such as compressive strength,
water absorption and density and its applications in various fields of civil Engineering construction.

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Table of Contents
1.1 Light Weight concrete
1.2 Types of Light Weight Concrete
1.2.1 No-fines concrete
1.2.2 Light weight aggregate concrete
1.2.3 Aerated concrete or Cellular Concrete
2.1 Mix Proportioning
2.2 Batching Of Materials
2.3 Mixing &Transportation
2.4 Placing
2.5 Curing
3.1 Compressive Strength
3.2 Strength-Density Relationships
3.3 Tensile &Flexural Strength
3.4 W/C Ratio & Workability
3.5 Water Absorption
3.6 Creep & Shrinkage
3.7 Density
3.8 Fire Resistance
3.9 Sound Insulation
3.10 Thermal Conductivity
4.1 Architectural Applications
4.2 Geotechnical Applications
4.3 Other Applications
5.1 Advantages of LWC
5.2 Disadvantages of LWC
Conclusions 24
References 25




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I would like to thanks everyone who had contributed to the successful completion of this report.
Throughout this report, I have received so much help, cooperation and encouragement from so
much party that need to be duly acknowledged.
I would like to express utmost gratitude to my seminar guide Er.V.K.Singh for his fruitful
I would also like to thank our H.O.D. Prof. MZ Khan, for his constant inspiration &
valuable support.

Sumit Kumar Nayak

B.Tech,Final Year

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Concrete is one of the oldest manufactured construction material and it has been useextensively in
the construction of various structures since ancient day. Thecontinuous research and development of
concrete has resulted in the production ofmany types of concrete. Each of the concrete possesses
their own unique characteristic to meet and suit the demand of industry. One of the concrete that
itpopularity increase drastically in recent year is lightweight concrete. Theclassification of type of
concrete is mainly depending on the concrete density. Thepractical range of concrete density for
lightweight concrete is between 300 kg/m3 and1850 kg/m3.
Due to the practical and economic advantages it possesses, the demand forlightweight concrete has
increasing over the years and has been partially used asstructures such as panel wall, roof slab and
etc. Using a lower density concrete can,therefore, significantly reduce the self-weight of concrete
structure with aconsequence allowing the reduction of columns and foundation size and other
loadbearing elements and a corresponding reduction in term of cost. Other advantages oflightweight
concrete included it good thermal insulation properties, better fireresistance and more convenience
in handling the concrete as the total mass ofmaterials to be handled is reduced, which then lower the
haulage and handling costand increase the productivity.


Lightweight concrete can be defined as a type of concrete which includes an expanding agent in that
it increases the volume of the mixture while giving additional qualities such as nailaibility and
lessened the dead weight. It is lighter than theconventional concrete with a dry density of 300 kg/m 3
up to 1840 kg/m3; 87 to 23%lighter. It was first introduced by the Romans in the second century
where ThePantheon has been constructed using pumice, the most common type of aggregate used in
that particular year. From there on, the use of lightweight concrete has been widelyspread across
other countries such as USA, United Kingdom and Sweden.
The main specialties of lightweight concrete are its low density and thermalconductivity. Its
advantages are that there is a reduction of dead load, faster building ratesin construction and lower
haulage and handling costs.
Lightweight foamed concrete is made of mixture of raw materials such as fineaggregate, Ordinary
Portland Cement and water with pore structure created by airvoids,which are entrapped in mortar or
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cement paste by suitable foaming agent.By proper control in dosage of foam, a wide range of
densities of foamedconcrete ranging from 400 kg/m3 to 1600 kg/m3 can be obtained for application
tostructural, partition, insulation and filling grades. The production of stable foamconcrete mix
depends on many factors viz., selection of foaming agent, method offoam preparation and addition
for uniform air-voids distribution, material section andmixture design strategies, production of
foamed concrete and performance withrespect to fresh and hardened state are of greater significance.
Incorporation of pozzolans, either naturally occurring or artificially made intoconcrete has been in
practise since the early civilisation.Besides its economic advantages, the main reason for their use is
that they can giveuseful modification or enhancements to concrete properties. Many researchers
havestudied the use of agricultural waste as constituents in concrete, namely rice-husk ashand
sawdust ash. Their study haverevealed that agricultural waste ashes contained high amount of silica
in amorphousform and could be used as a pozzolanic material.


Lightweight concrete can be prepared either by injecting air in its composition orit can be achieved
by omitting the finer sizes of the aggregate or even replacing them by ahollow, cellular or porous
aggregate. Particularly, lightweight concrete can be categorized into three groups:
i) No-fines concrete
ii) Lightweight aggregate concrete
iii) Aerated/Foamed concrete

No-fines concrete can be defined as a lightweight concrete composed of cementand coarse aggregate
i.e. omitting fine aggregates. Uniformly distributed voids are formed throughout its mass. Themain
characteristics of this type of lightweight concrete is it maintains its large voids andnot forming
laitance layers or cement film when placed on the wall. Figure 1 shows oneexample of No-fines

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FIGURE 1: No-fines Concrete

No fines concrete usually used for both load bearing and non-load bearing forexternal walls and
partitions. The strength of no-fines concrete increases as the cementcontent is increased. However, it
is sensitive to the water composition. Insufficient watercan cause lack of cohesion between the
particles and therefore, subsequent loss instrength of the concrete. Likewise too much water can
cause cement film to run off theaggregate to form laitance layers, leaving the bulk of the concrete
deficient in cement andthus weakens the strength.


Porous lightweight aggregate of low specific gravity is used in this lightweightconcrete instead of
ordinary concrete. The lightweight aggregate can be natural aggregatesuch as pumice, scoria and all
of those of volcanic origin and the artificial aggregate suchas expanded blast-furnace slag,
vermiculite and clinker aggregate. The maincharacteristic of this lightweight aggregate is its high
porosity which results in a lowspecific gravity.
The lightweight aggregate concrete can be divided into two types according to itsapplication. One is
partially compacted lightweight aggregate concrete and the other isthe structural lightweight
aggregate concrete. The partially compacted lightweightaggregate concrete is mainly used for two
purposes that is for precast concrete blocks orpanels and cast in-situ roofs and walls. The main
requirement for this type of concrete isthat it should have adequate strength and a low density to
obtain the best thermalinsulation and a low drying shrinkage to avoid cracking.Structurally
lightweight aggregate concrete is fully compacted similar to that ofthe normal reinforced concrete of
dense aggregate. It can be used with steelreinforcement as to have a good bond between the steel and
the concrete. The concreteshould provide adequate protection against the corrosion of the steel. The
shape and thetexture of the aggregate particles and the coarse nature of the fine aggregate tend
toproduce harsh concrete mixes. Only the denser varieties of lightweight aggregate aresuitable for
use in structural concrete. Figure 2 shows the feature of lightweightaggregate concrete.
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FIGURE 2: Lightweight Aggregate Concrete LIGHT WEIGHT AGGREGATES:

(i)Natural Aggregates:
The use of lightweight (LWAC) can be traced to as early as 3,000BC, when Mohenjo-Daro
and Harappa were built during the Indus Valley civilization.
In Europe, the use of LWCA occurred 2,000 years ago when the Romans built Pantheon, the
aquaducts, and the Colosseum in Rome.
The pumiceis still used today in certain countries, such as Germany, Italy and Japan.
In some places, like Malaysia, palm oil shells are used for making LWAC.
Earlier lightweight aggregates (LWAs) were of natural origin, mostly volcanic: pumice,
They function as active pozzolanic materials when used when used as fine aggregates.

(ii) Artificial light weight aggregates:

Techniques have been developed to produce them in factories. These are produced from the
naturalraw materials like expanded clay, shale, slate, etc.,as well as from by-products such as
fly ash, blastfurnace slag, etc.
Today, lightweight aggregates are produced in avery wide range of densities varying from
50kg/m3 from expanded perliteto 1000kg/m3 forclinkers. It is possible to make LWAC of
80Mpacompressive strength.

(iii) LWA from industrial by-products:

Expanded pelletized fly ash aggregates Lower quality fly ash with higher and variablecarbon
content is used for making LWA by addingextra pulverized coal to bring the carbon content
toabout 12%, and then pan pelletizing and heattreating then on a travelling grate.
Lightweight aggregates from blast furnace slag( Palletized slag)
Due to the growing demand for aggregatesworldwide, research is being carried out.
LWA from slag in Canada, Russia, are introduced.
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LWA from dredging waste is also introduced.


Aerated concrete does not contain coarse aggregate, and can be regarded as anaerated mortar.
Typically, aerated concrete is made by introducing air or other gas into acement slurry and fine sand.
In commercial practice, the sand is replaced by pulverizedfuelash or other siliceous material, and
lime maybe used instead of cement.
There are two methods to prepare the aerated concrete. The first method is toinject the gas into the
mixing during its plastic condition by means of a chemical reaction.The second method, air is
introduced either by mixing-in stable foam or by whipping-inair, using an air-entraining agent. The
first method is usually used in precast concretefactories where the precast units are subsequently
autoclaved in order to produce concretewith a reasonable high strength and low drying shrinkage.
The second method is mainlyused for in-situ concrete, suitable for insulation roof screeds or pipe
lagging. Figure 3shows the aerated concrete.

FIGURE 3: Aerated or Cellular Concrete

The differences between the types of lightweight concrete are very much relatedto its aggregate
grading used in the mixes. Table 1 shows the types and grading ofaggregate suitable for the different
types of lightweight concrete.

Table 1: Types and Grading of Lightweight Concrete

Type Of

Type Of Aggregate

No-fines concrete

Grading of Aggregate
(Rangeof Particle Size)

Natural Aggregate

Nominal single-sized material

Blast-furnace slag

between 20mm and 10mm BS


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Partially compacted

Clinker,Foamed slag



aggregate concrete

slate,vermiculite and perlite

fine (5mm and fines) material to


produce a continues but harsh


May be of smaller nominal single



sizes of combined coarse and

ashand pumice

grading to make a porous


Foamed slagExpanded clay,

Continues grading from


shale or slateand sintered

either20mm or 14mm down to

aggregate concrete

pulverized fuel

dust,with an increased fines


(5mm and fines) toproduce
aworkable and dense concrete

Aerated or Cellular

Natural fine aggregate

The aggregate are generally


Fine lightweight aggregate

ground down to finer

Raw pulverized-fuel ash

powder,passing a 75 m BS sieves,

Ground slag and burnt shale

butsometimes fine aggregate (5mm

and fines) is also incorporated

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(i) Cement +Foaming Agent:
While the cement mixer or premix concrete truck is in motion, the water and cement are
introduced and allowed to mix until a thoroughly consistent mixture is achieved.
When this has taken place, the required amount of foam can be injected into the mixer and
the mixing continued until the foam is completely enveloped into the total mix.
The mixture is then ready for discharging into the moulds or wherever it is to be placed.
(ii)Cement + Lightweight Aggregate + Foam:
The lightweight matrix formed by the mixture of cement, water and foam, lightweight
aggregates can be used without the tendency to float when the mix is vibrated.
Aggregates which are used are:- expanded shale or clay, scoria, pumice, vermiculite or
fly ash.
It is often increasing the overall density for a given strength, since simply a higher
foam content can achieve better results.

2.1.1 Foaming Agent:

Foam is a form of stable bubbles, produced by mixing foaming agent and water infoam generator.
The purpose of the foam is to control the density of lightweightfoamed concrete by incorporating
dry preformed stable foam into fresh lightweightfoamed concrete. For this study, the ratio of
foaming agent to water is 1:30 byvolume. The will have foam density of 45 kg/m3.


Appropriate quantities of sand & cement are batched, and an amount of water required for
the mix to be flow able is added.
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Materials are mixed thoroughly in a mixing plant fitted with foam-generating plant and
pumping units.

Water to be added is adjusted for moisture content of sand. The foam is injected into mix
rather than added on to mix.


Ready mix concrete agitator is used for mixing.
All the raw materials are metered into the agitator and with the agitator turning at a high
speed; a predetermined batched volume of foam is introduced into the agitator.
Batching of both of the raw materials and foam are done at the ready mixed concrete
batching plant, it will be possible trip to transport at the site.

Properly designed foam concrete has a stable burble structure and can be pumped to
normal heights without loss of entrained air.
A squeeze-type pump is referred over a screw-feed pump.
Foam concrete produced and delivered at the site can be pumped up to height of 60 m and
placed like Self compacting concrete.

(i)Air Curing:
This is probably the easiest and most popular method of curing.
It is a slow, but acceptable system which enables a turnaround of moulds every 24 hours on
average, depending on the ambient temperature.
(ii)Steam Curing:
When precast Aerated Concrete panels and slabs are made under factory conditions in
order to induce an early strength into the concrete by applying heat from steam to the
underside of the moulds.
Steam curing is not begun until at least five hours after casting, and even then the increase
in temperature is well controlled and should not exceed 70C (167F).
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The extent of steam curing depends upon the climate.


In order to study the behaviour of lightweight concrete, normal concrete testing was done to
determine the material and structural properties of each type of lightweight concrete and how will
these properties differ according to a different type of mixture and its composition.
Following are some distinguished properties of light weight concrete:


Compressive strength is the primary physical property of concrete (others are generally defined
from it), and is the one most used in design. It is one of the fundamental properties used for quality
control for lightweight concrete. Compressive strength may be defined as the measured maximum
resistance of a concrete specimen to axial loading. It is found by measuring the highest
compression stress that a test cylinder or cube will support.
There are three type of test that can be use to determine compressive strength;cube, cylinder, or
prism test. The concrete cube test' is the most familiar test and is usedas the standard method of
measuring compressive strength for quality control purpose.
The compressive strengthdecreases exponentially with a reduction in density of lightweight
foamed concrete. Besides the concrete density, the specimen shape and size, methodof pore
formation, direction of loading, curing age, water content, characteristic of ingredients used and
the method of curing are reported to influence the strength oflightweight foamed concrete as well.
Other parameters such as thecement-sand and water-cement ratios, curing regime, type and
particle sizedistribution of sand and type of foaming agent used can be the factors that affectingthe
strength of lightweight concrete as well.


The purpose of this test is to identify the performance of aerated lightweight concrete interm of
density and compressive strength. Based on Figure below, it can be seen that compressive
strength for aerated lightweightconcrete are low for lower density mixture. The increment of
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voids throughout the samplecaused by the foam in the mixture will lower the density. As a result,
compressive strength willalso decrease with the increment of those voids.

Figure 4 Strength Density Relationships (source A.M. Neville)


The ratio of flexuralto compressive strength varies from 0.22 to 0.27. For very low density
aerated concrete, this value is almost zero.


Lightweight concrete is often implicated in moisture-related flooring failures because it often
has significantly higher water content than normal-weight concrete. Unlike natural
aggregates, which tend to become saturated with water only on their surfaces, lightweight
aggregate pore networks absorb and store water within the aggregate particles, releasing it
gradually over time.

Figure5 Compressive strength & W/C ratio Relationships (A.M. Neville)

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To understand how water content affects concrete, we need to consider how the water reacts in
the mix. Placing Concrete by Pumping Methods, considers two types of water in lightweight
concrete: free water and absorbed water.
Free water influences the volume of the mix, the slump and workability of the mix, and the
amount of water available for cement hydration reaction. Absorbed water is held in the pores of
the lightweight aggregate. During mixing, some free water is converted to absorbed water,
reducing the slump and the amount of water available for hydration. In addition, the pumping
pressure drives additional free water into the porous lightweight aggregate, further reducing
slump between the pump hopper and the point of discharge. To reduce the amount of mixing
water absorbed by the lightweight aggregate, concrete suppliers pre-saturate the lightweight
aggregates to fill the pore spaces prior to mixing. Concrete suppliers frequently use waterreducing admixtures to help reduce the total amount of mix water and, consequently, the amount
of water that will potentially leave the slab over time.
In both normal-weight concrete and lightweight concrete, water that is not consumed in the
hydration of the cement particles slowly evaporates through the exposed surfaces of the concrete
which, as is later discussed, can create problems with floor finishes. Almost all concrete mixes
contain more water than necessary for the cement hydration reaction, but the excess water
facilitates placement and finishing. After the cement paste has hardened, the hydration reaction
continues, albeit at a slower pace, throughout the life of the concrete as the excess water
evaporates. In lightweight aggregate, some absorbed pore water will be drawn out and contribute
to more complete hydration of the cement in a layer around the aggregates, but there will still be
significant amounts of absorbed water remaining in the pores which, will escape over time.

These properties are particularly important in concrete, as well as being importantfor durability.
It can be used to predict concrete durability to resistcorrosion. Absorption capacity is a measure
of the porosity of an aggregates; it is alsoused as a correlation factor in determination of free
moisture by oven-drying method.
The absorption capacity is determined by finding the weight of surface-drysample after it has
been soaked for 24 hr and again finding the weight after the samplehas been dried in an oven; the
difference in weight, expressed as a percentage of the drysample weight, is the absorption
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Drying shrinkage occurs due to the loss of adsorbedwater from the material and is significant in
aeratedconcrete because of its high total porosity (4080%) and specific surface of pores.
Decreasein pore sizes, along with a higher percentage of pores ofsmaller size is reported to
increase shrinkage.The capillary tension theory of dryingshrinkage of porous building materials
states that thewater in the pore exists in tension and this creates anattractive force between the
pore walls.

The density of both fresh and hardened concrete is of interest to the partiesinvolved for
numerous reasons including its effect on durability, strength and resistanceto permeability.
Hardened concrete density is determined either by simple dimensional checks, followed by
weighing and calculation or by weight in air/water buoyancy methods. To determine the density
of lightweight concrete sample, the simple density test method is preferred.
Fresh Density Test (ASTM C796, 2004)
A 1 litre capacity container was tarred to zero at weight machine and overfilled withfresh
lightweight foamed concrete. The fresh lightweight foamed concrete wascompacted by slight
tapping at the sides of the container to allow consolidation offresh lightweight foamed concrete.
The excess lightweight foamed concrete wasstruck off and any excess lightweight foamed
concrete found on container surfacewas wiped off. The 1 litre container was then weighted to
obtain the fresh density ofLFC.


The excellent fire resistant properties make it an ideal material for fire breaks in buildingswhere
there are large undivided spaces. It is used to prevent flame penetration through the services void
between floor and ceiling in modern construction, and also to protect timber floors in old houses.


LWC reduces the passage of sound, both from backgroundnoise and due to impact. It is,
therefore, an ideal material for internal walls and suspended floors in multi-storey buildings,
especially ones with communal use.

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Lightweight foamed concrete possesses excellent thermal insulation properties due toit pore
structure content in it. A study showed that the thermal conductivity of lightweightfoamed
concrete is 5 to 30 % of those measured on normal weight concrete. Therange of thermal
conductivity for dry densities value of 600-1600 kg/m3 is between0.1 and 0.7 W/mK, reducing
with decreasing densities. Besides the density of concrete, moisture content in concrete is






significantly, since


hasconductivity about 25 times that of air. So, when the air in the pores has beenpartially
displaced by water or moisture, the concrete will have greater thermalconductivity.

Summary of properties:
Summarising all the aspects pertaining to the structureand properties of aerated concrete, the
salient observationsare:

The method of pore-formation and curing plays a significant role in its microstructure


and properties;
The properties are influenced by the density and thus, they should be qualified with the


density, which is to be specified along with the moisture content;

The chemical composition varies with the method of curing
Strength of LWC is significantly higherdue to the above reason;
The drying shrinkage of LWC is lower; they range from one-fourth to one-fifth of that of
Normal Concrete.The material properties and shrinkage climate also influences drying


Aerated concrete exhibitsgood functional performance characteristics.


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Lightweight concrete has been used since the eighteen centuries by the Romans.The application
on the The Pantheon where it uses pumice aggregate in the constructionof cast in-situ concrete
is the proof of its usage.

In USA and England in the latenineteenth century, clinker was used in their construction for
example the BritishMuseum and other low cost housing. The lightweight concrete was also
used inconstruction during the First World War. The United States used mainly for
shipbuildingand concrete blocks. The foamed blast furnace-slag and pumice aggregate for
blockmaking were introduced in England and Sweden around 1930s.
Nowadays with the advancement of technology, lightweight concrete expands its uses.Example
in the form of perlite with its outstanding insulating characteristics. Itis widely used as loose-fill
insulation in masonry construction where it enhances fireratings, reduces noise transmission,
does not rot and termite resistant. It is also used forvessels, roof decks and other applications.
Figure shows some examples of lightweightconcrete used in different forms.


Improved structural efficiency in terms of strength/weight ratios resulting load reduction on the
structure and substructure, fewer structural components resulting in more usable space in the
structure, a reduction in the number and size of reinforcements, increased flexibility in absorbing
strains and improved thermal properties minimizing the effects of differential temperatures
resulting in building energy conservation as well as improved fire/spilling mitigation.

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It is ideally suited for precast concrete products as larger units can be handled with the same
handling equipment or manually for same size units, resulting in speed and economy in
construction. These units in addition to smaller ones can be lifted or managed by down-sizing
machinery resulting in reducing site carnage requirements and maximizing the number of
concrete elements on trucks without exceeding highway load limits reducing transportation
delivery cost.



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Hollow core concrete planks and wall panels products

are one of the most advanced building materials being
used in the construction industry today. The advantage
of these extruded wall panels is in durability. They
offer outstanding reductions in sound transmission and
can obtain fire ratings of up to 4 hours. The problem
with this product it has very little or if any insulation properties.
Application for insulated properties
as well as a sound barrier for
lightweight composite roof or floor




residential buildings/structures. This

would especially true for power
utility problems currently being
experienced in hot and cold regions





consumption is an issue. Heating and

cooling costs are reduced.



Thermal Fills
Pavement Base
Controlled Structural Fill
Anti-corrosion Fill
Erosion Control / Soil Stabilization
Conduit / Pipe Bedding
Bridge Approach / Abutment
Insulating / Isolation Fills
Site Reconstruction
Void filling for abandoned underground and mining facilities, wells, tunnel shafts, or
additional cavity fill.

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Structural fill to support foundation


It can be used to make road structures less
heavy. This helps solve the problem where the
traditionally heavy road structures cause severe
settlement of the road, particularly in areas of
soft ground. By constructing the road sub-base
from a lightweight material, the overall weight
of the structure can be greatly reduced
It is an ideal material for trench reinstatement
(the filling of trenches dug in roads when pipes
are laid or repairs are carried out). The
traditional methods of filling trenches in the
roads, i.e. the use of granular fill materials,
result in settlement and damage to the road and
potentially, to the pipes. With foamed concrete
there is no settlement; and because the foamed
concrete is very fluid, it will fill any voids and cavities in the trench sides


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I) Rapid and relatively simple construction
II) Economical in terms of transportation as well as reduction in manpower
III) Significant reduction of overall weight results in saving structural frames, footing or piles
IV)High strength to weight ratio
V) Sustainable design
VI) Lightweight Concrete Masonry and Green Buildings
VII) LEED Certification with Lightweight CMU
VIII) Lower life-cycle cost
IX)Most of lightweight concrete have better nailing and sawing properties than heavier and
stronger conventional concrete


I) Very sensitive with water content in the mixtures
II) Difficult to place and finish because of the porosity and angularity of the aggregate. In some
mixes the cement mortar may separate the aggregate and float towards the surface
III) Mixing time is longer than conventional concrete to assure proper mixing

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Lightweight concrete can be utilized as a normal concrete replacement structure shield.

Aerated Concrete and Lightweight Aggregate Concrete also can be use as energy

Lightweight aggregate concrete, it depends on the materials used.

Lightweight concrete can develop to be high strength concrete and good absorbability of
impact energy.

It has a lower modulus of elasticity and higher tensile strain capacity further provides
better impact resistance than normal weight concrete.

In recommendation, more research is required if the capabilities of the material are to be

exploited and utilization the reinforcement for enhance the tensile strain capacity of
Foamed lightweight concrete is not suitable to be used as load bearing wall as the
compressive strength is 27% less than recommended.

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A.M Neville (2006), Properties of concrete, Pitman& comp.

Foamed Lightweight Concrete.

Advantages of Structural Lightweight Aggregate Concrete. Expanded Clay, Shale

and Slate Institute,


Kenneth S. Harmon, PE

Research paper by N. Narayanan, K. Ramamurthy Department of Civil Engineering,

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Guide for cast-in-Place Low Density Concrete

ASTM Standard Specification for Lightweight Aggregates for Structural Concrete

ASTMStandard Specifications for Lightweight Aggregates for Concrete Masonry Units

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